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Sample records for development early results

  1. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O 3 ) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O 3 ) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O 3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  2. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  3. Results from a pediatric surgical centre justify early intervention in disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer M; Warne, Garry; Grover, Sonia; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2009-02-01

    Controversy persists surrounding early management of disorders of sex development. We assessed genital appearance, gender identity, and quality of life in prepubertal children who have had early surgical intervention. Children treated for disorders of sex development who were 5 to 10 years of age were eligible (n = 54). Children were scored (modified Creighton scale) for anatomical and cosmetic outcome, and both patients and parents completed PedsQL quality-of-life and gender identity questionnaires, with ethics approval. Of 54 patients, 41 presented for review. Treatment began at 13.2 (1.8-250.1) months (median; range) and were reviewed at 7.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) years of age. Nineteen were raised as girls and 22 as boys. Girls had good (85%) or satisfactory (15%) anatomical/cosmetic outcome, whereas 52% boys had good, 38% satisfactory, and 10% poor cosmetic outcomes. On gender identity questionnaire, boys scored 3.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) and girls 3.6 +/- 0.5; 1 of 19 boys and 3 of 19 girls had lower scores, suggesting risk of gender identity disorder. Quality-of-life scores were 80+ for physical and 65 to 80 for psychosocial scores. Early intervention is generally associated with positive outcomes for patients and parents. Girls had better anatomical outcomes than boys, and gender dysphoria risks were low in both sexes.

  4. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  5. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  6. Co-occurring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  8. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  9. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  10. Search Results | Page 39 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 381 - 390 of 8491 ... Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. Project.

  11. Early life urban exposure as a risk factor for developing obesity and impaired fasting glucose in later adulthood: results from two cohorts in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wisetborisut, Anawat; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2015-09-16

    Obesity and obesity related conditions, driven by processes such as urbanization and globalization, are contributing to pronounced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There is limited evidence on the influence of living in an urban environment in early life on obesity and obesity related conditions later in life in developing countries such as Thailand. We used data from two cohort studies conducted in Thailand, the Thai Cohort Study (TCS) and the Chiang Mai University (CMU) Health Worker Study, to investigate the association between early life urban (vs rural) exposure and the later development of obesity. We additionally explored the association between early life urban exposure and impaired fasting glucose in adulthood using data from the CMU Health Worker Study. Among 48,490 adults from the TCS, 9.1 % developed obesity within 4 years of follow-up. Among 1,804 initially non-obese adults from CMU Health worker study, 13.6 % developed obesity within 5 years of follow-up. Early life urban exposure was associated with increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood in both cohorts. Adjusting for age and sex, those who spent their early lives in urban areas were 1.21 times more likely to develop obesity in the TCS (OR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.31) and 1.65 times more likely in the CMU Health Worker study (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.23 to 2.20). These associations remained significant despite adjustment for later life urban exposure and current household income. No evidence for an association was found for impaired fasting glucose. Early life urban exposure was associated with increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood. These findings support public health intervention programs to prevent obesity starting from early ages.

  12. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Arons, MPAff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA in 327 predominantly African American mother–child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE Study (Memphis, TN. To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months. Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = −0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively. Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course.

  13. Development of the Paris definition of early Crohn's disease for disease-modification trials: results of an international expert opinion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Billioud, Vincent; D'Haens, Geert; Panaccione, Remo; Feagan, Brian; Panés, Julian; Danese, Silvio; Schreiber, Stefan; Ogata, Haruhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Higgins, Peter D R; Beaugerie, Laurent; Chowers, Yehuda; Louis, Edouard; Steinwurz, Flávio; Reinisch, Walter; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Travis, Simon; Sandborn, William J

    2012-12-01

    We report the findings and outputs of an international expert opinion process to develop a definition of early Crohn's disease (CD) that could be used in future disease-modification trials. Nineteen experts on inflammatory bowel diseases held an international expert opinion meeting to discuss and agree on a definition for early CD to be used in disease-modification trials. The process included literature searches for the relevant basic-science and clinical evidence. A published preliminary definition of early CD was used as the basis for development of a proposed definition that was discussed at the expert opinion meeting. The participants then derived a final definition, based on best current knowledge, that it is hoped will be of practical use in disease-modification trials in CD.

  14. Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffelaar, Evelien R.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon

    2010-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may account for reduced fetal growth and for altered neonatal development. The present study explored the association between maternal vitamin D status measured early in pregnancy and birth weight, prevalence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and

  15. Development of the Paris Definition of Early Crohn's Disease for Disease-Modification Trials: Results of an International Expert Opinion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Billioud, Vincent; D'Haens, Geert; Panaccione, Remo; Feagan, Brian; Panés, Julian; Danese, Silvio; Schreiber, Stefan; Ogata, Haruhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Beaugerie, Laurent; Chowers, Yehuda; Louis, Edouard; Steinwurz, Flávio; Reinisch, Walter; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Travis, Simon; Sandborn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the findings and outputs of an international expert opinion process to develop a definition of early Crohn's disease (CD) that could be used in future disease-modification trials. Nineteen experts on inflammatory bowel diseases held an international expert opinion meeting to discuss and

  16. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  17. Radiotherapy Results of Early Uterine Cervix Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : This study was done to analyze survivals, patterns of failure, and complications of early uterine cervix cancer after curative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials : Eighty patients with uterine cervix cancer FIGO Stage IB (48 cases) and Stage IIA (32 cases) treated with radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were treated from November 1985 to May 1993, and minimum follow up period was 24 months. and 6 cases were lost to follow up. All of them were treated with external radiotherapy and different fractions of high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy. Survival rates, failure patterns, complication rates and degrees of severity were analyzed according to several factors. Results : Overall 5 year survival rate and relapse free survival rate were 72.3%, and 72.8% respectively. Prognostic factors were stage, size, pathology, RT response and there was no significant survival difference among the reasons of radiotherapy choice. There were 19 cases of treatment failure, another 3 cases were not tumor related death, and most of treatment related failure occurred within 24 months. Late complication rate of bladder and rectum were 8.8%, 15% respectively, frequency and severity of complication were correlated with ICR fractionation dose and total dose. Conclusion : These results showed that survival rates of early stage radiation treated cervix cancer patients were comparable to surgical series, but more aggressive treatment methods needed for stage IIA poor prognostic patients, To decrease late complication, choice of proper ICR dose and meticulous vaginal packing is needed

  18. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  19. Vaccinations in early life are not associated with development of islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes high-risk children: Results from prospective cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Strobl, Andreas N; Winkler, Christiane; Carpus, Michaela; Knopff, Annette; Donnachie, Ewan; Ankerst, Donna P; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2017-03-27

    Vaccinations in early childhood potentially stimulate the immune system and may thus be relevant for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We determined the association of vaccination burden with T1D-associated islet autoimmunity in children with high familial risk followed prospectively from birth. A total of 20,570 certified vaccination records from 1918 children were correlated with time to onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity using Cox regression, considering multiple time periods up until age two years and vaccination types, and adjusting for HLA genotype, sex, delivery mode, season of birth, preterm delivery and maternal T1D status. Additionally, prospective claims data of 295,420 subjects were used to validate associations for the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination. Most vaccinations were not associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for islet autoimmunity (e.g. HR [95% confidence interval]: 1.08 [0.96-1.21] per additional vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at age 0-24months). TBE vaccinations within the first two years of life were nominally associated with a significantly increased autoimmunity risk (HR: 1.44 [1.06-1.96] per additional vaccination at age 0-24months), but this could not be confirmed with respect to outcome T1D in the validation cohort (HR: 1.02 [0.90-1.16]). We found no evidence that early vaccinations increase the risk of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity development. The potential association with early TBE vaccinations could not be confirmed in an independent cohort and appears to be a false positive finding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  1. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Search Results | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 991 - 1000 of 8491 ... Water security in periurban South Asia : adapting to climate change and urbanization; the case of Gurgaon. In the early years of tourism development in Nepal, external companies dominated the industry while environmental and economical costs remained local. With tourism development, risks ...

  3. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  4. Search Results | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 231 - 240 of 439 ... Gender 102 Apply Gender filter · INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 50 .... Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs. India's Dalits have historically been subjected to devastating social and economic discrimination. ... resources during the early stages of business development, and ...

  5. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androic D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ scattering to provide the first determination of the proton’s weak charge Qwp$Q_w^p$. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error, which implies a measure of sin2(θw at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world’s highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment’s data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  6. Early Calibration Results of CYGNSS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Ruf, C. S.; McKague, D. S.; Clarizia, M. P.; Gleason, S.

    2017-12-01

    The first of its kind, GNSS-R complete orbital mission, CYGNSS was successfully launched on Dec 15 2016. The goal of this mission is to accurately forecast the intensification of tropical cyclones by modelling its inner core. The 8 micro observatories of CYGNSS carry a passive instrument called Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI). The DDMIs form a 2D representation called the Delay-Doppler Map (DDM) of the forward scattered power signal. Each DDMI outputs 4 DDMs per second which are compressed and sent to the ground resulting in a total of 32 sea-surface measurements produced by the CYGNSS constellation per second. These are subsequently used in the Level-2 wind retrieval algorithm to extract wind speed information. In this paper, we perform calibration and validation of CYGNSS measurements for accurate extraction of wind speed information. The calibration stage involves identification and correction for dependence of the CYGNSS observables namely Normalised Bistatic Radar Cross Section and Leading Edge Slope of the Integrated Delay Waveform over instrument parameters, geometry etc. The validation stage involves training of the Geophysical Model Function over a multitude of ground truth sources during the Atlantic hurricane season and also refined validation of high wind speed data products.

