WorldWideScience

Sample records for development energetic investment

  1. Rural energy for development: energetic investment evaluation using multi-sectorial models and the NTICs; Energie rurale pour le developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaleb, N

    2002-12-15

    Based on field work carry out in Africa as well as on theoretical analyses from the perspective of sectoral representation of economies, this dissertation examines the impacts of energetic investments. It is divided in two main parts. The first part of the dissertation situates the role that rural energy plays for development from the standpoint of offer. In this part, the energetic situation of Southern countries is examined through rural needs and in the context of growing environmental awareness (Chapter 1). Then, the different actors in the energy sector are presented, taking into account the failure of governments to create the necessary infrastructure themselves (Chapter 2). Finally, the object of this study is investigated through what can be learned from informal economics (Chapter 3). In the second part of the dissertation, Chapter 4 examines the advantages and disadvantages of using multi-sectoral models for the subject of evaluating energetic investments. In Chapter 5, the sectoral representation is specified in a social accounting matrix. In addition, the IRIS software is presented, which has been developed in the framework of this thesis. Finally, in Chapter 6, the results of surveys realized in Burkina Faso and Morocco are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  3. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  4. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  5. About the wind energetics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D.S.; Kharitonov, V.P.; Murugov, V.P.; Sokol'skij, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The review of wind power energetics state in USA, Europe, Russia is given. The data of EC on wind power plants production in different periods are presented. The directions of scientific-research works with the purpose of increasing the level of wind power industry of Russia corresponding to economics demands were elaborated. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Sustainable development and Estonian energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 14 Nov 1997 in Tallinn, Estonia. The conference stressed the importance of the diminishing the negative impact of energy production on the environment. The Government and the Parliament should ensure the composing of short and long term master plans with the public participation for all sectors of the economy, based on the principles of sustainable development, the involved international treaties and the Sustainable Development Framework Act

  7. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  8. National investment programs and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Szyja, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    In situation of economic crisis many countries, for example the United States, members of European Union prepared anti-crisis programs to conduct investments. In most cases, they concentrated on modernization of transport or energy infrastructure. In Poland it would have been presented program "Polish Investments". The main purposes of the article is presentation of public investments programs and their role in sustainable development.

  9. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  10. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  11. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  12. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  13. Evaluating Foreign Direct Investment and Africa's Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of Africa's development has continued to occupy the front burner from the social and economic discussions by scholars of various divides. But Africa's development through foreign direct investment has become a recent challenge to the African continent. African social critics and commentators as well as ...

  14. Sharia Bank Product Development through Mudhrabah Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimulato Trimulato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharia banking now has a strong legal framework with the presence of law number 21 of 2008 on sharia banking in Indonesia. This regulation enforces sharia banking to develop products to achieve the targeted market share of 5%. In third-party fund products, more innovation is needed to attract people to entrust their funds in sharia banks. The visible data of mudharabah fund raising deposit products in March 2013 amounted to Rp100.746.000.000 and Rp115.728.000.000 in mudharabah deposits was visible on April 2014, which is an increase of less than 2% each month. This research uses a qualitative descriptive methodology, and is focused on fund raising products in shari'ah banking, particularly in the form of mudharabah investments for a definitive result. The results show that sharia banking requires innovative fund raising for third-party products, such as mudharabah investment products. These investments provide certainty of results despite using mudharabah and are based on the certainty that projector financing has been agreed by the sharia with the creditor banks. This investment product can be offered to both individuals and groups/collectives. Keywords: sharia banking, investment, mudharabah

  15. On perspectives of developments in energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1994-04-01

    The strategy towards politically and economically independent Estonia has created an urgent need to elaborate a lot of problems of tactics in the energy use as well as in the perspectives of the energy import versus export. Today Estonia produces rather a considerable amount of electricity, reaching some 1.2 thousand kWh per capita year. Nevertheless, technocratically-minded people are looking toward to introducing at least one nuclear power plant to our native area of merely 45 000 square kilometers. The Estonia n Council of Ecology is taking the opportunity of considering the alternatives to this proposal, organizing an energetics-focused ecological conference just on the 5. anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. The corresponding data show that Estonia might be able, in the coming 5 years, to rise the efficiency in the commercial energy use by 15 per cent, to reduce the amount of energy-consuming industry, mostly military, by another 15 per cent, and extend the use of wood, peat, wind, water and sunshine taken together by a third 15 per cent. All in all, it turns out that in 1995 there exists no need for energy import on the full balance level. The outlook deserves attention, indeed. (author)

  16. Investment and Development Banking and Its Development in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Erkan Çelik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks, one of the most significant economic means of the nations and international organizations, have occasionally become one of the institutions mostly affected by the financial crisis in the world. Especially in the economies of the developed countries, one of the most important aspects of the financial sector is measured by the size of the financial resources and assets of the banks. The size and place of the investment banks depends on the investment and existing credit reserves appropriated by its members. From this perspective, scrutinizing the Investment and Developments Banks, which is one of the economic growth criteria, is of high importance. To this end, in addition to the operation of the Investment and Development Banks, financial products of these banks in Turkey are also analyzed in this study.

  17. Investment casting: parameters, application and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2007-01-01

    Investment casting process, also referred to as the lost wax method and as precision casting, has been known for more than 6000 years. However, industry paid little attention to the process until the urgent military demands of World War 1 overtaxed the machine tool industry and short cuts were then needed to provide finished tools and precision parts, avoiding time-consuming in machining and assembly. The use of the process for the production of commercial casting has grown in the second half of the 20th century. The process is highly flexible and can handle great variety of parts which are difficult or even not possible to be produced by forging or other casting methods. In this paper, the investment casting process, its applications, advantages and limitations together with the parameters affecting it as related to pattern material, cluster, slurry and molten metal are given and discussed. Furthermore, the recent developments in the process particularly in manufacturing parts made of superalloys e.g nickel-base alloys are given and discussed. The striking fact that the process has advanced further in the last 60 years than it has in the previous 6000 years ensures that in the coming years of this century development in the process and its application will continue to advance in the interest of achieving higher quality and precision which can meet the critical performance standards being imposed. (author)

  18. Foreign direct investment, development, and overshoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Overshoot of the earth's carrying capacity is an acute concern for sustainability initiatives that seek to equalize access to the natural resources that are requisite to meet the basic needs of humanity. Demands on nature that exceed ecological capacities compromise critical ecosystem functions that provision the inputs necessary for life. This paper draws on concepts and analytical frameworks from the natural, physical, and social sciences to assess the drivers of sustainability at the global and national level. Integrative theoretical predictions are tested in a structural equation model that advances empirical research on overshoot and outflows of foreign investments that is relatively lacking in the literature. Findings highlight the differential impacts of key aspects of economic globalization on both development and overshoot across nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon market. The future investment of sustainable development in developing countries: climate smart investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Elsayed Eissa

    2017-01-01

    There is no doubt that the problem of climate change has become imperative for all parties oа the international community to join forces to resolve this crisis. With the signing of the Paris Agreement and following many deliberations and negotiations, this agreement is a new phase in dealing with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. With the participation of everyone, whether developed or developing countries, that opens the door to a new system of investment in the implementation of th...

  20. Inflation and Indivisible Investment in Developing Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Maya; Nguyen, Ha

    2014-01-01

    In countries with limited access to finance, firms accumulate retained earnings to finance indivisible investment projects. McKinnon (1973) illustrates that when cash is used as a primary store of value, inflation may discourage investment as it increases the cost of accumulating retained earnings. This paper formalizes this argument in a dynamic framework and provides a simple calibration...

  1. DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirila - Donciu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available FDI had a strong impact in the last three decades on economic growth, foreign trade and production structures in almost all countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main factors that contribute to attracting foreign direct investment flows and also the competitiveness of the business environment in Romania and its implications on investment decisions and economic growth. Research results show that the presence of FDI goes to those areas that can provide efficiencies investment factors: skilled and qualified labor, educational and research institutions etc..

  2. Power development- private investment and initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    In the context of paucity of resources with Central/State public sector companies and to bridge the gap between rapidly growing demand for electricity and supply, a policy to encourage greater investments by private enterprises in the power sector with the objective of mobilizing additional resources for capacity addition in power generation and distribution, had been formulated in 1991 and is currently under implementation. The policy also allows liberal capital structuring and an attractive return on investment

  3. Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patibandla, Murali

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative information and data show significant differences in the magnitude and type of foreigndirect investment inflows among developing economies. Explanation of the differences requiresanalysis of market institutional factors as well as the supply and demand side conditions. This paperadopts...... the approach that different configurations of supply, demand and market institutional factorsexplain the type of investment flows into developing economies. The argument is illustrated througha comparative study of China and India.Key Words: Developing Economies; Foreign Direct Investment; China, and India...

  4. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi; Marcus, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, and how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.

  5. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  6. Financial Development and Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Suh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using firm-level data from thirty-five countries around the world, this paper empirically examines whether investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints. Recent US studies have raised questions on the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity is a measure of financial constraints. Looking at thirty-five countries with varying degrees of financial development, this study tests whether investment-cash flow sensitivity is in fact related to financial constraints. In most countries, the evidence supporting the argument that firms likely facing financially constraints display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is weak. Moreover, the evidence that firms in the absence of developed financial markets display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is also weak. Overall, the results from this international investigation do not support the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints.

  7. Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment fraud detection in website. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...

  8. Possibility of choosing development investment programs of a production company by applying discounted investment appraisal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić-Vasović Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of development investment programs is one of the most important decisions in industrial production. The paper sets out the possibilities of applying dynamic criteria for investment decision making. It presents a practical numerical example for the value calculation of investment criteria Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for the reviewed investment project solutions. In this manner it is possible to make an orderly set of alternatives with clear preferences for the most suitable alternative in comparison with other ones. Such rating of project solutions will enable the decision maker to emphasize advantages with more arguments and select the most suitable project solution in accordance with the established criteria, conditions and limitations.

  9. MONITORING MECHANISM FOR INVESTMENT DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS’ INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Leshuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the theoretical and methodological principles of the monitoring mechanism of investment development of regions’ infrastructure. The objectives of the research are the generalization of theoretical and methodological bases of monitoring mechanism of investment development of regions’ infrastructure, as well as analysis of the current trends of investment development of the infrastructure in the regions of Ukraine with the identification of positive and negative trends. Methodology. The article deals with theoretical and methodological approaches to the definition of conceptual foundations of the mechanism of monitoring the investment development of the regions’ infrastructure with the help of general scientific methods of analysis: systematization and generalization, induction, and deduction. Results. It is proposed to interpret a monitor of the investment development of the regional infrastructure (IDRI as a systematic and complex measurement of the indicators of regional infrastructure development, the number of implemented investment projects, monitoring compliance with the developed strategic regional programs and concepts, which will ultimately help to effectively and efficiently regulate the detected deviations and passing the appropriate decisions. The IDRI monitoring mechanism should also provide a possibility of creating a system for collecting and analysing data concerning the assessment of infrastructure objects by the territorial community, which will allow potential investors to focus not only on analytical data on monitoring of regional authorities but also to take into account the public interest in a particular region. The general principles of the monitoring mechanism of investment development of the regions infrastructure are proposed in the following directions: complex and system monitoring and data collection concerning the development of the regions’ infrastructure, while the aggregate

  10. Policy Recommendations for Developing Foreign-invested Enterprise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原磊

    2008-01-01

    China has undergone the three major stages in its development of foreign-invested enterprise: exploratory development, accelerated development and innovative development. This harnessing of foreign investment has resulted in tremendous success for China, including making up for the funds shortage for economic construction, promoting corporate technological progress and management expertise, easing employment pressure, increasing fiscal revenue and boosting trade. At the same time, there have been problems, including questions of economic security, environment and energy issues, unequal competition and problems with the management of foreign-invested enterprises. To promote the development of foreign-invested enterprises in both a healthy and rapid fashion, China should look toward "maintaining policy continuity, promoting the forward-looking nature of policy, strengthening policy guidance and highlighting policy innovativeness."

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOR THE REGION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARÍNA ČULKOVÁ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments contribute to the important solving of the economical growth and regionaldevelopment and it presents part of the state’s effort to increase living level of the state. Slovakia government ismotivated to support any foreign investment and it competes for such investments with other transforming countries.Goal of the contribution is to provide idea about main factors that influence inflow of the foreign investments to theindividual regions of Slovakia and to evaluate their contribution through characteristics and main determinants of theforeign investments. Only through careful choice can Slovakia obtain successfully investors that would come to thecountry with production, research and development since in modern economy we cannot be competitive without suchactivities, neither in regional, nor in the international level.

  12. Making extractive investments work for Africa's development: what ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... investment flows, aid for infrastructure and construction and technology transfers. ... their extractive sector fully, industrialize and end China's financial stranglehold on the continent.

  13. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment for Growth and Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays an important role in fostering economic growth ... growth and development efforts, it also brings with it skills and new technology. ... Malaysia, Thailand and China, FDI inflows into sub-Saharan Africa pale.

  14. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  15. The Attracting of Foreign Investment in the Russian Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Girko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The attracting of foreign investment is a strategic goal of the Russian economy’s development. Direct investment plays a special role in this process providing an access to financial resources, modern technologies, management skills, innovative goods and services as well as contributing to increase of economic competitiveness, sustained growth and improvements in living standards. In this connection, creation of an enabling environment for foreign investors is a priority sector of public investment policy. Based on the analysis of federal and regional forms of supporting investment activities, it can be concluded that the forms associated with budget injections into the economy are dominant. Co-financing of investment projects, government programs to support exports, create infrastructure (technology parks, SEZ infrastructure, TAD, create support centers for entrepreneurs, all this can be called financial stimulation of economic activity and, in particular, investment activity. The study suggest that the state has to go to these costs in connection with the reduction of the investment potential of the private sector, as a result of the economic crisis and international sanctions.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERACTIVE SOFTWARE TO STUDY ENERGETIC METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella da Silva Cardoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Technology allows the creation of dynamic interfaces and graphics, which enables the construction of different scenarios that simulate biochemical events at cellular and molecular level. Furthermore, games have the ability to amuse and stimulate students and thus keeping them interested and receptive. Therefore, digital games must be explored as teaching aids once they have features that enhance the teaching process. OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to develop an educational software that contributes to the understanding of various events taking place in energetic metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a downloadable educational game in Java, divided into two levels, each of which tackle issues about the Krebs cycle, the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Initially, the names of the components of the metabolic process appear randomly on computer screen and the user must follow clues to place them in the right sequence, until all the biochemical reactions are complete. In next phase, there is a quiz about details and clinical correlates related to the theme of the game. Finally, students have to answer a form in order to verify acceptance and relevance of the game. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The game was applied to 40 medical students from UFF. The game’s subject matter and its difficulty were analyzed and more than 40% of students classified both respiratory chain and Krebs cycle as difficult. These findings highlight the need to establish new methods to enhance the teaching and learning processes and decrease the students’ difficulties, which is the game’s purpose. The game was very highly rated by students once they evaluated the game as an excellent educational aid and 92% of students agreed that it complements the content discussed in classroom. Finally, 97,5% of students said they would play again. CONCLUSION: Therefore, educational games could be an excellent tool to optimize learning.

  17. Rural energetic development: cuban experience; El desarrollo energetico rural: experiencia cubana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera Barciela, M [Secretariado Ejecutivo, Comision Nacional de Energia, La Habana(Cuba)

    1994-07-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life.

  18. Statistical Research of Investment Development of Russian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana A.; Aleshnikova, Vera I.; Dubovik, Mayya V.; Naidenkova, Ksenya V.; Kovalchuk, Nadezda B.; Repetskaya, Natalia V.; Kuzmina, Oksana G.; Surkov, Anton A.; Bershadskaya, Olga I.; Smirennikova, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    This article the article is concerned with a substantiation of procedures ensuring the implementation of statistical research and monitoring of investment development of the Russian regions, which would be pertinent for modern development of the state statistics. The aim of the study is to develop the methodological framework in order to estimate…

  19. Investing in Training and Development. Turning Interest into Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Tony

    This book, which is intended for individuals responsible for human resource development (HRD) programs, examines a number of issues in turning investments in training and development into human capital and examines ways of making the workplace an arena for development. The following topics are discussed: the nature and role of training and…

  20. Supporting economic development with highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Federal transportation regulations and law direct State and local transportation agencies to account for economic development plans in transportation planning processes. While Federal law is not prescriptive about how State and local agencies account...

  1. making extractive investments work for africa's development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Challenges, Opportunities and Critical Interventions (London: ZED Press 2010), pp. 181-192. 4 UNECA (n ... management of natural resources given Qatar's track record in this respect. ..... A generally liberal and tolerant social/cultural environment in a region ... SUPPORT AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES. The major ...

  2. Sharia Bank Product Development through Mudhrabah Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Trimulato Trimulato

    2016-01-01

    Sharia banking now has a strong legal framework with the presence of law number 21 of 2008 on sharia banking in Indonesia. This regulation enforces sharia banking to develop products to achieve the targeted market share of 5%. In third-party fund products, more innovation is needed to attract people to entrust their funds in sharia banks. The visible data of mudharabah fund raising deposit products in March 2013 amounted to Rp100.746.000.000 and Rp115.728.000.000 in mudharabah deposits was vi...

  3. Stimulating Investment Development through Transformation of State Banks Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpinska Lidiya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significance of state corporations and state financial institutions in stimulation of investments into the fixed capital of the country and considers problems of increase of efficiency of activity of these institutions in the world and Ukraine. It considers the state sector of the developing countries through the prism of activity of state financial and non-financial corporations. It analyses theories of positive and negative features of carrying out state investing through state-owned banks. It analyses the role of state financial corporations in Ukraine, in particular, in crediting and expansion of the portfolio of acquired governmental bonds and offers ways of its increase in the context of necessity of directing funds into investment development.

  4. Investment and Employment - Drivers of European Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and related specialty practice, the development of the European Economic Community along with the factors determining them (such investments and staff represents a topic that is of great notoriety. This paper shows the role and influence that direct investment in the economy and employment ratio can propagate in the growth of gross domestic product per capita to ensure increased economic sustainability of countries in the European Community. The most important economic effects of FDI on the host economy can be represented by labor productivity growth through knowledge transfer (know-how technology, management skills and marketing term in countries emerging favor progress technological and economic growth. To determine this goal, in the context of economic logic, this research shows the importance of gross domestic product, total and per capita, as a macroeconomic indicator synthetic, and encouraging and using the action of factors that can also provide political steps, organizational and financial, achieving levels attesting social progress and prosperity. The study highlights a Custom Analysis on gross domestic product per capita, direct investment and the proportion of people employed in total for 24 European Union countries in 2014 and also develop an econometric model multifactorial based on system statistics. Research shows utility in making decisions about investment growth in the European Community by attracting a workforce that is in full compliance with state investment policies and by providing a high living standard.

  5. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  6. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  7. RegionsТ Competition for Investment Projects in Forest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fedorovna Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the problem of competition between regions for investments. It is hypothesized that the presence of legislative stimulating benefits in a particular region, ceteris paribus, promotes investment flows in forest projects from other regions and is an instrumentl of inter-regional competition. To test the hypotheses the researcher uses a modified model with spatial weighted exogenous variables in order to assess the spatial effects. The obtained estimates indicate the presence of spatial effects, both negative (an inter-regional competition for investment and positive (agglomeration effects. The author argues that the process of inter-regional competition for investment in projects on forest development is caused by benefits under taxes and payments into the regional budget, regulation of pricing (including actions by natural and local monopolies and depreciation policy and solutions to put some forest projects in the list of priority ones. Along with this, the paper identifies agglomeration effects induced by a number of benefits: direct dealings in investment by financing or property contribution, subsidies, state guarantees, credit security and partial payment of interest

  8. Social responsible investment: satisfaction, risks and prospects of development /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the study of the features and trends of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The present study shows that under the current conditions of economic development and political situation in different countries, socially responsible investment of various projects and programs of social significance becomes increasingly important and relevant. Today we observe the appearance of the new forms of implementation of socially responsible business activities, among which the impact-investment and financing of socially significant projects on the principles of venture philanthropy are becoming more and more popular. It is determined that IMP involves, firstly, profit making, and secondly, it expects positive social changes, in particular, in support of sustainable agricultural development, ensuring availability of medical services, affordability of housing, development of environmentally friendly technologies. It was found out that the goal of venture philanthropy is primarily to create a social effect, and, eventually, to generate profits that may appear in the process of implementing the project or the activities of the organization. In the vast majority of cases, this type of financing takes place through direct investment or fixed income securities.

  9. Corruption and the Efficiency of Capital Investment in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Toole, Conor M.; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the effect of corruption on the efficiency of capital investment. Using firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys, covering 90 developing and transition economies, we consider whether the cost of informal bribe payments distorts the efficient allocation of capital...

  10. Educational Investments and Economic Development: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    A study examined the relationship between educational investments and economic development in the small community of Canandaigua, New York. A field study approach was used to collect data pertaining to the city's population characteristics, income characteristics, economic conditions, unemployment rates, and housing conditions. These data were…

  11. Foreign direct investment and economic growth in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely claimed that foreign direct investment (FDI) stimulates economic growth. In this study, an attempt is made to verify this for ten selected Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using data spanning from 2008 to 2013 obtained from world development indicators. Preliminary analysis conducted indicates that ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM INVESTMENT GAS INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hayder Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern world. Economy of the biggest part of states based on the foreigninvestments, which are quite necessaryfor developing their economy and infrastructure. On the present stage of thedevelopment the Republic of Iraq the gassector problems could be solved onlythrough investments.

  13. Development as an effective management system construction and investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloborodov Roman S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the material of the application of the conception «Development» as the effective methodology of the investment-construction project management within the framework the systems approach. Theoretical principles of the application of this conception are generalized and systematized based on the example of the creation of the low habitable complex.

  14. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  15. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  16. Real Estate Investment Trusts in the Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Burkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, performance of239 real estate investment trusts (REITs from 15 developed countries is analyzed according to their regional specific characteristics. This investment vehicle is rapidly spreading all over the world due to high returns it offers while being of low risk, and since the governments create special legislation. In 2013, there were around 30 countries where REITs can be created, so regional specifics of REITs' performance can be studied. USA has the oldest REITs market in the world with 133 trusts operating there. Popularity of American REITs is explained by the fact that they usually hold well diversified portfolios of property with stable income. This helped them rather successfully survive through the global economic crisis of2008-2010, but after that attracted close attention of institutional investors which has led to the creation of new bubble on the market. European REITs market has appeared recently, its development being slowed down by the recent crisis. The debt crisis and liquidity strain caused REITs lack of funds; economic downturn led to the reduction of trusts' returns, resulting in the outflow of the investment to the USA. In 2012, the recovery of the debt capital market reanimated the REITs market. REITs in the Asia-Pacific region are very risky thus offering a high riskpremium. Their returns are unstable and fluctuate in line with the global economic situation. After the crisis, REITs have been the most attractive investment vehicle on the market offering high yield.

  17. Challenges in the development of market-based pipeline investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bassenheim, G.; Mohitpour, M.; Klaudt, D.; Jenkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The challenges, risks and uncertainties that the natural gas industry faces in developing market-based pipeline projects were discussed. Market-based pipeline investments are fundamentally different from user-driven projects. Market-based projected involve finding enough energy users and linking them with a pipeline infrastructure to viable supplies of natural gas. Each unique project is developed individually and requires a strong corporate vision and support before it can be successfully implemented. The three phases of a pipeline investment include the business development phase, the project development phase, and the implementation/operations phase. Market-based companies will need a clear vision for long-term goals and the desire to succeed. The company will have to prepare a detailed strategy and policies that clearly define geographic areas of operations, risk tolerance, availability of capital and expected project performance. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Nuclear power - help or extermination. The splendours and miseries of energetics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A.; Kolenda, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been published soon after a Chernobyl accident. The authors try to answer the following questions: why nuclear power is and will continue be an increasingly widely used source of energy and what is the nuclear risk. In the same time they want to call our attention on the dangerous consequences of the more and more intensive development of conventional energetics based on the combustion, in particular, of coal. The energetic situation in Poland they analysed too. (M.F-W)

  19. Reform of investment policy in the function of sustainable development with special emphasis on investment in information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević-Radičević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy still records a decline in FDI. The main causes are increased economic instability and geopolitical risks. Given the continued negative trend, it is clear that it is necessary to reform the investment policies at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international level, to ensure sustainable economic development. Key elements of the reforms are: to provide instruments to reduce risks, create mechanisms of responsible investment, improve the structural coherence and promote regional investments. Refer to the current dates of the sectors investments (according to the report of UNCTAD from 2015th shows that the services sector recorded double growth compared to the investment in the manufacturing sector in 2012. Also, if we take into consideration the fact that investment in IT sector investment involves three aspects: transactional (minimizing costs, strategic (innovation technologies, achieving competitiveness and information (improving access to information and communications, it may be assumed that the reforms in the investment policies should be directly correlated with investments in information technology.

  20. ACTUAL TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF VENTURE INVESTMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Aleksandrova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research topic is related to the significant influence of the venture capital industry on the Russian economy. Innovative development of our country depends mainly on the effective commercialization of research and development, but the technology companies access to financial resources is a key factor in the innovation process . Venture capital plays a major role in this respect: it provides a fast and timely financial support to local entrepreneurs breakthrough ideas and enhances the competitiveness of the Russian economy as a whole. Objective - Analysis of Venture Investment in Russia , identifying issues and current trends in development. In the process, a set of methods has been applied economic and statistical analysis: methods of synthesis, comparison and analysis of economic and statistical information. In the study, it was determined that the current Russian venture market is characterized by an increase in the number of venture capital funds and private equity funds, as well as increasing their capitalization; an increasing number of companies financed, but about 90 % of all investments allocated for funding mature companies and only 10 % - for companies at the venture development stages; Central Federal District continues to firmly hold the leadership of the share of the total investment of all federal districts . Identified the following problems: lack of funding companies in the initial stages of development, infrastructure venture industry, inadequate legislation and taxation system , the problems associated with the protection and registration of intellectual property, the problem of lack of professional management, the lack of a well-functioning stock market, high-tech industries unattractive for investment.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-5

  1. Development Strategies for Tourism Destinations: Tourism Sophistication vs. Resource Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...

  2. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  3. Seaweed Investment as Application in Development of Minapolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Consequences of regional autonomy is not easy, this is because a required area should look for alternative sources of financing regional. One of the sources of financing in the Brebes district is the development of seaweed cultivation to be exported to other countries. The calculations show that the investment in seaweed farming is feasible to be developed because of the many advantages gained than seaweed farming. The first advantage of the presence of a source of income for local communities and Brebes district, opening job opportunities broadly, to develop products made from seaweed such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, herbs, jelly, and so forth.

  4. Valuation issues in lesser developed countries: Investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Privatization has become the buzzword of the early 1990s, as all over the world governments are selling off their assets. Monopolistic utilities such as gas, water and waste disposal - but particularly electric - are prime assets for sale because their cash flows and competitive environment are reasonably predictable. Utility privatization in lesser developed countries (LDC) is giving rise to many new investment opportunities where predictions of high growth rates lead to anticipation of lucrative returns. Potential investors, however, should fully exercise the concept of caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. Coupled with these lucrative returns are risks arising from less stable political and economic conditions. possible market inefficiencies, and potentially high transaction costs. This article explores the central issues involved in valuing privatization investment opportunities in LDCs and performing requisite due diligence reviews

  5. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  6. Development of Investment Strategy Applying Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekaterina Kuzmina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Due to globalization processes and technological development, companies are having more influence on global society than ever. Therefore, business misconduct causes enormous harm to stakeholders, whereas ethical behavior is becoming an important issue. The goal of the following study is to verify and measure a positive effect from investments in social activities on financial attractiveness of companies in the form of its stock portfolio value growth. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the goal of the research, quantitative analysis is used by comparing performance of stock portfolio of companies having long-term investments in social activities with market index increment. The quantitative results are accompanied with the review of corporate social responsibility definition and some practical issues on governmental and corporation level. Scientific aim: The conducted research contributes both to the scientific discussion about development of appropriate investment strategy in companies applying CSR principles as well as to the discussion of related terminology used in the field. Findings: The research has shown that engagement in the CSR activities tends to have strong positive effect on companies’ financial results and investors’ financial performance. The research proves this fact by comparing value increment of CSR-portfolio (+35.99% gained from January 2015 to March 2017 with market index (+22.37% in the same period. Conclusions: Regardless the positive result achieved in the study the authors have determined several gaps in the research, which will be discussed in the further studies on the field.

  7. 26 CFR 1.851-6 - Investment companies furnishing capital to development corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment companies furnishing capital to... Investment Trusts § 1.851-6 Investment companies furnishing capital to development corporations. (a) Qualifying requirements. (1) In the case of a regulated investment company which furnishes capital to...

  8. The financial management as a tool for development investment decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Radovan M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions, which influence the investment of financial resources to achieve economic, non-economic, or of both objectives and effects in the future, the central subject of financial management. Using the methods of financial mathematics can predict the effects of the investment which is from the standpoint of efficiency ratings are expressed in the form of cash future income. Periods, the investments and the use of investment, may be the same or different lengths. From an economic standpoint it is desirable that the period of the investment is short, and the economic effects of the eyelids investments as long as possible. For an investment is said to be cost-effective or cost-effective if the current value of the investment is less than the present value of income from investments.

  9. An Empirical Investigation of Telecommunications Investment and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sources of economic development is of obvious importance, and numerous attempts have been made to judge the impact of many different factors on economic development. Since some empirical studies have reported that telecommunications investment is one of the important factors in economic development, this paper empirically investigates the impact of telecommunications investment on economic development using a cross-country analysis based on data from 56 developing countries for the years 1970-98. To this end, a further augmented version of the neoclassical Solow growth model is suggested and applied. Subject to the appropriate caveats, the results provide further support for several key conclusions of the former studies - investment in physical capital, population growth, and human capital seem to be quite important in accounting for economic development in developing countries. In addition, more importantly, it is concluded that telecommunications investment significantly contributes to economic development in the developing world.

  10. 77 FR 11087 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... (e.g., cognitive science, educational psychology), computer science, and personal technology. These... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development... Information: Investing in Innovation Fund, Development grants Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  11. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Developing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    investments involving transfer of assets, including financial capital, advanced .... different impacts across sectors, estimation results showed that the composition ... Investment, Population, Inflation rate, Natural Resource Rent and Interest rate,.

