WorldWideScience

Sample records for development current situation

  1. An overview of current situations of robot industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As an industry of emerging technology, robot industry has become one of important signs to evaluate a country’s level in science and technology innovation and high-end manufacturing, and an important strategic field to take the preemptive opportunities in development of intelligent society. Developed countries such as the USA, Germany, France and Japan have formulated their robot R&D strategies and planning in succession. China boasts good industrial foundation and has made encouraging progress in the course of development of robot technology. This paper briefly discusses the application type of robot industry and current situations of robot industry development in countries around the world, and makes detailed explanation of current situations of robot industry development in China.

  2. [Development and current situation of reconstruction methods following total sacrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siyi; Ji, Tao; Guo, Wei

    2018-05-01

    To review the development of the reconstruction methods following total sacrectomy, and to provide reference for finding a better reconstruction method following total sacrectomy. The case reports and biomechanical and finite element studies of reconstruction following total sacrectomy at home and abroad were searched. Development and current situation were summarized. After developing for nearly 30 years, great progress has been made in the reconstruction concept and fixation techniques. The fixation methods can be summarized as the following three strategies: spinopelvic fixation (SPF), posterior pelvic ring fixation (PPRF), and anterior spinal column fixation (ASCF). SPF has undergone technical progress from intrapelvic rod and hook constructs to pedicle and iliac screw-rod systems. PPRF and ASCF could improve the stability of the reconstruction system. Reconstruction following total sacrectomy remains a challenge. Reconstruction combining SPF, PPRF, and ASCF is the developmental direction to achieve mechanical stability. How to gain biological fixation to improve the long-term stability is an urgent problem to be solved.

  3. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  4. Tianshuishi space breeding current situation and developing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Zhang Zhongping; Guo Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Tianshuishi is located in Xi'an to lanzhou among two big cities, the five space launch, has vegetables, food, grasses, flowers, rape, melon and fruit, Chinese traditional medicine, amount of 8 categories of crops, such as the 22 new material after carrying the ground breeding work. Only vegetables on identified 23 aerospace new varieties. After ten years of space breeding, summarizes the present situation of Tianshuishi space breeding, development experience, characteristic, trends, and puts forward the development space breeding Tianshuishi organization and breeding of talent from the matching policy and grow up incentive mechanism, strengthen the cooperation and all over the country, establishing fiscal policy support from the aspects such as advice. (authors)

  5. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Wan, Ming-chang; Yang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guiz...

  6. KPMU projects. Current environmental situation and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarska, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following KPMU projects are described: Dry storage facility, which will allow the dry storage of 5256 fuel assemblies, currently stored in the spent fuel ponds of reactors of Units 3,4 and the WSF; Projects for equipment and activities related to management of liquid RAW which is already have being implemented on the site and are therefore covered in the current KNPP EIA; Ion Exchange Resin retrieval and Conditioning Equipment; Plasma melting facility; Facility for Retrieval and Processing of The Solidified Phase from Evaporator Concentrate Tanks; Control of Liquid and Gaseous Releases for the Units under Decommissioning at KNPP; Size Reduction and Decontamination Active Workshop –Design, Construction and Equipment Supply and Installation; Supply of: dismantling, size reduction and decontamination tools and equipment; Infrastructure and security perimeter separation; Heat generation plant; EIA for Decommissioning of units 1 to 4; Decay Storage Site for Transitional RAW; Site for Conventional Waste from Decommissioning; Inventory, Treatment and Conditioning of Contaminated Soils; Waste Backlog Treatment

  7. [Treatment of posterior noninfectious uveitis : Current situation and future developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, U; Pohlmann, D; Stübiger, N

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of autoimmune diseases has undergone significant changes and developments in recent years. New classes of active substances, in particular biologics and small molecules have resulted in previously unknown success in the treatment of many diseases. In particular patients suffering from autoimmune rheumatic or dermatological diseases have benefited. For autoimmune uveitis there are numerous reports indicating excellent therapeutic and preventive effects; however, statutory approval for therapy in adults is still pending. This article outlines recent advances and future therapeutic options for the treatment of posterior segment noninfectious uveitis.

  8. Current Situation and Developing Countermeasures of Postgraduate Innovation Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the driving force to promote the development of our nation. Postgraduate education, as an important approach to cultivate high-level talents, is a major part of the national innovation system. The establishment of the Postgraduate Innovation Center has an important significance for the cultivation of innovative talents in colleges and universities. This paper expounds the connotation and characteristics of Postgraduate Innovation Center and analyzes its current situation, operation mode, function orientation, institution settings and the innovative products. The paper also points out the problems in the current situation of the Postgraduate Innovation Center and finds the factors which restrict the development of the center. Finally, the paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures.