  7. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  8. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  9. Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 μm and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80

  10. What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa

    2004-01-01

    Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...

  11. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  12. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  13. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  14. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  15. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  16. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  17. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  18. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  19. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  20. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  1. Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact So...

  2. Early 13 TeV Results from the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recorded almost 200 pb-1 of collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The seminar presents the status of the data taking, the commissioning of the event reconstruction, focusing on the key techniques that have allowed to quickly reach a good understanding of the basic physics objects, and early physics results.

  3. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  4. Search Results | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal sys. Project.

  5. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  6. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...

  7. Search Results | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 111 - 120 of 8531 ... Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon: Improving access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. Although the average age of marriage in the Arab world has risen, rates of early marriage remain high, especially in conflict-affected areas and among ...

  8. Construction and early commissioning results of the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Ahrens, L.; Damm, R.; McNerney, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster synchrotron has been designed to accelerate protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV and heavy ions from several MeV per nucleon to several hundred MeV per nucleon for all the nuclei up to gold. The design requirements and measurements results of major accelerator components and systems are presented. The early commissioning results of the injection is also presented. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Search Results | Page 178 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and social development 85 Apply Economic and social development filter ... Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for ... During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for ... Support for Community Telecentres and Networks in Mali.

  10. Search Results | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 301 - 310 of 8532 ... Promoting women and youth financial inclusion for ... will support 140 doctoral and 60 early career women scientists in low and ... Addressing the Barriers to Young Women's Economic Empowerment in Bangladesh.

  11. Search Results | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 261 - 270 of 8494 ... Financial inclusion is an enabler for women's economic empowerment. ... Agency and IDRC, will support 140 doctoral and 60 early career women scientists in ... Addressing the Barriers to Young Women's Economic ...

  12. Search Results | Page 933 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9321 - 9330 of 9580 ... Caribbean health : diversity in local food production to combat obesity ... Influencing eating behaviors in early childhood can have a huge impact ... How to improve the socio-economic benefit of public private R&D ...

  13. Search Results | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 241 - 250 of 257 ... ... poor, combined with less education and limited access to healthcare services. ... Overall maternal and child health indicators are among the worst in ... Influencing eating behaviors in early childhood can have a huge ...

  14. Search Results | Page 936 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9351 - 9360 of 9599 ... Whole-system change : case study of factors facilitating early ... Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector : a ... recognition, appreciation and rewards; supervision; teamwork; ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 8491 ... Precooked beans for food, nutrition, and income in Kenya and Uganda ... covering quality assurance in distance education in several Asian countries. ... Child, early, and forced marriage is a critical barrier to women's ...

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    Results 71 - 80 of 8531 ... ... knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, ... health registry in Jordan to improve maternal and child health ... In Ethiopia, protein-rich crops of pulses such as chickpeas are no ...

  17. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 51 - 60 of 8531 ... Fostering high growth enterprises is key to employment creation, productivity, and economic growth. Publication ... Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia ... IDRC panel tackles early marriage at UN Status of Women forum.

  18. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 51 - 60 of 8531 ... Fostering high growth enterprises is key to employment creation, productivity, and economic growth. ... Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia ... Child, early, and forced marriage is a critical barrier to women's empowerment, ...

  19. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  1. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  2. The results of radiation therapy for early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michinori; Hada, Yoshihiro; Shirane, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    To analyze various parameters affect local control, we reviewed the results of radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma. Between 1977 and 1997, 64 patients with untreated early glottic carcinoma and four patients with recurrent early glottic carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. All tumors were classified as follows; T1 (n=56), T2 (n=12); well differentiated (n=33), moderately (n=25), poorly (n=1), unknown (n=9); very small tumor (VST) (n=46), small tumor (ST) (n=22). All patients were treated utilizing a cobalt-60 unit to a total dose that ranged from 56 Gy to 64 Gy (mean 60 Gy). The mean treatment time was 44 days (range 38-49). The local control rates at 2 years and 5 years for all patients were 85% and 78%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size (p=0.0146) and recurrent or untreated tumor (p=0.0226) affected local control. On multivariate analysis, tumor size (p=0.0273) and recurrent or untreated tumor (p=0.0495) were also significant factors that affected local control. (author)

  3. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  4. Psychologically Inspired Sensory-Motor Development in Early Robot Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by results from developmental psychology. Behavioural acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behaviour changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints.

  5. The Advanced Photon Source: Performance and results from early operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is now providing researchers with extreme-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum. All technical facilities and components are operational and have met design specifications. Fourteen research teams, occupying 20 sectors on the APS experiment hall floor, are currently installing beamline instrumentation or actively taking data. An overview is presented for the first operational years of the Advanced Photon Source. Emphasis is on the performance of accelerators and insertion devices, as well as early scientific results and future plans

  6. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  7. Cosmetic results of conservative treatment for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Seong Deok; Ha, Sung Whan; Noh, Dong Young

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of conservative treatment for early breast cancer and to analyze the factors influencing cosmetic outcome. From February 1992 through January 1997, 120 patients with early breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The types of conservative surgery were quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection for 108 patients (90%) and lumpectomy or excisional biopsy for 10 patients (8.3%). Forty six patients (38%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF). Cosmetic result evaluation was carried out between 16 and 74 months (median, 33 months) after surgery. The cosmetic results were classified into four categories, i.e., excellent, good, fair, and poor. The appearances of the patients' breasts were also analyzed for symmetry using the differences in distances from the stemal notch to right and left nipples. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables influencing the cosmetic outcome. Cosmetic score was excellent or good in 76% (91/120), fair in 19% (23/120) and poor in 5% (6/ 120) of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (T1 versus T2) (p=0.04), axillary node status (NO versus N1) (p=0.0002), extent of surgery (quadrantectomy versus lumpectomy or excisional biopsy) (p=0.02), axillary node irradiation (p=0.0005) and chemotherapy (p=0,0001) affected cosmetic score. Multivariate analysis revealed that extent of surgery (p=0.04) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) were significant factors. For breast symmetry, univariate analysis confirmed exactly the same factors as above. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p=0.003) and lymph node status (p=0.007) affected breast symmetry. Conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent or good cosmetic outcome in a large portion of the patients. Better cosmetic results were achieved generally in the group of patients with smaller tumor size, without axillary

  8. Search Results | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 371 - 380 of 8491 ... Youth engagement in addressing violent extremism and gender violence through early warning systems in Kenya and Tanzania. This project will investigate how a community security mechanism known as Nyumba Kumi (which comprises ten households per cell) used in Kenya and Tanzania ...

  9. Search Results | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 371 - 380 of 8491 ... Youth engagement in addressing violent extremism and gender violence through early warning systems in Kenya and Tanzania. This project will investigate how ... an Africa open data network. Open data is data that is available online that can be freely used, re-used, and redistributed by anyone.

  10. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 51 - 60 of 8531 ... The Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is a seven-year, CA$35 million partnership between IDRC, the Israel Science Foundation, the Azrieli Foundation and the Canadian Institutes of Health Researchthat draws on the scientific strengths of Ca. News. Governance EARLY MARRIAGE ...

  11. Search Results | Page 57 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 561 - 570 of 1804 ... The Effect of Antibiotics in Early Life on Brain Function and Behaviour ... of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. ... and assess their potential to transform gender relations at home and in the ...

  12. Search Results | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 251 - 260 of 8492 ... Women supporting women: Networked civic engagement to foster effective women's leadership for inclusive policymaking. “Women supporting Women” is an applied ... Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa. What limits women's ability to become financially self-sufficient from an early age in Africa?

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 11 - 20 of 282 ... ... of the highest levels of armed conflict and military spending in the world. ... Mining-affected communities globally, and specifically in West Africa, ... A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... Social justice in the face of early marriages in West Africa.

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    Results 251 - 260 of 8491 ... To sustain democratization in Myanmar, IDRC and Global Affairs Canada are launching a ... and engagement in the transition process and to promote economic growth th ... The man revamping Brazil's approach to water quality ... Women's Early Labour Market Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Results 7541 - 7550 of 9602 ... This is one of five cross-cutting issues that have emerged from early ... Read about how researchers are working with communities to increase their ability to protect their rights. ... Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban ... perpetuates poverty, and entrenches gender inequality.

  16. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  17. Early results from the Whisper instrument on Cluster: An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decreau, P.M.E.; Fergeau, P.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2001-01-01

    The Whisper instrument yields two data sets: (i) the electron density determined via the relaxation sounder, and (ii) the spectrum of natural plasma emissions in the frequency band 2-80 kHz. Both data sets allow for the three-dimensional exploration of the magnetosphere by the Cluster mission...... the drift velocity of density structures. Wave observations are also of crucial interest for studying small-scale structures, as demonstrated in an example in the fore-shock region. Early results from the Whisper instrument are very encouraging, and demonstrate that the four-point Cluster measurements...... largely overcomes the limited telemetry allocation. The natural emissions are usually related to the plasma frequency, as identified by the sounder, and the combination of an active sounding operation and a passive survey operation provides a time resolution for the total density determination of 2.2 s...