  12. Return on investment in healthcare leadership development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraman, Maya M; Qadar, Sheikh Muhammad Zeeshan; Wierzbowski, Aleksandra; Farshidfar, Farnaz; Lys, Justin; Dickson, Graham; Grimes, Kelly; Phillips, Leah A; Mitchell, Jonathan I; Van Aerde, John; Johnson, Dave; Krupka, Frank; Zarychanski, Ryan; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2018-02-05

    Purpose Strong leadership has been shown to foster change, including loyalty, improved performance and decreased error rates, but there is a dearth of evidence on effectiveness of leadership development programs. To ensure a return on the huge investments made, evidence-based approaches are needed to assess the impact of leadership on health-care establishments. As a part of a pan-Canadian initiative to design an effective evaluative instrument, the purpose of this paper was to identify and summarize evidence on health-care outcomes/return on investment (ROI) indicators and metrics associated with leadership quality, leadership development programs and existing evaluative instruments. Design/methodology/approach The authors performed a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, searching eight databases from 2006 through June 2016. Findings Of 11,868 citations screened, the authors included 223 studies reporting on health-care outcomes/ROI indicators and metrics associated with leadership quality (73 studies), leadership development programs (138 studies) and existing evaluative instruments (12 studies). The extracted ROI indicators and metrics have been summarized in detail. Originality/value This review provides a snapshot in time of the current evidence on ROI indicators and metrics associated with leadership. Summarized ROI indicators and metrics can be used to design an effective evaluative instrument to assess the impact of leadership on health-care organizations.

  13. INVESTMENTS AND SERVICES ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article started with the modern connection observed between sectors in EU -primary, secondary and tertiary- on rural areas, where agriculture becomes essential. First, this connection is manifested in Romania under the impact of the main directions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP during 2014-2020, namely: a more market-oriented production, but also related to the public, promoting food security, while considering environmental issues and, in addition, achieve cooperation and alignment to the European Economic Area, including equality in European funding. Secondly, there is a dedicated rural development policy, which is supported by a series of investments, but imposed a number of directions that will lead to the expansion of tertiary sector measures, marketing, tourism, ecology, and promoting social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas. Other influences are generated by foreign direct investments-FDI in rural areas. The conclusion is based on the fragility of the rural sector in Romania, compared to other European countries and highlights specific areas of interest of stakeholders for the following issues: improving policies and decisions, access to markets, infrastructure development, access to financial services, access to knowledge, services innovation and risk reduction.

  14. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  15. The Leadership Case for Investing in Continuing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Graham T

    2017-08-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) has the power and capacity to address many challenges in the health care environment, from clinician well-being to national imperatives for better health, better care, and lower cost. Health care leaders who recognize the strategic value of education and engage their people in education can expect a meaningful return on their investment-not only in terms of the quality and safety of their clinicians' work but also in the spirit and cohesiveness of the clinicians who work at their institution. To optimize the benefits of education, clinical leaders need to think of accredited CME as the professional development vehicle that can help them drive change and achieve goals, in consort with quality improvement efforts, patient safety projects, and other systems changes. An empowered CME program, with its multiprofessional scope and educational expertise, can contribute to initiatives focused on both clinical and nonclinical areas, such as quality and safety, professionalism, team communication, and process improvements. In this Invited Commentary, the author describes principles and action steps for aligning leadership and educational strategy and urges institutional leaders to embrace the continuing professional development of their human capital as an organizational responsibility and opportunity and to view engagement in education as an investment in people.

  16. Oman: Current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil production in Oman has consistently increased since 1980 to reach its current level of ca 800,000 bbl/d. Reserves total ca 5 billion bbl and gas reserves are over 20 trillion ft 3 , of which a third is being dedicated for export. The main operator is Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which is 60% owned by the Omani government. Some production areas are taken up by other companies under production sharing contracts. Gas is used for local industrial purposes and a third of gas reserves are being dedicated to a liquefied natural gas export scheme planned to be on-stream by 2000. The government has been seeking foreign investment and increasing private-sector participation, an example being a Belgian-Omani consortium to construct a 100-MW gas-fired power station. However, opportunities for investing in the upstream oil/gas sector are limited since most prospective areas have already been taken up. The economic, political, and social problems which may affect future investment are discussed. Oman is essentially a one-resource economy and declines in oil prices have led to widening government deficits. Social expectations created by the oil-financed welfare state make it difficult for government expenditures to be cut back. There is lack of public debate in the state-controlled media and no public participation in policy and decision making. There is a perception of widening corruption in government and a nascent movement toward a more rigid Islamic view of society. Controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance between oil revenues and public expenditures, while pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the traditional autocratic system of government. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Evaluating international development investments based on ecosystem services impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremier, A. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Mulligan, M.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Gordon, L.; Luedeling, E.; Jones, S. K.; DeClerck, F.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered water-control structures to supply water for agriculture are frequently funded by international development to an effort to improve human wellbeing. Dams, reservoirs, and other forms of water control frequently have negative impacts on other water users; however, their sustainability in the face of climate change and evolving watershed processes have been called into question. Increasingly, planning for and evaluation of investments in water control require integration of these larger scale impacts and dependencies. Ecosystem service approaches can use local to regional scale knowledge to integrate a broader scope of project impacts by quantifying trade-offs in multiple services across proposed development interventions and future scenarios (economic, climate, demographic). Here, we illustrate the role an ecosystem service approach can play in investment decision making to evaluate the impact of small reservoirs on human wellbeing in the Upper Volta Basin of West Africa. Our project has four components: (1) design of a spatially explicit regional-level social-ecological characterization; (2) construction of future scenario analyses for rainfed and irrigated production system interventions; (3) co-design and co-development of benefit sharing mechanisms at the reservoir catchment level and enhancing institutional capacity to implement these mechanisms through training, professional development and targeting tools; and (4) intervention decision analysis to identify benefits, costs and risks associated with decision options. We illustrate how this approach highlights different outcomes than standard cost-benefit analysis focused narrowly on the single project. Anticipated outcomes are development of ecosystem services-based methods for more equitably and sustainably evaluating development interventions and identifying management approaches to water-impoundment structures that promote a range of ecosystem services to provide food security to a broader

  18. Electricity investments and nuclear development: investment choice modeling based on value creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, B.S.; Bocquer, J.C.; Tomoda, T.

    2014-01-01

    While nuclear power may experience a technological breakthrough in Europe with Generation IV nuclear reactors within 2040, several events could question this possibility such as the Fukushima accident, the climate issues and the electricity market liberalization. This paper aims at analyzing investment choices in power generation capacities in the European scope, using simple DSM-inspired approaches. The power company and interacting stake holders in the investment choice process are considered as a complex system, and dependencies between investment drivers associated with each stake holder are studied. Focusing on the value for the power company, the compatibility of each power company with each of considered technologies is assessed through a Domain Mapping Matrix, including not only technical drivers, but also associated policy and market drivers. Technology preferences are modeled for main European companies in a set of scenarios, these preferences being then used to explore trends in generation mix. (authors)

  19. Illicit financial flows and foreign direct investment in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Innocents Edoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is facing a number of challenges that are negatively affecting socio-economic development at all levels of governments and local governments are expected to play a leading role for Africa’s development. One of these challenges are illicit financial flows that are perceived by many as a crime against Africa’s transformation. The continent is losing billions of dollars every year because of tax evasion, corruption and inappropriate transfer pricing and maladministration. With tax being one of Africa’s main sources of revenue, current and past researches revealed that, illicit financial flows (IFFs cripple African Governments tax base as a results of capital outflows and lack of good governance. This situation obviously is a challenge for Africa’s development as governments struggle to finance structuring projects and this in turn compels these governments to seek funds from international organisations at very high interest rates. It is also important to reveal that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI rapidly grew after the Second World War with the intention to maximize profit on investment in less developed countries and specifically in the African continent. In competing in Africa, most multinationals main objective is to pay less tax, make extensive profits and transfer the proceeds to their country of origin. This subsequently gave rise to illicit financial flows in Africa where the continent is losing billions of dollars. Past studies equally revealed that, Africa’s revenue could increase between 55 and 65%, if appropriate mechanisms of monitoring the flows were in place. This study therefore is based on the premise that, tax evasion, illicit financial flows, corruption and abusive transfers pricing are all factors that affect Africa’s development. Using appropriate method of inquiry, this study wants to demonstrate the presence of FDI’s in Africa as a modus operandi behind tax evasion. It also using the

  20. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... is more relevant for investments in emerging economies, and relational trust is more relevant for investments in developed economies....

  1. Foreign Direct Investments and Human Capital Development in Subsaharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc NEMBOT NDEFFO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to estimate the impact of foreign direct investments on human capital development in 32 Subsaharan African countries over the period 1980 – 2005. Human capital is captured by the percentage of children in full-time education in primary and secondary schools. Panel data regressions are used for the estimations. The results show a correlation not only between FDI and the percentage of children in full-time education in primary school but also between the FDI and the percentage of children in full-time education in secondary school. These results are not significant for that. This shows that FDI directed towards Sub-Saharan Africa still remain insufficient. That is why a lot of effort should be made in order to favour the attraction of FDI in this part of the continent. The other variables which have a positive and significant impact on the percentage of children in full-time education are: the domestic investment rate, public sector expenditures, life expectancy at birth and the growth rate of the gross domestic product per capita.

  2. Sustainable development - The energetic prescription in 9 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagumina, Sandra; Dubois, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    After having outlined the importance of the issue of energy in sustainable development plans (buildings), this guide discusses how to address the energy issue within a development plan, how far may go a statement of environmental specifications, how to act to allow lot buyers to reach ambitious energy performance objectives with a controlled cost, how to choose among energy labels and frameworks, how to be sure that lot buyers will actually reach the looked-for energy performance, how to perform the legal feasibility study on the potential of development of renewable energies, how to valorise renewable energies for a development plan, how to assess the relevance of choices regarding energy supply, and how to integrate a Smart Grid approach to a plan

  3. Design, Development and Implementation of Decision Support Systems for Private Equity Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Vroomen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design, develop and implement an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) for making rational private equity investment decisions. (Private equity investments are capital investments in enterprises that are not traded on public equity markets; they include Equity Buy-Out, Venture Capital, and the new Equity Crowd Funding (ECF) asset classes). The design and development of the IDSS requires the integration of investment science (valuation theory, portfoli...

  4. Public relation to possibility of atomic energetics development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of sociological studies on the relation of various groups of population in Belarus to the problems of nuclear power development in the republic are given. The study showed that the the number of opponents and adherents of NPPs construction is practically equal. It is noted that the population is insufficiently informed on the nuclear power problem

  5. Investment attractiveness as a factor in the tourism industry development in Zaporozhye region

    OpenAIRE

    Анастасія Павлівна Безхлібна

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the concept of investment attractiveness of the tourism industry in Zaporozhye region; soft and hard impacts of investment attractiveness of the tourism industry in Zaporozhye region are revealed and analyzed. The SWOT-analysis of investment attractiveness of the tourism industry is revealed; recommendations are given for revealed weaknesses and threats to the prospects of tourism development in Zaporozhye region by the attracting investment mechanisms, using SWOT-analysis 

  6. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  7. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  8. The Role Of Foreign Investment In Economic And Social Development In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Khalifa Thawadi El. Hamoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Investment is whether in local or foreign organization is the action Plan split by various investment activities The Libyan economy is among those economies that require this kind of foreign investment to achieve the desired economic goals which are correlated with the objectives of the Libyan economic system for subsequent stages. Therefore it is important to study the trends and determinants of FDI in developing in general and in Libya in particular. This paper describes the role that could be played by investment foreign investment in economic and social development in Libya pointing out the positive and negative aspects and how to deal with each of them in proportion to the facts of the Libyan Economy needs. And in the light of the new economic orientation in line with the political and economic developments in the international arena and foreign investment and thus contributing to the expansion of the ownership base and create job opportunities for citizen in this study will follow the descriptive approach through the way ahead obtained from digital data from various sources using the forms as required and discussed this paper to the definition of foreign investment evolved of investment determinants of FDI motivated encourage foreign investment history prospects for foreign direct investment in Libya Barriers to foreign direct investment in Libya Policies strategies to support foreign direct investment in Libya conclusions and recommendations.

  9. South Africa’s Financial Development and its Role in Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyambiri Brian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of financial development on investment in South Africa between 1976 and 2014. The model estimated is based on the flexible accelerator investment model. Composite indices for bank-based and market-based financial development indicators are used as explanatory variables. The estimated model postulates that both bank-based financial development and market-based financial development have an acceleratorenhancing effect on investment. Results show that market-based financial development has a positive impact on investment in the long run, while bank-based financial development has a negative effect in the short run. Implications are that, for South Africa, market-based financial development has a positive accelerator-enhancing effect on investment in the long run. In contrast, bank-based financial development is found to have a negative accelerator enhancing effect on investment in the short run.

  10. The Outlook for the Development of Investments Funds in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Jurić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available During the nineties, investment funds recorded rapid development in most developed countries and became important agents on the financial markets. In the developing and transitional countries the investment funds industry, although it too has recorded accelerated rates of growth, is still essential lagging behind that of the developed countries. In Croatia the investment funds started developing with the appearance of the private investment funds; however, they did not, contrary to expectations, make a very significant contribution to the development of institutional investors on the capital market. The market is driven primarily by banking or financial conglomerates, which also dominate the investment fund industry. Today the Croatian investment fund market is a very enterprising and dynamic segment of the financial system and hence the establishment of adequate regulation and supervision as well as the development of the capital market must be the main determinants of its further growth and development.

  11. Renewable Energy Investment in Emerging Markets: Evaluating Improvements to the Clean Development Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, industrialized countries have invested in or financed numerous renewable energy projects in developing countries, primarily through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. However, critics have pointed to its bureaucratic structure, problems with additionality and distorted credit prices as ill-equipped to streamline renewable energy investment. In this paper, we simulate the impact of policy on investment decisions on whether or not to invest in wind energy infrastructure in India, Brazil and China. Data from 2,578 past projects as well as literature on investor behaviour is used to inform the model structure and parameters. Our results show that the CDM acts differently in each country and reveal that while streamlining the approval process and reconsidering additionality can lead to non-trivial increase in total investment, stabilizing policy and decreasing investment risk will do the most to spur investment.

  12. Role of Tax Instruments in Investment and Innovation Strategy of Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchyshak Nazar B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problems of formation of the investment and innovation potential in Ukraine. It identifies priority of development and introduction of the investment and innovation strategy for the national economy. It studies the role of state stimulation of the investment and innovation activity using direct and indirect methods. It considers foreign experience of tax stimulation of innovation activity. It analyses application of different tax preferences by different foreign states. It shows positive and negative sides of preferential taxation under conditions of financial instability of Ukrainian economy. In order to identify the level of investment activity the article analyses dynamics of change of the investment attractiveness index and shows problem aspects of attraction of foreign investments into the national economy. It identifies priorities of formation of efficient investment and innovation strategy of development of economy on the basis of a common system approach.

  13. Inclusive Development and Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project looks at the impacts of Chinese investment on local economies ... Faculty of Economics and Business Management at the National University of Laos, ... capacity to conduct economic analysis and apply research methods.

  14. Inclusive Development and Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and maximizing the benefits of foreign direct investment, especially in terms of ... of Economics and Business Management at the National University of Laos, and the Cambodia Economics Association. ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  15. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer

  16. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Shatsilo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to justify the principles of assessing the effectiveness of innovation and investment projects of rural areas development on the basis of sustainability. Research methodology. In the course of the research general scientific and special methods for solving the tasks and obtaining the corresponding results were used, in particular: the method of logical analysis - in determining the factors of influence on the efficiency of investment projects; Systematization and generalization - in the synthesis of modern methodological approaches to the evaluation of innovation and investment projects of rural areas development; Abstract-logical - for theoretical generalizations and formulation of the findings of the study. Results.The principles of estimation of efficiency of innovative-investment projects are generalized. The interrelation and interdependence of goals and tasks in the development of three subsystems of sustainability have been studied, which need to be taken into account when identifying the effects arising from the implementation of investment projects. The methodological principles of evaluation of innovation-investment projects of rural areas development in conditions of observance of the requirements of sustainable development are highlighted. The deterrent factors hindering the implementation of the processes of investment of investment resources in the development of rural areas are determined. The principles of implementation of investment projects oriented on sustainable development are substantiated. Priority directions of investing resources investment in the development of rural areas on the principles of sustainability within the framework of solving economic, social and environmental problems have been identified. The mechanism of estimation of efficiency of innovative-investment project of development of rural territory in the conditions of limited financial resources is offered. It is substantiated that it is

  17. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  18. Kyoto Protocol implementation in Serbia as precognition of sustainable energetic and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Munitlak Ivanovic, Olja

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → Serbia is a country with the outdated technology and low energy efficiency values. → Sustainable economic and energetic growth can be stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocol. → By investing in modern technology Serbia could lessen emission into the atmosphere. → Cut of emission in the atmosphere could help reaching certain carbon credit values. → By selling the carbon credit Serbia could do economic growth of 5-7% on a year level.

  19. The Clean-Development Mechanism, stochastic permit prices and energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieronymi, Philipp; Schüller, David

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the impact on energy investments stemming from different emission permit classes, by considering permits that are allocated inside the European Emission Trading Scheme and secondary Certified Emission Reduction (sCER) permits originating from the Clean Development Mechanism. One price taking firm which is subject to emission regulation has the choice to invest in gas or wind power plant. The firm faces uncertainty regarding stochastically evolving permit prices, while it receives a premium on the electricity price for wind energy. As a first step, we determine the value of the option to invest into a gas power plant over time. Then, we calculate the investment probability of a gas power investment in a range of policy scenarios. We find that allowing the usage of sCER permits in the present policy framework has a positive impact on gas power investment. Decoupling the price processes has a similar effect. If the quota of sCER permits is doubled, the decrease in the investment probability for wind power is large. We carry out sensitivity tests for different parameter values, and find that investment behavior changes significantly with differing interest rates, the wind energy premium and volatility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of two CO 2 permit classes on energy investments. • We present a real-options framework accounting for uncertainty. • Clean Development Mechanism permits have a negative influence on investment into renewable energy. • Interest rate and volatility values have a strong impact on the results

  20. School Leadership Preparation and Development in Kenya: Evaluating Performance Impact and Return on Leadership Development Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuga, Gladys; Eacott, Scott; Scevak, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the quality of the current provision for school leadership in Kenya, the extent to which they have an impact on student outcomes and the return on school leadership preparation and development investment. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws from educational leadership, management and…

  1. The influence of financial market development on investment activities in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Malope

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets are considered developed if there is improvement in the size, activity, efficiency and stability of the financial system. The study looked at how financial development based on debt, stock, money and foreign markets affect investment. The Johansen cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM were used to estimate the short and long run relationship and test for the speed of adjustment. Granger causality test informed about direction of causality, variance decompositions and impulse response indicated effects of shocks. The Johansen cointegration test showed that the variables have a long run relationship. VECM showed that the speed of adjustment is about 13%, which means that variables will converge to equilibrium relatively quickly. The impulse response function indicated that financial market development indicators have short-run effects on investment in the first quarters after the initial shocks. Variance decomposition also indicated that specifically government bonds had greater effect in predicting future investments. The policy implications of these findings are for government to place greater priority on government bonds as its effect on investment is greater than other financial development proxies. Policies should focus on allowing greater risk diversification and improving the independence of the financial sector from government interference

  2. Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Bagaric, Ivan; Ivanovic, Olja Munitlak; Vranjes, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field of energetic and energetic efficiency, and, as well as to promote and develop the sector of use of renewable sources of energy. On the other hand, Serbia is a country which largely depends on import of all forms of energy, which to a great extent affects its economic stability. Therefore, in Serbia the strategy for development of energetic was imposed and it considers all the aspects of development of energetic until 2015 and it also defines the priorities which can be mostly seen in the choice of forms of alternative sources of energy. These sources, based on some criteria, can be considered the most convenient for a gradual substitution of energy which is gotten from the conventional sources. Taking into account strategically defined goals and domestic potentials which are at disposal, as well as economic parameters, an alternative source of energy of basic importance for the future exploitation on the territory of Serbia geothermal energy, was chosen. The research points to the fact that Serbia will be capable to respond adequately to Kyoto protocol demands and to the European rules regarding the substitution of a certain amounts of fossil fuels by the fuel origin from the raw biological materials. The research defines the existent and non-existent capacities and the assessment of positive effects of usage of geothermal energy. At the moment, 160 long holes are being exploited whose water temperature is around 60 C (140 F) and their heat power reach 160 MJ/s. It was stated that adequate exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources a yearly would save about 500,000 tons

  3. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  4. 46 Evaluating Foreign Direct Investment and Africa's Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa to several factors discouraging foreign direct investment. Suggestions and ... in the economy of African states and what reasons account for such impacts. ..... information to second-guess market signals (prices) and because powerful interest ..... over 115 million people using cell phones in Nigeria, we do not have any ...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App. 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24—CD-1—National Bank Community Development...

  6. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  7. DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND INVESTMENT PROJECTS ASSESSMENT IN THE SECTOR OF SME IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    JUGOSLAV ANIČIĆ; DUŠAN ANIČIĆ; DALIBOR PAVLOVIĆ; RATKO GARIĆ; VESNA PETROVIĆ

    2016-01-01

    The problems of rational investing, in other words efficient planning and realization of investment projects, are among key problems in development of every enterprise. For successful realization of business plans, enterprise should make use of its internal strengths and available resources from surroundings, and turn them into its competitive advantage. Small and medium enterprises in Serbia are facing low liquidity and a lack of their own funds for investing into long-term and d...

  8. Investments of Banks in Securities: the Essence and Development Trends under Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Mazikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of modern banking activities involves the realization of investments. Investment is a complex discussion economic category, characterized by a number of features. The types and forms of investment are manifold and can be transformed with account of the state of the economy and the level of development of industrial relations. The faster growth of the financial sector in the economy has stipulated the development of financial investment. Banks as financial and lending institutions actively make financial investments in securities. Banks’ investment in securities pursues a number of purposes which determine the selection of securities for investment and their quality. The article identified the targets of bank investments in securities and their development trends under current conditions on the basis of the analysis of the actual data for 2010–2014. Negative revaluation and the actual decrease in the value of corporate securities of Russian issuers reduce their commercial appeal. Banks refuse to speculate on the stock market in favor of the securities that ensure liquidity. Banks’ investments aim to purchasing securities from the Lombard List of the Bank of Russia in order to obtain loans and participate in the repo transactions. Thus, during the analyzed period, banks’ investments in securities transformed from systemically important assets that generate substantial profit into the mechanism that provides liquidity. It should be noted that a significant part of investment resources of Russian banks services the debt obligations of Russia’s Government. The article also identified a trend of banks’ increasing investment in the participation portfolios of subsidiaries and associated joint stock companies. The official data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia [15], and the Federal State Statistics Service [14] were used as the information base for the study

  9. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  10. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  11. Place-Based Investment Model of Talent Development: A Proposed Model for Developing and Reinvesting Talents within the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kristina Ayers; Seward, Kristen K.

    2016-01-01

    The place-based investment model (PBIM) of talent development is a programming model for developing talents of high-potential youth in ways that could serve as an investment in the community. In this article, we discuss the PBIM within rural contexts. The model is grounded in three theories--Moon's personal talent development theory, Sternberg's…

  12. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celinski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  13. New development cycle through long-term investment ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Dittgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, le Gabon nourrit l’ambition de réduire sa dépendance envers les revenus du pétrole et de diversifier son économie. Cette volonté coïncide avec l'augmentation des investissements chinois dans les pays africains richement dotés en ressources. Parmi l’éventail des relations sino-gabonaises, le secteur minier - et surtout le projet de la mine de fer de Bélinga - se place au centre de l'intérêt des deux parties.Sous le règne d’Omar Bongo, ce vaste projet minier avait été promu et présenté comme fleuron de l’économie nationale. Cependant, malgré les promesses de développer les infrastructures et de fournir des opportunités d'emploi, la tentative de diversification économique du Gabon semble toutefois limitée et ne pas vraiment mener vers un changement structurel majeur. Un certain nombre de critères ont par ailleurs retardé la réalisation du projet Bélinga et introduit de nouveaux risques et coûts pour les Chinois. Parmi les plus révélateurs figurent la volatilité des prix des matières premières, la mort du président Omar Bongo en 2009 ainsi que l’opposition croissante de la société civile. L’objectif principal de cet article consiste à étudier les possibilités de développement liées au projet et d’analyser l’approche évolutive de la Chine envers le projetGabon’s recent ambition to reduce its dependency on oil revenue by diversifying its economy coincides with China’s growing investment in resource-rich African countries. Within the wide range of Sino–Gabonese co-operation, the mining sector – and above all the Bélinga iron ore project – is central to both parties’ interests. Omar Bongo’s regime promoted this large-scale project as the flagship of the national economy. However, despite the promise of infrastructure development and employment opportunities, Gabon’s attempt at diversification seems limited and is not leading towards any major structural

  14. High power laser research and development at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; McCrory, R.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of its research mission - to investigate the interaction of intense radiation with matter - the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester is developing a number of high-peak power and high-average-power laser systems. In this paper we highlight some of the LLE work on solid-state laser research, development and applications. Specifically, we discuss the performance and operating characteristics of Omega, a twenty-four beam, 4000 Joule, Nd:glass laser system which is frequently tripled using the polarization mismatch scheme. We also discuss progress in efforts to develop high-average-power solid-state laser systems with active-mirror and slab geometries and to implement liquid-crystal devices in high-power Nd:glass lasers. Finally we present results from a program to develop a compact, ultrahigh-peak-power solid-state laser using the concept of frequency chirped pulse amplification

  15. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis W.; Farley, Joshua; Huber, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  16. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  17. Some elements for the community development starting from the establishment and use of an energetic forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera, Edgard Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    With this article it is looked to present several elements of community development starting from the forestry and use of energetic forests, in such a way that they guarantee a better level of the population's life, as well as the protection of the natural resources. It seeks to offer development perspectives starting from the appropriate handling of the forestall resource by means of the community participation, like productive force that should be impelled by the technical and economic contribution of the Colombian state. It is necessary to define the protagonistic paper of the municipal authorities and the community like actors in the process of sustainable development of the forestall resource as well as to identify the processes required in a system that integrates the state, the community and the natural resources for the obtaining of goods and ecological, economic and social services of the rural sector

  18. Foreign direct investment and their impact on economic development countries in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Joksimovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is among the key developmental factors that, along with international trade, contributes to the globalisation of the world economy and business. It is therefore necessary to ensure FDI improves economic development. Attracting investors, a favourable investment climate, and investment attractiveness compared to other countries in the region are some of the prerequisites for effective economic development of the Republic of Serbia. The authors in the paper analyse the impact of FDI on the economic development of Republic of Serbia. Based on available countries from 2012 to 2014, the paper presents a comparative view of the Republic of Serbia and the countries in the region.

  19. Exogenous stress hormones alter energetic and nutrient costs of development and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; McCue, Marshall D; Boyles, Justin G; Warne, Robin W

    2017-09-15

    Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life-stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis. We used an experimental approach to manipulate physiological stress in larval amphibians, along with respirometry and 13 C-breath testing to quantify the energetic and nutritional costs of development and metamorphosis. Central to larval developmental responses to environmental conditions is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis, which regulates development, as well as energy homeostasis and stress responses across many taxa. Given these pleiotropic effects of HPA/I activity, manipulation of the HPA/I axis may provide insight into costs of metamorphosis. We measured the energetic and nutritional costs across the entire larval period and metamorphosis in a larval amphibian exposed to exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) hormones - the primary hormone secreted by the HPA/I axis. We measured metabolic rates and dry mass across larval ontogeny, and quantified lipid stores and nutrient oxidation via 13 C-breath testing during metamorphosis, under control and GC-exposed conditions. Changes in dry mass match metamorphic states previously reported in the literature, but dynamics of metabolism were influenced by the transition from aquatic to terrestrial respiration. GC-treated larvae had lower dry mass, decreased fat stores and higher oxygen consumption during stages where controls were conserving energy. GC-treated larvae also oxidized greater amounts of 13 C-labelled protein stores. These results

  20. eHealth and Global Health: Investments Opportunities and Challenges for Industry in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluyemi, Adesina; Briggs, Jim

    eHealth investments from developed countries to developing countries are expected to follow the emerging trend of eHealth for meeting global health problems. However, eHealth industry from developed countries will need to learn to make this impending venture a ‘win-win’ situation with profitable return on investments. This short paper highlights some of these challenges that must be overcome in order to achieve these objectives.

  1. Development of renewable energetics needs knowledge, skills and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmet, Henn; Tiit, Valdur

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The principles of sustainable lifestyle that are based on natural balance spread nowadays more and more widely. The broad use of renewable energy sources enables to meet the population's need for energy, keeping at the same time our life environment clean. These principles must also be followed at the development of Estonian economy, taking into consideration the responsibilities of the present generation to the following ones. It means that we are obliged to protect healthy environment and to preserve our resources for the sake of the whole world. We have to behave in such a way that we would not decrease our descendants' hope for a happy life neither in the close nor in the further future. The sphere of activity of the Estonian Agricultural University is very broad, including to a smaller or greater extent everything that is connected with farming and forestry. For decades we have successfully developed scientific research on forestry and educated a lot of good workers. Many of them work successfully in the enterprises that are connected with timber fuel, using thus raw material that is energetically renewable and implementing the principles of sustainable development. As the initiators and to a certain extent also organisers of the present conference we would especially like to stress that the role of our University both in the use of renewable sources of energy and the production of energetic raw material is constantly growing. Due to the change of the economic situation it is not reasonable to produce as much foodstuffs as ten year ago in Estonia. On the spare land it is possible to grow plants that store solar energy and that enable to produce different biofuels. During summer approximately 5 mln kWh of solar energy fall on one hectare of land in our conditions. Taking into account the efficiency of plants and the cost of production we might receive a couple of tons of diesel fuel as so-called pure receipts. As the area of unused farmland is at

  2. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from KISVALUE-Ⅲ of NICE Information Service Co., Ltd. Stata 12.0 was used as the statistical package for panel analysis. Results The current ratio had a positive influence on R&D investment, the debt ratio had a negative influence on R&D investment, and return on investment and net sales growth rate did not have a significant influence on R&D investment. Conclusion It was found in this study that the higher liquidity ratio, the greater the R&D investment. The stability of pharmaceutical companies has a negative influence on R&D investment. This finding is consistent with the prediction that if a company faces a financial risk, it will be passive in R&D investment due to its financial difficulties. PMID:26730355

  3. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from KISVALUE-Ⅲ of NICE Information Service Co., Ltd. Stata 12.0 was used as the statistical package for panel analysis. The current ratio had a positive influence on R&D investment, the debt ratio had a negative influence on R&D investment, and return on investment and net sales growth rate did not have a significant influence on R&D investment. It was found in this study that the higher liquidity ratio, the greater the R&D investment. The stability of pharmaceutical companies has a negative influence on R&D investment. This finding is consistent with the prediction that if a company faces a financial risk, it will be passive in R&D investment due to its financial difficulties.