  9. History, Current Situation, and Future Development of Endoscopic Neurosurgery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuzhong; Zhu, Haibo; Zong, Xuyi; Wang, Xinsheng; Gui, Songbai; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2018-02-01

    During the past few decades, Chinese endoscopic neurosurgery has rapidly developed in synchrony with the rest of the world. The aim of this article is to review the development of Chinese endoscopic neurosurgery, including its birth, growth, current situation, and prospects. The history of Chinese endoscopic neurosurgery development can be divided into 3 stages: cognition and initial stage (1964-1995), exploration and maturity stage (1995-2006), and rapid development and promotion stage (2006-present). In the first stage, we mainly began to become aware of endoscopic neurosurgery from the translation and review of literature. In the mid to late 1990s, Chinese neurosurgery pioneers began using neuroendoscopic techniques. In the following decade, many leading neurosurgeons made persistent efforts to push the development of Chinese endoscopic neurosurgery forward, focusing on advocating for and promoting and popularizing neuroendoscopic technology. In the rapid development and promotion stage, many representative national and regional neurosurgical centers became skilled and efficient in the application of neuroendoscopic technology and became new advocates of the technology. The number of cases, level of technology, and treatment effectiveness are gradually nearing international standards. However, future development requires promotion of balanced development to decrease regional disparities, further strengthen international exchanges, follow the latest developments, and constantly innovate for continuous improvement. Following the dramatic efforts of several pioneers, development of Chinese endoscopic neurosurgery has been considerable, and it has become an important component of neurosurgery worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue-guang

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  11. Biographical and Narrative Research in Iberoamerica: Areas of Development and Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bolívar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biographical-narrative inquiry has its identity within qualitative research, and it merits attention. This article reviews and describes the biographical-narrative research origin, development and variants in the social sciences of Iberoamerican countries. It offers a broad overview of this field of investigation, defining the main areas of narrative and (autobiographical inquiry. In this context, it is opted to do a synchronic and a diachronic approach to the current situation. It is based on development and experienced training in this field: 1 It offers a biographical-narrative research characterization about diverse and heterogeneous modalities, methodological variants, forms and dimensions 2 It highlights the roots and the reasons for the current relevance of this approach in social research in the Iberoamerican setting. 3 It describes the main questions and the approach progression, adopting a prospective point of view. 4 It describes the most relevant orientations, the most noteworthy instruments and the key characteristics that must be present in this type of investigation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604125

  12. The current situation and development of medical device testing institutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Mu, Ruihong; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Chunren; Li, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    This article analyses the current situation and development of Chinese medical device testing institutes from the perspectives of the two most important functions - testing functions and medical device standardization functions. Areas Covered: The objective of the Chinese government regulations for medical device industry is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices for Chinese patients. To support the regulation system, the Chinese government has established medical device testing institutes at different levels for example, the national, provincial, and municipal levels. These testing institutes also play an important role in technical support during medical device premarket registration and post market surveillance, they are also the vital practitioners of Chinese medical device standardization. Expert Commentary: Chinese medical device testing institutes are technical departments established by government, and serve the regulatory functions of government agency. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical device industry as well as constantly increasing international and domestic medical device market, the importance of medical device testing institute is more prominent, However, there are still some problems unsolved, such as their overall capacity remains to be improved, construction of standardization is to be strengthened, etc.

  13. TianShuiShi space breeding current situation and developing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Zhang Zhongping; Guo Zhenfang

    2011-01-01

    TianShuiShi is located in xian to lanzhou among two big cities, the five space launch, has vegetables, food, grasses, flowers, rape, melon and fruit, Chinese traditional medicine, amount of 8 categories of crops, such as the 22 new material after carrying the ground breeding work. Only vegetables on identified 23 aerospace new varieties. After ten years of space breeding, summarizes the present situation of TianShuiShi space breeding, development experience, characteristic, trends, and puts forward the development space breeding TianShuiShi organization and breeding of talent from the matching policy and grow up incentive mechanism, strengthen the cooperation and all over the country, establishing fiscal policy support from the aspects such as advice. (authors)

  14. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  15. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  17. Current situation, potentials and prospects for the development of organic farming in Šumadija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Šumadija is rich in natural potentials which provide a good basis for the future development of organic farming, given the fact that natural resources are limited. The composition and structure of natural resources are highly suitable for organic production. The region's relatively unpolluted land, favourable climate, abundant water resources and preserved biodiversity are some of the main organic farming requirements satisfied. Organic production is not possible without ensuring at least a minimum level of preservation of natural resources in areas where organic farming is practised; on the other hand, organic production itself has a positive effect on the preservation and improvement of environmental quality in these areas. Small plots of land can be advantageous for this production, particularly in upland areas, and used specifically for organic production as the conversion period is short. They can be used for vegetable farming because the soil is uncontaminated owing to distance from roads. Positive experience indicates that potatoes, rye, oats and root vegetables can be successfully grown in these areas. Another advantage is the wealth of indigenous cultivars of apples, pears and plums which are highly resistant to pathogenic pests and environmental conditions, and hence suitable for cultivation without the use of mineral fertilisers and chemical agents. Major issues currently facing organic farming are a small-scale organic market and low prices of organic products, a low level of consumer awareness of the advantages of organic farming, suspicion and ignorance, low purchasing power, low availability of organic products through sales channels, etc.