  18. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  19. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  20. Search Results | Page 736 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7351 - 7360 of 8531 ... Development takes on a face and an address in the Philippines. Research in Action. Gender Equity ... Palestinian Refugees: Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Research in Action. Economic and social development ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 257 ... Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals ... official statistics, and facilitate development in sectors such as health, ... promoting gender equality is central to global development policy and practice.

  2. Search Results | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-30

    Results 101 - 110 of 874 ... Open Data and Sub-national Governments: Lessons from Developing Countries. Published date. June 30, 2015. Papers. INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFORMATION POLICY Internet ACCESS TO INFORMATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Economic and social development CASE STUDIES ...

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    Results 71 - 80 of 8491 ... With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals' (SDGs) 2015–2030 agenda, promoting gender equality is central to global development policy ... statistics, and facilitate development in sectors such as health, ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 657 ... Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals ... official statistics, and facilitate development in sectors such as health, ... promoting gender equality is central to global development policy and practice.

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    Results 721 - 730 of 1804 ... The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was established in 1997 with the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development (as defined nationally) and industrialized countries achieve compliance with (bind. Project ...

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    Results 221 - 230 of 374 ... Ecology of Access to Educational Material in Developing World Universities ... of and engagement with international research for development. ... was a pioneer in the discipline of economic development theory and its ...

  7. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  8. Early glottic carcinoma: results of treatment by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, R.; Williams, J.; Fisher, R.; Bridger, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to review the results of treating early stages glottic, squamous cell carcinoma by radiotherapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney. A retrospective review was carried out of all patients seen in the department from 1967 to 1994, inclusive. To be eligible, patients had to have newly diagnosed cancer and to have been treated with curative intent by radiotherapy alone. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients satisfied the eligibility requirements. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 years (maximum: 28 years). At 5 years the actuarial local control rate was 80% (84% for stage T 1 and 72% for T 2 ). The ultimate local control rate was 96%. The overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 73% and 52%, respectively. The risk of nodal recurrence was much higher after persisting disease or local recurrence. Our results confirm the high cure rates achieved with this modality of treatment and are comparable with those reported in the literature. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty. Ltd

  9. Esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer : comparison with pathologic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Choong Bai; Kim, Ho Guen; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer (EEC), and to compare these with the pathologic results, and to thus determine the most useful method of esophagography for detection of EEC. We examined 18 patients (M:F=16:2) with pathologically proven EEC; 17 cases were squamous cell carcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma. Tumor size, shape and location were evaluated by esophagography and the findings were compared with the pathologic results. The tumors were 0.5 - 7 cm in size; all except two were smaller than 4 cm. Twelve were located in the middle esophagus, five cases in the lower esophagus and one case in the upper esophagus; in ten cases, the margin was ill-defined. Esophagography showed that eight cases were of the superficial depressed type, seven were the superficial elevated type, and three were the tumorous type. All 18 cases were detected by double contrast study, but mucosal relief study and barium filling study revealed only ten and eight cases, respectively; for the detection of EEC double contrast study was thus the most useful. EEC was commonly demonstrated in the middle esophagus with an ill-defined margin; it was of the superficial depressed or elevated type. For the detection of EEC, double contrast study was the most useful. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  10. The results of early physiotherapy on a child with incontinentia pigmenti with encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ozgun Kaya; Mutlu, Akmer; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to exhibit the effects of early physiotherapy and discusses post-treatment results on a patient with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) with encephalocele. Physiotherapy evaluations of the child included cognitive, fine and gross motor development assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development – Third Edition (Bayley-III), disability level with the gross motor function classification system, gross motor function with the gross motor function measurement (GMFM), and tonus evaluation with the Modified Ashworth Scale. The child was included in a physiotherapy and rehabilitation programme based on neurodevelopmental treatment three times a week. Although cognitive and motor development according to Bayley-III improved in the present case, motor and cognitive retardation became more apparent with growth. GMFM results indicated a large improvement from 5.88% to 47.73%. Presentation of this case shows the significance of early physiotherapy in this first study on physiotherapy for IP during the early rehabilitation process. PMID:22767665

  11. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  12. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Search Results | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 101 - 110 of 112 ... Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. Project.

  14. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  15. Search Results | Page 846 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8451 - 8460 of 8489 ... A stimulating work environment, inspiring colleagues, professional development, and a comprehensive benefits package. Webpage. -. Current opportunities. Join our dynamic team of talented professionals dedicated to improving the lives of people in developing countries. Webpage.

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    Results 381 - 390 of 8491 ... Successful achievement of the 17 sustainable development goals ... People living in informal urban settings in Latin America and the Caribbean are ... The Think Tank Initiative's (TTI) Phase 2 capacity development ...

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    Results 291 - 300 of 8494 ... The Think Tank Initiative's (TTI) Phase 2 capacity development strategy focuses ... People living in informal urban settings in Latin America and the ... Successful achievement of the 17 sustainable development goals ...

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    Results 9471 - 9480 of 9580 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Results 9491 - 9500 of 9602 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Results 8421 - 8430 of 8531 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development ... future of the information society in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Results 41 - 50 of 8494 ... Science and Technology Development SOCIAL IMPACT ... Denis Trudeau is Director of Information Management and Technology. ... (CRVS) systems in developing countries requires knowledge sharing, expert advice, ...

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    Results 231 - 240 of 8491 ... ... are now open for six professional development and research grants that ... Development WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE GENDER EQUALITY FAMILY ... This project seeks to generate evidence on barriers that stop ...

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    Results 241 - 250 of 8494 ... ... with women, the poor, and youth facing the greatest barriers to access. ... AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Gender ... now open for six professional development and research grants ...

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    Results 91 - 100 of 8531 ... Strengthening civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in developing countries ... Nigeria's first national social protection scheme ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem-based ...

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    Results 131 - 140 of 438 ... Role of social protection in children's schooling outcomes ... for future human capital development and overall long-term development. Briefs ... International remittances, poverty and inequality : the West African case.

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    Results 11 - 20 of 55 ... Role of social protection in children's schooling outcomes ... implication for future human capital development and overall long-term development. ... International remittances, poverty and inequality : the West African case.

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    Results 91 - 100 of 282 ... Filter by type .... The 2011 World Development Report, Conflict, Security, and Development, underscored the far-reaching and devastating impact of violent conflict on a country's social fabric, economy, and governance.

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-08-05

    Results 161 - 170 of 1368 ... Emerging Impacts in Open Data in the Judiciary Branches in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Published date. August 5, 2014. Papers. INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFORMATION POLICY Internet ACCESS TO INFORMATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Economic and social development CASE ...

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    Results 21 - 30 of 157 ... Managing climate risk for agriculture and water resources development in South Africa : quantifying the costs, benefits and risks associated with ... was to develop and demonstrate an integrated modeling framework for ...

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    Results 111 - 120 of 650 ... ... Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and ... Research into Open Educational Resources for Development ... Yet, higher education institutions in many developing countries face a ...

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    Results 7641 - 7650 of 8491 ... in_focus - Women and Land: Securing Rights for Better Lives ... and principles for policy-oriented research organizations working in developing countries. ... We have developed an organizational performance ...

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    Results 121 - 130 of 439 ... Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ... China and India are now considered the favored locations for technology outsourcing. ... Equitap, a developing country-led research network, has ...

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    Results 181 - 190 of 211 ... ... SMALL ENTERPRISES 22 Apply SMALL ENTERPRISES filter ... Business Regulations Evaluation Group in Latin America ... Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ... in the process of economic growth and social development. ... Southern African Development Research Network.

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    Results 471 - 480 of 1980 ... Trade liberalization, inter-industry wage differentials and job ... Striving towards excellence in development practice : integrating a gender perspective ... development assistance - issues, trends and opportunities.

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    Results 181 - 190 of 8494 ... Heartfile has developed an innovative model of health financing that ... research capacity in Canada and developing countries to improve the lives ... This project will contribute to reducing food insecurity and chronic ...

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    2014-01-29

    Results 111 - 120 of 1913 ... New attitudes key to progress in Malawi, Cameroon ... to the Development Partners Group (DPG) on Health Abuja, January 29, 2014 ... from the findings towards revising and developing the livelihoods inquiry.

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    Results 7311 - 7320 of 9601 ... Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ... Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. Project.

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    Results 111 - 120 of 220 ... Bioprospecting and scientific research : a protocol; draft ... indigenous development based on the ethnobotanical garden and traditional medicine concept; final report ... Canadian journal of development studies, v.

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    Results 8361 - 8370 of 8494 ... Journal articles ... in developing countries : approaches to disciplinary and research-practice integration ... Moreover, developing countries must adapt to climate change even as current water needs are poorly met.

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    Results 961 - 970 of 9580 ... International Development Research Centre ... Collaboration in informal settlements: tackling flooding with a local perspective. In most developing countries, solid waste management is a significant challenge, ...

  1. Search Results | Page 824 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8231 - 8240 of 8491 ... African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda ... TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE Access to ICT Networking Gender ... sector development REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Gender ...

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    Results 101 - 110 of 319 ... World Bank's World Development Report 2008 : agriculture for development; ... Mid-term review : sustainable management of Algerien steppes; ... Two training workshops were conducted in knowledge sharing ...

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    Results 9361 - 9370 of 9601 ... ... develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development ... fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management ... Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small ...

  4. Search Results | Page 829 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8281 - 8290 of 8518 ... ... develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development ... fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management ... Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small ...