  4. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  5. Does the Sustainable PPI Investments Promote Financial Market’s Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, most developing countries adopt a policy of attracting investments for Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI projects. With a perspective of sustainability, this paper offers a first attempt to examine whether the sustainable PPI investments promote financial market development. First, we demonstrate how the PPI policy enlargers the size of financial markets and then fosters the liquidity of financial markets in the static and dynamic conditions. Using the data from 33 developing countries during 1997–2012, we discover the significant promotion effect of PPI investments on the development of financial markets in the dimensions of size and liquidity. Additionally, we confirm the significant mediator effect of financial market size for the positive relationship between PPI investments and financial market liquidity. Both the promotion effect and mediation effect are robust to different control variables and estimation techniques used.

  6. The Analysis of the Development of Futures Investment Funds in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhe Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the futures investment fund, elaborates on its functions and puts forward its problems in China. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference based on the measures for its development.

  7. U.S. energy research and development: Declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Investment in energy research and development in the U.S. is declining despite calls for an enhancement of the nation's capacity for innovation to address environmental, geopolitical, and macroeconomic concerns. We examine investments in research and development in the energy sector, and observe broad-based declines in funding since the mid-1990s. The large reductions in investment by the private sector should be a particular area of concern for policy makers. Multiple measures of patenting activity reveal widespread declines in innovative activity that are correlated with research and development (R and D) investment-notably in the environmentally significant wind and solar areas. Trends in venture capital investment and fuel cell innovation are two promising cases that run counter to the overall trends in the sector. We draw on prior work on the optimal level of energy R and D to identify a range of values which would be adequate to address energy-related concerns. Comparing simple scenarios based on this range to past public R and D programs and industry investment data indicates that a five to ten-fold increase in energy R and D investment is both warranted and feasible

  8. Corporate Investments in Asian Emerging Markets: Financial Conditions, Financial Development, and Financial Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianxin; Gochoco-Bautista, Maria Socorro; Sotocinal, Noli

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the literature on the finance–growth nexus, this paper explores the mechanisms through which finance affects corporate investments and capital accumulation. We separate the effects of financial conditions from those of financial development. Based on a sample of firms from five Asian emerging economies, we find that (1) financial conditions and financial development affect corporate investments through different channels. Financial conditions affect firms' growth opportunities an...

  9. FINANCING OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS OF GAS DISTRIBUTION ENTERPISES AS A FACTOR OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Korol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article theoretical questions of formation sources of financing investments   are  considered, the analysis of investment activities is carried out by the sources of funding for gas  utility. The purpose of this article is to identify priority sources of financing investment activities of gas distribution enterprises. The  methodology  of  research.  To  achieve  this  goal  the  author  used  methods  of  theoretical generalization; statistical and financial methods in the study of dynamics and structure of  investment; tabular methods to display the structure of the main sources of financing of  the  investment program of gas distribution enterprises; consistency and comparison, to determine the relationship between the main components of investment sources of financing. As a result of research by critical retrospective analysis to determine the structure of sources of financing investment activities of gas distribution enterprises. It is established that the main sources of financing the investment program are the tariffs for transportation and supply of gas, says the national Commission, carrying out state regulation in the areas of energy and  utilities (NCREU. It is filed the structure of the main financing sources of the investment  program of gas distribution enterprises. It is proved that the level of funding depends on the size  of NCREU rates and gas consumption. Scientific novelty of the article is lack in domestic and foreign areas of research priority  selection of sources financing of the investment program for gas distribution enterprises. The practical significance is that the theoretical concepts, practical results and conclusions of  articles that reveal the essence of the problem of investment sources of financing, can be used in  the activity of gas distribution enterprises taking into account the current state of development  of the economy. Keywords: investment  resources,  financing

  10. Energetic strategies for the sustainable development of the isolated areas of Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lascio, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the economic and energetic situation of the 35 % Amazonian inhabitants that live in remote and isolated sites, inside the Amazon forest. Generally, deforestation begins in those places and rapidly occurs the destruction of local ecosystems. The poverty is everywhere and the energy supply is insufficient or nonexistent. The electric energy is generated with diesel, but its acquisition consumes all available income.The man is not adapted to the environment, and destroys the forest to increase profit and comfort, but without protection the soil fragility causes poverty. To conclude some case studies are presented. Finally, it is proposed an energy strategy to protect the environment, through an an economic development, based on the use of renewable energy. (author)

  11. Foreign direct investments and their impact on the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Stojanovic-Trivanovic, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    From the perspective of macroeconomic indicators, investment is a significant determinant of economic development in general, as well as the development indicator of economic entities in the micro segment. Investments are an essential element of any economic policy, because their implementation provides a platform not only for economic development, but also are prerequisite for the stability of economic and social trends. Foreign direct investment plays an important role in the financing of the global economy, and it represents the most frequent feature in financing the national economies of developing countries and countries in transition. Demand for foreign investment in the global market is large, and thus the governments have been conducting many activities in order to create a more favorable environment to attract investors. In this paper, special attention was paid to direct investments in financing the economy on a global scale, their importance for the development of the global economy and the impact of foreign direct investment in the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The major activities, which are necessary to be done to attract investments in the highest possible volume, have been emphasized. With the use of statistical and quantitative analysis, the paper shows that the inflow of foreign capital is one of the basic prerequisite of economic growth acceleration and that the inflow of foreign capital has a positive impact on the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina. By monitoring and analyzing the various instruments of foreign capital inflow, with an emphasis on investment in the free zone and a joint venture with foreign investors, it has been clearly pointed out the fact that they have diverse, but proven positive impact on macroeconomic variables in the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGIU ALINA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Investment Bank is the European Union's financial institution. It finances investment projects to contribute to the balanced development of the Union. At the same time "bank" and "body" of the European Union, it contributes to the achievement of the European Union objectives by funding projects to promote European integration, balanced development, economic and social cohesion and the development of an economy based on innovation. Today, the EIB exists on the capital markets with the best quote, “Triple A”. This quote allows it to mobilize in highly competitive conditions, the most important financial volume required to support investments. As an institution, EIB continuously adapts its working mode to changes in EU policies. As a bank, it works closely with the banking community, both for loans on the capital markets as well as for financing investments.

  13. [Provision of integrity and reliability in hygienic examination of investment projects for human capital development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhov, P V; Matsenko, A M; Krugliak, A P; Derkach, Zh V

    2012-01-01

    To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects.

  14. Determinants of fixed investment by manufacturing firms in a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1977-10-01

    The validity of classical explanations of business investment decisions are examined and evidence is found that a less-pure approach is appropriate in the context of a developing country. A new data base is developed, using an electric model of manufacturing corporations in Colombia. The main empirical findings are: (1) An accelerator was accepted and institutionalized as a long-run investment. (2) Cash flow effects were a slightly more-important determinant of annual-investment variations than the accelerator in accordance with business uncertainties and undeveloped capital and loan markets. (3) Although the balance-sheet risk variable was the best variable in individual firm time-risk regression studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn without further investigation. (4) The single most-important influence on annual variations in investment by aggregates of firms was the availability of foreign exchange, which suggests the impact that changes in government policies can have on investment and economic activity. (5) Investment theory ''explained'' the behavior of foreign-controlled investment in Colombia better than that of Colombian corporations, whose executives may have been less willing to take risks. 56 references.

  15. Foreign Direct Investment and its Role in the Development of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki DELITHEOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI globally. Due to the potential role that foreign direct investment may play in accelerating the growth rate and re-shaping the economy, many developing countries are seeking such types of investment that can multiply efforts being made towards the growth of their economy. Consequently, foreign direct investment has become an important source of private external finance for developing countries. For this reason, countries like Greece are attempting to focus on the implementation of policies that can attract specific FDI and thus achieve high rates of growth. Attracting FDI and the subsequent creation of sustainable enterprises that will provide an increase in jobs and will reinforce the productivity of the country, is today a national target.

  16. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys Part 2. Application of developed investment for type 4 gold alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Akira; Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Goto, Shin-ichi; Kato, Katuma; Yara, Atushi; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the developed investment for the prevention of blackening of a cast Type 4 gold and to analyze the oxides on its surface in relation to the blackening of the alloy. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which boron (B) or aluminum (Al) was added as a reducing agent. A Type 4 gold alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the additives was evaluated from the color difference (deltaE*) between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. B and Al were effective to prevent the blackening of a Type 4 gold alloy and the color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. The prevention of the blackening of the gold alloy can be achieved by restraining the formation of CuO.

  17. Development Finance Institutions’ Effect on The Fund Manager’s Investment Decisions : Balancing Financial Performance Goals and Development Impact Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfssson, Alexander; Åström, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) have played a crucial role in moving socially responsibility considerations up on the private equity industry’s agenda. DFIs add a development impact criterion to traditional financial performance goals in the investment industry and play a catalytic role by mobilizing other investors. The gap in research regarding DFIs implications and significance in the investment community from a SRI perspective is evident. The development impact objective introduce...

  18. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  19. Region innovation and investment development: conceptual theoretical approach and business solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes essential problems of the region business innovation and investment development under current conditions, issues of crisis restrictions negotiation and innovation-driven economy formation. The relevance of the research is defined by the need of effective tools creation for business innovation and investment development and support, which can be applied, first, to increase efficiency of the region industrial activity, then improve production competitiveness on the innovative basis, overcome existing problems and provide sustainable innovation development in the region. The results of conducted research are represented in the article including region innovation and investment development concept model made up by the authors on the basis of system theoretical approach. The tools of the region innovation development defined in the concept model are briefly reviewed in the article. The most important of them include engineering marketing (marketing of scientific and technical innovations, strategic planning, benchmarking, place marketing and business process modeling.

  20. Life cycles of energetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnot, Jerome; Marchio, Dominique; Riviere, Philippe; Duplessis, B.; Rabl, A.; Glachant, M.; Aggeri, F.; Benoist, A.; Teulon, H.; Daude, J.

    2012-01-01

    This collective publication aims at being a course for students in engineering of energetic systems, i.e. at learning how to decide to accept or discard a project, to select the most efficient system, to select the optimal system, to select the optimal combination of systems, and to classify independent systems. Thus, it presents methods to analyse system life cycle from an energetic, economic and environmental point of view, describes how to develop an approach to the eco-design of an energy consuming product, how to understand the importance of hypotheses behind abundant and often contradicting publicised results, and to be able to criticise or to put in perspective one's own analysis. The first chapters thus recall some aspects of economic calculation, introduce the assessment of investment and exploitation costs of energetic systems, describe how to assess and internalise environmental costs, present the territorial carbon assessment, discuss the use of the life cycle assessment, and address the issue of environmental management at a product scale. The second part proposes various case studies: an optimal fleet of thermal production of electric power, the eco-design of a refrigerator, the economic and environmental assessment of wind farms

  1. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  2. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  3. Practitioners’ Views Promoting Infrastructure Investment: The G20 and the Multilateral Development Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wurf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The G20 is committed to promoting infrastructure investment and has called on multilateral development banks (MDBs to increase their infrastructure lending to help boost global growth. Alongside long-standing MDBs such as the World Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB, new MDBs such as the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB and the New Development Bank have been established, and G20 members would like both old and new multilateral banks to scale up their infrastructure investment by developing a pipeline of bankable projects. Even with all the MDBs investing more, they will not be able to satisfy the global need for infrastructure. What they can do, however, is start to fill the infrastructure gap by catalyzing private investment and cooperating on standards and regional infrastructure. Concerns have been raised about the geo-political implications of the new MDBs which underscore the need for MDB cooperation. There are challenges to and opportunities for this cooperation. The G20 needs to be clear about the role it can play in encouraging MDB cooperation and infrastructure investment, and must also be aware of the limitations on its role given that each MDB has its own mandate. Specifically, the G20 can downplay the perceived trade-off between efficiency and standards in the MDBs, encourage cooperation on new standards for sustainable or green infrastructure, invest in the Global Connectivity Alliance as a coordinating body for the MDBs and help align the G20 work on infrastructure with the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda

  4. Implementing a Process to Measure Return on Investment for Nursing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Elisabeth; Beverage, Jodie

    Return on investment (ROI) is one way to quantify the value that nursing professional development brings to the organization. This article describes a process to begin tracking ROI for nursing professional development. Implementing a process of tracking nursing professional development practitioners' ROI increased awareness of the financial impact and effectiveness of the department.

  5. Solar Energy: A Necessary Investment in a Developing Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Energy is the pivot of all developmental efforts in both the developed and the developing nations. Due to the fact that sources or conventional means of energy generation arc finite and fast depleting, most industrialized countries have started research on solar energy as a renewable sources or energy. This paper ...

  6. Foreign direct investment, financial development and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that the development of the financial system of the recipient country is an important precondition for FDI to have a positive impact on economic growth. A more developed financial system positively contributes to the process of technological diffusion associated with FDI. The

  7. Developing a Strategic Plan for NASA JSC's Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2012-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cislunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars space, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA fs Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects that have been prioritized using four focus criteria, with appropriate importance weighting. These four focus criteria are the Human Space Flight Technology Needs, JSC Core Technology Competencies, Commercialization Potential, and Partnership Potential. The inherent coupling in these focus criteria have been captured in a database and have provided an initial prioritization for allocation of technology development research funding. This paper will describe this process and this database

  8. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  9. Financing small-scale infrastructure investments in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel L. Bond; Daniel Platz; Magnus Magnusson

    2012-01-01

    In most developing countries a shortage of long-term, local-currency financing for small-scale infrastructure projects impedes local economic development. Inadequate fiscal transfers, little own source revenue and low creditworthiness make it difficult for local governments to fully fund projects on their own. This paper proposes the use of project finance as a means to attract financing from domestic banks and institutional investors. Donors can play a catalytic role by providing technical a...

  10. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Development of thermoregulation and torpor in a marsupial: energetic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Westman, Wendy; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Brigham, R Mark

    2006-02-01

    Altricial mammals and birds become endothermic at about half the size of adults and presumably would benefit energetically from entering torpor at that time. Because little is known about torpor during development in endotherms, we investigated whether after the establishment of endothermic thermoregulation (i.e. the ability to maintain a high body temperature during cold exposure), Sminthopsis macroura, a small (approximately 25 g) insectivorous marsupial, is capable of entering torpor and whether torpor patterns change with growth. Endothermic thermoregulation was established when the nest young reached a body mass of approximately 10 g, and they were capable of entering torpor early during development at approximately 10-12 g, lending some support to the view that torpor is a phylogenetically old mammalian trait. Torpor bout length shortened significantly and the minimum metabolic rate during torpor increased as juveniles approached adult size, and consequently total daily energy expenditure increased steeply with age. Relationships between total daily energy expenditure and body mass during development of S. macroura (slope approximately 1.3) differed substantially from the relationship between basal metabolism and body mass in adult endotherms (slope approximately 0.75) suggesting that the energy expenditure-size relationship during the development differs substantially from that in adults under thermo-neutral conditions. Our study shows that while torpor can substantially reduce energy expenditure during development of endotherms and hence is likely important for survival during energy bottlenecks, it also may enhance somatic growth when food is limited. We therefore hypothesize that torpor during the development in endotherms is far more widespread than is currently appreciated.

  12. Analysis of the coupling coordination between transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Zhai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between transportation infrastructure investment and regional economic growth has been the focus of domestic and foreign academic research. Using the models of coupling degree and coupling coordination degree, this paper calculated the coupling degree and coupling coordination degree between the comprehensive level of transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province and its 17 cities, and analyzed its temporal and spatial characteristics. The result showed that, from 2001 to 2013, the coupling and coupling coordination between transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province were on a steady rise in the time sequence characteristics. It experienced the upgrade from the uncoordinated – nearly uncoordinated – barely coordinated – intermediately coordinated stages. In the year of 2013, the coupling and coupling coordination of transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in the 17 prefecture-level cities of Hubei Province showed a very uneven spatial difference. Good coordination, primary coordination, barely coordinate, and barely in-coordination are distributed in the province. The average coordination degree of the 17 prefecture-level cities in Hubei is relatively low, and there is a negative tend to expand the difference. This study has confirmed the relationship between transportation infrastructure investment and the economic development to be in an interactive coupling and coordination, but in different regions and different stages, the degree of coordination has obvious spatial and temporal differences.

  13. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – A GREEN INVESTMENT ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Man has always tried to model nature since ancient times, but at the same time, he had to follow certainrules for living in harmony with it and do not affect its renewal cycle. But, beginning with the industrial revolution thatchanged worrying, man has arrogated himself the right to control nature and use its resources for its own interest.From these causes the mankind is in a real ecological crisis. This article aims to analyze this issue from a historicalperspective by arguing that the sustainable development offers true solutions to the problems posed by our commonfuture. Furthermore, sustainable development is the starting point for the development of green energy infrastructureinvestments. The methods used for analysis are the historical study and his configuration on the current events, theanalysis, the forecasts based on the concrete dates, international trends and on phenomena and events.

  14. Oman: current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, Ian

    1995-01-01

    Oman is an attractive and welcoming country, well-ordered and unpretentious. It has benefited from remarkable achievements of economic and social development since 1970. It now has a resource base that should be sufficient to keep it on continuing path of further development. However, the second 20-years of modern Oman will inevitable contain some testing challenges. These are centred in two main areas - the economic, where expenditure has already outstripped revenue and where firm controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance; and the social, where the pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the autocratic traditional system of government. (author)

  15. Foreign direct investment, financial development and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2000-01-01

    FDI may help to raise economic growth in recipient countries. Yet, the contribution FDI can make may strongly depend on the circumstances in the recipient countries. This paper argues that the development of the financial system of the recipient country is an important precondition for FDI to have a

  16. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter

  17. The investment policy and regional development of Serbia in the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aničić Jugoslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our country can compensate the lagging in the economic development in relation to the EU countries as well as to the countries of the region only by increasing the economy's competitiveness, depending to a great extent on the possibilities of the economic entities investment in improving the attributes of the existing and development of new products and services, as well as on introducing modern technology and technological procedures. The transition program conducted by former socialist countries was highly based on foreign direct investments (FDI enabling these countries the successful inclusion into global flows of international production and overall economy. In this paper the possibilities and sources of our economy investing will be analyzed and the influence on enhancement of the overall and regional competitiveness of the companies as a necessary condition for increasing the export and the overall economic development of the country.

  18. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter argument for competitive pressure and the infant industry argument for protection. The key insight is that the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to innovate depend on the firm's eff...

  19. 12 CFR 208.22 - Community development and public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economic development; (D) Investing in, developing, or otherwise assisting job training or placement... entity located in a low- or moderate-income area if the entity creates long-term employment opportunities... company itself in satisfaction of a debt previously contracted. ...

  20. Prioritizing Nutrition in Agriculture and Rural Development : Guiding Principles for Operational Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Herforth, Anna; Jones, Andrew; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural and rural development provides a critically important opportunity for reducing malnutrition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of guiding principles for incorporating nutrition goals into the design and implementation of agricultural and rural development projects, and to provide examples of current best evidence options for operational investments. Several princip...

  1. Investing in Saskatchewan, sustaining energy development: proceedings of the 8. Saskatchewan petroleum conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme of the 8. Saskatchewan Petroleum Conference 'Investing in Saskatchewan - Sustaining Energy Development' was explored in 33 papers presented in sessions on operations and facilities, reservoir engineering, exploration and development, improved oil recovery, fluid properties and phase behavior, well logging and completions and environmental concerns. Papers are indexed separately

  2. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  3. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  4. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from Emerging Economies and National Development Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an integral part of national development strategy throughout the developing world. However, while traditionally strategies have focused on the role of inward flows only, today, outward FDI is used on a larger scale and more deliberately to access markets...

  5. DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND INVESTMENT PROJECTS ASSESSMENT IN THE SECTOR OF SME IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUGOSLAV ANIČIĆ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems of rational investing, in other words efficient planning and realization of investment projects, are among key problems in development of every enterprise. For successful realization of business plans, enterprise should make use of its internal strengths and available resources from surroundings, and turn them into its competitive advantage. Small and medium enterprises in Serbia are facing low liquidity and a lack of their own funds for investing into long-term and development projects. Therefore, investment projects are conducted with a high participation of loaned funds, mainly credits, with high interest rates and short terms for paying back. The sector of small enterprises makes numerous mistakes when creating financial plans. Enterprises don’t understand basic parameters of revenues, especially which leverage points manage revenues, and revenues, themselves, are set on a too optimistic level. The time necessary to create revenues is also underestimated. In projections, many significant cost items are underestimated, and some costs are overlooked, which, inevitably, leads to liquidity problems. Needed cash funds are not acquired quickly, so the consequence is a negative cash flow, with all negative consequences in the later life of an enterprise. Such situation dictates necessity of additional caution when assessing investment projects' profitability because investment failures cause large negative consequences, both for an enterprise and a wider area or branch in which it functions. For the assessment of its investment projects small enterprises must use dynamic methods which take time value of money into consideration and which contribute to a better control of cash flows and liquidity of an enterprise.

  6. Investing in health for economic development: The case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Health is an asset with an intrinsic value as well as an instrumental value. Good health is a source of wellbeing and highly valued throughout the world. Health is not only the absence of illness, but capacity to develop a person’s potential. Health is also an important determinant of economic growth. Given the importance of health, both as a source of human welfare and a determinant of overall economic growth, the Popular Health Insurance (Seguro Popular) was first introduced in Mexico as a ...

  7. Joint development of China's medium/small hydropower projects with international investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaozhang, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A general profile of development of small and medium hydropower in China, is described at first. The socio-economic impacts as well as direct financial benefit will then be analyzed. A prospective view of medium/small hydro development for year 2,000 leads to a description of needs for foreign investment in this field. Following the adoption of open policy, a series of regulations for joint venture with foreign investment have been stipulated by the government, and are briefly illustrated. Future prospect is predicted on the basis of past experiences and planning for the next decade. 3 tabs

  8. Analysis of Scientific and Methodical Approaches to Portfolio Investment as a Tool of Financial Provision of Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Daryna V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses scientific and methodical approaches to portfolio investment. It develops recommendations on specification of the categorical apparatus of portfolio investment in the context of differentiation of strategic (direct and portfolio investments as alternative approaches to the conduct of investment activity. It identifies the composition and functions of objects and subjects of portfolio investment under conditions of globalisation of the world financial markets. It studies main postulates of the portfolio theory and justifies a necessity of identification of the place, role and functions of subjects of portfolio investment in them for ensuring sustainable development of the economy. It offers to specify, as one of the ways of further development of portfolio theories, a separate direction in the financial provision of economy with consideration of ecologic and social components – socio responsible investment.

  9. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  10. Building the foundations for sustainable development: a case for global investment in the capabilities of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Peter; Sweeny, Kim; Rasmussen, Bruce; Wils, Annababette; Friedman, Howard S; Mahon, Jacqueline; Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Howard, Eric; Symons, John; Stenberg, Karin; Chalasani, Satvika; Maharaj, Neelam; Reavley, Nicola; Shi, Hui; Fridman, Masha; Welsh, Alison; Nsofor, Emeka; Laski, Laura

    2017-10-14

    Investment in the capabilities of the world's 1·2 billion adolescents is vital to the UN's Sustainable Development Agenda. We examined investments in countries of low income, lower-middle income, and upper-middle income covering the majority of these adolescents globally to derive estimates of investment returns given existing knowledge. The costs and effects of the interventions were estimated by adapting existing models and by extending methods to create new modelling tools. Benefits were valued in terms of increased gross domestic product and averted social costs. The initial analysis showed high returns for the modelled interventions, with substantial variation between countries and with returns generally higher in low-income countries than in countries of lower-middle and upper-middle income. For interventions targeting physical, mental, and sexual health (including a human papilloma virus programme), an investment of US$4·6 per capita each year from 2015 to 2030 had an unweighted mean benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of more than 10·0, whereas, for interventions targeting road traffic injuries, a BCR of 5·9 (95% CI 5·8-6·0) was achieved on investment of $0·6 per capita each year. Interventions to reduce child marriage ($3·8 per capita each year) had a mean BCR of 5·7 (95% CI 5·3-6·1), with the effect high in low-income countries. Investment to increase the extent and quality of secondary schooling is vital but will be more expensive than other interventions-investment of $22·6 per capita each year from 2015 to 2030 generated a mean BCR of 11·8 (95% CI 11·6-12·0). Investments in health and education will not only transform the lives of adolescents in resource-poor settings, but will also generate high economic and social returns. These returns were robust to substantial variation in assumptions. Although the knowledge base on the impacts of interventions is limited in many areas, and a major research effort is needed to build a more complete

  11. Innovative financing for late-stage global health research and development: the Global Health Investment Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph Robert; Fan Li, Julia; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Innovative financing strategies for global health are urgently needed to reinvigorate investment and new tools for impact. Bottleneck areas along the research and development (R&D) pipeline require particular attention, such as the transitions from preclinical discovery to clinical study, and product development to implementation and delivery. Successful organizations mobilizing and disbursing resources through innovating financing mechanisms include UNITAID, the Global Fund, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Although precise numbers are poorly documented, estimated investment in low-income settings falls seriously short of local need. This commentary discusses the newly established Global Health Investment Fund as a case study to support late-stage global health R&D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-04-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China's stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure and signaling are representative of the recent researches from China at the forefront of the field. These advances are attributable in large part to interdisciplinary studies among scientists from plant science, chemistry, bioinformatics, structural biology, and agronomy. The platforms provided by national facilities facilitate this collaboration. As well, efficient restructuring of the top-down organization of state programs and free exploration of scientists' interests have accelerated achievements by Chinese researchers. Here, we provide a general outline of China's progress in plant R&D to highlight fields in which Chinese research has made significant contributions.

  13. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fertility behavior in developing economies: an investment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D

    1982-01-01

    By studying intergenerational benefits from children, this paper shows that the economic analysis of fertility behavior in developing economics can provide a systematic discussion of this behavior. The major hypotheses set forth are: 1) the effect of income on fertility depends on the source and timing of income; 2) in a lifetime context, parents, or would-be parents, who have higher incomes at young ages compared with the income they anticipate at old age, are expected to have a higher demand for children; and 3) the reverse of the latter is predicted for parents who anticipate relatively higher incomes at old age. These hypotheses follow the idea that, in the absence of other appropriate means for intertemporal transfers of wealth, parents even out the lifetime welfare through fertility behavior. Under these circumstances, fertility rates are expected to increase in communities where children abandon their traditional commitments to their aging parents, as may happen during periods of economic and cultural transition. A decline in mortality rates will induce lower fertility. This model suggests that a tax-financed social security scheme along with family planning will be conducive to a reduction in fertility. A test on data from an Indian village in 1968-69 suggests that in a traditional setting there is a correlation between household welfare, measured by income or assets, and the presence of grown children. Income has a positive effect on fertility when the parents' incomes comes from labor rather than human and nonhuman capital which provides income at later stages of life. Longitudinal data depicting income, savings, and fertility patterns over time should prove more promising in exploring the issues discussed.

  15. The Influence of Foreign Direct Investments on Regional Development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of foreign direct investments (FDI on regional development in Croatia and to contribute to previous studies that deal with regional FDI re-allocations. Our analysis was conducted at the NUTS 3 level (21 Croatian counties and applied panel data analysis to determine the influence of FDI as well as other factors that proved to be significant in regional development in Croatia. The results point out that investment (i.e., both domestic and foreign direct investments, labor productivity, and export have a positive and significant influence on regional development, while absorptive capacity has a negative influence. It is therefore important to strengthen the absorptive capacity of Croatian regions to create a favorable investment environment and to provide good preconditions for the development of other factors of regional development. Findings are relevant for policy-makers who should take more proactive roles in attracting FDI as a way of strengthening regional development in Croatia. This may help policy-makers to act locally to achieve cohesion, but it can also be important for foreign investors that observe regional FDI determinants in the European Union.

  16. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INVESTMENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Honcharenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate the feasibility of expanding the scope of investment insurance in Ukraine, taking into account its advantages over other types of insurance services as well as the possibility of minimizing the possible disadvantages. Methodology. The list of the research methods of the subject under consideration includes the monographic method, analysis, techniques of the abstract-logical method, etc. Results. The urgency of the article is that the disclosure of the internal potential of the insurance market in Ukraine should take place with the introduction or activation of modern insurance products capable of meeting several financial needs at once, not only of their consumers but of the state as a whole. The development of voluntary life insurance plays an important investment role in the country’s economy, therefore, at the moment, the need to develop new financial products aimed at increasing voluntary insurance is urgent. The share of life insurance services in the insurance market of Ukraine in dynamic is analysed. The purpose and positive consequences of expanding the segment of investment insurance are substantiated. Investment insurance as a financial product has both advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include the transparent structure of the insurance product, the choice of investment strategy, the possibility of obtaining increased investment returns while preserving the benefits of the insurance contract, preferential taxation of investment income, the existence of a guaranteed amount of payment in the contract, etc.; to the drawbacks – the lack of the possibility of early termination of the contract with the receipt of all the insurance premiums paid, the absence of a guarantee fund, guaranteed income, long-term contracts, limited range of people who can be insured. To enhance the use of investment insurance in Ukraine and to minimize these shortcomings, the prospects for the development of

  17. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  18. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits.

  19. A multicriteria approach to identify investment opportunities for the exploitation of the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakoulaki, D.; Georgiou, P.; Tourkolias, C.; Georgopoulou, E.; Lalas, D.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the prospects for the exploitation of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Greece. The paper is addressing 3 questions: in which country, what kind of investment, with which economic and environmental return? The proposed approach is based on a multicriteria analysis for identifying priority countries and interesting investment opportunities in each priority country. These opportunities are then evaluated through a conventional financial analysis in order to assess their economic and environmental attractiveness. To this purpose, the IRR of a typical project in each investment category is calculated by taking into account country-specific parameters, such as baseline emission factors, load factors, costs, energy prices etc. The results reveal substantial differences in the economic and environmental return of different types of projects in different host-countries and show that for the full exploitation of the CDM a multifaceted approach to decision-making is necessary

  20. Political dilemmas in peripheral development: investment, regulation, and interventions in metropolitan Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, F.

    2013-01-01

    Today's metropolis is polycentric. Core city borders are undergoing major transformations and the urban periphery is becoming an attractive area for investment as well as an experimental ground for planning innovation. Yet, its development entails deep political tension. This paper starts from the

  1. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants Correction In notice document 2012-4357 appearing on pages 11087-11101 in the issue of Friday, February 24, make the following correction: 1. On page 11097, in the first column, in the first bulleted...

  2. Longitudinal Assessment of International Investment in U.S. University Research & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Gai L.

    2016-01-01

    The global economic crisis exacerbated by U.S. sequestration has resulted in funding for research and development either remaining flat or declining slightly. By comparison, collectively, countries in Europe and Asia have expanded R&D investments. The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of and extent to which…

  3. Institutional System Development for Outward Foreign Direct Investment in China and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This paper examines institutional formation and institutional entrepreneurship relating to outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) in China and Russia since the beginning of their market-oriented economic reforms. It focuses on the stages of OFDI institutional development during these periods...