  18. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  19. The development and current situation of e-learning in Spanish Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jorge Garcia Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study aimed to analyze organizational models at institutional level, technological tools and educational resources that distinguish online vocational studies throughout the Spanish territory. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection. The most relevant results of the study were: there is an increase in the number of students enrolled in vocational training distance learning studies, materials specifically created and distributed in an open format for distance learning are used in some regions, absolute hegemony of Moodle as a virtual learning environment with its synchronous and asynchronous communication tools, existence of a gap between regions regarding the ratio of students per module and the hours devoted to tutorials, distance learning national implementation for the most vocational training studies, and creation of an interactive map specifically in order to show information collected in the study. Considering this situation, there are certain aspects which differ significantly among regions and which could be improved in two ways: firstly, throughout better communication and coordination, and secondly, by means of exchanging experiences between regions.

  20. Current Situation and Development Opportunities of Apple Production inThe Province Konya

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAMOĞLU, Zeki; ÇELİK, Yusuf; OĞUZ, Cennet

    2009-01-01

    In this study sectoral analysis of apple production activity in Konya was made. Within this scope at first apple production amount in Turkey and in the world and developments in cultivation areas were examined, development opportunities of apple production in the province were discussed. The data about this issue was collected from secondary sources (Food and Agriculture Organization, Turkish Statistical Institute etc.) In line with this data strong, weak sides of this sector, opportunities a...

  1. The Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasure Research of Chain-management Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, Chinese Chain-management, which is still at the initial stage of development, is in obvious disadvantage in the competition with foreign large-scale chain enterprises. Merger, franchise and some other approaches should be adopted by Chinese chain enterprises in order to broad in scale. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to informatization system, constant optimization and upgrade information system. By choosing good promotion and advertising modes to increase customer’s awareness to chain enterprises brand, we could smoothly implement the chain enterprise brand strategy. Finally, chain enterprise management in China will expand under the context of new market.

  2. [System of rehabilitation in the Armed Forces: history, current situation, and perspectives of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ia; Shchegol'kov, A M; Iudin, V E; Beliakin, S A; Ivanov, V N; Budko, A A; Ovechkin, I G

    2009-08-01

    There are two main directions of development of medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces of RF for now-days: medical-psychological rehabilitation of military service men among special contingents, realizing special military duty (air- and NAVY-staff, staff duty shift of Missile Force of Special Purpose) and medical rehabilitation of military service men, participants of battle action in accordance with sub-program "Social support and rehabilitation of invalids in consequence of battle action or battle trauma" of Federal Purpose Program in the sphere of social support of invalids. The authors mark necessity of reorientation of medical strategy from evaluation of determination of symptoms of already existent disease to evaluation of determination of adaptation reserves of organism of military service men, determination of changes in organism on the stage of pre-disease.

  3. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  4. Mental health care in Nepal: current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H

    2015-01-01

    Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of specialist mental health workers (psychiatrists and psychologists) from only service delivery to also designing and managing mental health services; building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers, and providing supervision and quality assurance of mental health services may help in scaling up mental health services in LMICs. Little is known however, about the mental health policy and services context for these strategies in fragile-state settings, such as Nepal. A standard situation analysis tool was developed by the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME) consortium to systematically analyze and describe the current gaps in mental health care in Nepal, in order to inform the development of a district level mental health care plan (MHCP). It comprised six sections; general information (e.g. population, socio-economic conditions); mental health policies and plans; mental health treatment coverage; district health services; and community services. Data was obtained from secondary sources, including scientific publications, reports, project documents and hospital records. Mental health policy exists in Nepal, having been adopted in 1997, but implementation of the policy framework has yet to begin. In common with other LMICs, the budget allocated for mental health is minimal. Mental health services are concentrated in the big cities, with 0.22 psychiatrists and 0.06 psychologists per 100,000 population. The key challenges experienced in developing a district level MHCP included, overburdened health workers, lack of psychotropic medicines in the PHC, lack of mental health supervision in the existing system, and lack of a coordinating body in the Ministry

  5. Current situation on the glueball research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qixing

    1991-01-01

    The current situation on the glueball research is reviewed. The emphases are some qualitative guidances to identify the glueball and several possible candidate states for the glueball which have been discovered in the experiments

  6. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  7. 韩国食用菌产业发展现状与趋势%Korean Edible Fungi Industry Development Current Situation and Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德贤; 刘姿彤; 史磊; 王延锋; 盛春鸽; 董雪梅

    2014-01-01

    Korean edible fungi cultivation history ,cultivar ,production mode ,production status and current situation of trade are described by Korean edible fungi industry development current situ-ation in this page .It is analysised Korean edible fungi industry trend in development .%从韩国食用菌栽培历史、栽培品种、生产模式、生产现状及贸易现状等5个方面,阐述了韩国食用菌产业发展现状,并分析了韩国食用菌产业发展趋势。