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    Results 101 - 110 of 8518 ... With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals' (SDGs) 2015–2030 agenda, promoting gender equality is central to global development ... free healthcare for pregnant women, new mothers, and children ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 260 ... Health information systems or adolescent sexual and ... Real momentum is building around the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as ... an opportunity to promote debate on key economic and development issues.

  7. Search Results | Page 765 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7641 - 7650 of 8491 ... ... practices and principles for policy-oriented research organizations working in developing countries. ... We have developed an organizational performance assessment ... Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM).

  8. Search Results | Page 922 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 9211 - 9220 of 9577 ... Regional gaps remain in the level of educational and medical development, and urban and rural ... Inclusive development in health and education in Laos : the role of national policy and institutions ... Innovation.

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    Results 51 - 60 of 257 ... Linking communities of practice with value chain development in ... Recognizing that value chains involve complex social and economic relationships, there ... development dynamics that lead to economic growth, poverty ...

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    Results 7871 - 7880 of 8490 ... ... changing economic landscape. Research in Action. Private sector development Trade and investment. Changing the rules for businesses. Research in Action. Economic and social development POVERTY ALLEVIATION Poverty Gender. Managing opium: Policy choices for Afghanistan. Pages.

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    Results 8441 - 8450 of 8491 ... Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic ... Comprehensive in scope and grounded in actual case studies, this new ... theory, rural development, and natural resource management.

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    Results 221 - 230 of 369 ... Networks for Development : Caribbean Information and Communication Technologies Research Programme ... was a pioneer in the discipline of economic development theory and its policy implications for the region.

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    Results 221 - 230 of 8531 ... Unpacking the disruptive potential of blockchain technology for human development. ... Heartfile has developed an innovative model of health financing ... Rose, an astute and driven business woman runs a “table ...

  14. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  15. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  16. The early research and development of ebselen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  18. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Allergic factors associated with the development of asthma and the influence of cetirizine in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial: first results of ETAC. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    There is a common progression known as the allergic march from atopic dermatitis to allergic asthma. Cetirizine has several antiallergic properties that suggest a potential effect on the development of airway inflammation and asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis. Over a two year period, 817 infants aged one to two years who suffered from atopic dermatitis and with a history of atopic disease in a parent or sibling were included in the ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) trial, a multi-country, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The infants were treated for 18 months with either cetirizine (0.25mg/ kg b.i.d.) or placebo. The number of infants who developed asthma was compared between the two groups. Clinical and biological assessments including analysis of total and specific IgE antibodies were performed. In the placebo group, the relative risk (RR) for developing asthma was elevated in patients with a raised level of total IgE (> or = 30 kU/l) or specific IgE (> or = 0.35 kUA/l) for grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander (RR between 1.4 and 1.7). Compared to placebo, cetirizine significantly reduced the incidence of asthma for patients sensitised to grass pollen (RR = 0.5) or to house dust mite (RR = 0.6). However, in the population that included all infants with normal and elevated total or specific IgE (intention-to-treat - ITT), there was no difference between the numbers of infants developing asthma while receiving cetirizine or placebo. The adverse events profile was similar in the two treatment groups. Raised total IgE level and raised specific IgE levels to grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander were predictive of subsequent asthma. Cetirizine halved the number of patients developing asthma in the subgroups sensitised to grass pollen or house dust mite (i.e. 20% of the study population). In view of the proven safety of the drug, we propose this treatment as a primary pharmacological intervention strategy to prevent the

  20. Search Results | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    2008-01-01

    Results 141 - 150 of 1310 ... Smoking, poverty and ill-health in China. Published date. January 1, 2008. Papers. TELECOMMUNICATIONS EDUCATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HEALTH ECONOMICS ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION GOVERNMENT ...

  1. Search Results | Page 795 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7941 - 7950 of 8491 ... Development research in countries in transition: Introduction. Research in Action. Health Ecohealth CONTAMINATION Pollution MERCURY POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM MERCURY Gender ...

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    Results 401 - 410 of 8491 ... Development GENDER EQUALITY WOMEN'S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT WOMEN'S RIGHTS FEMINISM ... Health, SDGs, and public policy—the role of policy research institutions ... TECHNICAL EDUCATION ...

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    Results 231 - 240 of 8492 ... AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Gender ... policymakers, agricultural businesses, researchers, and agriculture donors. ... GENDER EQUALITY FAMILY FARMS WOMEN'S ECONOMIC ...

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    Results 8001 - 8010 of 8519 ... Modeling the determinants of job satisfaction in Vietnam ... building HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY ... RICE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION RISK MANAGEMENT CROP LOSSES ...

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    Results 501 - 510 of 1133 ... ... starch industry has resulted in increased disease prevalence, soil erosion, ... Food processing in developing countries is an important component of ... to improve child nutrition and food security in northern Malawi.

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    Search Results. Showing 7961 - 7970 of 8491 results. Story. Health Natural Resources Mining ECOHEALTH ... CASE STUDY: Latin America — An engine for rural development in Latin America. Research in Action. Biodiversity Gender Crops ...

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    Search Results. Showing 871 - 880 of 8491 results. Studies ... Strengthening Nurses' Capacity in HIV Policy Development in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean ... Novel Epidemiological Method: Using Newspapers To Provide Insight Into ...

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    Search Results. Showing 6411 - 6420 of 9601 results. Project ... STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and Learning. This project is based on the premise that science, technology and innovation (STI) are critical ...

  10. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  11. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  12. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  13. Search Results | Page 749 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7481 - 7490 of 8491 ... Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, ...

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    Results 881 - 890 of 899 ... Mobile Money and Local Development : final technical report, March 2011 - January 2013 ... in the country consider that starting a business is a desirable career choice. ... DEVELOPMENT THEORY HISTORY DEVELOPMENT ... Collecting state : a study about Argentina and citizens' personal data.

  15. Search Results | Page 86 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 851 - 860 of 869 ... Mobile Money and Local Development : final technical report, March 2011 - January 2013 ... in the country consider that starting a business is a desirable career choice. ... DEVELOPMENT THEORY HISTORY DEVELOPMENT ... Collecting state : a study about Argentina and citizens' personal data.

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    Results 641 - 650 of 902 ... Ecology of Access to Educational Material in Developing World Universities ... understanding of and engagement with international research for development. ... respondents ranked labour market problems first on a list of 10 ... a pioneer in the discipline of economic development theory and its policy ...

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    Results 21 - 30 of 163 ... ... TEACHING AIDS filter · Development 8 Apply Development filter ... Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of Information and Communication ... of concern influences lecturers rate of adoption of e-learning ... Contribution to local enterprise development of infrastructure for ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 1310 ... China 367 Apply China filter · Indonesia 245 Apply Indonesia filter · Thailand 216 Apply Thailand filter .... Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building capacity in the Global South ... development in sectors such as health, urban development, transportation, and humanit.

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    Results 161 - 170 of 9581 ... Journal of peacebuilding and development, volume 3, number 1, 2006 ... As the country embarked on a path of economic reform, care ... DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH YOUTH SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT International ... Reasons for neglect of residential land issues in Navliwadi, Maharastra, India.

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    Results 8411 - 8420 of 8518 ... E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence from the eFez Project. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries provides practical supporting material on information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D), specifically, ...

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    Results 8171 - 8180 of 8490 ... Uganda was one of the first countries in Africa to develop a policy on universal access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) ... Environmental, health, and sanitary requirements in developed countries are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade.

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    Results 781 - 790 of 1804 ... Migration, Development and Poverty Reduction in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) ... for Development (COHRED) to create, host and maintain a web-based resource on national health research in low- and middle-income countries in partnership with institutions in the South.

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    Results 431 - 440 of 902 ... ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 19 Apply DEVELOPING COUNTRIES filter · LAW ... Final report on IDRC's participation in the 11th World Congress on ... The Centre for International Sustainable Development Law ... They plan production, procurement and commercialization but outsource production ...

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    Results 191 - 200 of 420 ... This grant will help small developing countries in South Asia develop ... Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive Development in Southeast Asia ... such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. ... of legislation related to economic management, business activity ...

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    Results 7861 - 7870 of 9606 ... A research network on telecommunications policy is playing a significant ... CSOs that are engaged in international cooperation for development but ... The study's author, Stacie Travers, also carried out four case studies on ... Development Regional development Economics Environment Food ...

  6. Developing early algebraic reasoning in a mathematical community of inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jodie Margaret Roberta

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the development of early algebraic reasoning in mathematical communities of inquiry. Under consideration is the different pathways teachers take as they develop their own understanding of early algebra and then enact changes in their classroom to facilitate algebraic reasoning opportunities. Teachers participated in a professional development intervention which focused on understanding of early algebraic concepts, task development, modification, and enactment, and clas...