  4. Mainstreaming Investment Treaty Jurisprudence: The Contribution of Investment Treaty Tribunals to the Consolidation and Development of General International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.B.; Tvede, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of internal and external precedent has been studied in relation to numerous international courts and tribunals. The participation of investment treaty tribunals in judicial dialogues or judicial cross-fertilization, by contrast, has remained underexplored. The present article closes this gap

  5. The scale concept and sustainable development: implications on the energetics and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between both the demographic growth and the water and energetic resources are focused. The planet scale and carrying capacity are discussed starting from the maximum and optimum sustainable concepts, both anthropocentric and biocentric. Two scenarios denominated 'sustainable agriculture' and 'sharing-water' are elaborated with the available resources of water, fertile lands and energy consumption, and with the population trends. (author)

  6. Exploring future hydrogen development and the impact of policy: A novel investment-led approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, T.; Cruden, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the primary tools being utilised today for hydrogen energy forecasting and policy development take a least-cost approach. While useful for comparing the viability of different technologies from a cost perspective, it is argued that these models fail to capture the potential value contribution such technologies could offer companies and, in consequence, the likelihood of their receiving investment. The authors propose a novel model for forecasting the deployment of hydrogen energy systems based on a company value maximisation approach designed to assist governments in the development of appropriate policy instruments. In this paper a theoretical relationship between market sector valuations and investment activity is presented using 3 value metrics, namely net present value (NPV), earnings per share (EPS) and sum of the parts (SOP). It is shown that, as the electricity and transport fuel markets begin to converge, examination of the effects of different policy measures through the value-led model can highlight otherwise hidden counter incentives. The model further recognises that the propensity to invest in hydrogen differs according to the characteristics of the company looking to make the investment and the implications for policy-makers regarding levels of support are also discussed in the paper. - Research highlights: → A novel approach to forecasting energy market development is proposed. → Approach based on analysis of value contribution of investment opportunities. → Model applied to the potential hydrogen energy market in Scotland. → Reveals potential inadequacy of assessing market development based on levelised cost alone. → Highlights relevance of investor company performance in assessing market development.

  7. Assessing the impact of road transport infrastructure investment on economic development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anathi Hlotywa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been considerable decline in the investment on road transport infrastructure in recent times, as a result of the dwindling economic investment owing to lowering gross domestic product (GDP since 2009. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between road transport investment (ROTI and economic development (ED in South Africa. This article adopts the Harrod–Domar (HD model of economic growth and development theory, endogenous growth theory and Solow–Swan neoclassical growth model. Method: Data were derived from the South African Reserve Bank, Quantec database and Statistics South Africa (StatsSA between 1990 and 2014. It used time series, econometric models cointegration and vector error correction model (VECM to analyse. Result: The results of the estimation demonstrate that the explanatory variables account for approximately 86.7% variation in ED in South Africa. Therefore, there exists a positive relationship between ROTI and ED. Conclusion: This study established a long-run relationship between phenomena and demonstrates the role of road transport investment on economic development in South Africa.

  8. Interaction of energetic particles with polymer surfaces: surface morphology development and sputtered polymer-fragment ion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The core of this thesis is based on a series of papers that have been published or will soon be published in which the various processes taking place in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction scene is investigated. Results presented show different developments on polymer surfaces when compared to the vast experimental data on energetic particle-metal surface interactions. The surface morphology development depends on the physical characteristics of the polymer. Sputtering yields of fluoropolymers were several orders higher than the sputtering yields of aliphatic and aromatic polymers. Depending on the chemical nature of the polymer, the surface morphology development was dependent upon the extent of radiation-damage accumulation. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry at low and high resolution was applied to the characterization of sputtered polymer fragment ions. Fragment ions and their intensities were used to identify polymer samples, observe radiation damage accumulation and probe polymer-polymer interface of a polymer-polymer sandwich structure. A model was proposed which attempts to explain the nature of processes involved in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction region

  9. Development of polymer nano composite patterns using fused deposition modeling for rapid investment casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Tiwary; Arunkumar, P.; Deshpande, A. S.; Vinayak, Malik; Kulkarni, R. M.; Asif, Angadi

    2018-04-01

    Conventional investment casting is one of the oldest and most economical manufacturing techniques to produce intricate and complex part geometries. However, investment casting is considered economical only if the volume of production is large. Design iterations and design optimisations in this technique proves to be very costly due to time and tooling cost for making dies for producing wax patterns. However, with the advent of Additive manufacturing technology, plastic patterns promise a very good potential to replace the wax patterns. This approach can be very useful for low volume production & lab requirements, since the cost and time required to incorporate the changes in the design is very low. This research paper discusses the steps involved for developing polymer nanocomposite filaments and checking its suitability for investment castings. The process parameters of the 3D printer machine are also optimized using the DOE technique to obtain mechanically stronger plastic patterns. The study is done to develop a framework for rapid investment casting for lab as well as industrial requirements.

  10. Investment in Research and Development - A Factor of Adjustment of Montenegro to the EU Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomljanović Marko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Montenegro and other Western Balkan countries are characterized by historical mortgages, political instability, commenced but uncompleted structural reforms and unfavourable economic situation, which all contributed to their lagging behind other EU member states. In addition to this, these countries have been faced with a low level of investment in research and development, unfavourable educational structure, low level of innovation and a lack of awareness about the importance of research and development in modern economies.

  11. African Farmer-led Irrigation Development: re-framing agricultural policy and investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Venot , Jean-Philippe; Brockington, Daniel; Komakech, Hans; Manjichi , Ângela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food supplies to increasing instability in international commodity markets are driving pan-African agricultural investment initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program...

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and development investments in reducing deforestation and fires in Ankeniheny-Zahemena Corridor, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Karyn; Jones, Kelly W; Hewson, Jennifer; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Rambeloson, Andoniaina; Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa; Harvey, Celia A

    2017-01-01

    Forest conservation and REDD+ projects invest millions of dollars each year to reduce local communities' dependence on forests and prevent forest loss and degradation. However, to date, there is limited evidence on whether these investments are effective at delivering conservation outcomes. We explored the relationships between 600+ small-scale conservation and development investments that occurred from 2007 to 2014 and conservation outcomes (deforestation rates and fire detections) within Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor in Madagascar using linear fixed effects panel regressions. We derived annual changes in forest cover and fires from satellite remote sensing. We found a statistically significant correlation between presence of any investment and reduced deforestation rates in 2010 and 2011 -years with accelerated deforestation elsewhere in the study area. This result indicated investments abated deforestation rates during times of political instability and lack of governance following a 2009 coup in Madagascar. We also found a statistically significant relationship between presence of any investment and reduced fire detections in the study area, suggesting investments had an impact on reducing burning of forest for agriculture. For both outcomes (i.e., deforestation rates and fire detections), we found that more dollars invested led to greater conservation outcomes (i.e. fewer fires or less deforestation), particularly when funding was sustained for one to two years. Our findings suggest that conservation and development investments can reduce deforestation and fire incidence, but also highlight the many challenges and complexities in assessing relationships between investments and conservation outcomes in a dynamic landscape and a volatile political context.

  13. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C. [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Conway, Steve [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Dekate, Chirag [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size. A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  14. Emerging countries’ multinational companies investing in developed countries: at odds with the HOS paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the new trend of outward foreign direct investment (FDI by multinational companies from emerging countries, in particular the BRICs, in developed countries to question the applicability of the traditional HOS theoretical framework to this trend. A literature review shows that labour costs do not play any significant role in the first attempts to provide an analytical explanation of this new trend. A HOS equation, amended in order to encompass FDI, is elaborated in order to explain outward FDI from developed to developing and emerging countries based on differences in labour endowment and therefore in wage rates. Step by step, the equation introduces the technological gap, institutions and government policies. Then it is shown that such equation when reversed to explain outward FDI from emerging to developed countries is at odds with the traditional HOS framework. Turning the HOS theory upside down does not help to explain reverse FDI outflows from emerging to developed countries. An alternative approach is called for, in which a labour cost advantage (a lower wage rate than abroad is a home market advantage for emerging countries to invest abroad. A final section provides some empirical examples that labour matters and a lower home wage rate is a decisive comparative advantage for Indian and Chinese multinationals investing in developed countries. Additional evidence shows that the technological gap and the home country’s institutions and government policy matter as well

  15. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  16. Investment on research and development. The cases of Republic of Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Licona Michel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strengthen the capacity of production of goods and services, is strategic, as it allows the company and its businesses to compete in global markets.Getting to be in the forefront of the processes requires investment in research and development this institutions for human resource training and development of science and technology play an important role for its professional staff and society in general, have higher skills that are reflected in the development of technology skills that push the growth and modernization of their companies. This paper analyzes the investment in research and the training of professionals, and their importance in the transformation of the production structure in the Republic of Korea and Mexico.

  17. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  18. EXTENSIVE ROLE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Saini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the extensive growth in domestic economy were potentially associated with the scale of foreign direct inflows that were largely interconnected with industrial growth, re-shuffling investment policies, and availability of large market size in India. However, the government remained much restrictive earlier in these issues to protect the domestic entrepreneurs along with to promote the self-efficacy among individuals. Within this framework, this paper is being prepared to observe the degree of effect of foreign direct investment inflow over successive economic parameters such as gross domestic product and Export. Moreover, to define such interconnection, the generalized linear model econometric model has been developed to analyze the overall effect and uni-variate effect over three categorical factors i.e. country, year and foreign direct investment itself. Finally, the results shown, the consistent foreign direct investment inflows is the result of successive years that led to increase the prestige of gross domestic products and Export in many folds during a period from 2000 to 2012.

  19. Factors Attributing to Outwards Direct Investments from Developing Countries to Developed Countries: Evidence from China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the growing trend of outward foreign direct investments (OFDIs from developing countries to developed countries. Market-seeking and strategic asset explorations are the main motivations for conducting OFDIs in developed countries. Meanwhile, cross-border greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions are the main entry strategies used by developing countries when penetrating the developed markets. Finally, this paper reveals mixed results about the explaining ability of John Dunning’s International Development Path (IDP theory on the patterns of selected developing markets' OFDIs to developed countries. On the one hand, China’s OFDIs follow the paths in the IDP theory. On the other hand, those of India do not confirm so.

  20. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RUS's approval, the portion of any investment of funds or commitment to invest funds for any rural... loan, guarantee, stock purchase or equity investment; (2) A reasonable estimate of the amount the...

  1. Developing a model to estimate the potential impact of municipal investment on city health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Malcolm; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes a process which exemplifies the potential impact of municipal investment on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in city populations. We report on Developing an evidence-based approach to city public health planning and investment in Europe (DECiPHEr), a project part funded by the European Union. It had twin objectives: first, to develop and validate a vocational educational training package for policy makers and political decision takers; second, to use this opportunity to iterate a robust and user-friendly investment tool for maximizing the public health impact of 'mainstream' municipal policies, programs and investments. There were seven stages in the development process shared by an academic team from Sheffield Hallam University and partners from four cities drawn from the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. There were five iterations of the model resulting from this process. The initial focus was CVD as the biggest cause of death and disability in Europe. Our original prototype 'cost offset' model was confined to proximal determinants of CVD, utilizing modified 'Framingham' equations to estimate the impact of population level cardiovascular risk factor reduction on future demand for acute hospital admissions. The DECiPHEr iterations first extended the scope of the model to distal determinants and then focused progressively on practical interventions. Six key domains of local influence on population health were introduced into the model by the development process: education, housing, environment, public health, economy and security. Deploying a realist synthesis methodology, the model then connected distal with proximal determinants of CVD. Existing scientific evidence and cities' experiential knowledge were 'plugged-in' or 'triangulated' to elaborate the causal pathways from domain interventions to public health impacts. A key product is an enhanced version of the cost offset model, named Sheffield Health Effectiveness Framework

  2. A new methodology for minimizing investment in the development of offshore fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Diaz, J.C.; Startzman, R.; Hogg, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of an offshore field is often a long, complex, and extremely expensive undertaking. The enormous amount of capital required for making investments of this type motivates one to try to optimize the development of a field. This paper provides an efficient computational method to minimize the initial investment in the development of a field. The problem of minimizing the investment in an offshore field is defined here as the problem of locating a number of offshore facilities and wells and allocating these wells to the facilities at minimum cost. Side constraints include restrictions on the total number of facilities of every type and design and various technology constraints. This problem is modeled as a 0/1 integer program. The solution method is based on an implicit enumeration scheme using efficient mathematical tools, such as Lagrangian relaxation and heuristics, to calculate good bounds and, consequently, to reduce the computation time. The solution method was implemented and tested on some typical field-development cases. Execution times were remarkably small for the size and complexity of the examples. Computational results indicate that the new methodology outperforms existing methods both in execution time and in memory required

  3. Trends of development of social responsible investment in Ukraine: accounting principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudeychuk S.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the study of the features and trends of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The main objective of the study of social responsibility issues is to systematize and study the prospects for the development and evaluation of corporate social responsibility in Ukraine, as well as to study the peculiarities of its accounting reflection in the accounting system. In the course of the study, the current state of social projects in Ukraine was studied, as well as the main obstacles and perspectives of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The research defines the features of socially responsible investment in order to identify the main areas of improvement of the information provision of formation of social reporting indicators. The article proposes the bookkeeping for directions of enterprise’s social activity in clearly defined accounts of accounting, regardless of the level of its regulation, followed by the development of analytical sections of accounting in the relevant areas of social policy.

  4. Foreign direct investment, institutional development, and environmental externalities: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danny T; Chen, Wendy Y

    2014-03-15

    The question of how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects a host country's natural environment has generated much debate but little consensus. Building on an institution-based theory, this article examines how the institutional development of a host setting affects the degree of FDI-related environmental externalities in China (specifically, industrial sulfur dioxide emissions). With a panel data set of 287 Chinese cities, over the period 2002-2009, this study reveals that FDI in general induces negative environmental externalities. Investments from OECD countries increase sulfur dioxide emissions, whereas FDI from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan shows no significant effect. Institutional development reduces the impacts of FDI across the board. By focusing on the moderating role of institutions, this study sheds new light on the long-debated relationships among FDI, institutions, and the environments of the host countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Return on Investment for Professional Development Activities: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Cathleen; Liebig, Debra; Bowling, Judith; Johnson, Carol Susan; Harper, Mary

    2016-01-01

    What is the return on investment (ROI) for the time and resources spent for professional development activities? This is Part 2 of a two-part series to report findings and demonstrate how financial analysis of educational activities can drive decision-making. The resources consumed for professional development activities need to be identified and quantified to be able to determine the worth of such activities. This article defines terms and formulas for financial analysis for nursing professional development practitioners to use in analysis of their own programs. Three fictitious examples of common nursing professional development learning activities are provided with financial analysis. This article presents the "how to" for the busy practitioner.

  6. Comparing investment projects of innovative developing strategies of municipalities, based on a set of indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurenko Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of comparison by a set of indicators which show the quality of investment projects and embody innovative policy of developing municipal entities is proposed. The method is based on establishing preferences for individual quality indicators of projects in accordance with the principle of maximum uncertainty (entropy and representing their aggregate in the form of a scalar function as an argument of the vector.

  7. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from ...

  8. Promoting Export–Oriented Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: Tax and Customs Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2000-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis in many developing countries to adopt an exported growth policy that attempts to attract both domestic and foreign investment into activities that will increase exports. Many countries, however, have not achieved the desired response. Among other problems, investors often face foreign exchange controls tariffs on imported inputs, and a costly system for the exemption or refund of sales taxes on inputs used to produce exports. These factors have frequently imp...

  9. Development of the System of Investment Support of Projects in the Industrial-Innovative Development of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskaliyeva, Bayan B.; Orynbassarova, Yerkenazym D.; Omarkhanov?, Zhibek M.; Karibaev, Yerkebulan S.; Baimukhametova, Ayagul S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine specific features of investment regulation mechanism aimed at providing effective implementation of projects in the context of industrial-innovative development of Kazakhstan. There the used the system of general scientific and special research methods providing the possibility to disclose processes and…

  10. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have positive influences on electric grid investment demand, but the impact of population scale, social electricity consumption, and installed electrical capacity on electric grid investment is not remarkable. We divide different regions in China into the eastern region, central region, and western region to analyze influence factors of electric grid investment, finally obtaining key factors in the eastern, central, and western regions. In the end, according to the analysis of key factors, we make a prediction about China’s electric grid investment for 2020 in different scenarios. The results offer a certain understanding for the development trend of China’s electric grid investment and contribute to the future development of electric grid investment.

  11. Scientific and technical conference. Problems and horizons of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics. Collection of summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    During scientific and technical conference on problems of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics following themes were considered: the problems of methodological and instrumental assurance of chemical and radiochemical control at working nuclear power plants and nuclear energetic units; modern conceptions of automation systems construction of chemical and radiochemical control on the basis of intellectual measuring channels; the ways of decision of generally system problems of organization and management of chemical and radiochemical control using computed technologies; the problems of certification of chemical and radiochemical methods of measuring in nuclear energetics [ru

  12. Energetic development program in States and municipality-PRODEEM:Energy of locality in development with microsystems for production and energetic local use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro Filho, I.

    1994-01-01

    This Initiative has as purpose to get the attention and to propose a form of work practices so that the area energy became to contribute indeed for the reduction of global underdevelopment, pursuing the reduction of the energy developing in particular. Such a work is denominated Program of energy development of the states and municipalities PRODEEM intends that the energy of local use are taken advantage of through micro systems, to satisfy the basic necessities of developing towns of the country

  13. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  14. Financial analysis of foreign direct investment on economic growth of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research paper is to perform an empirical analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI influence on economic growth with the aim of establishing factors that will contribute to overcoming the problem. The research results imply that realistic exchange rate, export and import as well as state expenditures are statistically significant for predicting economic growth movement and they have a positive influence on FDI movement. Empirical analysis, contrary to expectations, has shown that FDI, public debt and openness have a negative impact on economic growth in the case of Republic of Serbia. In the following period Serbia has to decrease the share of budget deficit in GDP and control public debt. Serbia has to pay special attention to improving investment environment and encourage export oriented production, whereas finance management and continuation of reform processes are the basis for establishing sustainable development of country, with sustainable use of available resources.

  15. Examining the Regional Aspect of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper applies a general-to-specific analysis to detect regularities in the driving forces of foreign direct investment (FDI) that can explain why some regions are more attractive to foreign investors than others. The results suggest that regional differences in FDI inflows to African, Asian...... at improving the investment climate for foreign investors. This also means that there is no African bias. Among a large number of return and risk variables applied in the empirical literature, growth and inflation turn out to be the only robust and significant FDI determinants across regions although the size...... and Latin American countries can be fully explained by structural characteristics rather than fixed regional effects. The implication of this finding is that countries that are lagging behind other developing countries in attracting foreign capital have the opportunity to implement policies aimed...

  16. The sustainable development effects of investment by emerging-market multinationals: Shaping beneficial outcomes for home and host country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G. (Guus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEmerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) play an increasingly important role as investors in developing economies. When certain conditions are met, their foreign investment can contribute to host-country progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover,

  17. Impact of the Clean Development Mechanism on wind energy investments in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunc, Murat; Pak, Ruhan [Yeditepe Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Systems Engineering Dept.

    2012-12-01

    As carbon trading continues to be implemented on both a national and an international scale, it is becoming an important factor in renewable energy investment decisions. Turkey, with continuous growth of carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption since 2001, ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2009 and began registration of projects with greenhouse gas reductions in 2010. In light of these developments, wind energy resources with a potential of 48,000 MW are among the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy in Turkey. The aim of our study is to reveal the importance of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol on wind energy investment decisions. A broad review of wind energy in Turkey is given, and then, a comprehensive feasibility study of a wind energy firm with a valuation model including Certified Emission Reduction (CER) prices is applied to a case study, the Mega Metallurgy Power. With a holistic and interdisciplinary system engineering approach, results are obtained using comprehensive analysis of technology, emission, and power generation of a wind energy firm linked to a valuation model. This comprehensive model sets the investment decision-making criteria, the enterprise value comparison with total financing. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is run to show that the enterprise value is positively correlated with CER prices. Based on these results, it is concluded that if the world's largest carbon offsetting program, the CDM, prevails after 2012, CER prices will have a positive impact on wind energy firm valuations and related investment decisions. (orig.)

  18. An investment in children's health, nutrition and education is the foundation stone for all national development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, S

    1991-01-01

    A medical student at the Christian Medical College in Ludhiana, India, won first place in the First Annual Dr. S.M. Gupta Memorial Essay Contest with this essay on investing in the health, nutrition, and education of India's children. The health, nutrition, and education condition of India's children is substandard. 10% of infants die before their first birthday. 15% of children die before age 5. Many Indian children suffer from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Investment in immunization, oral rehydration therapy, hygiene, and health education would prevent many of these deaths and illnesses. Illness and death cost parents time, energy, and money. Children suffering from malnutrition and sickness cannot concentrate on learning. The state of today's children foretells the state of tomorrow's adults, work force, and leaders. Poor nutrition and health contribute to India's substandard economic productivity. India has 14% of the world's population, but produces only 1.2% of its gross national product. Even though India was the first country to have a national family planning program, its fertility and population growth rates are high. Investment in children's health would show parents the benefits of planning their families. It would also improve India's poor performance in sports and war as well as national prestige and socioeconomic development. The considerable number of illiterates reflect India's failure to invest in education. Females have a lower literacy rate than males. Girls in India suffer much discrimination. They receive less food, less medical care, less opportunities for education, and less recreation. National development depends on the active participation of girls. Prevention is the key: nourish the children, educate them, and keep them healthy.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL INVESTMENTS TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Every year more attention is paid for the theoretical and practical issue of sustainable development of railway transport. But today the mechanisms of financial support of this development are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine the optimal investment allocation to ensure sustainable development of the railway transport on the example of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» and the creation of preconditions for the mathematical model development. Methodology. The ensuring task for sustainable development of railway transport is solved on the basis of the integral indicator of sustainable development effectiveness and defined as the maximization of this criterion. The optimization of measures technological and technical characters are proposed to carry out for increasing values of the integral performance measure components. To the optimization activities of technological nature that enhance the performance criteria belongs: optimization of the number of train and shunting locomotives, optimization of power handling mechanisms at the stations, optimization of routes of train flows. The activities related to the technical nature include: modernization of railways in the direction of their electrification and modernization of the running gear and coupler drawbars of rolling stock, as well as means of separators mechanization at stations to reduce noise impacts on the environment. Findings. The work resulted in the optimal allocation of investments to ensure the sustainable development of railway transportation of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway». This allows providing such kind of railway development when functioning of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» is characterized by a maximum value of the integral indicator of efficiency. Originality. The work was reviewed and the new approach was proposed to determine the optimal allocation of capital investments to ensure sustainable

  20. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  1. Managing the Process of Development of the Region’s Infrastructure through the Attraction of Investment in Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabarna Eleonora M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and tasks of the study are determining the main directions for activating the investment process of innovation orientation in the system of infrastructure development of the regions of Ukraine. The article carries out an analysis and identifies negative trends in the regional investment sphere. It has been displayed that structural changes in order to achieve a stable rate of economic growth requires the search for effective instruments to mobilize investment resources for innovative production. The need for allocation of the innovation vector as a priority to attract investment to regions has been proven. To this end, conceptual approaches to improving the infrastructure of region have been proposed: establishment of regional innovation centers for new technologies, which will, among other things, facilitate development of the regional market for securities and special insurance funds. In this regard, the main directions of the regional innovation-investment policy have been outlined.

  2. The State Investment and Innovation Policy for Development of Forest Sector: the Ecological-Economic Aspects and Mechanisms for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available he need for formation of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector has been substantiated as an important prerequisite for overcoming investment deficits in both the public and the corporate sectors of forest and wood processing production. The main tendencies in the implementation of capital investments by the entities of forestry entrepreneurship, dynamics of involvement of credit resources by forestry enterprises, and shifts in the structure of capital investments in 2016 were analyzed as compared to 2013. It has been found that an important part of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector should be incentives to accelerate the modernization and upgrading of the material-technical base of lumbering and wood processing. The need to form an institutional framework for partnership between the State and business entities in the part of financing the projects of modernization of lumbering and wood processing equipment has been substantiated.

  3. LEGAL ASPECTS OF A MANAGEMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC INVESTMENTS IN REGIONS. DILEMMAS OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryk Kosiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides for an analysis of legal aspects of certain particular investment processes within technical infrastructure in the Polish regions (voivodeships, but in the counties and communes as well. Those mentioned investments are undertaken in the areas of roads, railroads, airports and telecommunication. The impact of the investments is crucial in terms of the socio-economic development of the modern state and society. All dilemmas in terms of the mentioned investments’ management are related to legal regulations imposed by the state. It is noteworthy that those special regulations are aimed at organising the investment process in an efficient and adequately speedy way. Those regulations provide for a broad legal environment of business within the infrastructure investments. All of those regulations are necessary in order to push the continuous progress of the Polish regions targeting at reacting the level of socio-economic development of the so-called western countries (old, early members of the EU.

  4. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  5. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration is still infancy in Malaysia as compared to other countries such as Australia, UK, Hong Kong, and etc. This is due to the perception of investors towards the profit generation and the risk involve. The objective of this paper is to determine the constraints involved in urban regeneration investment from the perspectives of the property developer companies and the local authorities. The method used is an exploratory with primary data collection through a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed that the main constraints is in regards of the land issues as well as high cost of investment, however, the benefits gain should also be considered as this create a livable urban living.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey: Energetic and nutritional potential for the dairy sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, H; Castro, L; Amaya, M P; Jaimes, L; Jaimes-Estévez, J

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated. Second, biomethane and struvite potentials were assessed using cattle slurry as inoculum. The organic matter in CW varied from 40 to 65gVS/kg, 65 to 140g COD/L, and 2 to 10g/L for VFAs depending on the sampling time and type of sample. The pH of the CW samples ranged from 3 to 6.5. In the anaerobic biodegradability analysis, methane yields reached 0.51 to 0.60L CH 4 /g VS added , which represented electrical and caloric potentials of 54 and 108kWh/m 3 for CW, respectively. Organic matter removal in all experiments was above 83%. Moreover, anaerobic digestates presented NH 4 + /PO 4 3- molar ratios between 2.6 and 4.0, which are adequate for struvite precipitation with potential production of 8.5-10.4g struvite/L CW. Finally, the use of biogas as energetic supplement and struvite as soil fertilizer, represents economics saves of US$ 6.91/m 3 CW and US$ 5.75/m 3 CW in therms of electricity and fertilizer use, respectively. The energetic, agricultural and economic potentials, evidence that AD process is a feasible alternative for cheese whey treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Electricity investments and development of power generation capacities: an approach of the drivers for investment choices in Europe regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai-Tehrani, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    In a context of growing energy prices and climate change mitigation, the thesis addresses the issues of investments in power generation capacities and in particular nuclear capacities. Given that the Generation IV of nuclear reactors is supposed to be ready in 2040 for industrial deployment, the purpose of the thesis is to study the conditions for electricity investments in France and Europe within this horizon, in order to assess development perspectives for nuclear energy and for potential emergence of Generation IV on the European market. To do so, it is necessary to study the mechanisms at stake in investment choices taking into account all power generating technologies. Economic theory usually bases the choice on long-term economic rationality, which does not allow explain the actual choices observed in European electricity mix. The objective of the research work is thus to identify investment choice drivers and to propose an approach describing the behavior of investors in a more realistic way. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted to explore the question. It combines a historical analysis of drivers evolution according to historical context, a structural analysis of these drivers to identify favorable scenarios for future nuclear reactors, a value creation approach to replicate investors' preferences in those scenarios, and last, a value option approach focusing on nuclear technologies and comparing competitiveness of Generation IV reactors with current reactors. As a result, only strong climate policy combined to government support to nuclear energy could allow industrial development of Generation IV, while high progress of renewables does not lessen the attractiveness of nuclear energy.On a international level, such analysis could be broaden by taking into account the drivers specific to each area of the world, such as highly growing demand in developing countries. (author)

  8. Electricity investments and development of power generation capacities: An approach of the drivers for investment choices in Europe regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai-Tehrani, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    In a context of growing energy prices and climate change mitigation, the thesis addresses the issues of investments in power generation capacities and in particular nuclear capacities. Given that the Generation IV of nuclear reactors is supposed to be ready in 2040 for industrial deployment, the purpose of the thesis is to study the conditions for electricity investments in France and Europe within this horizon, in order to assess development perspectives for nuclear energy and for potential emergence of Generation IV on the European market. To do so, it is necessary to study the mechanisms at stake in investment choices taking into account all power generating technologies. Economic theory usually bases the choice on long-term economic rationality, which does not allow explain the actual choices observed in European electricity mix. The objective of the research work is thus to identify investment choice drivers and to propose an approach describing the behavior of investors in a more realistic way. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted to explore the question. It combines a historical analysis of drivers evolution according to historical context, a structural analysis of these drivers to identify favorable scenarios for future nuclear reactors, a value creation approach to replicate investors' preferences in those scenarios, and last, a value option approach focusing on nuclear technologies and comparing competitiveness of Generation IV reactors with current reactors. As a result, only strong climate policy combined to government support to nuclear energy could allow industrial development of Generation IV, while high progress of renewables does not lessen the attractiveness of nuclear energy. On a international level, such analysis could be broaden by taking into account the drivers specific to each area of the world, such as highly growing demand in developing countries. (author)

  9. The Investment Model for the Intensive Development of Ukrainian Enterprises in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yurii M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an investment model for the development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sector, which is one of the «locomotives» of the domestic economy. However, only by creating high value-added can be expected sustainable economic development both as an economic entity and as a whole economy of country. A long-term partnership with the advanced economies of the world is another key prerequisite for sustainable economic development. The article explores a potential Norwegian market in the context of the consumption of agriproducts as fodder for aquaculture, as well as Ukrainian agrarian market. Ukraine’s competitive advantages in the market for food ingredients for fish in Northern Europe have been formulated. The results of the study point to the high potential of soybean protein concentrate (SPC for the Norwegian market and, in turn, the great prospects for Ukraine in this market as a leader in the European soya growing. Measures that will facilitate the establishment of strong economic ties between Ukrainian agrarian enterprises and the markets of the developed countries have been determined. An investment model for the intensive development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sphere has been formed.