  8. Energy access. Current situation, challenges and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Globally over 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.6 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking. Energy access is one of the major challenges of the 21. century as it is a lever for both economic and human development, at individual and national level. Moreover, energy access represents a high-potential market and offers a lot of opportunities for private companies and industrials. In this publication, ENEA lays out the current situation of energy access (actors, actual and future needs, existing technological solutions, markets). The publication addresses the main issues energy access has to face: energy price, equipment financing, distribution, scale-up, and environmental performances

  9. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Promoting practical clinical management learning: the current situation about Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Marian

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about work-based learning in information management for student nurses. It seeks, through a literature review, to make a case for and promote Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses within their clinical environment. The profession of nursing, like many other jobs, is facing the increasing usage of information technology in day-to-day operations. Admission and discharges of patients have been held on computer databases since at least the 1980s. With the new Labour Government in 1997, increasing focus was placed on the effectiveness of the National Health Service and using computers as one way to assist in achieving greater effectiveness. Nurse education therefore needed to reflect this need and support trainee nurses to acquire skills in Information and Communications Technology. This paper is part of an ongoing professional doctorate inquiry into Information and Communications Technology capability development in student nurses. A literature search was conducted on teaching information and technology skills via Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Most of the available studies were neither based on the UK nor were they about student nurses. As there is a dearth of published work in this specific area, relevant, related and tangential literature was reviewed. It is argued that current practice and published work on Information and Communications Technology capability development by student nurses hardly exists. The literature confirmed that success in this area requires sound change management, an understanding of National Health Service culture, and effective people leadership skills. Nurse educators and managers need to pay more attention to understand how organizations work, particularly organizations where student nurses carry out their work. As the search revealed a significant gap in the literature in this area, a practical conceptual framework to fully analyse, develop and

  11. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  13. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  14. Mental health care in Nepal : current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus

  15. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  16. Education for Sustainable Development: Assessment of the Current Situation at the Faculty of Engineering of Notre Dame University--Louaize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Talal; Harb, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need to incorporate educational sustainable development (ESD) principles into engineering education. This paper identifies engineering competencies within the Faculty of Engineering at Notre Dame University--Louaize and the means to shift towards sustainability. ESD tools are used to carry the analysis, keeping in mind the…

  17. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  18. Fifty years of high energy chemistry. Current situation and perspectives of development in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2017-01-01

    includes several chemical fields (including energy-generating carriers) such as radiation chemistry, photochemistry and laser chemistry, plasma chemistry, sonochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, cosmochemistry, hot atom chemistry, photoradiation chemistry, and chemical sciences caused by a group of low energy carriers: sonochemistry, mechanochemistry, shockwave, magnetochemistry and other chemical fields, e.g. luminescent phenomena. The individual problems of HECH, including the current state in the world and experimental equipment in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic, are discussed. (author)

  19. Fifty years of high energy chemistry. Current situation and perspectives of development in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2017-01-01

    several chemical fields (including energy-generating carriers) such as radiation chemistry, photochemistry and laser chemistry, plasma chemistry, sonochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, cosmochemistry, hot atom chemistry, photoradiation chemistry, and chemical sciences caused by a group of low energy carriers: sonochemistry, mechanochemistry, shockwave, magnetochemistry and other chemical fields, e.g. luminescent phenomena. The individual problems of HECH, including the current state in the world and experimental equipment in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic, are discussed. (author)

  20. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  1. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  2. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  3. Childhood Obesity: Current Situation and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-07-01

    The early origins of overweight and obesity and the opportunities for early prevention are explored. Overweight and obesity prevalence globally has increased at an alarming rate. No single intervention can halt the rise of the obesity epidemic. Particular attention is given to exploring causative factors and preventive measures in early life, when biological determinants of risk trajectories, feeding behaviour and dietary preferences are shaped. Some lifestyle and nutrition modifications in pregnancy and infancy can reduce subsequent obesity risk. Also postnatal infant gut colonisation may modify later obesity risk, but currently available evidence does not allow firm conclusions. Surprisingly, about 3.2 times more systematic reviews (SR) than randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were published on "probiotics" and health, and even 7.9 times more SR than RCTs on "probiotics" and obesity, which is not helpful. Multiple research opportunities exist for exploring the early origins of obesity to contribute towards halting the rise in obesity prevalence. Exploring the early development of the microbiome in its complexity, its dependence on dietary and other exogenous factors, and its metabolic and regulatory functions is promising. Meaningful progress for obesity prevention can most likely be achieved by combining several strategies.