  7. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, John W [Stanford University (United States)], E-mail: johnwc@stanford.edu

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  8. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, John W

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  9. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  10. Early laparoendoscopic rendezvous for acute biliary pancreatitis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzellino, G; Lombardo, F; Minicozzi, A M; Donataccio, M; Cordiano, C

    2010-02-01

    Early restored patency of the papilla has been hypothesized to reduce complications and mortality of acute biliary pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography and rendezvous when necessary in acute biliary pancreatitis natural history. Patients observed in the early stage of an acute biliary pancreatitis were included in the study. Operative risk assessment based on American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score allowed the performance of urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 h from onset of symptoms in 55 patients and a delayed intervention during the same admission in 21 patients. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in all cases, and clearance of common bile duct was performed by flushing when possible, or rendezvous when necessary. Evolution of pancreatitis was evaluated with clinical and radiological monitoring. Urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in all cases without conversion. At intraoperative cholangiography common bile duct was free in 25 patients, a papillary spasm was observed in 9, and common bile duct stones in 21 patients. Patency of the papilla was restored by flushing in 13 patients, while a rendezvous was necessary in 17 patients. The rate of organ failure and pancreatic necrosis was 1.8%, overall mortality was 1.8%, and overall morbidity 21.8%. No infectious complications of peripancreatic collections were observed. Urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with selective intraoperative rendezvous may be considered as a treatment option in the early stage of acute biliary pancreatitis.

  11. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  12. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  13. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  14. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...... statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈ -10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. © ESO, 2011....

  15. Search Results | Page 80 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    2009-01-01

    Results 791 - 800 of 8492 ... International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supported research study on Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis which was carried out between 1992 and 2001 in Kathmandu Metropolitan City Nepal. Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies.

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    Results 261 - 270 of 657 ... Home · Project; South of Sahara .... Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an ... the conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ... Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa.

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    Results 9551 - 9560 of 9578 ... Mobile Nav Footer Links ... and economic benefits of research in support of development ... the chance to learn and grow by working closely with experienced ... inclusive economies, and technology and innovation.

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    Results 8491 - 8500 of 8517 ... Mobile Nav Footer Links ... and economic benefits of research in support of development ... the chance to learn and grow by working closely with experienced ... inclusive economies, and technology and innovation.

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    Results 801 - 810 of 1119 ... Babesiosis is a disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Babesia bovis, a parasite transmitted by ticks. ... Implications of urban development for water demand, wastewater generation and reuse in water-stressed ...

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    Results 8441 - 8450 of 8496 ... African Women and ICTs: Investigating Technology, Gender and ... in_focus - Competition and Development: The Power of Competitive Markets ... Whether at work, at home, at school, or at large, ICTs are having ...

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    Results 8471 - 8480 of 8489 ... ... research management, policy, and program development in the area of ... research that seeks to increase agricultural productivity as well as ... 1999 to October 2010; during this time he was Parliamentary leader ...

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    Results 261 - 270 of 1368 ... ICT in the context of education system ... Statistical handbook on baseline survey : part 1; data tables; (Focus City ... Technologies (ICT) in international development assistance - issues, trends and opportunities.

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    Results 6751 - 6760 of 9602 ... Social Protection and the Working Poor in Egypt ... The Internet is often seen to be both an enabler and an equalizer, ... Gender and Health Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in Developing Countries.

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    Results 41 - 50 of 8492 ... Information and Communication STATISTICAL DATA SUSTAINABLE ... Denis Trudeau is Director of Information Management and Technology. ... (CRVS) systems in developing countries requires knowledge sharing, ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 43 ... The project establishes linkages between indigenous knowledge (IK), traditional food production systems and natural resources (NR) management that ... Information and Communication Technologies for Development in ...

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    Results 91 - 100 of 874 ... Dynamics of ICT Sector in Malaysia ... and social representations in Colombia, Ecuador and Canada. Published date. January 1, 2008. Studies. -. Global knowledge partnership : network development for version 3.0.

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    Results 511 - 520 of 8517 ... Green energies the socialist way : hydropower, energy crops and Handai ... China, a new frontier for renewable energy development in the ... Rethinking impact : applying altmetrics to Southern African research.

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    Results 391 - 400 of 8491 ... The influenza virus causes upper respiratory tract infections in humans, ... inclusion of youth and women through entrepreneurship in Madagascar ... Research can help international development do more with less.

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    Results 5921 - 5930 of 9603 ... Mobile Money and Local Development ... Disparities in health status and access to health care within and across countries are both a cause ... Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of ...

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    Results 221 - 230 of 8533 ... ... Institute for Mathematical Sciences (3) Apply African Institute for ... Journal articles ... Research Awards offer recipients a one-year program at IDRC ... Heartfile has developed an innovative model of health financing ...

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    Results 141 - 150 of 8502 ... Threatened by floods, the Pampas of Argentina are vanishing. ... January 12, 2018 ... based in Myanmar whose research is centered on national-level issues of democratic transition and economic development.

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    Results 151 - 160 of 8491 ... An Israeli-Canadian research team is trying to find out. ... An alternative food and nutrition security strategy that links agriculture ... craftspeople in developing countries to new and potentially lucrative foreign markets.

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    Results 381 - 390 of 8491 ... Implementation phase – Strengthening community to health facility ... on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). ... The project aims to promote women and youth entrepreneurship in Madagascar ...

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    Results 141 - 150 of 875 ... ... impacts on host communities : CASID Conference paper, May 28, 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa ... Service-based economy : where do we stand?; notes on structural change and economic development.

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    Results 131 - 140 of 870 ... ... impacts on host communities : CASID Conference paper, May 28, 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa ... Service-based economy : where do we stand?; notes on structural change and economic development.

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    Results 21 - 30 of 104 ... Health Research Web (HRWeb) : key information for health research management; the 54th Annual Council, Saint ... Development and knowledge intensification in industries upstream of Zambia's copper mining sector.

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    Results 51 - 60 of 212 ... Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia ... Entrepreneurial Networking in the Middle East and North Africa ... Micro and small enterprises play a critical role in job creation and economic growth, but they ...

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    Results 7761 - 7770 of 8491 ... Economic and social development Economics. Facilitating open dialogue — IDRC plays a key role in Latin America and the Caribbean ... This brief summarizes lessons from the CCAA learning forum on improving ...

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    Results 111 - 120 of 172 ... ... means to foster rural development, alleviate poverty, and increase food security. ... Faced with one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, ... concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities.

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    Results 8391 - 8400 of 8491 ... ... to roll out the principles of the United Nations at regional levels. ... will not reach the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. ... POVERTY ALLEVIATION Poverty Sanitation Waste management Water Gender ...

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    Results 81 - 90 of 158 ... The study examines dramatic changes in education policy in Mali, (1990s ... Economic relations of China and Sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Mali ... and Development in Africa: Private, Public and Multilateral Strategies.

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    Results 7331 - 7340 of 9601 ... Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... active in Latin America and the Caribbean for the past eight years. Project ... Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund.

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    Results 171 - 180 of 439 ... Information and Communication Technologies for Development in the Middle ... and communication technology (ICT) to human, social and economic ... Understanding Think Tank-University Relationships in South Asia.

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    Results 361 - 370 of 869 ... Strategies to consolidate and integrate RELPE and REDAL Networks : the ... REPEAL (Spanish acronym for School Networks and Education Portals ... to develop guidelines for regional outreach strategies that facilitate ...

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    Results 391 - 400 of 902 ... Strategies to consolidate and integrate RELPE and REDAL Networks : the ... REPEAL (Spanish acronym for School Networks and Education Portals ... to develop guidelines for regional outreach strategies that facilitate ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 31 ... South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics ... which endeavors to integrate social, economic, cultural and e ... (SANDEE) is a regional network that seeks to strengthen research capacity in the ...

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    Results 161 - 170 of 224 ... Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy Research on Micro ... and to facilitate integration of legal and social protection systems. ... Iran and Turkey (ERF) is the only regional network for economic ...

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    Results 31 - 40 of 68 ... Network companies, another way of thinking agriculture : a supply chain management ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, ... Mercosur : Economic Research and Integration - Phase IV.

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    Results 11 - 20 of 35 ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, ... Several studies have shown that some forms of collaborative business networking can ... Mercosur : Economic Research and Integration - Phase IV.

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    Results 231 - 240 of 869 ... Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland ... Water subsidies from mountains to deserts : their role in sustaining ... biotech firms in developing countries reveals a surprisingly high level of ...

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    Results 8241 - 8250 of 8491 ... Economic and social development POVERTY ALLEVIATION ... Social Policy Gender Citizenship WOMEN'S RIGHTS MISSING ... A new study estimates that 10 million girls are “missing” from India's population.

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    Results 281 - 290 of 8491 ... This project will support the building of leaders of today and tomorrow in ... Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia ... The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, to be held in ...

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    Results 8431 - 8440 of 8491 ... ... Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency ... African Women and ICTs: Investigating Technology, Gender and Empowerment ... Above all I salute every single African woman, young and old, ...

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    Results 8451 - 8460 of 8497 ... ... property theory, rural development, and natural resource management. ... Collaborative Learning in Practice: Examples from Natural Resource ... Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ...

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    Results 6581 - 6590 of 9602 ... ... CONFLICT RESOLUTION (121) Apply CONFLICT RESOLUTION filter ... But where's the evidence to support the theory? ... technology (ICT) to human, social and economic development in the Middle ... Improving Flood Plain Management through Adaptive Learning Networks (Bangladesh).

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    Results 641 - 650 of 8519 ... According to the IPCC (2007) fourth assessment report, small ... Developing a predictive GIS model of sea level rise for a selected coastal community ... facilitating opportunities for environmental and cultural learning ...

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    Results 101 - 110 of 8496 ... Implementing a perinatal and neonatal mortality surveillance and ... Scaling community land protection in the face of large-land investments in Sierra Leone ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a ...