  10. Development of assessment model for demand-side management investment programs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Ki; Park, Sang Yong; Park, Soo Uk

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is the development of the assessment model for demand-side management investment programs (DSMIPs) in the areas of natural gas and district heating. Demand-side management (DSM) is the process of managing the consumption of energy to optimize available and planned generation resources and DSMIPs are the actions conducted by energy suppliers to promote investment in the DSM. In this research, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a scientific and rational assessment model for DSMIPs. To apply the AHP method, assessment indicators for the assessment have been identified by using the concept of 'plan, do, see' and the decision-making hierarchy was established. Then AHP model was developed to set up the priorities of assessment indicators and a survey of experts from government and energy suppliers was carried out. Finally, the priorities of assessment indicators were calculated based on the result of survey using the AHP method. The assessment model developed from this research will actually be used to assess the results of DSMIPs, which is being carried out by Korea gas corporation (KOGAS) and Korea district heating corporation (KDHC). The use of the assessment model developed by this research is expected to contribute to enhance efficiency in planning, execution, and assessment of DSMIPs

  11. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Zwerg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of  liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.Este artículo trata sobre el impacto de inversión extranjera directa en economíasen vías de desarrollo y el medio ambiente. Todos los que nos preocupamos por elmedio ambiente debemos preguntarnos, si el aumento en la movilidad de capitales asociada con el proceso mundial de liberalización, desregulación y privatización,conocido como “neoliberalismo”, ha contribuido a problemas de emisiones másaltas, destrucción de la capa de ozono, y polución de fuentes de agua, así como a lacreación de falsas burbujas económicas que llevan a aumentar el consumo en estasregiones, obligando a los más pobres a destruir el medio ambiente para sobrevivir ypoder cumplir con los roles impuestos por la sociedad. Prácticas neoliberales talescomo las implantadas en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, en busquedade alcanzar mayor inversión extranjera para

  12. Property taxes and economic development. An approach to the relationship between property taxes and the investment of Antioquia's municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tobón Zapata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the levels of investment in health and education made by the municipalities and the collection of property taxes. A data panel methodology was used with a sample of 97 municipalities in the department of Antioquia (Colombia for the period 2000 - 2008. According to the results, it is possible to conclude that there is no relationship between the levels of autonomous investment in education and the collection of property taxes. On the other hand, in relation to health investments, a negative relationship was found between property tax collection and autonomous investment in health. Finally, in addition to the initial scope proposed, a positive relationship was shown between the collection of property taxes and investments in the development of roads and infrastructure.

  13. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and development investments in reducing deforestation and fires in Ankeniheny-Zahemena Corridor, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W.; Hewson, Jennifer; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Rambeloson, Andoniaina; Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa; Harvey, Celia A.

    2017-01-01

    Forest conservation and REDD+ projects invest millions of dollars each year to reduce local communities’ dependence on forests and prevent forest loss and degradation. However, to date, there is limited evidence on whether these investments are effective at delivering conservation outcomes. We explored the relationships between 600+ small-scale conservation and development investments that occurred from 2007 to 2014 and conservation outcomes (deforestation rates and fire detections) within Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor in Madagascar using linear fixed effects panel regressions. We derived annual changes in forest cover and fires from satellite remote sensing. We found a statistically significant correlation between presence of any investment and reduced deforestation rates in 2010 and 2011 –years with accelerated deforestation elsewhere in the study area. This result indicated investments abated deforestation rates during times of political instability and lack of governance following a 2009 coup in Madagascar. We also found a statistically significant relationship between presence of any investment and reduced fire detections in the study area, suggesting investments had an impact on reducing burning of forest for agriculture. For both outcomes (i.e., deforestation rates and fire detections), we found that more dollars invested led to greater conservation outcomes (i.e. fewer fires or less deforestation), particularly when funding was sustained for one to two years. Our findings suggest that conservation and development investments can reduce deforestation and fire incidence, but also highlight the many challenges and complexities in assessing relationships between investments and conservation outcomes in a dynamic landscape and a volatile political context. PMID:29267356

  15. Historical return on investment and improved quality resulting from development and mining of a hospital laboratory relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Bradley B; Hall, Timothy E; Walczak, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A hospital laboratory relational database, developed over eight years, has demonstrated significant cost savings and a substantial financial return on investment (ROI). In addition, the database has been used to measurably improve laboratory operations and the quality of patient care.

  16. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova, K. Z.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-63 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * corporate ownership * economic development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/21610

  17. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 72 (2005), s. 1-62 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * economic development * productivity * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/61179

  18. Flare energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.

  19. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  20. Foreign direct investment in the health care sector and most-favoured locations in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outreville, J François

    2007-12-01

    Given the growing importance of the health care sector and the significant development of trade in health services, foreign direct investment (FDI) in this sector has gathered momentum with the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Despite extensive case based research and publications in recent years on health care markets and the rise of private sectors, it is surprisingly difficult to find evidence on the relative importance of the largest multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the health care sector. The objective of the paper is to identify some of the determinants of foreign investment of the largest MNCs operating in this industry. The list of the largest MNCs has been compiled using company websites and data is available for 41 developing economies for which at least two MNCs have an office (branch and/or affiliate). The results of this study have some important implications. They indicate that location-specific advantages of host countries, including good governance, do provide an explication of the internationalization of firms in some developing countries rather than others.

  1. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W; Schmitz-Borchert, H P [eds.

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  2. Selection of priority investment projects for the development of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, A.; Potravny, I.; Novoselova, I.; Gassiy, V.

    2017-12-01

    In the Russian Arctic, there is currently an active process of preparation and implementation of investment projects aiming to extract natural resources, with the aim of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region. These projects are associated with the development of key zones in the Arctic and involve the exploration for and production of minerals (diamonds, gold, rare-earth metals, oil, and gas) and the development of energy and infrastructure (e.g., the Northern Sea Route). Such projects, which are often carried out in territories of traditional nature management belonging to the indigenous peoples of the North, must consider their environmental and social responsibility and the preservation of the ethnic identity and culture of indigenous peoples. The extraction of mineral deposits in the Arctic and the Far North places new demands on subsoil users, related to the preservation and development of the socio-cultural environment of the indigenous peoples of the North and to the ecological rehabilitation of the area. This article presents economic and mathematical models for selecting the optimal development project options based on the pairwise comparison of investment projects and the evaluation of indigenous peoples' preferences. We investigated the investment projects' impact on traditional territories in the Arctic, including the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), in terms of socioeconomic and ethnological development, and environmental change. The suggested system of models can be used to assess the priority of projects supporting and developing the region in the mining corporation's area of responsibility. The proposed models are based on fuzzy set theory, which provides an effective assessment of the population's preferences for projects. Data are processed using the hierarchy analysis method and multivariate optimization calculations to determine the project sets at different funding levels. The creation of information-linked processing models is

  3. Developing Equity Culture and Partnerships in the Investment Market: a Study on Iran’s over the Counter Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi SALEHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The equity culture has an effective role in developing investment market and represents economic development. In the current study, polling and questionnaire method was used to determine the approach of organizational stockholders and exchange stockbrokers to over the counter market (OTC role in developing partnerships and equity culture in the investment market of Iran. The results demonstrate that the statistical population deems the transparency of Iran’s OTC market favorable and that the OTC market has acceptable trading expenses for investors and company’s involvement. Also, in addition to adequate supporting and educational facilities in Iran’s OTC market, there is the potential for innovation and diversity in trading opportunities for investors and individuals and reduces investor’s risks for investment and involvement in the investment market. Also there is no significant dereference between the approaches of organizational shareholders and exchange stockbrokers with regards to the discussed variables.

  4. The trajectories of EAEC countries development: Numerical analysis of competitive strategies in investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Isaichik, K. F.; Dyomina, M. I.; Berg, I. A.; Kit, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses comparative analysis of trajectories in the development of participating countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) in a two-dimensional phase space. The coordinates in the space is represented by the value of a dynamic variable that is a key indicator of the country's development, and the rate of its relative growth. This allows for construction of a ternary classification diagram describing competitive behavior strategies of countries in question. The comparative analysis was run for two primary factors: the size of investment in the main capital and R&D spendings. The authors carried out analysis and identification of competitive strategies for the behavior of the EAEC countries, as well as he proposed conclusions and recommendations on improving the policy of economic development.

  5. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  6. Does Foreign Direct Investment Provide Desirable Development Finance? The Case of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liang

    2007-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is often considered as a cost-effective and risk-reducing source for development finance. This paper, however, shows that FDI finance often entails underestimated risks and costs. FDI might react sensitively to business cycles and might not be as "permanent" as conventionally believed. FDI might also accelerate other forms of capital flow in times of financial difficulties and, hence, destabilize financial order. In addition to the risks, compensations to FDI and the high import-dependency of FDI-related trade lead to a considerable drain on the balance of payments. Moreover, the reliance on foreign capital for development finance is equivalent to building a Ponzi financing scheme and,therefore, is unsustainable. Given the fact that FDI financing is risky and costly and China does not lack savings, it is suggested in the present paper that China's efforts in attracting FDI should not aim at external capital provisioning.

  7. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  8. Analysis of Return on Investment in Different Types of Agile Software Development Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran MILANOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study of IT project teams in Serbia investigates how the choice of agile methods in different development project teams affects the return-on-investment (ROI. In this paper different types of software project teams are analyzed in order to examine and identify the business-value of using agile methods. In various software development project teams, the ROI of agile methods is yet to be fully explored, while the ROI of traditional methods is well-understood. Since ROI is important indicator of the projects success, in this paper we examine the factors that influence the ROI both from software solution customer point of view, and different agile project teams.

  9. The beginnings of the formation domestic innovation-investment entrepreneurship: interaction for the development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovych M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the economic, social and political aspects of the formation of domestic entrepreneurship as inherent component of the innovation- investment process of the development of the economy of the Ukraine under the conditions of the market transformation. The existing ideas about the changes in the nature of competition are refined and it is opened essence and special feature of the newest tendency in the enterprise toward strengthening of partnership and cooperation. Is stated the basis of the generalized concept of interaction for the development, which is been based on the principles of co-existence, mutually-addition and reciprocal effect of competition and partnership, and also considering complimentarily of the mechanisms of action classical “invisible hand” and the second, are faster “visible hands” of market.

  10. DIFFERENT ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THE ROLE AND IMPACT OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÜSEYİN ŞEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores different arguments for and against the role of foreign investment on the development potentials of developing countries. Generally, foreign investment comes to host countries through transnational corporatios (TNCs. These corporations are global profit-seeking organisations, investing in more than one country and supplying financial capital, management, technology and marketing enterprise. The arguments for and against the role and impact of foreign investment focus mainly on the following areas: economic growth, technology transfer, balance of payments, export performance, employment, environment, and transfer pricing as well as socio-cultural aspects of TNCs. The study concludes that with the appropriate government policies, such as unbiased trade regime, market reform and cooperation, developing countries could provide more benefits from foreign investment.

  11. Forecast of nuclear energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1976-01-01

    The forecast concerning the development of nuclear energetics is presented. Some information on economics of nuclear power plants is given. The nuclear fuel reserves are estimated on the background of power resources of the world. The safety and environment protection problems are mentioned.

  12. Providing investment attractiveness of renewal and development of fixed assets in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is a comparative analysis of economic mechanisms for the realization of investment projects for new construction and modernization power generation capacity in the energy sector and their effect on private investment. In this connection, planned and actual volumes of generating capacity, particular features of the industry, causing investment attractiveness are discussed. The necessity of using, and a comparison of primary economic mechanisms in order to guarantee the return of investments in the new construction and modernization of power generation capacity is shown. The method of calculating the tariff under the agreement of supply power capacity is analyzed. The study proved that the presence of an effective working mechanism of return on investment is a key element influencing the investment in new construction and modernization of power generation capacity. Also, it is shown that with the end of using agreement of supply power capacity, industry will face a significant reduction in investment. In this connection, it is recommended to speed up the formation of long-term capacity market, which involves the application of new investment incentives in the industry. The research results can be applied by investment banks, and other stakeholders as a methodological apparatus assessing investment and whether to participate in their financing.

  13. Modified development to improve the performance of AR10 stripping emulsions for use with the more energetic isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, J.

    1981-01-01

    Gold latensification of the image to increase the efficiency of the more energetic isotopes, such as 14 carbon, has been used before for liquid emulsions, with mild developers, but never successfully with AR10 stripping emulsion. This paper describes the performance of different developers and assesses their ability to suppress background fog on Kodak AR10 emulsion. A 14 carbon source was used and the effect of gold latensification was examined. Kodak D19, an efficient Metol/hydroquinone developer, could be usefully modified by altering the sodium carbonate and sulphite contents (D19 A/S). This developer discriminated well against the background with AR10 emulsion, producing a far better signal:background ratio than Kodak D19. A pretreatment in aurous thiocyanate for 4 min before development in D19 A/S for 4 min at 291 K increased the signal:background ratio by 200% compared with ordinary development in Kodak D19. When gold latensification was used with D19 developer, the signal was increased, but no more than with D19 A/S, and the gain was offset by the intense background that resulted. (author)

  14. About Russian nuclear energetic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laletin, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    My particular view about Russian nuclear energetics perspectives is presented. The nearest and the further perspectives are considered. The arguments are adduced that the most probable scenario of nuclear energetic development is its stabilization in the near future. Fur further development the arguments of supporters and opponents of nuclear energetics are analyzed. Three points of view are considered. The first point of view that there is not alternative for nuclear energetics. My notes are the following ones. a) I express a skeptic opinion about a statement of quick exhaustion of fossil organic fuel recourses and corresponding estimations are presented. b) It is expressed skeptic opinion about the statement that nuclear energetics can have a visual influence on ''steam effect''. c) I agree that nuclear energetics is the most ecological technology for normal work but however we can't disregard possibilities of catastrophic accidents. The second point of view that the use of nuclear energetics can't have the justification. I adduce the arguments contrary to this statement. The third point of view that nuclear energetics is a usual technology and the only criteria for discussions about what dimension and where one ought develop it is total cost of its unit. Expressed an opinion that the deceived for the choose of a way the skill of the estimate correctly and optimized so named the external parts of the unit energy costs for different energy technologies. (author)

  15. Investimento parental e desenvolvimento da criança Parental investment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulina Rocha Lordelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a teoria do investimento parental, seria esperada uma relação entre condições de criação da mãe e sua carreira reprodutiva e, por conseqüência, seus padrões de cuidado aos filhos, com repercussões no desenvolvimento das crianças. Esta pesquisa buscou verificar essas relações, em amostra de 37 mães e seus filhos entre um e quatro anos, de um bairro pobre de Salvador, Bahia. Foi investigada a história familiar e reprodutiva das mães, associada a resultados desenvolvimentais das crianças, medidos através das escalas Bayley e WIPPSI-R, em quatro avaliações realizadas ao longo de três anos. Foram encontradas correlações entre condições de criação da mãe e sua carreira reprodutiva subseqüente. Por sua vez, esses padrões mostraram-se modestamente relacionados ao desenvolvimento cognitivo de seus filhos, favorecendo as crianças cujas mães iniciaram sua vida reprodutiva mais tarde. Os resultados são, em geral, compatíveis com a teoria do investimento parental. Limitações do estudo e perspectivas futuras são discutidas.According to the parental investment theory, it would be expected an association between maternal family environment and her reproductive behavior and, as a consequence, her patterns of parental investment on her children, with effects on their development. This study aimed to verify that association, in a sample of 37 mothers and their children (one to four years old, in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. We studied the family and reproductive history of the mothers and assessed the cognitive development of children, through Bayley and WIPPSI-R scales, in four assessments during three years. We found correlation between the raising environment of the mother and her subsequent reproductive patterns. These patterns were related to cognitive development of children, favoring children whose mothers started their reproductive life later. The results are, in general

  16. Economic development and foreign direct investment: How to create sustainable development an analysis of the potential for sustainable development on the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homlong Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing critically on the effects of the conditions for foreign direct investment on sustainable growth in the recipient country, this paper analyzes the potential for investments in environmental innovations in India. The definition of sustainability applied in this paper incorporates economic development and investment which promotes environmentally and socially friendly production and innovation. As the Indian economy experienced strong growth in GDP in recent years, but is still lagging behind in providing the basic needs of clean water, clean air and proper waste management for households and companies, the necessity for sustainable development exists. From a methodological point of view this paper uses macroeconomic data to evaluate quantitatively the potentials and needs of Indian states. This results in a state ranking showing the potential for sustainable development in selected Indian states, based on economic and environmental indicators.

  17. Minimizing Investment Risk of Integrated Rail and Transit-Oriented-Development Projects over Years in a Linear Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail and transit-oriented-development (TOD projects are simultaneously optimized in this paper, with special consideration given to yearly variation and spatial and temporal correlation of population densities. In the proposed model, the objective is to minimize the investment risk of integrated rail and TOD projects with a given required expected return on investment. The investment risk is optimized based on closed-form solutions of the design variables, including rail line length, the number of TOD projects, and the number of housing units in each TOD project. The closed-form solutions are given explicitly under the assumption of social welfare maximization. It is found that underestimation exists for rail and TOD projects without consideration of the correlation of spatial and temporal population densities. TOD projects can greatly improve the return on investment of the rail operator. A numerical example is also presented.

  18. THE MEANING OF INVESTMENT FUNDS FOR THE DEVELOPEMENT OF THE STOCK MARKETS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Odzaklieska

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Investment funds are quite typical representatives of the group of young and efficient financial intermediaries on the money market. These financial institutions have been created as a result of the rapid development of stock markets in industrialized countries. As a matter of facts, in these countries investment funds overtook traditional instruments from other financial institutions. We can mention for example savings and credits from banks, pension plans and retirements from pension funds as well as assurance policies from assurance companies. Therefore the role of investment funds is to intermediate between the industry and people as investors and between companies and the public sector as issuers of long term securities. The object of this study is to analyze the meaning of these same investment funds on stock markets in transition countries and in particular in the Republic of Macedonia.

  19. How Does Corruption in Developing Countries Affect Corporate Investment and Tax Compliance?

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Nadine; Fuest, Clemens; Maffini, Giorgia

    2010-01-01

    Using a rich panel data base for firms in Asian countries, we assess the effect of public sector corruption on corporate assets investment and tax payments. Our findings suggest that public sector corruption does not deter investment activities of national firms while asset investment of multinational corporations is significantly reduced in corrupt environments. Moreover, the findings indicate that corruption exerts a quantitatively large negative effect on corporate tax payments, especially...

  20. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF INNOVATION AND INVESTMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ZAKARPAT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Stegura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider of the long-term innovation strategy, on the groung of which a small business can be devolopped. Also the paper deals with main ways of activization of investment and innovation activity in Zakarpat region. The advantages is purely an innovative model of growth and source of inexhaustible resource which performs human creativity, initiative, entrepreneurship, knowledge and intelligence. At present in Ukraine is dominated by elements of the model of absolute advantage and commodity -export, while the foundations of an innovative model of economic development at the stage of formation. Insufficiently involved is the potential of science , business, intellectual, and low wages. Addressing these issues is the foundation of small business through the implementation of innovative strategies.

  1. Investment's Proposal for develop Municipalities of Energy as close to Zero as possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Aldama, René G.

    2017-01-01

    The Cuba’s Government Plan of generating 24 % of its Electrical Power from renewable energy by 2030 is considered by the president, not enough. During his speech for closing the Parliament’s 7th. Period of Meetings celebrated on December 27 2016, explained that he has accepted to keep the Plan with the previous stated figure of 24 %, but the real task were work to overcome it. From the research was easy to conclude that the better way to accomplish the task given by the president, were to eliminate the weakness that avoid the whole introduction of the Decree 327/2014 from the Ministry’s Council and the Resolution 74/2014 from the Institute for Physical Planning, specially its Article 65, by means of the investment to develop Municipalities of Energy as close to Zero as possible. (author)

  2. Application of Decision Analysis to Evaluate Alternative Research and Development Investments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artelli, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... In contrast to the current ad hoc approach, decision analysis provides an explicit and easily explained rationale for investment choices, complete and consistent incorporation of multiple objectives...

  3. Direct Investment Casting For Pattern Developed By Desktop 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah O.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of RP technologies has encouraged rapid study on portable 3D Printer in which there are varieties of portable 3D printer machines in market. Nevertheless, less reports regarding its consumption of fabricated pattern to be used in direct investment casting. This study has focused on development of ABS P400 pattern in terms of collapsibility behaviour which has capability to be used as sacrificial pattern in direct investment casting. In addition, the internal built structures have been built into two designs such as square and polygon patterns respectively. The patterns were constructed in semi cylindrical geometry which comes with one side opened and one side closed together wrapped with 4 mm of ceramic shell. This experimental were conducted with variation temperature starting from 30°C until 150°C with increment of 5°C per minutes while for the numerical simulation, the temperature selected was between 30 °C to 120 °C with 10 °C increment per minutes. Moreover, the observation was made that glass transition temperature, Tg happened near 110°C. It was observed that the shell cracking happened on the ceramic shell. Other than that, the polygon pattern tends to collapsed inwardly rather than square pattern during the burnout process. A result also shows that, there is significant amount of stress reduction on both square and polygon which was 45 % respectively. Besides that, the amount of strain on pattern itself has shown about 9% reduction. Moreover, there is greater difference in terms of ceramic shell strain reduction which was 38% for square and polygon patterns respectively. Lastly, there is 11 % reduction of strain when compared square and polygon in terms of axial strain on ceramic shell

  4. The requirements for implementing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for planning and implementing Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowska, Lucyna; Bryt-Nitarska, Izabela

    2018-04-01

    The notion of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) appears more and more frequently in contemporary regional development strategies. Formulating the main assumptions of ITI is a response to a growing need for a co-ordinated, multi-dimensional regional development suitable for the characteristics of a given area. Activities are mainly aimed at improving people's quality of life with their significant participation. These activities include implementing the Sustainable development Goals (SDGs). Territorial investments include, among others, projects in areas where land and building use is governed not only by general regulations (Spatial Planning and Land Development Act) but also by separate legal acts. This issue also concerns areas with active mines and post-mining areas undergoing revitalization. For the areas specified above land development and in particular making building investments is subject to the requirements set forth in the Geological and Mining Law and in the general regulations. In practice this means that factors connected with the present and future mining impacts must be taken into consideration in planning the investment process. This article discusses the role of proper assessment of local geological conditions as well as the current and future mining situation in the context of proper planning and performance of the Integrated Territorial Investment programme and also in the context of implementing the SDGs. It also describes the technical and legislative factors which need to be taken into consideration in areas where mining is planned or where it took place in the past.

  5. Business investment in research and development (R-D: business strategy for the 21st century in Puerto Rico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lobato Vico

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two thirds (67% of total investment in Research and Development (R-D activities in Puerto Rico is made by the business sector. This paper analyzes the data from the Pilot Survey on Research and Development and finds that a group of startups or new enterprises focused on R-D activities has been developed, but the total amount of R-D investment is not enough to consider this as a generalized strategy or one of deep impact on the economy. Corporate investment in R-D in Puerto Rico is strongly associated with subsidiaries of multinational corporations from the United States, as well as with specific industrial subsectors, in particular with the chemical industry (pharmaceutical and the subsector of research and development services.

  6. Priority Development Areas: a New Tool for Attracting Investment in the Far East of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Viktorovna Kashina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to compare the new term for the Russian economy — «priority development areas (PDA» with the existing concepts of «special economic zone (SEZ» and «regional development zones (RDZ». In the article, the characteristics of territories with a special tax regime and its benefits for investors are examined. The subject matter of the research are the conditions that shape the favourable environment of investment activity due to the provided state support in newly created priority development areas in comparison with the existing tools, such as special economic zones and zones of territorial development. It is hypothesized that there is a direct link between the existence of tax benefits and other forms of the state support of investors provided in a territory with a special tax regime, and the attraction of investors to the region. In the study, the method of comparative analysis and statistical grouping methods are used. The common features of the analyzed types of territories are revealed according to certain characteristics; these are the federal status and the special regime of the investment activity implementation. In the article, their distinctive features such as the terms of creation, management of territories and measures of the state support are substantiated. The results of the research presented in the article confirm that the residents of newly created priority development areas in the Far East have more competitive and preferential terms for business in comparison with the residents of special economic zones and zones of territorial development in the Russian Federation. In the article, the administrative risks of the transfer of authority for the management of territories to the private companies are substantiated. The absence of interrelation between the declared specialization of the created priority development areas with the special regime of business activity and the types of economic activity

  7. Comparative Prospects of the New Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author focuses on the recently established New Development Bank (NDB and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB. It identifies two factors of demand for this new model of multilateral development banks (MDBs, namely a lack of infrastructure financing and the aspirations of developing countries for a greater role in the global financial system. The author also compares the NDB and AIIB according to membership, management structure, distribution of capital and votes, and options for attracting capital in the financial market. Based on this comparison, he forecasts the banks’ credit portfolios growth until 2025. The author concludes that both institutions should accumulate and use the best practices of existing MDBs, improve their image to attract investors and actively engage in sharing expertise and co-financing projects with development institutions as well as commercial banks. By doing so, the volume of their operations could reach $40 billion per year in 10 years, which is close to the volume of infrastructure financing provided by major traditional banks, and could contribute substantially to addressing the financing needs of developing countries.

  8. Impact of BRICS' investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes.

  9. III Scientific-technical conference. Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005). Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Summaries of reports of the III Scientific-technical conference: Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005) are presented. The conference performed 20-22 September, 2005, in Sosnovyj Bor. Problems of methodical, instrumental and metrological supply of chemical, radiochemical and radiometric control at active NPP and NPU, modern concepts of construction of automated systems of chemical and radiometric control in the atomic energetics, directions for the decision of questions in organization and conducting of chemical and radiochemical control of water-chemical regimes of NPP and NPU are discussed [ru

  10. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  11. Development of Information and Analytical System of the Assessment of Investment Appeal of Regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Eduardovna Kalinina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article techniques of the assessment of investment appeal of regional industries are analyzed, relevance of investments into development of industrial branches as major factor of economic development is substantiated. The analysis of the existing techniques showed lack of uniform approach to the choice of indicators of an assessment of investment appeal of regional industries, formation of a technique, and to the tools of its realization. The research presents the author’s technique of assessing the investment appeal of regional industries by separate types of economic activity: mining, the processing productions, production and distribution of the electric power, gas and water. The purpose of this technique is identification of the perspective regions leading by this or that type of industrial activity the investment of which can bring the greatest return for the investor. The assessment of investment appeal of the industry of regions of the Russian Federation is based on calculation of integrated indicators according to the types of economic activity, the technique of a rating assessment is applied. Calculations of the offered technique are realized in the developed information and analytical system which basis is the storage of data, containing a set of the structured indicators. As a result, the offered technique is approved in the regions of the Russian Federation, results of a rating of investment appeal of the industry of regions of Russia for 2014 are received, the leading regions by each considered type of industrial activity are revealed. The special attention is paid to the analysis of regions of the Southern Federal District in comparison to the received values on all regions of the Russian Federation.

  12. An energy pricing scheme for the diffusion of decentralized renewable technology investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, Djiby Racine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate price support for market penetration of renewable energy in developing nations through a decentralized supply process. We integrate the new decentralized energy support: renewable premium tariff, to analyze impacts of tariff incentives on the diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. Based on photovoltaic and wind technologies and an assessment of renewable energy resources in Senegal, an optimization technique is combined with a cash flow analysis to investigate investment decisions in renewable energy sector. Our findings indicate that this support mechanism could strengthen the sustainable deployment of renewable energy in remote areas of Senegal. Although different payoffs emerged, profits associated with a renewable premium tariff are the highest among the set of existing payoffs. Moreover in analyzing impacts of price incentives on social welfare, we show that price tariffing schemes must be strategically scrutinized in order to minimize welfare loss associated with price incentives. Finally we argue that a sustainable promotion of incentive mechanisms supporting deployment of renewable technology in developing nations should be carried out under reliable institutional structures. The additional advantage of the proposed methodology is its ability to integrate different stakeholders (producers, investors and consumers) in the planning process. - Highlights: → We simulate impacts of price support for market penetration of renewable technology in developing nations. → An array of price incentive mechanisms strengthens diffusion of renewable technology in Senegal. → Moreover, reliable institutional frameworks in developing nations are a requirement in order to strengthen diffusion path of renewable technologies.

  13. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  14. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-04-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.

  15. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct

  16. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  17. Development and analysis of an index of energetic sustainability using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Francisco Carlos Barbosa dos

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable Development is one the most frequently addressed issues nowadays and the search for its comprehension is a major challenge for researchers. Nevertheless, to reach its understanding and the relations comprised (economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions) is not the only challenge. To measure the route for a society development is an equally important matter, mainly due to intrinsic relations among environment, society and economy. This work presents a new approach in the construction of a synthetic index for sustainable development, under the point of view of energy sustainability. This methodology was based on mathematical archetypes structured in Fuzzy Logics, thus allowing the incorporation of new knowledge bases, even with vague definitions. The final result is the creation of an Energy Sustainability Index that may be accompanied along the time, allowing comparisons among countries, since it uses a database from the 'Guia de Indicadores Energeticos de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel' (Guide of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development) from the IAEA. This guide presents an energy indicator methodology worldwide accepted and it was conceived to be similar to other indicators, such as the 'Indice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH)' (Human Development Index), developed by The United Nations Organization and which is of easy comprehension, since it is represented by a number between zero and one. (author)

  18. The energetic planning and national development; O Planejamento energetico e o desenvolvimento nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Daniel Ramos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for energy generated by the Brazilian condition of emerging country reveals that the orderly expansion of energy supply promotes national development. Conversely, lack of energy planning effectively paralyze a country. Since national development is not tied to the economic growth, the observation of the National Policy Principles of Rational Utilization of Energy Resources, and constitutional principles of economic order, give ground to planning. It is the National Energy Policy Council who formulates guidelines and energy policies in Brazil, and have a role in national energy planning. (author)

  19. Human Resource Investment – a Step in the Development of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Iordache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human capital development supposes important investments in the field of public administration and the assurance of the necessary conditions to provide some quality–services. This paper has as a starting point the statement of the German sociologist Max Weber according to which “a modern society can function efficiently by training and perfecting the experts within a bureaucracy.” Modern societies put into evidence new values of public administration such social responsibility and adaptability. By specializing human resources, we contribute to using them efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the degree of involvement of the public institutions in developing human capital and to focus on the role of the education of public administration in order to internally increase stability so that we resist the frequent changes which suppose the continuous adjustment to external conditions. Our aim is also to analyse the already-implemented programmes as well as the ongoing ones concerning the training and perfecting of the public servants.

  20. Larval development and metamorphosis of Balanus albicostatus (Cirripedia: Thoracica); implications of temperature, food concentration and energetics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Khandeparker, L.; Shirayama, Y.

    The influence of food concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 x 105 cells ml sup(-1)) and temperatures (20 and 30 degrees C) on the survival, development, organic carbon and nitrogen content of Balanus albicostatus larvae was evaluated The effect of food...