  4. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  5. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  6. Industrial safety, origins and current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Sarralbo, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Basic Introduction to Industrial Safety, purpose and expected outcome. Concepts and fundamental principles that support it. Brief overview of its evolution over the course of history. The current legal basis in Spain for Industrial Safety. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  8. Wilderness recreation use: the current situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Roggenbuck; Alan E. Watson

    1989-01-01

    The total amount of recreational use of the National Wilderness Preservation System is currently at about 14.5 million visitor days per annum. Trends indicate a stable or declining overall use; use on a per acre basis is declining. The common stereotype of the wilderness user as young, wealthy, urban, leisured, and a nonresident of the State or region is largely...

  9. Biodiesel for Brazilian development: current situation and challenges for a sustainable future; Biodiesel para o desenvolvimento brasileiro: situacao atual e desafios para um futuro sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Aleksandra Sliwowska; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This article aims at analyzing the state of art and trends of biodiesel in Brazil, with resort to the Industry Strategic Map, a tool developed by National Industry Federation (CNI). The situation of biodiesel will be analyzed considering : Bases for Development, Processes and Activities, Market and Results for Country. At the beginning is presented the evolution of biodiesel in Brazil e are explained the construction of the Strategic Map by CNI. (author)

  10. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  11. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    ESTATE otdelnuyu for a fee. Inventory tesno svjazana with systemoy zemelnыh reestrov / ypotekoy. Ymeyte in mind, something cadastre That was the main thing tselju Introduction tax. Therefore on rehystryruet realnoe tekuschye STATUS (for example: at present aktualnoe Using Time zemelnыh plots, current availability sobstvennyka REAL ESTATE (for example, naslednyk, kotoryya not Finished zakonnыe protsedurы pravopreemstva or How THIS neobhodyma info nachyslenyya for payment. Kadastrovыy 3D. At the level of research provodytsya the Scientific Search of opportunities for the creation of 3D-cadastre. Inventory in Poland ymeet davnye traditions. In many techenye desyatyletyy, yzmenylys hosudarstvennыe regimes and topics yzmenylsya Together with inventory and ego role in the economy of the state. At present pervychnoyzadachey cadastre TIME REAL ESTATE - creation of a system of tax collection from REAL ESTATE - javljaetsja vtorostepennыm task. WARNING Prynymaya t Volume sobrannoy of information, .ee pravdopodobnost and accuracy, and First Total globality, the main thing remains Relevance role dannoy information. The inventory constantly razvyvaetsya. Poland, on vedetsya in digital forms and is believed Samoa Large data base REAL ESTATE. THIS data base constantly menyaetsya. Some IZ potentsyalnыh already Modified hotovы for Implementation (The cost of property tax on Some partially voshly (3D cadastre as part nekotoraya everything else before a Stage issledovatel`skoe work (mnohotselevoy inventory.

  12. The current situation and future prospects of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals play an important role in nuclear medicine. In this paper, nuclear medicine relating to radiopharmaceuticals was briefly described. And I would like to focus on the current situation and future prospects of radiopharmaceuticals. Nuclear medicine in this century should take the following directions. Firstly, cancer treatment by radionuclides will be one of the promising fields in oncology. Secondly, in order to achieve evidence-based medicine, sensitive, quantitative imaging using the nuclides will be necessary in nuclear medicine. Under these circumstances, it is important to develop radiopharmaceuticals for sensitive, quantitative imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  14. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  15. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  16. Evolving PBPK applications in regulatory risk assessment: current situation and future goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation includes current applications of PBPK modeling in regulatory risk assessment and discussions on conflicts between assuring consistency with experimental data in current situation and the desire for animal-free model development.

  17. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kae; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  18. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Kae, E-mail: kae@gdl.jp [Governance Design Laboratory, Inc., 2301 City Tower Bashamichi 5-71 Onoe-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsujiro [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Public Policy, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0081 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  19. Taxonomic Dimensions for Studying Situational Method Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Mehmet N.; Harmsen, Frank; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Ralyté, Jolita; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Henderson-Sellers, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with fragmented literature on situational method development, which is one of fundamental topics related to information systems development (ISD) methods. As the topic has attracted many scholars from various and possibly complementary schools of thought, different

  20. Educación en medios de comunicación en Alemania: desarrollo y situación actual Media education in Germany: development and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Tulodziecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza de las diferentes tendencias y del estado actual de la enseñanza de los medios de comunicación en la República Federal de Alemania. La educación en medios de comunicación en Alemania se centra en la actualidad en el debate sobre cómo usar esa gran variedad de medios que tenemos a nuestra disposición, con unos fines verdaderamente educativos y fundamentados metodológicamente. Se observa, en relación a este tema, que hay no sólo diferentes ideas conceptuales, sino también diferentes proyectos de investigación y desarrollo, que se ocupan principalmente de las aplicaciones prácticas y de un acercamiento a los colegios, a los programas de formación del profesorado y a otros contextos educativos. This paper analyses the different trends in the current situation of media education in Germany. The discussion point is how to use the large variety of media we have in order to get really educative aims with a scientific basis. The German media education landscape shows not only a lot of different concepts but also a large number of projects on teacher training, school approaching and practical applications.