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    Results 51 - 60 of 8494 ... Founded with IDRC's support, PTCI provides local training to high-level economists to help ... Nigeria's first national social protection scheme ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem-based ...

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    Results 7981 - 7990 of 8519 ... Growth regime, labour market and inequality in Brazil and India : concepts and ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT POVERTY ALLEVIATION ... in promoting leadership structures and social capital, and as well, ...

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    Results 701 - 710 of 870 ... Business Regulations Evaluation Group in Latin America ... Africa (BRICS) have put innovation at the centre of their development strategies. ... rural poor, a trend that is already affecting food security and availability.

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    Results 7941 - 7950 of 9601 ... ... awareness of the nutrition and income benefits of indigenous vegetables. ... The political and economic environment for civil society ... international cooperation and development work and based in Canada and ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 49 ... Assessing the benefits and costs of participatory and conventional barley breeding programs in Syria ... Perspectives ... social and economic development in the Middle East, specifically Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine (West ...

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    Results 701 - 710 of 8531 ... Audio slideshow: Overview and lessons from the Canadian Learning Forum 2012 on Virtual Platforms, Knowledge Management and International Development. Published date. January 1, 2012. Studies.

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    Results 11 - 20 of 52 ... ... of practice with value chain development in smallholder farming systems ... to improving food and nutrition security in the Caribbean by linking ... adoption by farmers: notably, weak access to both markets and financing.

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    Results 7581 - 7590 of 9578 ... Does science and technology (S&T) truly have a part to play in meeting ... water, sanitary facilities, and access to education and information? ... In a Nutshell: Information Technology for Sustainable Development.

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    Results 61 - 70 of 292 ... Filter by type .... It can be caused by development projects, conflict, or natural disasters ... reduce urban tensions, conflicts, inequalities, and violence in five Indian cities (Ahmedabad, Gurgaon, Patna, Guwahati, and Bidar) ...

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    Results 231 - 240 of 292 ... Filter by type. (-) Remove .... Remittances to Conflict Zones : the Sudanese Diaspora in Cairo. There has ... Home Politics Abroad : Role of Lebanese Diaspora in Conflict, Peacebuilding and Democratic Development.

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    Results 9081 - 9090 of 9601 ... Area yield crop insurance in Vietnam : an analysis from the demand side ... Global partnership on open data for development : IDRC technical report ... efforts will benefit the ongoing work of the International Open ...

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    Results 91 - 100 of 181 ... Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive Health and ... Latin America is home to the greatest inequities in the world, ... The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is funding the Africa ...

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    Results 8111 - 8120 of 8491 ... The research presented in this book demonstrates how GIS data is being used ... Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for Development ... in South Africa: Report of the Industrial Strategy Project.

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    Results 91 - 100 of 195 ... As use of the Internet and mobile technologies in the developing world ... to grow at a high rate, there is potential to provide real income opportunities to ... Improving Governance through Access to Information in Africa.

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    Results 581 - 590 of 902 ... Counting Women's Work: The Gendered Economy in the Market and at Home ... flows now well exceeding official development assistance levels. ... small city level have spread across Latin America in the last decade.

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    Results 551 - 560 of 875 ... Counting Women's Work: The Gendered Economy in the Market and at Home ... flows now well exceeding official development assistance levels. ... small city level have spread across Latin America in the last decade.

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    Results 761 - 770 of 8489 ... Strategic communication 101 ... Adding academic networks as an external KML map layer to the web version of the Africa Telecom Transmission Map ... Developing the NREN research index model for information ...

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    Results 7461 - 7470 of 9580 ... The spillover of development puts both communities and the environment at risk. ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, ... they contribute to violence in 12 working class neighborhoods in ...

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    Results 171 - 180 of 8531 ... Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus through synthetic biology. Pigs are among the most profitable livestock for poor farmers. Published date. January 12, 2018. Research in Action. Food and Agriculture Gender ...

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    Results 31 - 40 of 8491 ... ... POVERTY WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT LOW INCOME GROUPS ... However, they can also be sources of inequality and social exclusion in ... WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT INCLUSIVE GROWTH FEMINISM Gender ...

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    Results 7251 - 7260 of 9602 ... Nigerian smallholders, particularly women, are highly vulnerable to the ... Human Development and Capability Network - Phase III ... as being healthy, educated, able to work and able to engage in cultural activities.

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    Results 101 - 110 of 869 ... Embedding Open Data Practice: Developing Indicators on the Institutionalization of Open Data Practice in Two African Governments. Published date. June 30, 2015. Papers. LATIN AMERICA OPEN DATA ...

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    Results 171 - 180 of 1368 ... Embedding Open Data Practice: Developing Indicators on the Institutionalization of Open Data Practice in Two African Governments. Published date. June 30, 2015. Papers. LOCAL GOVERNMENT ...

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    Results 151 - 160 of 1311 ... Embedding Open Data Practice: Developing Indicators on the Institutionalization of Open Data Practice in Two African Governments. Published date. June 30, 2015. Papers. LOCAL GOVERNMENT ...

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    Results 8221 - 8230 of 8531 ... Published date ... Mobile Money and Local Development : final technical report, March ... three profile factors: inclusiveness, industry, and impact. ... the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth.

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    Results 731 - 740 of 8489 ... Innovation for social inclusion in Africa: thinking aloud ... challenge for food security and sustainable development in Burundi ... Advocating for Science, Technology and Innovation: Lessons from a Decade of Linking ...

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    Results 71 - 80 of 8491 ... Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four ... Grants and awards: Gender equality and scaling digital innovation ... The state of open data: reflecting on its role for sustainable development.

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    Results 481 - 490 of 8517 ... Research on open educational resources for development in the global South ... Poster : 3Vs crowdsourcing framework for elections; using online and mobile ... Informed by theoretical concepts in adult learning, ...

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    Results 51 - 60 of 650 ... Sustainable Production of Underutilized Vegetables to Enhance Rural Food Security (CIFSRF). Indigenous vegetables are extremely important to poor rural women but have received little attention from the research, development and policy community. Project.

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    Results 6891 - 6900 of 9601 ... The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development ... Institutional Support to Policy Research Organizations in India ... policy on both the content and administration of family law in the Caribbean, ...

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    Results 421 - 430 of 8494 ... Development GENDER EQUALITY WOMEN'S ECONOMIC ... Health, SDGs, and public policy—the role of policy research ... Many echoed her sentiment, telling me they would not attend cervical screening due to the ...

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    Results 281 - 290 of 374 ... Responsible and Sustainable Tourism : Strengthening Small-Scale Enterprise in Costa Rica ... Land Use, Biofuels and Rural Development in the La Plata ... Ethnic Relations in Guatemala : a New Educational Strategy.

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    Results 541 - 550 of 8490 ... Session 2 : introduction to risk management; a concept of risks from development perspectives. Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies ... Introduction to geographic information systems (GIS). Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies.

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    Results 51 - 60 of 8517 ... Starting this year, IDRC will support the development of a new university program in water science ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights ... When the brain hits the right notes.

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    Results 91 - 100 of 1913 ... ... for Mathematical Sciences 2 Apply African Institute for Mathematical ... This presentation defines open data, and shares examples of ... December 9, 2014 ... flood plain development, and water resource management.

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    Results 7491 - 7500 of 9602 ... Displaced by development: How the state can hinder or help ... decades have seen dramatic changes in the southern Indian city of Kochi, where a ... Opinion: Achieving real gender equality for adolescent health.

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    Results 261 - 270 of 369 ... High income inequality in developed countries is attributed to skill-biased ... Resources and Division of Labour along Gender Lines in Veracruz, Mexico ... ICTs for Microcredit Delivery : Correspondent Banking in Brazil.

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    Results 601 - 610 of 1119 ... ... SMALLHOLDERS PESTICIDES GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS. Gender impacts of genetically engineered crops in developing ... from the adoption of Genetically Engineered (GE) crops have shown tha.

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    Results 861 - 870 of 874 ... The right to privacy is a fundamental human right within democratic states. ... and living well in Bolivia : contributions to food security ... How open data and international development need to learn from one another.

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    Results 151 - 160 of 8491 ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals. An alternative food and nutrition security strategy that links agriculture to health and nutrition. Published date. April 24, 2016. Research in Action. Development Gender ...

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    Results 8441 - 8450 of 8517 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) seeks to improve the health of livestock and the livelihoods of farmers by supporting the development, production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against neglected livestock diseases (incl. Initiative.

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    Results 281 - 290 of 8492 ... This project will support the building of leaders of today and tomorrow in ... Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia ... The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, to be held in ...

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    Results 451 - 460 of 8518 ... Graduate education should challenge traditional modes of learning and ... Development FEMINISM WOMEN'S ECONOMIC ... The role of research in implementing Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy.

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    Results 71 - 80 of 208 ... Gender and Enterprise Development in Africa: A Cross-Country Comparative Study ... Opportunities and Incorporating Youth into Labour Markets in the ... unemployment and an underdeveloped formal (private) sector.

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    Results 91 - 100 of 162 ... Hungry Cities Initiative: Informality, Inclusive Growth, and Food Security in Cities of the Global South. As urban populations grow in developing countries, promoting inclusive growth that ensures food security for all is critical. Project.

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    Results 8421 - 8430 of 8494 ... Information and Communication ... We are strengthening developing-country skills and institutions in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. ... Véronique Duvieusart is Director, Human Resources.