  1. The role of energetic reserves during embryonic development of an annual killifish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 11 (2017), s. 838-847 ISSN 1058-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nothobranchius furzeri * egg size * hatching * maternal effects * development duration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2016

  2. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  4. Developing talent at AREVA: Investing in people and building our future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, Philippe [Human Resources AREVA (France)

    2008-07-01

    AREVA employs 65,000 people today and will recruit 12,000 new employees worldwide in 2008 to support business strategy. The group forecasts that recruitment needs will significantly rise to 40,000 by 2012, representing 50% of the workforce. In order to meet the challenges of rapid international expansion and a highly competitive talent market, AREVA has developed initiatives to accelerate its investment in people, to reinforce recruitment and retain high quality talents and valuable skills and knowledge. The group human resources department's mission is based on shaping talents for sustainable business performance. It established its five-point human resources policy, Talent Builder, to attract, develop, retain, reward and mobilize employees across all businesses. In the context of a global talent market, dynamic recruitment programs are implemented to attract top talent. A global Campus Management program builds on relationships with colleges and universities to attract the future generation of engineers and managers. Talent development initiatives include processes and management tools, such as the People Review to identify and nurture key skills and talents, a group-wide integration program, professional training, and priority to internal mobility. AREVA places particular importance to diversity, a keystone of HR policy, and a socio-economic lever of development. The rich variety of people and cultures in the group reflect the markets, customers and the civil society in which AREVA operates. The group is actively committed to equal opportunities for all. The European agreement on equal opportunities in the workplace sets out measures for promoting gender equality and professional career paths, with the principal themes of recruitment, career development, training, remuneration and parental support. In addition, the WE network of men and women was set up with the support of Anne Lauvergeon, Chief Executive of AREVA with the objectives of promoting gender

  5. Developing talent at AREVA: Investing in people and building our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivien, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    AREVA employs 65,000 people today and will recruit 12,000 new employees worldwide in 2008 to support business strategy. The group forecasts that recruitment needs will significantly rise to 40,000 by 2012, representing 50% of the workforce. In order to meet the challenges of rapid international expansion and a highly competitive talent market, AREVA has developed initiatives to accelerate its investment in people, to reinforce recruitment and retain high quality talents and valuable skills and knowledge. The group human resources department's mission is based on shaping talents for sustainable business performance. It established its five-point human resources policy, Talent Builder, to attract, develop, retain, reward and mobilize employees across all businesses. In the context of a global talent market, dynamic recruitment programs are implemented to attract top talent. A global Campus Management program builds on relationships with colleges and universities to attract the future generation of engineers and managers. Talent development initiatives include processes and management tools, such as the People Review to identify and nurture key skills and talents, a group-wide integration program, professional training, and priority to internal mobility. AREVA places particular importance to diversity, a keystone of HR policy, and a socio-economic lever of development. The rich variety of people and cultures in the group reflect the markets, customers and the civil society in which AREVA operates. The group is actively committed to equal opportunities for all. The European agreement on equal opportunities in the workplace sets out measures for promoting gender equality and professional career paths, with the principal themes of recruitment, career development, training, remuneration and parental support. In addition, the WE network of men and women was set up with the support of Anne Lauvergeon, Chief Executive of AREVA with the objectives of promoting gender equality

  6. Impact of BRICS’ investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector’s price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS’ accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018

  7. Developing long-term scenario forecasts to support electricity generation investment decisions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, Renée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many decisions regarding capital investment in electricity generation technologies need to be made well in advance, usually when there is still a large amount of uncertainty regarding the favourability of future conditions. There may be uncertainty...

  8. Multilateral development banks and socially responsible investments--the case of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Pranay

    2012-12-01

    Globally, tobacco kills more people than HIV-related conditions or AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. In 1991, The World Bank, the world's largest lender, pledged that it would no longer support tobacco-related projects. It was expected that other financial investors would follow, but most did not respond to this call. As a result, several financial institutions continue to invest in tobacco and fuel an epidemic to an unprecedented scale. Using tobacco as a case in point, this review highlights the continuing investments among financial institutions which do not conform to 'socially responsible investments' and calls for monitoring and reporting such unethical practices. The paper also underscores the need to harmonise the numerous criteria, principles and voluntary codes that govern socially responsible investing and ensure that financial institutions comply with them.

  9. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  10. Development of contractile and energetic capacity in anuran hindlimb muscle during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Cheol; Kim, Han Suk; Yamashita, Masamichi; Choi, Inho

    2003-01-01

    Anuran larvae undergo water-to-land transition during late metamorphosis. We investigated the development of the iliofibularis muscle in bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) between Gosner's stage 37 and stage 46 (the last stage). The tadpoles began staying in shallow water at least as early as stage 37, kicking from stage 39, active hindlimb swimming from stage 41, and emerging onto shore from stage 42. For control tadpoles kept in water throughout metamorphosis, muscle mass and length increased two- to threefold between stages 37 and 46, with rapid increases at stage 40. Large, steady increases were found in femur mass, tetanic tension, contraction rate, and power between stages 37 and 46. Concentrations of ATP and creatine phosphate and rates of the phosphagen depletion and the activity of creatine kinase increased significantly, mainly after stage 43. Shortening velocity, tetanic rise time, and half-relaxation time varied little. Energy charge (the amount of metabolically available energy stored in the adenine nucleotide pool) remained unchanged until stage 43 but decreased at stage 46. Compared with the control, experimental tadpoles that were allowed access to both water and land exhibited 1.2- to 1.8-fold greater increases in femur mass, tetanic tension, power, phosphagen depletion rates, and creatine kinase activities at late metamorphic stages but no significant differences for other parameters measured. In sum, most hindlimb development proceeds on the basis of the increasingly active use of limbs for locomotion in water. The further increases in tension, mechanical power, and "chemical power" on emergence would be advantageous for terrestrial antigravity performance.

  11. Anticipating mismatches of HIT investments: Developing a viability-fit model for e-health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Albeit massive investments in the recent years, the impact of health information technology (HIT) has been controversial and strongly disputed by both research and practice. While many studies are concerned with the development of new or the refinement of existing measurement models for assessing the impact of HIT adoption (ex post), this study presents an initial attempt to better understand the factors affecting viability and fit of HIT and thereby underscores the importance of also having instruments for managing expectations (ex ante). We extend prior research by undertaking a more granular investigation into the theoretical assumptions of viability and fit constructs. In doing so, we use a mixed-methods approach, conducting qualitative focus group discussions and a quantitative field study to improve and validate a viability-fit measurement instrument. Our findings suggest two issues for research and practice. First, the results indicate that different stakeholders perceive HIT viability and fit of the same e-health services very unequally. Second, the analysis also demonstrates that there can be a great discrepancy between the organizational viability and individual fit of a particular e-health service. The findings of this study have a number of important implications such as for health policy making, HIT portfolios, and stakeholder communication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students’ investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the

  13. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  14. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 4868 (2005), s. 1-63 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : productivity * economic development * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4868.asp

  15. [Ecological, functional, and thermodynamic prerequisites and consequences of homoeothermy origin and development, with avian energetics as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V M

    2012-01-01

    Homoeothermy has formed in birds and mammals independently and in different geological ages. However, in both groups it originated as a side effect of selection for aerobic metabolism improvement that provided a higher level of activity. Advantages of having high and stable body temperature, which are inevitably related with metabolism intensification, led to development of thermoregulatory adaptations such as fur and feathers. This made it possible to retain the metabolically generated heat and reduce heat absorption in hot environments. Emergence of homoeothermy with aerobic supply of motion activity, possibilities to regulate the level of metabolism and thermolysis, has opened a lot of opportunities for homoeothermic animals. Achieving such a level of energy utilization allowed them to maintain activity for a longer time, while its sensory support led to complication and diversification of birds' behavioral repertoire (as well as that of mammals) facilitating the conquest of almost entire part of the biosphere that is suitable for living. This process was favoured by the development of nurturing and passing on the information, collected throughout the life, to new generations. Formation of high levels of aerobic metabolism in birds and mammals was proceeding in parallel among different groups of reptilian ancestors. The level of homoeothermy, at which aerobic metabolism is able to maintain prolonged activity, developed in birds and mammals in different ways: they have got dissimilar partitioning of venous and arterial networks, erythrocytes with or without a cell nucleus, different lungs design--but, at that, similar minimum metabolic power and rather close body temperatures which correspond well to the environmental conditions on the Earth. Natural selection allowed animals with high energetic metabolism to increase their diversity and abundance, but only when homoeothermic animals could satisfy their demands for food resources, that have risen manifold. That

  16. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2013-01-01

    The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs), including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D) are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of ruminants in which

  17. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs, including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of

  18. Roadmapping or development of future investments in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D. (Dianne)

    2002-01-01

    priorities for future program planning and development of future investments in environmental science and technology, which would reduce risk by delivering additional data and technologies with possible incremental improvement to baselines.

  19. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  20. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  1. Foreign direct investment in developing countries: What policymakers should not do and what economists don't know

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Since recent financial crises in Asia and Latin America, developing countries have been strongly advised to rely primarily on foreign direct investment (FDI) in order to promote economic development on a sustainable basis. Even harsh critics of rash capital account liberalization argue in favor of opening up towards FDI. Yet, economists know surprisingly little about the driving forces and the economic effects of FDI. There are few undisputed insights on which policymakers can rely. Globaliza...

  2. INVESTMENTS IN SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AS THE FACTOR OF FORMATION OF QUALIFIED PERSONNEL IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova M.A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In paper the condition of a social infrastructure of a countryside is considered. The basic sources of investments into a social infrastructure of village development are revealed. Offers on financing this sphere for attraction and working in an agriculture sector by professionally prepared youth and the improving standards of living of Russia’s countryside citizens are made. "Development of agrarian and industrial complex" is proposed on entering additions into the priority national project.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Role of Defects in Detonation Sensitivity of Energetic Materials: Development of Techniques for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    materials. The initial work was focused on design and construction of an apparatus for injecting defects into the crystals using PZT ceramics ...in the energy partitioning (Table 2), which offers some insight into the nature of the energetic texture of crystalline materials not apparent in

  4. The development of the portfolio management for the unit investment funds

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeeva, Irina; Nikiforova, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses common Russian practice of assessment of the effectiveness of the unit investment fund portfolio management based on the risk/return tradeoff. The paper identifies characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of various portfolio risk measures, and introduces the approach to risk assessment based on the analytical coefficient calculations.

  5. Role of Educational Investment on Economic Growth and Development in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Ojala Daphen

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Kenya spends 30% of its budget on education. It is commonly assumed that education has an important positive effect on economic growth, but to date the evidence for this assumption has been surprisingly weak. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between the amount of investments in education and economic growth. It was…

  6. National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and assumptions on small town economic investment by government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oranje, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available What matters from the perspective of the NSDP is whether an area has the potential to grow economically in a sustainable way, create jobs and alleviate poverty. If small towns have such potential, there is nothing that precludes such investment...

  7. Advanced computing for evaluating facility needs and enhancing sustainable development of public facility investment plan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available hall investment for eThekwini municipality in South Africa is used to illustrate the methodology of matching supply and demand spatially across urban and rural areas. The GIS analysis ensures that the evaluation of backlogs and proposals for new...

  8. Foreign Direct Investment, Linkage Formation and Supplier Development in Thailand during the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2004-01-01

    in Thailand. This led in turn to the formulation of TNC-SME linkage policies as well as a set of broader SME and supporting industry policies to supplement unfolding liberalisation of trade- and investment policies. The article is concerned with the extent to which the Thai government was able to formulate...

  9. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  10. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  11. Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...

  12. Human Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 211 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…

  13. [The development of the system of medical rehabilitation based at the Russian health resort facilities: investment prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povazhnaya, E L; Gusakova, E V; Moiseenko, S V

    2018-05-21

    The present work is devoted to the prospects for attracting investments for the maintenance and development of the medical rehabilitation practices based at the Russian health resort facilities. The article describes the prerequisites for the enhancement of the investment attractiveness of the development of the system of medical rehabilitation in the said institutions including the formulation and strengthening of the legal and regulatory framework, the capacity for the organization of the second and third stages of medical rehabilitation in the existing spa and health resort facilities, the attraction of the funds of compulsory medical insurance as an additional source of the financial support. The main legal documents regulating the organization and provision of medical rehabilitation based at the spa and health resort facilities are presented. The results of the implementation of the investment concept of the development of medical rehabilitation in the framework of the system of health resort treatment as exemplified by the experience of JSC «The group of companies «Medsi» are discussed. It is shown that the development of medical rehabilitation based at the spa and health resort facilities greatly contributes to the significant expansion of the potential customer base and promotes the further growth of business scale.

  14. Biopower from direct firing of crop and forestry residues in China: A review of developments and investment outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in the direct-fired biomass power sector and provides an up to date investment outlook by calculating the Net Present Value of new investments, and the appropriate level of Feed-in-Tariff needed to stimulate future investment. An overview is provided of support policies, historical growth in installations, and main market players. A number of data sources is combined to build a database with detailed information of individual biopower projects. This data is used to describe technological and market trends, which are used in a cash flow model to calculate the NPV of a typical project. The NPV for new projects is estimated to be negative, and investment should be expected to stall without proper policy intervention. Increasing fuel prices, local competition over biomass fuel resources, lower than expected operational performance and a downturn in carbon markets have deteriorated the investment outlook. In order to ensure reasonable profitability, the Feed-In-Tariff should be increased, from the current level of 90.9 € MWh −1 , to between 97 and 105 € MWh −1 . Where possible, government organizations should help organize demand for the supply of heat. Local rural energy bureaus may help organize supply networks for biomass fuels throughout the country, in order to reduce seasonal and local fuel scarcity and price fluctuations. - Highlights: • A database with detailed information of Chinese biopower projects is analyzed. • The NPV of new biopower projects is calculated and found to be negative. • Fuel prices have risen, fuel supply is restricted, revenue is lower than expected. • The current Feed-In-tariff of 91 € MWh −1 needs to be increased to 97–105 € MWh −1

  15. Performance of passive long term investments : A longitudinal study over the relative performance of emerging- and developed markets

    OpenAIRE

    Babar, Haseeb Zaman; Norberg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emerging markets came to surface in early 1980 and constituted of only eight countries from the two continents of South America and Asia. The globalization of financial markets has since raised the importance of emerging capital markets. We take a quantitative approach to investigate the performance of emerging markets compared to developed markets. The aim of the study is to conclude if emerging markets offers investment value and if logic in portfolio theory can be used to im...

  16. PRE-INVESTMENT ASSESSMENT OF ACADEMIC SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE: CASE VMNK YAMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechetkina E. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzed the possibilities of effectiveness evaluation of an innovative project at the pre-investment stage, systematized approach to such analysis. In addition, general procedure algorithm for an assessment of scientific project’s potential efficiency is suggested. The specifics of the paper is to try to overcome the factors of uncertainty and information incompleteness, typical for the innovative projects, ranging the key indicators depending on time and a place of their occurrencein different activity fields of the company, analyzing of potential and prospects innovation using, and also other factors influence process of carrying out the pre-investment analysis. Experience of effectiveness evaluation of scientific projects, which is proposed for implementation in OAO «Gazprom», in collaboration with the IPGG SB RAS, is presented.

  17. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  18. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. PMID:25598576

  19. Investing in Women’s Employment : Good for Business, Good for Development

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Economic growth is more robust and sustainable when women and men alike participate fully in the labor market. Better jobs for women, employment that leads to higher wages and greater decision-making, also have a positive influence on the ways households spend money on children s nutrition, health, and education. Meanwhile, companies that invest in women s employment gain an important competitive advantage. Yet despite the persuasive evidence that gender equality has a transformative effect o...

  20. Russian institutional development: Challenges to inbound investments and implications for government policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Yukhanaev, A; Fallon, G; Perényi, A; Roberts, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out to contribute to the literature by investigating the institutional arrangements facing investors in Russia, the extent to which they had been reformed, and the resultant impact on the willingness of foreign-owned TNCs to commit inbound foreign direct investment (IFDI) to this high-risk transition economy. The degree to which institutional factors explain Russia's persistent underperformance in terms of IFDI is assessed through the review of the academic literature and othe...

  1. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad; Baharum Zarita Ahmad; Senawi Asma; Salleh Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration...

  2. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care.

  3. Condition to be fulfill for nuclear energetics to be competitive on the base of 16. Congress WEC in Tokyo, Seminar NG NPP'96 in Warsaw and Conference ENS TOPNUX'96 in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marecki, J.

    1997-01-01

    The state and developing trends of nuclear energetics have been presented for the period 1970-1990. The economical analysis taking into account actual prices and predicted for near future has been done. The investment and exploitation costs have been discussed and compared with classic methods of energy generation. It has been concluded that nuclear energetics will be one of the most promising options for future development of world energetics when all aspects (economic, technical, ecological) of the problem have been taken into consideration

  4. Long-term dynamics of investment decisions in electricity markets with variable renewables development and adequacy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In liberalised electricity systems, power markets are expected to ensure the long-term coordination of investments in order to guarantee security of supply, sustainability and competitiveness. In the reference energy-only market, it relies on the ability of power markets - where the hourly price is aligned with the marginal cost of the system - to provide an adequate price-signal for investors. However, in practice, questions have been raised about its ability to trigger investments in Low-Carbon Technologies (LCT) including in particular Renewable Energy Sources of Electricity (RES-E), and its ability to ensure capacity adequacy. After a characterisation of these market failures, this dissertation tackles the two research topics within a methodological framework based on a System Dynamics model developed to simulate private investment decisions in power markets. First, the results show that substituting out-of-market support mechanisms for RES-E by market-based investments helped by the sole implementation of a carbon price appears as a feasible solution to trigger RES-E development providing that there is a political commitment on a high carbon price. Second, it also appears that the energy-only market with price cap is ineffective to ensure capacity adequacy in a context of mature markets with conventional thermal power plants under transition paths which involve a stable electricity demand thank to energy efficiency efforts and the exogenous development of RES-E thanks to support mechanisms in the absence of a high and fixed carbon price. Adding a capacity market or removing the price cap both bring benefits in terms of Loss Of Load Expectation (LOLE) and social welfare. Moreover, considering two various energy transition scenarios and different assumptions about the risk aversion of private investors, the capacity market is identified as the best option for regulators among the considered market designs. (author) [fr

  5. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This

  6. Electricity market reforms : institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling (Finland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, P.-O.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1990s, there was a definite trend to reform the electric power industry from the way in which it operated a century ago. The reform does not try to totally remove regulation. Rather, the basic objective is to limit central and governmental control over the industry so that free competition can be encouraged at all possible levels. This thesis tried to understand the status of deregulatory reforms and reviews how different countries and large utilities have reacted to the trend. Electricity is particular in that it is a non-storable basic good that is centrally produced. Compared to other industries such as the airline or telecommunication industry, this special nature creates barriers in the restructuring of power markets. An issue that is emerging with deregulation is that national energy policy goals no longer determine the behaviour of utilities. This will impact on how investments will be coordinated in the new market. A major factor to keep in mind is the competition level sought by these reforms. It is not yet known to which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets. The oligopolistic structure of the market may even prevent such an outcome. It is important to examine the investment dynamics in such a context. This was the primary theme of the thesis. The two complementary approaches used included an example of an institution and its economic arguments that support market reform. A detailed example of the reform process in the electricity market in Finland was presented. The second approach was more analytical and was based on the market equilibria that may occur as a result of market reform. A dynamic model of investment for the power market was again applied to the electricity market in Finland

  7. China’s Strategic Investments and Its Relations with Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Marcel Joia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 2010 brings news regarding China's economic strategy. It has strengthened its trade relations withemerging economies, making significant investments, plus significant imports and exports, proving again thatit is the first commercial power in the world. China, considered being "the manufacturer of the world", alongwith Brazil and Russia, major exporters of raw materials, and India, the country which offers the cheapesttechnology services, has made the world organization, named as BRIC. In 2009, China has consolidated itsposition as the main trading partner with Brazil, a position that enabled it in 2010 to become the largestinvestor in the Brazilian territory. One of the most important Chinese strategies is the monetary one, throughwhich China is trying to grow internationally Yuan’s importance, reducing the dependence on the dollar bydriving autonomous trade flows. It is expected that Yuan will become the main currency in Asia, main goalthat will be achieved by the constitution of large reserves of Yuan on the Asian territory. Knowledge ofChinese economic policy and relations with emerging economies is essential, since 2010 shows the economicpower of this nation, the largest trading power in the world, which has led the economists to study China'seconomic situation. We used for this study, data extracted from UNCTAD and ASEAN’s reports from 2010,plus various U.S. studies on China's geostrategic position. China’s geostrategic position is an important one,especially compared with the other BRIC countries, making energy investments in the Middle East, strategythat was adopted also by India and Russia; so Russia and China created ESPO project, Eastern Siberia -Pacific - Ocean, through which China is making huge investments in energy and Russia is trying to stand outfor European markets. Through this paper, we tried to evidence China’s financial and trade relations withUSA, European Union and emerging economies, in the context of a severe

  8. Electricity market reforms : institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling (Finland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, P.-O.

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there was a definite trend to reform the electric power industry from the way in which it operated a century ago. The reform does not try to totally remove regulation. Rather, the basic objective is to limit central and governmental control over the industry so that free competition can be encouraged at all possible levels. This thesis tried to understand the status of deregulatory reforms and reviews how different countries and large utilities have reacted to the trend. Electricity is particular in that it is a non-storable basic good that is centrally produced. Compared to other industries such as the airline or telecommunication industry, this special nature creates barriers in the restructuring of power markets. An issue that is emerging with deregulation is that national energy policy goals no longer determine the behaviour of utilities. This will impact on how investments will be coordinated in the new market. A major factor to keep in mind is the competition level sought by these reforms. It is not yet known to which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets. The oligopolistic structure of the market may even prevent such an outcome. It is important to examine the investment dynamics in such a context. This was the primary theme of the thesis. The two complementary approaches used included an example of an institution and its economic arguments that support market reform. A detailed example of the reform process in the electricity market in Finland was presented. The second approach was more analytical and was based on the market equilibria that may occur as a result of market reform. A dynamic model of investment for the power market was again applied to the electricity market in Finland.

  9. Missouri airport investment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...

  10. Considerations in Duplex Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Arthur; Goen, Tom

    Problems of duplex investment are noted in the introduction to this booklet designed to provide a technique by which the investment decision can be approached, develop estimates of typical costs and returns under differing conditions, and encourage investors to analyze objectives and conditions before the decision to buy or build is made. A…

  11. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  12. Development of a New Ferrous Aluminosilicate Refractory Material for Investment Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chen; Jones, Sam; Blackburn, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Investment casting is a time-consuming, labour intensive process, which produces complex, high value-added components for a variety of specialised industries. Current environmental and economic pressures have resulted in a need for the industry to improve current casting quality, reduce manufacturing costs and explore new markets for the process. Alumino-silicate based refractories are commonly used as both filler and stucco materials for ceramic shell production. A new ceramic material, norite, is now being produced based on ferrous aluminosilicate chemistry, having many potential advantages when used for the production of shell molds for casting aluminum alloy. This paper details the results of a direct comparison made between the properties of a ceramic shell system produced with norite refractories and a typical standard refractory shell system commonly used in casting industry. A range of mechanical and physical properties of the systems was measured, and a full-scale industrial casting trial was also carried out. The unique properties of the norite shell system make it a promising alternative for casting aluminum based alloys in the investment foundry.

  13. INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION FACTORS IN THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OF THE REGIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Methods: suggested and used the tools of forecasting and analytical studies of the effects that result from the impact of the investment and innovative-technological factors on the development of industry in the regions, with priority mechanical engineering.Results: as a result, we have got a quantitative evaluation of investment and innovative factors for the development of regional economies. We also have built integrated indicators of economic and technological effects arising from the investment and innovative-technological activity involving machinery production in these regions.Conclusions and relevance: interpretation of the results shows that in most regions innovation and investment activities have a significant impact on the competitiveness of manufactured machinery products and on the export potential of the region. The potential of regional economic development lies in the interaction of domestic production and the innovative technological component. In the course of the implementation of the Arctic project, the demand for new technologies and scientific results is formed, the specific

  14. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  15. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS BETWEEN FINANCIAL INVESTMENTS SERVICES COMPANIES (1995-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuţa IANCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there are studies that deal with intermediaries in banking services (especially, mutual funds and pensions, insurance, real estate, etc. Most of them focus on subjects like investor behaviour, ethical issues and market manipulation. In this paper we intend to observe the stages in the evolution of the Financial Investment Services Companies (SSIF between 1995-2016 in relation with the number of transactions, the volume of traded shares, the number of issuing companies as well as the economic and political situation of our country. Moreover, our study shows that the number of SSIF's is little affected by economic crises or declines and is rather influenced by the annual net incomes of the population. Basically, SSIF’s are in constant competition with the rest of the financial institutions, banks being a good example.

  17. Energetic Physiology Mediates Individual Optimization of Breeding Phenology in a Migratory Arctic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Bêty, Jöel; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Williams, Tony D; Love, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    The influence of variation in individual state on key reproductive decisions impacting fitness is well appreciated in evolutionary ecology. Rowe et al. (1994) developed a condition-dependent individual optimization model predicting that three key factors impact the ability of migratory female birds to individually optimize breeding phenology to maximize fitness in seasonal environments: arrival condition, arrival date, and ability to gain in condition on the breeding grounds. While empirical studies have confirmed that greater arrival body mass and earlier arrival dates result in earlier laying, no study has assessed whether individual variation in energetic management of condition gain effects this key fitness-related decision. Using an 8-year data set from over 350 prebreeding female Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we tested this component of the model by examining whether individual variation in two physiological traits influencing energetic management (plasma triglycerides: physiological fattening rate; baseline corticosterone: energetic demand) predicted individual variation in breeding phenology after controlling for arrival date and body mass. As predicted by the optimization model, individuals with higher fattening rates and lower energetic demand had the earliest breeding phenology (shortest delays between arrival and laying; earliest laying dates). Our results are the first to empirically determine that individual flexibility in prebreeding energetic management influences key fitness-related reproductive decisions, suggesting that individuals have the capacity to optimally manage reproductive investment.

  18. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  19. A Robust Profitability Assessment Tool for Targeting Agricultural Investments in Developing Countries: Modeling Spatial Heterogeneity and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Zeng, Z.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Woodard, J.

    2014-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the population earns their living from agriculture, government expenditures in many countries are being re-directed to the sector to increase productivity and decrease poverty. However, many of these investments are seeing low returns because they are poorly targeted. A geographic tool that accounts for spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in the factors of production would allow governments and donors to optimize their investments by directing them to farmers for whom they are most profitable. One application for which this is particularly relevant is fertilizer recommendations. It is well-known that soil fertility in much of sub-Saharan Africa is declining due to insufficient nutrient inputs to replenish those lost through harvest. Since fertilizer application rates in sub-Saharan Africa are several times smaller than in other developing countries, it is often assumed that African farmers are under-applying fertilizer. However, this assumption ignores the risk farmers face in choosing whether or how much fertilizer to apply. Simply calculating the benefit/cost ratio of applying a given level of fertilizer in a particular year over a large, aggregated region (as is often done) overlooks the variability in yield response seen at different sites within the region, and at the same site from year to year. Using Ethiopia as an example, we are developing a 1 km resolution fertilizer distribution tool that provides pre-season fertilizer recommendations throughout the agricultural regions of the country, conditional on seasonal climate forecasts. By accounting for spatial heterogeneity in soil, climate, market and travel conditions, as well as uncertainty in climate and output prices at the time a farmer must purchase fertilizer, this stochastic optimization tool gives better recommendations to governments, fertilizer companies, and aid organizations looking to optimize the welfare benefits achieved by their

  20. Analysis Of Investment Feasibility Of Batching Plant Development In Tanjung Redeb Talisayan Highway Km 102 In Biatan District Berau Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rosit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is a feasibility study of Batching Plant development on Tanjung Redeb - Talisayan Highway Km 102 Biatan District Berau Regency which aims to know whether the development project can be built in terms of technical and economic aspects and to analyze the sensitivity with 3 types of economic situation. The data from this field study are analyzed using Present Value Net Present Value NPV Internal Rate of Return IRR Benefit Cost Ratio BCR and Payback Periods PBP. The results of the analysis show that Batching Plant Development on Tanjung Redeb Talisayan Highway Km 102 in Biatan District Berau Regency is quite feasible to be implemented with the assumption of 10 years investment period. Based on the calculation of Net Present Value NPV of IDR 11.499.703.942 positive Internal Rate of Return 1727 12 Benefit Cost Ratio 2309 1 with Payback Period is 5 years 7 months from the sensitivity analysis results the condition of the initial investment cost rate run up reaches to 127 the state of interest rates rose to 1454 due to uncertainty in the national and international economies and the circumstances when cash flows fell as a result of the decrease in revenues to 1684 where the circumstances state that the project which is about to be affected is not feasible or break event.

  1. The factors impacted to local contractor from Foreign Direct Investment in advancing economic hub development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq Salim, Muhamad; Zakaria, Rozana; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; Hamid, Abdul Rahim Abdul; Abdullah, Redzuan; Shahzaib Khan, Jam

    2018-04-01

    Iskandar Malaysia is an advanced economic hub which is rapidly growing in the State of Johor. It has been an attractive place for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to invest. Many sectors are affected by the presence of FDI including the construction sector. This paper highlights the investigation on the effects of FDI to the local contractor in the Iskandar Malaysia Development. In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to gain the information on problems from internal factors and external factors that caused the limitation on involvement in FDI project by local contractors. 73 numbers of local contractor registered under CIDB in class G5, G6 and G7 are the respondents. Frequency analysis and Average Index Analysis are used for the results. This study provides the factors that impacted local construction players in Iskandar Malaysia Development. This study has portrayed that FDI plays a vital and significant role in spearheading the active involvement of local contractors in an urban sustainable development.