  1. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  2. Crisis Situations in Engineering Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenzberg, Christopher; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    approaches reduce the problem identification time and increase the efficiency of crisis management. The goal of this research is to identify methods which are able to support the crisis management process successfully. Therefore, a literature-based analysis of developing methods, especially TRIZ is conducted......Crisis situations are special situations during the development process. They are characterized by time and handling pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and apply a methodical problem solving approach to overcome these situations. Due to their prescriptive character, problem solving...

  3. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  4. Current job situation of the alumni from IBS Groningen -2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Our main question is: what is the current job situation of the alumni from IBS Groningen? The sub questions are: •How many students graduated in the various years? •What are the most popular jobs? •Where do alumni work and what is the career path? •What is their highest degree? •What companies

  5. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  6. [Current Situation and Prospects of Emergency Medical Equipment in Our Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lijing; Cheng, Feng

    2016-03-01

    This article analyzes the new demand of emergency medical equipment in the current development trend based on the analysis of the development and current situation of emergency medicine in our country. At the same time it introduces the current industrial characteristics of our country. Finally it analyzes the development trend of this kind of equipment in the new emergency medicine field.

  7. The earth's ring current - Present situation and future thrusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Particle distributions, currents, and the ring current situation prior to the August 1984 launch of the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) are discussed. CCE results which demonstrate the capability of these new measurements to pursue questions of ring current sources, energization, and transport are presented. Consideration is given to various ring current generation mechanisms which have been discussed in the literature, and a two-step generation process which to a certain extent unifies the previous mechanisms is presented. The first in-situ global observations of ring current decay as obtained through the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge exchange interactions between the ring current and hydrogen geocorona are discussed, as well as the possibility of using the detection of energetic neutral atoms to obtain global images of the earth's ring current.

  8. Current situation and future usage of anticancer drug databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yin, Yuanyuan; Wang, Peiqi; Xiong, Chenyu; Huang, Lingyu; Li, Sijia; Li, Xinyi; Fu, Leilei

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease with increasing incidence and mortality rates and affects the life quality of millions of people per year. The past 15 years have witnessed the rapid development of targeted therapy for cancer treatment, with numerous anticancer drugs, drug targets and related gene mutations been identified. The demand for better anticancer drugs and the advances in database technologies have propelled the development of databases related to anticancer drugs. These databases provide systematic collections of integrative information either directly on anticancer drugs or on a specific type of anticancer drugs with their own emphases on different aspects, such as drug-target interactions, the relationship between mutations in drug targets and drug resistance/sensitivity, drug-drug interactions, natural products with anticancer activity, anticancer peptides, synthetic lethality pairs and histone deacetylase inhibitors. We focus on a holistic view of the current situation and future usage of databases related to anticancer drugs and further discuss their strengths and weaknesses, in the hope of facilitating the discovery of new anticancer drugs with better clinical outcomes.

  9. [Social and health resources in Catalonia. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Sánchez-Ferrín, Pau; Cabanes-Duran, Concepció; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    The network of social and health care has advanced since its inception. Furthermore, news services have been created and some resources have been adapted within the framework of respective health plans. This article presents the current situation of the different social and health resources in Catalonia, as well as the main changes that have occurred in recent years, more specifically in the period of the Health Plan 2011-2015. This period is characterised by an adaptation of the social and health network within the context of chronic care, for which the development of intermediate care resources has become the most relevant aspect. There is also a need to create a single long-term care sector in which the health care quality is guaranteed. Moreover, in this period, integral and cross-care level is promoted in the health system through a greater coordination between all different levels of care. The social and health network, due to its trajectory and expertise, plays a key role in the quality of care for people with social and medical needs. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  11. Current situation by product advertising on the czech market

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Červencová

    1998-01-01

    Advertising represents for producers the least expensive admission to an ample market and it enables to consumers to orient at the market. All advertising means serve to intensifying of the product sale or image of firm. The article describes current situation in the area of exquisite instruments of advertising and next a firm's deciding if it hires an advertising agency or if carries out advertising on their own - what advantages and risks result from the cooperation of the firm and the agen...

  12. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  13. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition is basic...... are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management....... is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators...

  14. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  15. Collaborative product development and situated knowledge contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding how problem formulation, information search and division of work in new product development (NPD) activities is shaped by mind sets vested in organizations with diverging positions in the value chain and correspondingly...... situated knowledge contexts. The authors aim to focus on how this influences the marketability of new product ideas. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical data are derived from exploratory observation studies of NPD meetings and interviews of involved managers and specialists in three business dyads....... The cases involve ingredient and meat suppliers, retail chains and marketing agencies located in Denmark. Findings - The authors show that the scope and organization of NPD activities indeed are shaped by the combinations of situated knowledge contexts involved. An important intervening variable however...