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    Results 7561 - 7570 of 9602 ... Policy and Practice in Asian Distance Education ... process, flexibility to outsource innovation activities, and most importantly, the location of innovation. ... Measuring the Impact of Information on Development.

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    Results 8331 - 8340 of 8492 ... The balance between these two is a key issue in many developing countries. ... FOREST RESOURCES Water Gender ... Food security Gender ... and food processing businesses enhance their livelihoods in a ...

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    Results 8291 - 8300 of 8531 ... MOTIVATION TRUST HEALTH SYSTEM JOB SATISFACTION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TASK PERFORMANCE ... Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on ... Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents of Ethiopia : school based cross sectional survey.

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    Results 131 - 140 of 8492 ... Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate a ... Professional Development Award: Agriculture and Food Security ... the Middle East, South and South East Asia, and Latin America with strong.

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    Results 51 - 60 of 369 ... Development of a New Tobacco Tax Policy in Peru. The most direct and effective method for reducing tobacco consumption is to increase the price of tobacco products through legislating higher taxes. Project.

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    Showing 551 - 560 of 1131 results : "food" ... of health, environment and development outcomes in urban ecohealth project, Katmandu ... Journal articles ... change to better understand how climate stressors affect agricultural productivity, with ...

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    Results 211 - 220 of 1119 ... Knowledge Networking for Rural Development in Asia/Pacific Region ... for establishing a knowledge-sharing network of IFAD rural poverty ... scale up agriculture and food security innovations to bring more lasting ...

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    Results 51 - 60 of 8496 ... Denis Trudeau is Director of Information Management and Technology. ... systems in developing countries requires knowledge sharing, expert advice, ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods.

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    Results 21 - 30 of 43 ... Many European and North American governments are committed to promoting political ... Political Party Development in the Arab World ... Women and educated youth are particularly vulnerable to high unemployment.

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    Results 6451 - 6460 of 9601 ... In Burkina Faso, scientific research, invention and innovation have generated ... Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) under project 102135. ... and sustainable management of common-pool resources.

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    Results 8131 - 8140 of 8490 ... Development and Global Governance. Fifty years on, the reform of the Bretton Woods institutions — the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund — has become a lively issue. Publication Date. January 1, 1996. Books.

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    Results 11 - 20 of 1982 ... ... IDRC; and the importance of including men and boys in the journey. ... Reducing child undernutrition : which parent's education matters most? - policy brief. Reducing child undernutrition is a global development goal.

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    Results 7871 - 7880 of 8492 ... Palestinian Refugees: Challenges of Repatriation and Development. Research in Action. Justice and security. A responsibility to report — The role of the media in the ... Addressing the social causes of illness.

  12. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  13. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  14. Search Results | Page 848 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8471 - 8480 of 8517 ... What we offer. A stimulating work environment, inspiring colleagues, professional development, and a comprehensive benefits package. Webpage. -. Current opportunities. Join our dynamic team of talented professionals dedicated to improving the lives of people in developing countries.

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    Results 351 - 360 of 439 ... Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq. Although Iraq boasts 20 universities, only a few of them have social science departments. For four ... The application of modern biotechnology to agriculture has courted considerable controversy in both developed and developing countries. Project.

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    Results 871 - 880 of 9601 ... Economic inclusion of youth to build citizen security in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico ... especially in rapidly developing and emerging economies, has become a ... and the contrasting, but concurrent, rise in overweight and obesity ... to the global dialogue on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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    Results 141 - 150 of 8491 ... Call for Expressions of Interest for capacity development of ... citizen of a developing country with a work permit in Canada valid until September 30, 2018; ... Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

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    Results 181 - 190 of 8531 ... Call for Expressions of Interest for capacity development of ... citizen of a developing country with a work permit in Canada valid until September 30, 2018; ... Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

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    Results 201 - 210 of 8531 ... Research in Action. Development Gender. IDRC.ca's must-read stories of 2017. The most popular content on our website in 2017 showcased the ... Trade is an important part of a country's development processes and ...

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    Results 371 - 380 of 1804 ... ... Economic and social development 84 Apply Economic and social ... Tool to Assess the Implementation of Access to Information Legislation ... The Greater Mekong Subregion-Development Analysis Network (GMS-DAN) is a ... Too often, cost effective, high impact medicines - those that could ...

  1. Search Results | Page 89 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 881 - 890 of 1804 ... This joint initiative between IDRC and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and scale-up effective action on climate resilient development to improve the livelihoods of those most affected by climate c. Project ...

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    Results 81 - 90 of 162 ... It was recommended that national teams meet to develop a publications ... Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of Information and Communication ... of concern influences lecturers rate of adoption of e-learning ... AFRICA CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TEACHER TRAINING ...

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    Results 51 - 59 of 59 ... Information and communication technologies for development ... Tobacco and taxes: A winning strategy ... have altered behaviour so dramatically in Canada and other developed countries, it's easy to forget ... partners working on climate change adaptation projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and ...

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    Results 81 - 90 of 8523 ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem-based intervention to empower adolescents. The goal of this action research project is to reduce teen pregnancy in Benin by developing and promoting an innovative, evidence-based intervention combining sexual and reproductive ...

  5. Search Results | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 101 - 110 of 8491 ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem-based intervention to empower adolescents. The goal of this action research project is to reduce teen pregnancy in Benin by developing and promoting an innovative, evidence-based intervention combining sexual and ...

  6. Search Results | Page 754 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7531 - 7540 of 8491 ... Health systems. Making mental health services accessible for rural Kenyans. Research in Action. Health systems. Developing the PALM Plus diagnostic tool for Malawi. Research in Action. Health systems. A role for telemedicine in Mali. Research in Action. Economic and social development ...

  7. Search Results | Page 834 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8331 - 8340 of 8494 ... Separate analysis by type is needed to further understand social determinants of tobacco use. ... political level within a favourable socio-economic and political context. ... Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic ... NUTRITION CHILD DEVELOPMENT RURAL COMMUNITIES ...

  8. Search Results | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 231 - 240 of 650 ... North of Sahara 546 Apply North of Sahara filter · South Asia 439 Apply South Asia ... African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants ... (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco contro ... their populations and hamper their economic and social development.

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    Results 451 - 460 of 875 ... Filter by region ... Safe and Inclusive Cities 3 Apply Safe and Inclusive Cities filter ... Development of an Ottawa-based Foreign Policy Network will help ... the Center Stage in Mexico: Case Study for World Development ...

  10. Search Results | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    2014-09-15

    Results 91 - 100 of 869 ... Exploring the emerging impacts of open aid data and budget data in Nepal. Published date. September 15, 2014. Papers. INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFORMATION POLICY Internet ACCESS TO INFORMATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Economic and social development CASE STUDIES POLICY ...

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    Results 21 - 30 of 8491 ... ... use as a threat not only to global health, but also to international development efforts. ... Collaboration in informal settlements: tackling flooding with a local perspective. In most developing countries, solid waste management is a ... public service, academia, and at the Canadian Museum of History.

  12. Search Results | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 61 - 70 of 197 ... This project aims to promote health and sustainable development in Africa ... is repositioning itself in relation to information and communication ... Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural China and India ... globalization with social equity and sustainable economic growth.

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    Results 601 - 610 of 1809 ... ... SMALL ENTERPRISES 43 Apply SMALL ENTERPRISES filter · ECONOMIC ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, ... forms of collaborative business networking can have a positive impact on ... a major barrier to the economic and social development process.

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    Results 151 - 160 of 211 ... ... social development 22 Apply Economic and social development filter · SMALL .... As in other sub-Saharan countries, small-scale subsistence farming ... through Strengthening the Links between Research and the Media ... Its impact on national businesses, particularly micro, small and medium ...

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    Results 141 - 150 of 420 ... ... Agriculture and Food Security 28 Apply Agriculture and Food ... Economic Research Forum - Core Support 2012-2014 ... The Center for Global Development (CGD), located in ... The Arab Council for the Social Sciences: Support for Institutional Development, Core Capacities, and an Inaugural ...

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    Results 931 - 940 of 1804 ... Centre for Global Development Visiting Fellowship Program ... Support for Institutional Development, Core Capacities, and an ... due to increased population, climate change, and agricultural policies. ... Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening Research Capacity.

  17. Search Results | Page 843 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8421 - 8430 of 8531 ... The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. ... In recent years, the Internet and other network technologies have emerged as a central issue for development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  18. Search Results | Page 840 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8391 - 8400 of 8491 ... Sustainable Development at Risk: Ignoring the Past. Dr Hulse is ... This book examines the problem of inadequate access to information and communication technology (ICT) and the need to develop appropriate pro-poor ICT policies within the Latin American and Caribbean context. Publication ...

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    Results 751 - 760 of 1804 ... ... an integral component of development among countries in the Association ... Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ... China and India are now considered the favored locations for technology outsourcing. ... Land Seizures in Northern Colombia and their effect on the ...

  20. Search Results | Page 775 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7741 - 7750 of 9601 ... ... in Action filter · Journal articles (1005) Apply Journal articles filter .... To find sustainable solutions to development problems, ... Volume 2 examines the setting, operations, and effects of ... Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management ...

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    Results 31 - 40 of 197 ... ... DISASTER MANAGEMENT 4 Apply DISASTER MANAGEMENT filter ... Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for Creativity and Inclusion ... new business and economic inclusion in developing countries poses ... From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open ...