  2. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Chaehwan

    2009-01-01

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  3. Introduction to global energetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  4. Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Ana Maria; Vanclay, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Mining companies are faced with growing societal demands that a sufficient portion of the benefits from mining should flow to local communities to ensure they are adequately compensated for the negative social impacts they experience. This paper considers how a more equitable benefit distribution system can be achieved through voluntary initiatives, recognising companies as potential agents for social development through the provision of improved services and infrastructure, capacity-building, employment and local economic development initiatives. Social Development Needs Analysis is introduced as an enhancement to participatory Social Impact Assessment methods to give practical guidance to site managers in evaluating community investment alternatives. Social Development Needs Analysis aims to identify the priority social issues that need to be addressed in order for a company to contribute to a net positive impact in the community while building assets for the business

  5. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  6. Further Development of the Nordic Electricity Market - a Common Solution for Investments in Transmission, Congestion Management and Peak Load Capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, Per-Olof

    2005-06-01

    The Nordic market fits well into place as a regional market in the over all European development, and it is therefore necessary to change the perspectives from a national one to a common Nordic approach. Despite the fact that the Nordic market is seen as a success, significant further improvements for customers and society can be made through deeper Nordic integration. The ongoing work on the Nordic electricity market within the Nordic Council of Ministers is therefore very welcomed and the Nordel report 'Enhancing Efficient Functioning of the Nordic Electricity Market' constitutes a good basis material for the further development of the market. There is a need to accelerate the pace of the harmonisation process, by making a clear timetable and prioritisation for the further work. Key issues for the next step are: Harmonisation of the legal framework and hence intensified co-operation among the Nordic governments; Implementation of the five known transmission investments, including a cost-benefit analysis; A more precise definition of the TSO responsibilities and core businesses, including operational reserves a prerequisite for further work on, e.g. the peak load issue; Initiation of cost-benefit analysis concerning future transmission investments; Guaranteed cross border capacity for market players; An analysis on settlement of imbalances and how this is affecting the peak load issue

  7. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  8. Optimizing long-term investments for a sustainable development of the ASEAN power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Matthias; Roger, Albert; Hamacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The electricity consumption in the ASEAN (Association of East Asian Nations) region is one of the fastest growing in the world and will lead to a dramatic increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the next decades. A decarbonization of the region's electricity supply is thus a very important measure when taking action on global climate change. This paper defines cost-optimal pathways towards a sustainable power system in the region by employing linear optimization. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes the required capacities and the hourly operation of generation, transmission, and storage. The obtained results show that all different kinds of renewable sources will have to be utilized, while none of them should have a share of more than one third. The findings give reason for setting up an ASEAN power grid, as it enables the transportation of electricity from the best sites to load centers and leads to a balancing of the fluctuations from wind and solar generation. We suggest fostering a diversified extension of renewables and to elaborate on political and technical solutions that enable the build up an transnational supergrid. - Highlights: • Article presents an optimization model of the ASEAN power system with high temporal and spatial resolution. • Cost-optimal investment options for achieving a sustainable electricity system are explored. • All types of renewable energies have to be employed while none of them should provide more than one third of overall supply. • Large transcontinental transmission grids will be crucial for a cost-minimal decarbonization of the ASEAN electricity sector

  9. Perspectives and development of solar energy in France. Political aspects and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Moreira, J. de

    1991-01-01

    The CNRS set up a commission in 1968 to evaluate the perspectives of solar energy in France. The conclusions of this commission led to an essentially export-minded policy that still stands today. There is no domestic market, and all the physical resources are located in the southern hemisphere. After the first petroleum crisis, France set up an action program to promote nonrenewable energy resources, and created a number of organizations, including the COMES (solar energy commission) in 1978, with financial independence but no laboratory of its own. The COMES built some big systems and signed international agreements; but in 1982 the government, to avoid duplications between the COMES and various other organizations responsible for nonrenewable resources and the rational use of energy, replaced them with the AFME, which launched the PES solar energy promotion program. Despite its good results, this program was suspended at the end of 1984, under pressure from the energy interest lobbies, and for lack of political and industrial support. There was also too much electricity being produced, and the EDF was launching a publicity campaign for all-electric living in the media. Starting in 1986 the whole solar program looked done for. The government was withdrawing, investments were slowing down, and all that was left was the photovoltaic process. So it seems that all hope is lost for any significant commercial uses in the near future. A change in energy policy would be needed, along with different organizations that would not all be grouped together under the responsibility of a single government agency, so that no one process would ride an artificial advantage over the others. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new approach to managing work-related road traffic injury: The development of a health investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-08-18

    Statistics indicate that employees commuting or traveling as part of their work are overrepresented in workplace injury and death. Despite this, many organizations are unaware of the factors within their organizations that are likely to influence potential reductions in work-related road traffic injury. This article presents a multilevel conceptual framework that identifies health investment as the central feature in reducing work-related road traffic injury. Within this framework, we explore factors operating at the individual driver, workgroup supervisor, and organizational senior management levels that create a mutually reinforcing system of safety. The health investment framework identifies key factors at the senior manager, supervisor, and driver levels to cultivating a safe working environment. These factors are high-performance workplace systems, leader-member exchange and autonomy, trust and empowerment, respectively. The framework demonstrates the important interactions between these factors and how they create a self-sustaining organizational safety system. The framework aims to provide insight into the future development of interventions that are strategically aligned with the organization and target elements that facilitate and enhance driver safety and ultimately reduce work-related road traffic injury and death.

  12. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...... on investments in the mining industry....

  13. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  14. Investing: reducing risks to enhance returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J; Glickman, S; Seidner, A G

    1996-09-01

    The financial assets of a healthcare organization can present many opportunities for investment. In order to develop a profitable investment program that avoids risky speculation, however, healthcare financial managers must fully understand the nature and risks of their organizations' investments. They must define and monitor their investment objectives, limitations, levels of acceptable risk and policies and conditions through a statement of investment policy and comprehensive investment guidelines.

  15. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  16. INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Davydenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of  increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t  think  about  financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.

  17. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  18. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's profits are predominantly derived from the company's economic development of resources located in Burma. (b...

  19. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapala, J.; Miskins, V.; Rudi, U.; Caikovska, M.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  20. Condition to be fulfill for nuclear energetics to be competitive on the base of 16. Congress WEC in Tokyo, Seminar NG NPP`96 in Warsaw and Conference ENS TOPNUX`96 in Paris; Warunki ekonomicznej konkurencyjnosci energetyki jadrowej w swietle materialow 16. Kongresu WEC w Tokio, Seminarium NG NPP`96 w Warszawie oraz Konferencji ENS TOPNUX`96 w Paryzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marecki, J. [Politechnika Gdanska, Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The state and developing trends of nuclear energetics have been presented for the period 1970-1990. The economical analysis taking into account actual prices and predicted for near future has been done. The investment and exploitation costs have been discussed and compared with classic methods of energy generation. It has been concluded that nuclear energetics will be one of the most promising options for future development of world energetics when all aspects (economic, technical, ecological) of the problem have been taken into consideration. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  1. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchao Li; Lin Chen; Yuwei Xiang; Jinying Li; Dong Peng

    2018-01-01

    Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have pos...

  2. Analysis on Time-Lag Effect of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the research and development (R&D) investment of pharmaceutical companies on enterprise value. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012, considering the period after the influence of the financial crisis. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association, and data related to stock price were extracted from KISVALUE-III of National Information and Credit Evaluation Information Service Co., Ltd. STATA 12.0 was used as the statistical package for panel analysis. In the pharmaceutical firms, the influence of the R&D intensity with regard to Tobin's q was found to be positive. However, only the R&D expenditure intensities of previous years 2 and 5 (t-2 and t-5, respectively) were statistically significant (p company, such as generic, incrementally modified drugs, and biosimilar products.

  3. Quantitative Evaluations of Foreign Direct Investments Impact on Productivity Development of Companies from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Pirtea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the foreign direct investments impact belonging to multinational companies on host country companies and on national economy is an extremely complex and present-day interest issue in the context of globalization phenomena, which at this time puts a mark on the human society evolution. During this period of rapid changes, the economies of those countries, which find them crossing a development process, can benefit a significant increase of productivity and an enhanced access to new resources and commodity markets, but at the same time they are subject to considerable risks. The purpose of this paper is to bring an empirical support at the current level of research, taking into consideration a set of Central and Eastern European countries, including Romania.

  4. Global Biofuels at the Crossroads: An Overview of Technical, Policy, and Investment Complexities in the Sustainability of Biofuel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Araújo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have the potential to alter the transport and agricultural sectors of decarbonizing societies. Yet, the sustainability of these fuels has been questioned in recent years in connection with food versus fuel trade-offs, carbon accounting, and land use. Recognizing the complicated playing field for current decision-makers, we examine the technical attributes, policy, and global investment activity for biofuels (primarily liquids. Differences in feedstock and fuel types are considered, in addition to policy approaches of major producer countries. Issues with recent, policy-driven trade developments are highlighted to emphasize how systemic complexities associated with sustainability must also be managed. We conclude with near-term areas to watch.

  5. Using an Investment Project To Develop Professional Competencies in Introduction to Financial Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Lola Woodard; Davis, Henry H.; McGrady, David G.

    2001-01-01

    A group project involves accounting students in hypothetical creation of a stock portfolio after completing financial analyses. The activity develops decision-making, critical thinking, research, communication, and finance skills. (SK)

  6. Oil for development: The future of ethical investment in a globalized economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    The presentation reviews the resource development in China, firm models and social situations such as corruption and economic growth. Various aspects of globalization, environmental effects and economic competition are discussed (tk)

  7. GREEN INVESTMENT: A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development has become an important area of concern due to climatic change with its long term effects. Climatic change has posed several challenges for economic sustainability of economies. Now major development projects have to comply with international environmental norms. Failure to do so may result in the delay of a project, fines including penalties for environmental damage or charges for remedial action, that affect the viability of a project or the value of any security taken. This paper investigates with help of secondary date using descriptive statistical technique opportunities and challenges of green investment. Here it is developed into suitable model for developing economies for successfully adopting green investment without much cost to their economies. The paper concludes that green investment involving direct investment and portfolio investment in firms adopting and following environmental protection norms will lead to sustainable growth and investment for economy.

  8. A Study on Managing the Armys Research and Development Investments in a Time of Declining Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    deferring some modernization programs. The Army’s Operating Concept to “Win In a Complex World” requires a more efficient means to develop an...of Army modernization even under fiscal constraints. The research investigates how collaboration between Government Research, Development, and...D). The government should not be the decision authority for managing independent project portfolios . (c) There should be a way to lean the operation

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KOSOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Myrvete Badivuku Pantina; Mihane Berisha Namani

    2008-01-01

    Kosova, in the period of nine years, has gone from a post-conflict environment into a state which is considered to be under transition. It has passed the reconstruction period by orienting itself toward the economic development and European Integrations. Yet, an economic development is not enough to be able to address the challenges Kosova is facing, such as high unemployment and high trade deficit rate. The unemployment rate in Kosova is one the highest economic concerns. The unemployment ra...

  10. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745

  11. Natural Resources Investment of Oil and Gas and Regional Development Impact on Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nyak Baik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in Bekasi district, at West Java, Indonesia, with the aims to analyze the management of upstream activities (exploration and production of oil and gas industry and its impact on improving the quality of infrastructure, the equal benefits proportion for the corporation, local government and society, and CSR programs that would affect the community empowerment. The analysis would be calculated based on the per capita income, the number of medical personals, and the number of teachers. Based on that calculation, this study analyzed the impact of oil and gas activities to the regional development of the area under this study. Analysis of regional development was calculated through number of industry in the area, the economic growth, and local government revenue that affects community empowerment in Bekasi.Analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM, the results showed that: (1 management of upstream oil and gas activities in this area have a positive influence, but no significant effect on community empowerment; (2 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a significant positive impact on regional development; (3 regional development has a significant positive impact on community empowerment; (4 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a greater positive influence towards community empowerment through regional development, because of the multiplier effect of the development of the region.

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT - A LEAD DRIVER FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen PIRTEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond any doubt, FDI are an alternative source of capital for financing the national development of many developing countries. Global flows of FDI have grown phenomenally over the last years. În this article we tried to demonstrate, in an empirical way, the correlation between FDI and economic growth, as far as concerns Romanian economy. We also tried to analyse the current trend of FDI, their structure and dynamics over the last seven years, and to position Romanian economy in the range of South-Eastern Europe countries as far as concerns the volume of FDI attracted.

  13. Energetic certification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At community level the problem of energy quality control in a building was introduced by EEC recommendation n. 93/76 in 1993. In this item are reported some notes on energetic certification in European countries [it

  14. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  15. Beyond friend or foe; Foreign investment, responsible business and local development in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, A.C.M.; Zoomers, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    In a paper co-written with Peter Knorringa in 2008, Bert Helmsing advocated a rethink of the role of the private sector in development. Especially among civil society representatives, views tended sometimes to hostile simplifications that did not do justice to the rather more nuanced realities on

  16. African farmer-led irrigation development: reframing agricultural policy and investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Brockington, Dan; Komakech, Hans Charles; Manjichi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food

  17. Investing in Professional Development: Building and Sustaining a Viable 4-H Youth Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Astroth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive youth development outcomes are influenced by a competent, highly trained work force that enjoys their work with young people. The youth work field has struggled with how to keep and motivate front line youth workers given the heavy workloads, low pay, lack of recognition and irregular time demands to compete with family responsibilities. Professional development is a key strategy for retaining and motivating youth workers. A model of professional development called the Western 4-H Institute has been developed and held now for two sessions. Results from participants indicate that this strategy can have a positive influence on job satisfaction, competencies, and retention. In fact, only 10 percent of participants had left during the intervening 5 years, and job satisfaction had increased significantly over time. Organizational loyalty among participants is not high, but with early career professionals, they may still be trying to find their niche. A regional training model has shown itself to be effective in supporting 4-H youth professionals and is building a sustainable workforce for the future.

  18. Electron synchrotron as the most appropriate investment into research and development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1a (2008), s11-s12 ISSN 1211-5894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : electron Synchrotron * research and development * structural funds of EU Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  20. State Appalachian Development Plans and Investment Programs for Fiscal Year 1980. ABSTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), established by Congress in 1965 as a means of relieving the chronic economic and social distresses of the Appalachian region, is composed of the governors of the 13 states that comprise Appalachia. Local development plans, based upon needs and priorities, are presented to ARC every year by the governor of…

  1. Energetic transition in the electric sector: Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian electric sector is essentially based on a source of renewable energy -hydroelectricity, and the national economy has increased its dependence of the electricity. The use of the electricity for unit of GDP increased in continuous form from 1970 and the country has serious difficulties in the financing of the expansion of the electric production. Energetic politics, in what concerns to the sustainable development in the Brazilian case, should direct its efforts toward a bigger investment in efficiency and energy conservation. a bigger use of supply options that they are renewable and decentralized will depend on high degree of the regulation of the electric sector during the privatization. The transition stage of the Brazilian electric sector will imply more efforts toward a handling based on the demand and a bigger efficiency

  2. Investing in non-communicable disease prevention and management to advance the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rachel; Bertram, Melanie Y; Jan, Stephen; Niessen, Louis W; Sassi, Franco; Jamison, Dean T; Pier, Eduardo González; Beaglehole, Robert

    2018-05-19

    Reduction of the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden is a global development imperative. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 includes target 3·4 to reduce premature NCD mortality by a third by 2030. Progress on SDG target 3·4 will have a central role in determining the success of at least nine SDGs. A strengthened effort across multiple sectors with effective economic tools, such as price policies and insurance, is necessary. NCDs are heavily clustered in people with low socioeconomic status and are an important cause of medical impoverishment. They thereby exacerbate economic inequities within societies. As such, NCDs are a barrier to achieving SDG 1, SDG 2, SDG 4, SDG 5, and SDG 10. Productivity gains from preventing and managing NCDs will contribute to SDG 8. SDG 11 and SDG 12 offer clear opportunities to reduce the NCD burden and to create sustainable and healthy cities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of United States Investment for Civil Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    selects members of his cabinet to lead the government ministries to include the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports , among...others (Government of Belize, 2014). Leading sources of economic revenue in the country include the tourism industry, marine products, agriculture...convenience. Five projects were selected from a list of planned projects developed by the Belize Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports and the Belize

  4. Development and capital investment tasks involved in the production of charge transfer equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Sandor

    1983-01-01

    Stringent requirements had to be considered in the course of the production development of charge transfer equipment. The production of structures demanding extremely high endurance was based on extensive co-operation. Special alloys were needed for parts and bearings, special heat-treatment was required at certain sections for large dimensions etc. Appropriate mashine stock, assembly and test hall have been built for assembling and testing the equipment with both 440 and 100 MW.(Sz.J.)

  5. Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility : The Scope for Corporate Investment in Community Driven Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed expanded awareness among companies, especially multinational corporations, of their responsibilities toward the communities they impact, elaborated in the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and allied notions such as a Social License to Operate (SLTO). CSR is the realization of business contributions to sustainable development goals. It refers to how business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way it operates -- m...

  6. Developing a CBA Methodology for the Scenario-Based Land-Use Impact Assessment of Proposed Rail Investments in the Leipzig Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brndan; Petrov, Laura Oana

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a methodological approach to be utilised for the evaluation of transport-land-use impacts of rapid rail investments in the Leipzig Region with the potential for this approach to be used for other European regions. Various land development scenarios are generated from the MOLAN...

  7. Energetic costs of performance in trained and untrained Anolis carolinensis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wang, Andrew Z; Husak, Jerry F

    2018-03-12

    The energetic costs of performance constitute a non-trivial component of animals' daily energetic budgets. However, we currently lack an understanding of how those costs are partitioned among the various stages of performance development, maintenance, and production. We manipulated individual investment in performance by training Anolis carolinensis lizards for endurance or sprinting ability. We then measured energetic expenditure both at rest and immediately following exercise to test whether such training alters the maintenance and production costs of performance. Trained lizards had lower resting metabolic rates than controls, suggestive of a maintenance saving associated with enhanced performance as opposed to a cost. Production costs also differed, with sprint-trained lizards incurring the largest energetic performance cost and experiencing the longest recovery times compared to endurance trained and control animals. Although performance training modifies metabolism, production costs are probably the key drivers of trade-offs between performance and other life-history traits in this species. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. THE NEED OF DEVELOPING THE INVESTMENT OF WINE-MAKING IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN ORDER TO ENTER THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ŞESTACOVSCAIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine-making in the Republic of Moldova is an industrial sector with high growth potential. But in recent years the sector has undergone drastic changes. In order to harness the potential of the wine-making we need to invest in improving the quality of wine products, to develop new products, to enter new markets. In order to achieve these objectives in the country it is developed the restructuring program of the wine sector with financial support of the European Investment Bank.

  9. Attraction of Foreign Investments in the Sphere of Economic Development of the Forest Resource Potential and Woodworking Industry: Institutional and Territorial Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that it is possible to overcome the existing investment deficit in the forestry and woodworking segments of the forestry sector of the national economy on the basis of expanding the list of forms, methods and sources of attracting foreign investments into the sphere of economic development of the forest resource potential and wood processing. There revealed main trends in the dynamics of expenses for the maintenance and operation of equipment, as well as the maintenance and operation of forest roads across the regional forestry and hunting management departments. The priorities of improving the institutional environment for attracting foreign investments in the sphere of economic development of the forest resource potential and woodworking industry are substantiated based on implementing by state forest enterprises joint projects with foreign partners, as well as projects within the framework of public-private partnership agreements.

  10. Nuclear energetics all over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, T.

    2000-01-01

    The actual state and tendencies of nuclear power further development for different world regions have been presented and discussed. The problem of safety of energetic nuclear reactors, radioactive waste management and related problems have been discussed in respect of regulations in different countries. The economical aspects of nuclear energetics in comparison with different fossil fuel power plants exploitation costs has been presented as well. The official state of international organizations (IAEA, WANO, HASA etc.) have been also shown in respect to subject presented

  11. Projection of the Russian economic development in the framework of the optimal control model by investments in fixed assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhajlovich Tarasyev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an economic growth model taking into account two factors of production: fixed capital and labor force, to study the dynamics of GDP growth. The dependence of the output of these factors is described by a production function of the exponential type. Within the framework of the optimal control theory, the optimization problem for investment levels is being solved to maximize the integral index of consumption. We study the qualitative properties of optimal trajectories as solutions of the Hamiltonian systems arising in Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The sensitivity analysis of the equilibrium solutions of the economic system is implemented with respect to the elasticity coefficients of the production function, the depreciation rate of the capital, and the discount factor, and growth trends are indicated. The econometric analysis of the model parameters is provided basing on real data for the Russian economy. In accordance with the results of the regression analysis, the projection of economic development is constructed in conditions of the applicability of the economic growth model.

  12. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  13. Key Drivers of PPPs in Electricity Generation in Developing Countries : Cross-Country Evidence of Switching between PPP Investment in Fossil Fuel and Renewable-Based Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Vagliasindi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new global evidence on the key determinants of public-private partnership investment in electricity generated by fossil fuels and renewable energy based on a panel data analysis for 105 developing countries over a period of 16 years from 1993 to 2008. It aims to identify the key factors affecting private investors' decision to enter electricity generation, through probi...

  14. Photoactive energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E.; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Scharff, Robert Jason; Veauthier, Jacqueline Marie; Myers, Thomas Winfield

    2018-02-27

    Energetic materials that are photoactive or believed to be photoactive may include a conventional explosive (e.g. PETN, nitroglycerine) derivatized with an energetic UV-absorbing and/or VIS-absorbing chromophore such as 1,2,4,5-tetrazine or 1,3,5-triazine. Absorption of laser light having a suitably chosen wavelength may result in photodissociation, decomposition, and explosive release of energy. These materials may be used as ligands to form complexes. Coordination compounds include such complexes with counterions. Some having the formula M(L).sub.n.sup.2+ were synthesized, wherein M is a transition metal and L is a ligand and n is 2 or 3. These may be photoactive upon exposure to a laser light beam having an appropriate wavelength of UV light, near-IR and/or visible light. Photoactive materials also include coordination compounds bearing non-energetic ligands; in this case, the counterion may be an oxidant such as perchlorate.

  15. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  16. Development of a remediation strategy for surface soils contaminated with energetic materials by thermal processes: Phases 1, 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    aerobic and thermophilic (55 to 60°C) conditions, which foster the growth of microorganisms. Bulking agents, such as cow manure and vegetable waste and...streams. In bench-scale testing, the EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory in Athens, GA, has identified a plant nitroreductase enzyme shown to...degrade TNT, RDX and HMX in concert with other plant enzymes . An immunoassay test has been developed that identifies nitroreductase activity in a

  17. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  18. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  19. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  20. The influence of energetic bombardment on the structure formation of sputtered zinc oxide films. Development of an atomistic growth model and its application to tailor thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, Dominik

    2011-02-17

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. It is demonstrated that with a modified, ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) process, zinc oxide films can be deposited which exhibit a markedly improved crystalline order. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that intense energetic oxygen ion bombardment can be utilized to change film texture from the typical (002)-self-texture to an a-axis texture where the (002)-planes are perpendicular to the substrate surface. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms is developed which also facilitates a more detailed understanding of the action of ion bombardment during zinc oxide film growth. It is shown that zinc oxide films are susceptible to the influence of ion bombardment particularly in the nucleation regime of growth and that this finding is generally true for all observed structural changes induced by ion bombardment with various species, energies and flux densities. It is demonstrated not only that the initial growth stage plays an important role in the formation of a preferred growth orientation but also that the action of texture forming mechanisms in subsequent growth stages is comparatively weak. (orig.)

  1. The influence of energetic bombardment on the structure formation of sputtered zinc oxide films. Development of an atomistic growth model and its application to tailor thin film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehl, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. It is demonstrated that with a modified, ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) process, zinc oxide films can be deposited which exhibit a markedly improved crystalline order. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that intense energetic oxygen ion bombardment can be utilized to change film texture from the typical (002)-self-texture to an a-axis texture where the (002)-planes are perpendicular to the substrate surface. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms is developed which also facilitates a more detailed understanding of the action of ion bombardment during zinc oxide film growth. It is shown that zinc oxide films are susceptible to the influence of ion bombardment particularly in the nucleation regime of growth and that this finding is generally true for all observed structural changes induced by ion bombardment with various species, energies and flux densities. It is demonstrated not only that the initial growth stage plays an important role in the formation of a preferred growth orientation but also that the action of texture forming mechanisms in subsequent growth stages is comparatively weak. (orig.)

  2. Regional innovative and investment processes analysis and their impact on food-industry wine-producing enterprises development in Odessa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Аnatoliyivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of state of winemaking sector, trends of innovative development of industrial enterprises of Ukraine and Odessa region are analyzed and based on this the characteristic patterns and main shortcomings are identified. The regional innovation and investment processes are anylyzed, the nature of its influence on development of wineries in food industry of Odessa region is identified. It is proved that the regulatory impact on development of viticulture and wine-making should focus on conditions and behavior of industry enterprises and directly or indirectly affect the efficiency of its business processes. One of management tools of socio-economic development of regions is regulation of innovation and investment processes, strict control over the use of targeted funds for program solving of region develoment priorities.

  3. Overseas Investment, Encouraging Long Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the context of the financial crisis,international capital flows,cross-border investment,as well as the mergers and acquisitions generally continues shrinking at a large range in 2009,while China's foreign investment and overseas cooperation still maintains a good momentum of development.

  4. Trends in Business Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...

  5. Segregation and redistribution of end-of-process energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.A.; Cummins, B.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    A system recovering then recycling or reusing end-of-process energetic materials has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system promotes separating energetic materials with high potential for reuse or recycling from those that have no further value. A feature of the system is a computerized electronic bulletin board for advertising the availability of surplus and recovered energetic materials and process chemicals to LLNL researchers, and for posting energetic materials, ''want ads.'' The system was developed and implemented to promote waste minimization and pollution prevention at LLNL

  6. Energetics of the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeang, K

    1974-07-01

    Energetics, the study of energy transformations within ecosystems, provide a useful framework for examining the relationships between the built environment (a manmade ecosystem) and the natural environment. Values are provided for using energy indices in modeling, comparing design alternatives, improving designed systems, conserving nonrenewable resources, comparing impacts, and studying energy utilization patterns as a whole. The accounting of the energy cost of a proposed project would provide additional criteria for evaluating the impact of human developments on the natural environment. (3 diagrams, 12 tables)

  7. Energetic particles in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Simnett, George M

    2017-01-01

    This monograph traces the development of our understanding of how and where energetic particles are accelerated in the heliosphere and how they may reach the Earth. Detailed data sets are presented which address these topics. The bulk of the observations are from spacecraft in or near the ecliptic plane. It is timely to present this subject now that Voyager-1 has entered the true interstellar medium. Since it seems unlikely that there will be a follow-on to the Voyager programme any time soon, the data we already have regarding the outer heliosphere are not going to be enhanced for at least 40 years.

  8. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher, H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any

  9. Developing and Implementing a Social Media Program While Optimizing Return on Investment--An MBA Program Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfoil, David M.; Aukers, Steven M.; Jobs, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, Web 2.0 has brought a wealth of opportunities for improving marketing effectiveness; social media platforms, in particular, have proven to be exceptional tools for realizing growth potential. The big question for businesses used to be how to measure and report financial return on investment (ROI) for social media ad spend to…

  10. STUDY OF INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment is the main route of economic growth, and for carrying out a modern structures branches of production. By investments to ensure economic and social development of our country,

  11. Perspectives of state investment policy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The state investment policy is an important mechanism for the country economy development. The main elements of the state investment policy allow us to outline the ways of this process development in order to increase the economic growth rates and overcome the investment climate complexities.

  12. Physics of energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Physics knowledge (theory and experiment) in energetic particles relevant to design of a reactor scale tokamak is reviewed, and projections for ITER are provided in this Chapter of the ITER Physics Basis. The review includes single particle effects such as classical alpha particle heating and toroidal field ripple loss, as well as collective instabilities that might be generated in ITER plasmas by energetic alpha particles. The overall conclusion is that fusion alpha particles are expected to provide an efficient plasma heating for ignition and sustained burn in the next step device. The major concern is localized heat loads on the plasma facing components produced by alpha particle loss, which might affect their lifetime in a tokamak reactor. (author)

  13. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  14. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  15. Energy investment on the rural and agricultural development in Cuba. Case study "4th Congreso" community, Sancti Spíritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymi González Morera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related investment process is decisive for the Cuban nation. Its effects not only will yield a sustained increase in the production of capital goods as well as and in the area of services at the macroeconomic level, but those rural settlements not previously beneficiated will receive this service. That will benefit those rural settlements that do not receive this service. An alternative to achieve this is the generalization of use of the renewable resources. In this environment the research proposes a Decision Making Analysis Framework for rural energy-wise policy, which integrates the energy-related investment decisions with local sustainable development. The implementation of the proposal led to the declaration of governmental policies from the territorial strategic planning of the territory as a premise guarantor of for development-goals at the national level.

  16. Rating in the Assessment of Investment Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmietana Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of rating procedures is associated with searching for tools that provide an objective and standardized assessment of investment risk. For this reason, rating is an important and often essential element of investment decision-making processes which determines the development of the capital market, including the real estate investment market. In the investment property market, not only does rating provide transparency of property risk, but it can also be used for real estate portfolio analysis, investment controlling, and the analysis of factors determining investment decisions (ESV 2012.

  17. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  18. ESTABLISHING A PRIORITY HIERARCHICAL FOR REGIONAL AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS ACCORDING TO TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA: A BRAZILIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela A. M. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government stepped up investments in works related to improving access to cities, when it was announced as the venue for the 2014 Football World Cup. The difficulties observed to guide these investments were to select regional airports of greater relevance for the tourism sector. Given the unavailability of data that could serve this purpose, the present study sought to define, from secondary and qualitative information extracted from government documents, five indicators to allow a priority hierarchical. The methodology applied the hierarchical analysis method (AHP and standardization procedures, resulting in the selection of five airports in the North region, four airports in the Southeast, South and Northeast regions, and one in the Center-West region of Brazil. The main advantage of the methodology was the significant reduction of cost and time in the decision-making process. An important conclusion was the understanding of tourism as an option for regional economic diversification.

  19. Investment banks in AIC – alternative loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.

  20. Evaluating the Influence of Criteria to Attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to Develop Supporting Industries in Vietnam by Utilizing Fuzzy Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Chin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, Vietnam’s government concentrated on the promotion of supporting industries which can be seen as a “key” solution to sustaining economic growth, thereby improving the national welfare. However, Vietnam’s supporting industries still exhibit lower development and competitive weakness. The main reason for this condition is due to a lack of capital, technological innovation, and necessary management skills for development. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI for developing supporting industries offers the best strategy to realize this solution. However, attracting FDI to develop supporting industries represents a weakness which lies in both the quantity (total capital and projects and quality of investment. So which factors are effective to attract FDI for developing supporting industries in Vietnam? This investigation establishes an analytical hierarchy framework available to the Vietnamese government and to policymakers in order to evaluate the influence of criteria needed to attract FDI for developing supporting industries based on eight main criteria. They include legal and institutional criteria, the market size of supporting industries, human resources, infrastructure facilities, technological development and innovation, domestic supply capacity, international cooperation and competition, and other criteria. This paper uses fuzzy preference relations (FPR to evaluate the influence of criteria necessary to attract FDI for developing supporting industries, and these analytical results demonstrate that legal and institutional criteria, domestic supply capacity, human resources, technology development and innovation are all major considerations for attracting FDI.