  16. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  17. Current situation of RI's and radiation utilization in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Usage of RIs and radiation is now extensive, for the improvement of industrial production techniques and also in medicine and agriculture. The current situation in Japan is described as follows: enterprises using RIs, circulation of RIs, the equipments provided with RIs in private enterprises, commercial RI, and radiation utilization, expenditures and sales related to RIs and radiation in mining and industries, and personnel. The number of places using RIs and radiation totaled about 3,200 (in 1975). The expenditures for RIs and radiation in private enterprises are about 17,500 million yen while sales are 20,800 million yen (both in fiscal 1974). The total number of personnel engaged in RI and radiation works is about 62,000. (Mori, K.)

  18. Current situation and discussion of acquisition work in professional libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition work in professional libraries is an important part of library work, and faces enormous challenges at this stage. For the status quo of the acquisition work in professional libraries, we should develop effective acquisition principles to ensure the integrity of our professional library's collection and systematic literature, and to provide more effective protection for relevant research work. We need reasonable arrangements for the procurement of books with limited funding to avoid the waste of funds. We should use the network, to actively develop the procurement channels, and to establish accurate and reliable systematic network of information resources for the reader. We need to consciously cultivate and improve the professional competence of acquisition staff, to meet the requirement of the acquisition staff in the new situation. We should carry out knowledge management in professional library, to form a competitive 'knowledge resources'. For information research, technical personnel, and scientific researchers, we provide effective information services in time, and carry out personalized services. (authors)

  19. Current Situation of Leprosy in India and its Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai

    2018-01-01

    The global leprosy situation has changed significantly over the last four decades after the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) in 1982 with a reduction in prevalence from over 5 million cases in the mid-1980s to less than 200,000 at the end of 2016. The programme in India also saw a reduction from a prevalence rate of 57.8/10,000 in 1983 to less than 1/10,000 by the end of 2005 when India declared to have reached the World Health Organization (WHO) target of elimination as a public health problem. Post 2005, major changes in the programme were made by the National leprosy eradication programme (NLEP) and the global leprosy programme, which may have affected the new case detection (NCD), disability, and child leprosy trends, which continue to show no appreciable regression. This article reviews the current global and Indian leprosy scenario to bring out its achievements and successes, including the impact of Leprosy Case Detection Campaigns (LCDC) on leprosy numbers. The basis and expected benefits of recent introduction of chemo and immune-prophylaxis in the programme are also discussed. It also discusses the shortcomings, the areas of concern, and the need for an inclusive strategy in the Indian leprosy programme that includes an intersectoral collaboration within the country for reaching the desired goal of leprosy eradication.

  20. Research on current situations of geriatric nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yujin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The population aging is accelerating and the aging population is growing in China. Although the geriatric nursing education has been developed for more than 20 years, geriatric nursing professionals are still insufficient and the geriatric nursing education is facing various challenges under the new situation. This paper primarily describes the developmental history and the related concepts of geriatric nursing education, and analyzes the personnel training modes and routes of geriatric nursing education, and its problems, in order to provide the basis for the reform of geriatric nursing education. The development of geriatric nursing needs a large number of outstanding nursing personnel, and the cultivation of geriatric nursing professionals depends on the development of geriatric nursing and the improvement of the teaching quality of geriatric nursing education. Front-line educators working on geriatric nursing should be committed to reforming the geriatric nursing teaching, improving the teaching quality and cultivating the high-quality nursing personnel suitable for conditions of the elderly in China.

  1. Current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Ho; Kim, Wang Geum; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2009-12-01

    This book deals with current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument. The contents of this book are basic of technology on radiation measuring instrument with basic principle of various measuring instrument, current situation of technology and prospect of radiation measuring instrument, effect of spreading and application field of radiation measuring instrument, facility for making and research and development of radiation measuring instrument, prospect of market about radiation measuring instrument, strategy for market entry with the latest radiation measuring instrument and general prospect for the future.

  2. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  3. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references

  4. Current situation of women in the workplace in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cábová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis examines the problem of the situation of women in the workplace in Chile. The thesis is divided into three parts, while each parts gradually analyses the problem of gender inequalities. Firstly, the thesis presents the overall information about the general problem of gender inequalities. It introduces the basic fragments of the issue together with the basic terminology. Secondly, a major focus is put on the Chilean regions, as it analyses gender differences of the regions ...

  5. [Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role.