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    Results 511 - 520 of 658 ... ... NETWORKS filter · Economic and social development 30 Apply ... The debate over intellectual property policies and their effects is highly contested. ... It is generally acknowledged that mass media (specifically radio) play an ... by Wellcome Trust, the Department for International Development ...

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    Results 501 - 510 of 650 ... ... NETWORKS filter · Economic and social development 30 Apply ... Consolidating African Research and Education Networking ... The debate over intellectual property policies and their effects is highly contested. ... by Wellcome Trust, the Department for International Development (DFID) and IDRC.

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 311 - 320 of 8490 ... Development of a ten-year pulse research strategy ... Tackling online inequality: Making digital platforms work for inclusive development. As they become an essential part of the digital experience, online platforms such as Facebook, Amazon, Uber, AirBnB, and Twitter are having a direct bearing on ...

  5. Search Results | Page 729 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7281 - 7290 of 9175 ... ... (186) Apply Development filter · Internet (186) Apply Internet filter .... up to date on what has changed — scientifically, politically, and environmentally ... Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ... provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro en.

  6. Search Results | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 291 - 300 of 1804 ... ... Economic and social development 84 Apply Economic and social ... Contribution of Mining Activities and Development in Africa: Private ... of any just and lasting resolution to the Palestinian Israeli conflict. Project. Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the North Coast of Peru.

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    Results 81 - 90 of 102 ... Responsible and Sustainable Tourism : Strengthening Small-Scale ... Many European and North American governments are committed to ... Accompanied Youth Livelihood Development : Assessment and Measuring Tools. In developing countries, young people are often called upon to take on adult ...

  8. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 377 ... Scaling open data for development in Latin America. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces complex development challenges. ... Digital marketplace platforms like AirBnB and Uber, sometimes ...

  9. Search Results | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 21 - 30 of 257 ... Scaling open data for development in Latin America. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces complex development challenges. ... Digital marketplace platforms like AirBnB and Uber, sometimes ...

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    Results 591 - 600 of 650 ... Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III ... International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are ... Panafrican Research Agenda on the Integration of ICTs in Education - Phase I ... Development, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the ...

  11. Search Results | Page 763 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 7621 - 7630 of 8532 ... DEVELOPMENT AID. The advance of history: the scholars speak. Research in Action. Innovation. Joining forces to ... Ideas. Innovation. Impact. Research in Action. Innovation REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Capacity building International cooperation Gender. Achieving global distinction. Research ...

  12. Search Results | Page 837 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8361 - 8370 of 8531 ... Advancing the application of systems thinking in health : realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana. This paper seeks to address how and why the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) works when it is introduced into a ...

  13. Search Results | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-04-07

    Results 251 - 257 of 257 ... Putting open data into policy : lessons from leaders around the world. Open data as a policy area is not more than five years old. Published date. April 7, 2015. Journal articles. DEVELOPMENT AID CULTURAL CHANGE SOCIAL MOVEMENTS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ORGANIZATIONAL ...

  14. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 11 - 20 of 60 ... Financing innovation : the experience of Malaysia ... more firms, both local and foreign to engage in innovation-related activities as part of ... ASEAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INDUSTRIALIZATION Development. Industralization and development in Asean countries : challenges and prospects.

  15. Search Results | Page 816 | IDRC - International Development ...

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    Results 8151 - 8160 of 8491 ... For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems ... Marketing Information Products and Services: A Primer for Librarians and ... on the world stage, as does its new and developing market economy. ... Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of Globalization.

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Results 211 - 220 of 8491 ... IDRC Annual Report 2016-2017. IDRC's vision is to support long-term change for those who need it most. Published date. October 17, 2017. Story. Development Natural Resources WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT ARTISINAL AND SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING (ASGM) ...

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 61 - 70 of 8517 ... Preventing teen pregnancy in Benin: development of a self-esteem-based intervention to empower adolescents. The goal of this action research project is to reduce teen pregnancy in Benin by developing and promoting an innovative, evidence-based intervention combining sexual and reproductive ...

  18. Search Results | Page 757 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7561 - 7570 of 9601 ... Child Welfare in Developing Countries. What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. ... Assessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies: ...

  19. Search Results | Page 787 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7861 - 7870 of 9602 ... The study's author, Stacie Travers, also carried out four case studies ... Development Regional development Economics Environment Food ... generating ideas and building international networks. ... Learning financial skills through involvement in an urban farming cooperative has improved the ...

  20. Search Results | Page 846 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8451 - 8460 of 8491 ... Making Choices about Hydrogen: Transport Issues for Developing Countries. This timely book examines how developing countries can factor in competing arguments about the impending arrival of practical hydrogen fuel cell technology as they explore options for future policies. Publication ...

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 61 - 70 of 112 ... ... 60 Apply Books filter · Journal articles 57 Apply Journal articles filter .... Developing Capacity for Agricultural Research for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa ... Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ... of rural and environmental issues within the academic community with a ...

  2. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult

  3. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 51 - 60 of 902 ... ... CASE STUDIES 20 Apply CASE STUDIES filter · Networking 20 Apply ... Strengthening think tank networks ... Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces ... As a result of climate change, population growth, and rapid unplanned urbanization, cities in developing countries are both ...

  4. Search Results | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 41 - 50 of 873 ... As a result of climate change, population growth, and rapid ... The Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-transmitted human pathogen which has affected over 50 countries to date. ... Harnessing the sharing economy in developing countries ... Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business.

  5. Search Results | Page 827 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8261 - 8270 of 8491 ... Influencing policy for resilient societies. For research results to improve people's lives, they must reach decision-makers who can use them to develop more effective policies and practices. Research in Action. Institutional assessment ...

  6. Search Results | Page 815 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8141 - 8150 of 9601 ... ... Research in Action filter · Journal articles (1005) Apply Journal articles .... IDRC supports results-based research that has real impacts on ... IDRC support helps some of the developing world's brightest scientists find new ways to ... Dr David Butler-Jones, professor in the Faculty of Medicine at ...

  7. Some early results from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Fritz, R.B.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The multifrequency satellite radio beacon enables the measurement of the columnar electron content of the ionosphere and plasmasphere along the ray path and its spatial and temporal structure. Measurements include modulation phase, Faraday rotation, and amplitude. The characteristics of the beacon transmitter and its design are presented together with the design of the Boulder receiver and antennas and the calibration procedures. A shape factor F is defined which depends on the electron density and geomagnetic field distributions. It is found that F varies by about 30 percent from day to night. It is shown that the ratio of the plasmaspheric content to total content varies from about 0.08 during the day to about 0.35 at night. Other examples which are presented to illustrate the uses of the radio beacon include sunrise effects, solar flare enhancements of total content, and the ionospheric storms of early July 1974

  8. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  9. LSNR Airborne LIDAR Mapping System Design and Early Results (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Carter, W. E.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) detection techniques allow for implementation of airborne light detection and range (LIDAR) instrumentation aboard platforms with prohibitive power, size, and weight restrictions. The University of Florida has developed the Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS), a prototype LSNR LIDAR system capable of single photon laser ranging. CATS is designed to operate in a fixed-wing aircraft flying 600 m above ground level, producing 532 nm, 480 ps, 3 μJ output pulses at 8 kHz. To achieve continuous coverage of the terrain with 20 cm spatial resolution in a single pass, a 10x10 array of laser beamlets is scanned. A Risley prism scanner (two rotating V-coated optical wedges) allows the array of laser beamlets to be deflected in a variety of patterns, including conical, spiral, and lines at selected angles to the direction of flight. Backscattered laser photons are imaged onto a 100 channel (10x10 segmented-anode) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a micro-channel plate (MCP) amplifier. Each channel of the PMT is connected to a multi-stop 2 GHz event timer. Here we report on tests in which ranges for known targets were accumulated for repeated laser shots and statistical analyses were applied to evaluate range accuracy, minimum separation distance, bathymetric mapping depth, and atmospheric scattering. Ground-based field test results have yielded 10 cm range accuracy and sub-meter feature identification at variable scan settings. These experiments also show that a secondary surface can be detected at a distance of 15 cm from the first. Range errors in secondary surface identification for six separate trials were within 7.5 cm, or within the timing resolution limit of the system. Operating at multi-photon sensitivity may have value for situations in which high ambient noise precludes single-photon sensitivity. Low reflectivity targets submerged in highly turbid waters can cause detection issues. CATS offers the capability to adjust the

  10. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  11. Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colley, J.-M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545...... and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4′. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created...... by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears...

  12. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  13. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  14. Early results from Magsat. [studies of near-earth magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at the May 27, 1981 meeting of the American Geophysical Union concerning early results from the Magsat satellite program, which was designed to study the near-earth magnetic fields originating in the core and lithosphere, are discussed. The satellite was launched on October 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit, and re-entered the atmosphere on June 11, 1980. Instruments carried included a cesium vapor magnetometer to measure field magnitudes, a fluxgate magnetometer to measure field components and an optical system to measure fluxgate magnetometer orientation. Early results concerned spherical harmonic models, fields due to ionospheric and magnetospheric currents, the identification and interpretation of fields from lithospheric sources. The preliminary results confirm the possibility of separating the measured field into core, crustal and external components, and represent significant developments in analytical techniques in main-field modelling and the physics of the field sources.

  15. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  16. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  17. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  18. Planck early results. VIII. The all-sky early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This early SZ (ESZ) sample is comprised of 189 candidates, which have a high signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 6 to 29. Its ...

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