  1. Development and assessment of an integrated ecological modelling framework to assess the effect of investments in wastewater treatment on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin-Gonzalez, Javier E; Boets, Pieter; Everaert, Gert; Pauwels, Ine S; Lock, Koen; Gobeyn, Sacha; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Goethals, Peter L M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, large investments in wastewater treatment are made to improve water quality. However, the impacts of these investments on river water quality are often not quantified. To assess water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated ecological modelling framework for the River Drava (Croatia) that includes physical-chemical and hydromorphological characteristics as well as the ecological river water quality status. The developed submodels and the integrated model showed accurate predictions when comparing the modelled results to the observations. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen concentrations (ammonium and organic nitrogen) were the most important variables in determining the ecological water quality (EWQ). The result of three potential investment scenarios of the wastewater treatment infrastructure in the city of Varaždin on the EWQ of the River Drava was assessed. From this scenario-based analysis, it was concluded that upgrading the existing wastewater treatment plant with nitrogen and phosphorus removal will be insufficient to reach a good EWQ. Therefore, other point and diffuse pollution sources in the area should also be monitored and remediated to meet the European WFD standards.

  2. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  3. Pension fund sophistication and investment policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364537906; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    This paper assesses the sophistication of pension funds’ investment policies using data on 748 Dutch pension funds during the 1999–2006 period. We develop three indicators of sophistication: gross rounding of investment choices, investments in alternative sophisticated asset classes and ‘home bias’.

  4. Biogas - energetical and environmental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skele, A.; Upitis, A.; Kristapsons, M.; Goizevskis, O.; Ziemelis, I.

    2003-01-01

    Energy sector has been one of the most important priorities since reestablishment of independence of Latvia. The deficiency of energy resources in Latvia has created a need to assess all the possibilities to utilise all possibilities to utilise all the energy resources, including the biological ones, to motivate the trends in the development of energetic in Latvia. A huge non-utilised reserve in Latvia is methane fermentation of organic agricultural and municipal residue and sewage from food industry. The organic mass of solid and liquid waste of different origin and its energetic potential for rural region have been investigated. The work deals with an integrated system of the utilisation of agricultural waste with the anaerobic (biogas) and the thermal processes. Presently the anaerobic waste utilisation, in combination with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser, is considered as one of the energetically most efficient and environment-friendly ways of organic fertiliser utilisation (authors)

  5. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. О.

    2017-01-01

    Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate...

  6. Foreign direct investment in biofuels and sustainable development: the case of jatropha in the Boeny region, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Nicotra, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen the rapid spread of market-based approaches to address climate change mitigation, adaptation and poverty alleviation. In the first decade of the 21st century, the enthusiasm for pursuing mitigation through green alternatives to fossil fuels contributed to a spike in global investments in biofuel crops. The tropical plant jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linn.) was promoted as the ideal ‘green’ biofuel because of its multiple qualities. It was a non-food crop that was seen to...

  7. The scale concept and sustainable development: implications on the energetics and water resources; O conceito de escala e o desenvolvimento sustentavel: implicacoes sobre os recursos energeticos e hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    1999-07-01

    The relationships between both the demographic growth and the water and energetic resources are focused. The planet scale and carrying capacity are discussed starting from the maximum and optimum sustainable concepts, both anthropocentric and biocentric. Two scenarios denominated 'sustainable agriculture' and 'sharing-water' are elaborated with the available resources of water, fertile lands and energy consumption, and with the population trends. (author)

  8. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  9. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  10. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  11. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  12. Energetics of bacterial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebard, David N; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2009-09-10

    We report the results of extensive numerical simulations and theoretical calculations of electronic transitions in the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic bacterium. The energetics and kinetics of five electronic transitions related to the kinetic scheme of primary charge separation have been analyzed and compared to experimental observations. Nonergodic formulation of the reaction kinetics is required for the calculation of the rates due to a severe breakdown of the system ergodicity on the time scale of primary charge separation, with the consequent inapplicability of the standard canonical prescription to calculate the activation barrier. Common to all reactions studied is a significant excess of the charge-transfer reorganization energy from the width of the energy gap fluctuations over that from the Stokes shift of the transition. This property of the hydrated proteins, breaking the linear response of the thermal bath, allows the reaction center to significantly reduce the reaction free energy of near-activationless electron hops and thus raise the overall energetic efficiency of the biological charge-transfer chain. The increase of the rate of primary charge separation with cooling is explained in terms of the temperature variation of induction solvation, which dominates the average donor-acceptor energy gap for all electronic transitions in the reaction center. It is also suggested that the experimentally observed break in the Arrhenius slope of the primary recombination rate, occurring near the temperature of the dynamical transition in proteins, can be traced back to a significant drop of the solvent reorganization energy close to that temperature.

  13. Energetic cost of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Philip K; Salazar, Vielka L

    2011-01-15

    Communication signals may be energetically expensive or inexpensive to produce, depending on the function of the signal and the competitive nature of the communication system. Males of sexually selected species may produce high-energy advertisement signals, both to enhance detectability and to signal their size and body condition. Accordingly, the proportion of the energy budget allocated to signal production ranges from almost nothing for many signals to somewhere in excess of 50% for acoustic signals in short-lived sexually selected species. Recent data from gymnotiform electric fish reveal mechanisms that regulate energy allocated to sexual advertisement signals through dynamical remodeling of the excitable membranes in the electric organ. Further, males of the short-lived sexually selected species, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, trade off among different metabolic compartments, allocating energy to signal production while reducing energy used in other metabolic functions. Female B. gauderio, by contrast, do not trade off energy between signaling and other functions. To fuel energetically expensive signal production, we expect a continuum of strategies to be adopted by animals of different life history strategies. Future studies should explore the relation between life history and energy allocation trade-offs.

  14. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  15. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  16. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  17. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  18. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma

  19. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  20. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Investment Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Kekytė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of financial markets resulted new challenges for both investors and investment issues. This increased demand for innovative, modern investment and portfolio management decisions adequate for market conditions. Financial market receives special attention, creating new models, includes financial risk management and investment decision support systems.Researchers recognize the need to deal with financial problems using models consistent with the reality and based on sophisticated quantitative analysis technique. Thus, role mathematical modeling in finance becomes important. This article deals with various investments decision-making models, which include forecasting, optimization, stochatic processes, artificial intelligence, etc., and become useful tools for investment decisions.

  2. Socially responsible investments in mutual funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funaru, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to add contribution to the socially responsible investments (from now on called “SRI” research by examining the significance of this type of investment in terms of ethical or financial prior behaviour. Using the sample of European market of socially responsible investments funds, we first explore the SRI market dimension compared to the global data on SRI. We also investigate whether the ethical recognition is more important rather than the financial performance. Applied to the European social responsible investment fund market, the paper investigates the difference between these two aspects of behaviour and underlies the importance of socially responsible investments in promoting a sustainable development.

  3. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  4. Economic crisis: prelude to an energetic crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recession due to the financial crisis of 2008 has stopped the world economic development and the hydrocarbons sector too. Collapse of prices, cancellation of investments, reach of a 'peak demand', the four speeches which are given here, describe these impacts and their consequences; but in scrutinizing the incentives of the crisis, they show the new role of petroleum: pretext value against the weakness of dollar and the inflation risks, speculative value for the investment funds. (O.M.)

  5. Investments in liberalised power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Meibom, P.

    2005-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty in the Nordic electricity system with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started with a situation of a large capacity margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime, it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The purpose of the present study is to analyze if and when investors choose to invest in new electricity production capacity depending on their existing portfolio of power producing units. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the Nordic power market, such as new transmission lines between neighbouring countries, more installed wind power, and changes in CO 2 emission trading costs, are used to investigate the consequences for investments in a natural gas fired, combined cycle power plant. The main result of the analysis is that new investments are highly sensitive to investors existing power production portfolio, as new production units affect the merit order in the power market, i.e. compete with the existing power plants. (au)

  6. Development and Piloting of Sustainability Assessment Metrics for Arctic Process Industry in Finland—The Biorefinery Investment and Slag Processing Service Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Husgafvel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regionally, there has been a lot of focus on the advancement of sustainable arctic industry and circular economy activities within process industry in the Finnish Lapland. In this study, collaboration between university and industry was established facilitated by regional development actors to develop and pilot test a sustainability assessment approach taking into account previous work in this field. The industry partners in this study were a biorefinery investment in the first case and a slag processing service in the second case. As a result of the joint efforts, novel sets of environmental and economic sustainability assessment indicators and associated sub-indicators were developed and the existing set of social indicators was updated. Moreover, environmental and social sustainability assessments were implemented in the biorefinery case accompanied by a separate evaluation of regional economic impacts. In the slag processing case, environmental, economic and social sustainability were assessed. The results of the sustainability assessments indicated very good level of overall performance in both cases. However, specific elements that contributed to lower level of performance included lack of specific sustainability management and reporting approaches and need for better performance in supply chain sustainability, monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle thinking and circular economy training. The expected effects of the planned investment on the regional economy were very positive based on the results of the evaluation.

  7. Investment for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprigarde, G.

    1994-01-01

    In view of the increasing requirements concerning availability and safety of power plants, their economical operation and the environmental protection and safeguarding of resources, the new process control system ''Teleperm XP'' for power plants has been developed. A modern and purposeful system architecture, together with the use of the most innovative standards of hardware and software, makes it possible to maintain the short innovation cycles in microelectronics, and thus to secure investments for the future during the entire lifetime of a power station. (orig.) [de

  8. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraseni, T N; Mushtaq, S; Reardon-Smith, K

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia. (letter)

  9. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  10. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  11. An Information-Based Trade Off between Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Itay Goldstein; Assaf Razin

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops a model of foreign direct investments (FDI) and foreign portfolio investments (FPI).The model describes an information-based trade off between direct investments and portfolio investments. Direct investors are more informed about the fundamentals of their projects. This information enables them to manage their projects more efficiently. However, it also creates an asymmetric-information problem in case they need to sell their projects prematurely, and reduces the price they...

  12. Crisis will impact investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    of supply deterioration. While today's world economic crisis should reduce energy demand, decrease CO 2 emissions and decrease electricity and gas prices, the credit crunch will likely delay the needed investments in infrastructure to replace aging plants or to build new plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines. Also, governments will have less tax revenues and will have to limit their spending, analysts said. They might be tempted to reduce financial subsidies to renewable energies, as did the Spanish government in October 2008, limiting its incentives to solar development. Analysts said such decisions could jeopardize the growth of renewable energies, especially wind and solar, which need subsidies to be financially competitive. Governments could also impose new taxes on certain utilities; for example, windfall profits linked to CO 2 certificates obtained for free and incorporated in the wholesale prices at their market price. Also, many governments may want to protect their citizens' purchasing power by taking measures such as capping electricity prices (as announced by the Belgian minister of Energy in October 2008) or imposing special measures to protect vulnerable customers (as per discussions currently taking place in the U.K.). During the first half of 2008, some long-awaited mergers and acquisitions were closed, in turn triggering acquisitions of the divested assets following these transactions. The crisis should trigger an increased market consolidation, the acquirers being those with solid balance sheets and cash. Analysts said young companies and new entrants with weak balance sheets could be acquired by stronger ones, thus decreasing market competition. Utilities have to quickly adapt to the new landscape by thriving toward operational excellence, analysts said. This means they will have to streamline their internal processes, simplify their organizations and increase their reactivity while continuously benchmarking their results with the 'best in

  13. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  14. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  15. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  16. Industrial Employment, Investment Equipment and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dellas, Harris

    2000-01-01

    The industrialization of labour is the main engine of growth during the early stages of economic development. In less developed countries, equipment investment has played a less important role than non-equipment investment; and it has only proved growth enhancing when it either encountered a substantial industrial labour force or fostered a large increase in the share of industrial employment. These findings draw attention to the effects of investment on the composition of the labour force; a...

  17. Energetic solar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  18. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  19. THE DEFINITION OF INVESTMENT AND THE ICSID CONVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Other States (the ICSID Convention) has a trickledown effect on the Nigerian. Investment ... Keywords: Nigerian Investment Promotion Act, Law and Development,. Investment ... ARB/84/3, Decision on Jurisdiction (N0.1) 27 November 1985). 3 ICSID ..... purchase of bonds qualify as an investment within ICSID jurisdiction.

  20. Analysis of the energetic sector through the national energetic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Lozano, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The author shows the results of the national energetic balance 1975-2005, through the energetic matrix of the country, giving an annual growth of 5.1% in this period of offer of primary energy, where the mineral coal participates with 9,6%, the hydraulic energy with 4,8%, natural gas with 4,2%, trash with 2,4% and petroleum with 2,2%, while the firewood fell in 0,5%

  1. Investigation of seedlings growth and development of some trees and shrubs grown on energetic ashes of two types. [Acer negundo; Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Populus alba; Myricaria germanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluczynski, B

    1973-01-01

    Pot experiments concerning the degree of resistance, of chosen species of trees and shrubs to unfavorable physical and chemical properties of energetic ashes, obtained from burning brown (K) and pit (O) coal, were carried out. Seeds were sown out in prepared substrates, in 8 combinations. The investigation consisted of two parts. Seeds of 11 species of trees and shrubs and 1 herb plant were used in the first part. Seeds of 6 species of trees and shrubs were used in the second part. All the environmental variants were investigated in 4 replications (replication = pot). Each species was evaluated according to several features determining its usefulness on various substrates. These features were divided into two groups, characterizing seedlings survival (feature group ..cap alpha..) and health conditions and general vitality (feature group ..beta..). The obtained results indicate a need of examining the usefulness for dump recultivation in field conditions of Acer negundo, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Populus alba and probably Myricaria germanica. 8 references, 17 tables.

  2. Genomic Medicine Without Borders: Which Strategies Should Developing Countries Employ to Invest in Precision Medicine? A New "Fast-Second Winner" Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Cooper, David N; Mitropoulou, Christina; Agathos, Spiros; Reichardt, Jürgen K V; Al-Maskari, Fatima; Chantratita, Wasun; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet; Katsila, Theodora; Lopez-Correa, Catalina; Ali, Bassam R; Patrinos, George P

    2017-11-01

    Genomic medicine has greatly matured in terms of its technical capabilities, but the diffusion of genomic innovations worldwide faces significant barriers beyond mere access to technology. New global development strategies are sorely needed for biotechnologies such as genomics and their applications toward precision medicine without borders. Moreover, diffusion of genomic medicine globally cannot adhere to a "one-size-fits-all-countries" development strategy, in the same way that drug treatments should be customized. This begs a timely, difficult but crucial question: How should developing countries, and the resource-limited regions of developed countries, invest in genomic medicine? Although a full-scale investment in infrastructure from discovery to the translational implementation of genomic science is ideal, this may not always be feasible in all countries at all times. A simple "transplantation of genomics" from developed to developing countries is unlikely to be feasible. Nor should developing countries be seen as simple recipients and beneficiaries of genomic medicine developed elsewhere because important advances in genomic medicine have materialized in developing countries as well. There are several noteworthy examples of genomic medicine success stories involving resource-limited settings that are contextualized and described in this global genomic medicine innovation analysis. In addition, we outline here a new long-term development strategy for global genomic medicine in a way that recognizes the individual country's pressing public health priorities and disease burdens. We term this approach the "Fast-Second Winner" model of innovation that supports innovation commencing not only "upstream" of discovery science but also "mid-stream," building on emerging highly promising biomarker and diagnostic candidates from the global science discovery pipeline, based on the unique needs of each country. A mid-stream entry into innovation can enhance collective

  3. Social Return on Investment (SROI): An Innovative Approach to Sustainable Development Goals for Sexual and Reproductive Health Programming in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubha R; Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi

    2016-09-01

    Despite efforts, sub-Saharan Africa did not achieve many key Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) targets under the Millennium Development Goals. In the post 2015 era, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will frame decisions on donor priorities and resource allocations. Successfully addressing SRH challenges in sub-Saharan Africa have been blunted due to fragmentation of SRH interventions in planning and implementation, lack of coherence between policies and program implementation, resulting in poor program performance and lack of accountability. We suggest the Social Return on Investment (SROI) framework offers a strategic approach for sub-Saharan Africa in support of the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of SRH programs given its capacity to capture social and economic impacts, stakeholder participation, and sensitivity towards key human rights concerns relevant to SRH. SROI disrupts a -business as usual‖ approach for one that is systematic, participatory, and supportive of economic and human rights needs for success in the SDG era.

  4. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  5. [Research on investing methods and mold cooling methods of the self-made investment for pure titanium castings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Huang, Xu; Zhao, Yun-Feng; Xiao, Mao-Chun; Li, Yong

    2006-10-01

    To observe the influence of different investing methods and mold cooling methods on pure titanium castings invested in the self-made investment, and to provide theoretic base for the development for the investment. The influence of investing methods (one-step investing method and two-step investing method) on castability and crown fit of titanium castings were investigated, and the influence of cooling methods on reaction layers, mechanical properties and crown fit of titanium castings were investigated. Both the investing methods exhibited good castability, but only the titanium full crowns by one-step investing method showed clinically acceptable fit. Although the quenching group showed thinner reaction layer(100 microm), lower strength and similar elongation rate, the titanium castings by bench cooling showed clinically acceptable full crown fit with 115 microm thick reaction layer as cast. The one-step investing method and the bench cooling are recommended for the self-made investment.

  6. Energetic policies 2005-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This power point exhibition shows the following topics: energy analysis, production and use, supply and demand, consumption, energy sources, energetic prospective of Uruguay country, medium and long term perspectives.

  7. On attracting investment to Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of economic systems development have necessitated more precise directions of investment process for the economic growth to accelerate. The precipitous fall of oil prices that occurred in the second half of 2014 weighed heavily on foreign direct investment flows to oilexporting countries. The problem of attracting investment is one of the key problems of economic development. The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shifts in the structure of investments, the study of the structure of investments to the Russian economy. Structural changes result from differences in the growth rate of the elements forming an economic system. An integral coefficient has been used for evaluation of structural changes. Multiple regression was used to analyze the impact of various factors on the change in structure of investment. The regression coefficients in the model give quantitative assessment of the pace of change in the structure as it depends on a specific factor. The model estimation shows that the variables “share of investments in manufacturing” (positive influence and “share of investments in the health, physical culture, education” (negative influence have the largest t-values. Hence, these two factors influence the structural changes in investments most strongly The evaluation and analysis of the structural shifts may lead to conclusions regarding the efficiency of the structure investment and adjustment of the economic policy.

  8. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  9. Computational Chemistry Toolkit for Energetic Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    industry are aggressively engaged in efforts to develop multiscale modeling and simulation methodologies to model and analyze complex phenomena across...energetic materials design. It is hoped that this toolkit will evolve into a collection of well-integrated multiscale modeling methodologies...Experimenta Theoreticala This Work 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium nitrate 8.4 41.7 47.5 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium azide 138.1 161.6

  10. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Recalde

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, ...

  11. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  12. The Division of Labor, Investment, and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokai Yang

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model based on corner solutions to formalize the classical theory of investment and capital which considers investment to be a vehicle for developing a high level of division of labor in roundabout productive activities. If it takes time for a specialist producer of tractors to learn the right method in producing commercially viable tractors, specialization in producing tractors is infeasible in the absence of investment in terms of consumption go...

  13. Optimal Priority Structure, Capital Structure, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Hackbarth; David C. Mauer

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between financing and investment decisions in a dynamic model, where the firm has multiple debt issues and equityholders choose the timing of investment. Jointly optimal capital and priority structures can virtually eliminate investment distortions because debt priority serves as a dynamically optimal contract. Examining the relative efficiency of priority rules observed in practice, we develop several predictions about how firms adjust their priority structure in res...

  14. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  15. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  16. A combined energetic and economic approach for the sustainable design of geothermal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Vaccaro, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploitation of medium to low temperature geothermal sources: ORC power plants. • Integrated energetic and economic approach for the analysis of geothermal power plants. • A brief overview of the cost items of geothermal power plants. • Analysis of specific cost of geothermal power plants based on the method proposed. • Analysis of sustainability of geothermal energy systems based on resource durability. - Abstract: The perspectives of future development of geothermal power plants, mainly of small size for the exploitation of medium–low temperature reservoirs, are discussed and analyzed in the present paper. Even if there is a general interest in new power plants and investments in this sector are recognized, the new installations are reduced; the apparent advantage of null cost of the energy source is negatively balanced by the high drilling and installation costs. A key element for the design of a geothermal plant for medium temperature geothermal source is the definition of the power of the plant (size): this is important in order to define not only the economic plan but also the durability of the reservoir. Considering that it is not possible that the development of geothermal industry could be driven only by an economic perspective, the authors propose a method for joining energetic and economic approaches. The result of the combined energetic and economic analysis is interesting particularly in case of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants in order to define a suitable and optimal size and to maximize the resource durability. The method is illustrated with reference to some particular case studies, showing that the sustainability of small size geothermal plants will be approached only if the research for more economic solutions will be combined with efforts in direction of efficiency increase

  17. A real options approach to biotechnology investment policy-the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine development in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages of the project - and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors'/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could be to issue put options for the vaccine candidate, enabling vaccine developers to hedge against the economic risk from market volatility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investing in organisational culture: nursing students' experience of organisational learning culture in aged care settings following a program of cultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Concerns around organisational learning culture limit nursing student placements in aged care settings to first year experiences. Determine the impact of an extended staff capacity building program on students' experiences of the organisational learning culture in the aged care setting. Pre and post-test design. A convenience sample of first, second and third year Bachelor of Nursing students attending placements at three residential aged care facilities completed the Clinical Learning Organisational Culture Survey. Responses between the group that attended placement before the program (n = 17/44; RR 38%) and the group that attended following the program (n = 33/72; RR 45%) were compared. Improvements were noted in the areas of recognition, accomplishment, and influence, with decreases in dissatisfaction. Organisational investment in building staff capacity can produce a positive learning culture. The aged care sector offers a rich learning experience for students when staff capacity to support learning is developed.

  19. Experimental development, 1D CFD simulation and energetic analysis of a 15 kw micro-CHP unit based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, M.; Gimelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. - Highlights: • This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant. • The 15 kW micro-CHP plant is based on a GPL reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. • Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. • It was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. • The analysed solution is particularly suited for

  20. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  1. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  2. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2006-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  3. U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign direct investment is concentrated in high-income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years...

  4. Reproductive investment in the intertidal bivalve Macoma balthica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkoop, P. J. C.; Van der Meer, J.; Beukema, J. J.; Kwast, D.

    1999-05-01

    Bivalve eggs generally contain large amounts of lipids which, in comparison with proteins and carbohydrates, have high energy contents and are thus costly in energetic terms. As lipid contents vary between species, comparisons of reproductive investments should not only include numbers and sizes of eggs, but also their energy content. We estimated the investment in egg material of mature females of the Baltic tellin Macoma balthica (L.) in terms of both mass and energy content. All mass below a minimum body mass (below which no eggs are produced) was defined as structural mass. This threshold amounts to a body mass index (BMI) of 5.6 (ash-free dry mass per cubic shell length in mg cm -3). More than half (55%) of the mass above the structural mass was invested in egg material and 45% in extra somatic tissue and tissue for production and storage of gametes. This means that the amount of eggs spawned ranged from 0 (at BMI = 5.6 mg cm -3) to 33% of the total ash-free dry mass (at a high BMI value of 14 mg cm -3). Eggs contained a relatively large amount of lipids, about 30% of their ash-free dry mass, whereas non-egg material contained only about 7% lipids. Eggs of two other bivalves in the Wadden Sea, the cockle Cerastoderma edule and the mussel Mytilus edulis, were smaller and contained only about 11% and 20% lipids, respectively. Energy content of M. balthica eggs amounted to ˜0.006 J, in the other two species to ˜0.002 J. The function of the more expensive eggs in M. balthica may be related to its early spawning in spring, causing slower larval development until first feeding.

  5. Musical Tasks and Energetic Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L

    2018-03-08

    Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).

  6. An automatic system to study sperm motility and energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, LZ; Nascimento, JM; Chandsawangbhuwana, C; Botvinick, EL; Berns, MW

    2008-01-01

    An integrated robotic laser and microscope system has been developed to automatically analyze individual sperm motility and energetics. The custom-designed optical system directs near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point 3-D gradient laser trap at the focal spot of the microscope objective. A two-level computer structure is described that quantifies the sperm motility (in terms of swimming speed and swimming force) and energetics (measuring mid-piece membr...

  7. Wrong directions of the energetic policy; Descaminhos da politica energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    1997-12-31

    The energetic planning should take an important role in the formulation of the economic and social development policy of any country. This work presents the opinion of the author in relation to this issue in what concerns the Brazilian experience. Several actions considered wrong by the author, which were taken by the government in what concerns energetic policy are presented and their expected consequences in the near future are discussed 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Financial development and investment market integration: An approach of underlying financial variables & indicators for corporate governance growth empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development is correlated with several underlying regulatory variables (such as indicators of investor protection, market transparency variables for corporate governance growth and rules for capital market development, which are under the control of national legislators and EU directives. This paper provides estimates of the relationship between financial market development and corporate growth and assesses the impact of financial market integration on this relationship with reference to European Union (EU countries. The regression results obtained using this panel support the hypothesis that financial development promotes growth particularly in industries that are more financially dependent on external finance. For policy purposes, analyzing changes in these regulatory variables may be a more interesting exercise than analyzing integration of the financial systems themselves. Since assuming that EU countries will raise its regulatory and legal standards to the U.S. standards appears unrealistic, in this case we examine a scenario where EU countries raise their standards to the highest current EU standard.

  9. Exploring Synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapdily developing urban landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is a journal article that describes the use of a system dynamics model to explore the synergies between transit and development strategies as they give...

  10. Development and validation of a critical gradient energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmode transport model for DIII-D tilted neutral beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; VanZeeland, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments with the DIII-D tilted neutral beam injection (NBI) varying the beam energetic particle (EP) source profiles have provided strong evidence that unstable Alfven eigenmodes (AE) drive stiff EP transport at a critical EP density gradient [Heidbrink et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093006]. Here the critical gradient is identified by the local AE growth rate being equal to the local ITG/TEM growth rate at the same low toroidal mode number. The growth rates are taken from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Simulation show that the slowing down beam-like EP distribution has a slightly lower critical gradient than the Maxwellian. The ALPHA EP density transport code [Waltz and Bass 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 104006], used to validate the model, combines the low-n stiff EP critical density gradient AE mid-core transport with the Angioni et al (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 055013) energy independent high-n ITG/TEM density transport model controling the central core EP density profile. For the on-axis NBI heated DIII-D shot 146102, while the net loss to the edge is small, about half the birth fast ions are transported from the central core r/a  <  0.5 and the central density is about half the slowing down density. These results are in good agreement with experimental fast ion pressure profiles inferred from MSE constrained EFIT equilibria.

  11. The role of Foreign Direct Investment in higher education in the developing countries (Does FDI promote education?)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Natalia VECHIU

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of FDI inflows on higher education in developing countries for the period 1998-2008. A large panel of developing countries is analyzed using different econometric techniques and specifications. We find evidence of short-term negative effect of the FDI on tertiary education measured by school enrolment. The negative effect of FDI is confirmed for both secondary and tertiary education when measured as the adult population having acquired the level. Among other cont...

  12. Investing for a better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    To address the broad range of environmental issues in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has adopted a twofold operational strategy: a regional programme approach and a project-based approach. The Bank is undertaking studies of environmental legislation and standards, and of training, liability and public participation requirements in the countries where it operates. It has also initiated environmental assessments in sectors where future investment projects are anticipated. The principal objectives of this work are to assist the countries of central and eastern Europe, those who wish to invest in these countries and Bank staff in their environmental appraisal work

  13. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...... actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy...... design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies...

  14. Calculating investment potential in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Taxes and licensing provisions typically increase overall costs for private investors, and therefore impede private investment. In addition, the design and structure of tax systems in each country affect the extent to which financial risks are borne by private investors, rather than by the host government. Tax systems that increase perceived financial risks stemming from unpredictable oil prices, development costs and physical characteristics of undiscovered or undeveloped oil fields raise further impediments to private investment. This analysis focuses on both aspects of the investment climate--risk and return--and the way that investment incentives within three South American countries are influenced by tax and licensing regimes

  15. Narratives of Participants in National Career Development Programs for Women in Academic Medicine: Identifying the Opportunities for Strategic Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, Deborah L; Newbill, Sharon L; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Academic medicine has initiated changes in policy, practice, and programs over the past several decades to address persistent gender disparity and other issues pertinent to its sociocultural context. Three career development programs were implemented to prepare women faculty to succeed in academic medicine: two sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, which began a professional development program for early career women faculty in 1988. By 1995, it had evolved into two programs one for early career women and another for mid-career women. By 2012, more than 4000 women faculty from medical schools across the U.S and Canada had participated in these intensive 3-day programs. The third national program, the Hedwig van Ameringen Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine(®) (ELAM) program for women, was developed in 1995 at the Drexel University College of Medicine. Narratives from telephone interviews representing reflections on 78 career development seminars between 1988 and 2010 describe the dynamic relationships between individual, institutional, and sociocultural influences on participants' career advancement. The narratives illuminate the pathway from participating in a career development program to self-defined success in academic medicine in revealing a host of influences that promoted and/or hindered program attendance and participants' ability to benefit after the program in both individual and institutional systems. The context for understanding the importance of these career development programs to women's advancement is nestled in the sociocultural environment, which includes both the gender-related influences and the current status of institutional practices that support women faculty. The findings contribute to the growing evidence that career development programs, concurrent with strategic, intentional support of institutional leaders, are necessary to achieve gender equity and diversity inclusion.

  16. Investing in Iranian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, Colin.

    1997-01-01

    The decision by a French-led consortium to sign a 2bn oil development deal with Iran represents the largest single investment in the Islamic Republic since its revolution of 1978/79. Despite the threat of US sanctions on investors, Iran is on the threshold of a major revitalization of its hydrocarbon industries. (UK)

  17. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  18. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty...... surrounding expected profits indicated by share price volatility, were the chief influences on investment levels, and that heightened share price volatility played the dominant role in the crucial investment collapse in 1930. Investment did not simply follow the downward course of income at the onset...

  19. BRICS Investment Policies from PFI Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sakharov 

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Policy Framework for Investment (PFI contains recommendations and best practices in 12 investment-related policy areas, and is widely regarded as the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative instrument on international investment regulation. The topicality of PFI recommendations for OECD members and other countries, including Russia, is dictated by competition in international investment markets. The instrument’s implementation can significantly boost a national jurisdiction’s attractiveness to investors and thus increase its economic competitiveness. The experience of the BRICS countries as large developing economies involved in collaboration with the OECD could be of great value from the standpoint of PFI implementation in Russia. This article examines investment policies of Brazil, India, China and South Africa from the perspective of PFI recommendations. The analysis is organized around four major themes: the general characteristics of investment regimes and investment stimuli, national investment regulation regimes, trade policies and overcoming structural limitations. The analysis forms the basis for recommendations to improve the investment policy regime in Russia

  20. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.