  6. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismil'din, F B; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Anpilova, E N

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in the northern hemisphere on the boundary of two continents--Europe and Asia--at a longitude of 45 degrees E--87 degrees E and a latitude of 40 degrees N--55 degrees N. The total area of the republic is 2,724,900 square kilometers. Kazakhstan shares a border with the Russian Federation to the north-west, north and east: the border between the two countries is almost 6500 km long. To the south, Kazakhstan shares a border with the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan (380 km), Uzbekistan (2300 km) and Kyrgystan (980 km). To the south-east, it shares a border with China (1460 km): to the west is the Caspian Sea (600 km). Thus, the total length of Kazakhstan's external borders is 12,000 km. Because of the geographical, natural and climatic features prevailing throughout most of the Republic, there is a potential danger that local transmission of malaria may begin again if the disease is imported from abroad. The areas most at risk are the Panfilov and Uigur raions of Almaty oblast, which share a border with malaria-endemic regions of China, and the Saryagash and Makhtaral' raions of South Kazakhstan oblast along the border with Uzbekistan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan places particular emphasis on malaria prevention and control, taking into account the historical data about the prevalence of malaria from the late 1920s to the early 1940s, amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases every year. Government Decree No. 840 entitled "Urgent Measures to Protect the Population from Blood-Sucking Insects and Ticks Dangerous to Humans", which lays down measures for the control of malarial mosquitoes in the areas most susceptible to malaria resurgence, was adopted in 1996. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued instructions in 1998 and 1999 which were designed to motivate all health facilities in the field of malaria prevention and control. At present, as part of the directives developed by the

  7. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  8. Current situation and future prospects for the Australian beef industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Paul Leo; Ferguson, Drewe M

    2018-04-12

    Beef production extends over almost half of Australia, with about 47,000 cattle producers that contribute about 20% ($A12.7 billion GVP) of the total value of farm production in Australia. Australia is one of the world's most efficient producers of cattle and was the world's third largest beef exporter in 2016. The Australian beef industry had 25 million head of cattle in 2016-17, with a national beef breeding herd of 11.5 million head. Australian beef production includes pasture based cow-calf systems, a backgrounding or grow-out period on pasture, and feedlot or pasture finishing. Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets. Maintenance of Australia's preferred status as a quality assured supplier of high value beef produced under environmentally sustainable systems from 'disease-free' cattle is of highest importance. Stringent livestock and meat quality regulations and quality assurance systems, and productivity growth and efficiency across the supply chain to ensure price competiveness, are crucial for continued export market growth in the face of increasing competition. Major industry issues, that also represent research, development and adoption priorities and opportunities for the Australian beef industry have been captured within exhaustive strategic planning processes by the red meat and beef industries. At the broadest level, these issues include consumer and industry support, market growth and diversification, supply chain efficiency, productivity and profitability, environmental sustainability, and animal health and welfare. This review provides an overview of the Australian beef industry including current market trends and future prospects, and major issues and opportunities for the continued growth, development and profitability of the industry.

  9. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  10. Anti-Angiogenics: Current Situation and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlik, Katja; Duyster, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process leading to the formation of new blood vessels, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Extensive studies established that i) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key driver of sprouting angiogenesis, ii) VEGF is overexpressed in most solid cancers, and iii) inhibition of VEGF can suppress tumor growth in animal models. This has led to the development of pharmacological agents for anti-angiogenesis to disrupt the vascular supply and starve the tumor of nutrients and oxygen, primarily through the blockade of VEGF/VEGF receptor signaling. This effort has resulted in 11 anti-VEGF drugs approved for certain advanced cancers, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. However, inhibition of VEGF signaling is not effective in all cancers, and anti-angiogenics have often only limited impact on overall survival of cancer patients. This review focuses on the current status of FDA-approved anti-angiogenic antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors and summarizes the progress and future directions of VEGF-targeted therapy. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. The Current Situation of Female Scientists in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llois, Ana María; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2009-04-01

    We report the changes that have taken place recently regarding the situation of female scientists in Argentina. We comment on the rules for maternity leave that have been passed recently for research scholars doing their PhDs and on the number of women scientists that occupy decision making-positions in science. We also present some evidence that seems to indicate that, among young scientists, women are more willing to occupy leadership positions and that the Argentinean society is more accepting of this new role.

  12. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  13. Current environmental situation in the new Federal States. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Information on Environment' organised the first part of a seminar for jounalists on the present environmental situation in the now federal states in Berlin on the 3rd and 4th of December. More than 50 participants from radios, TV, daily and special press attended this ninth event of 'Information on Environment' in Berlin. Leading scientists from research institutes of the former GDR, the Federal Environmental Agency and the GSF-research centre for environment and heath gave papers on the predominant environmental problems in the new federal states. This first part deals with water pollution, waste water treatment, drinking water supply, environmental problems of lignite mining, radiation pollution in the Erzgebirge; forest damage research and special armament wastes and waste problems in general. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and

  15. [Current situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Wei, Pengfei; Chen, Shaozong

    2018-03-12

    To analyze the present situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension (PH) based on clinical research literature in recent 20 years. The clinical research literature regarding acupuncture for PH were searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP data network (VIP) and Wanfang database from 1997 through 2016; a total of 218 papers met the inclusive criteria. Microsoft Excel and Apriori algorithm of SPSS Clementine software were applied to analyze the data. The main acupoints of acupuncture for PH were Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36) and Hegu (LI 4), but its support degree was only 12.21%. 127 papers were randomized controlled trials, accounting for 58.26%. 158 papers had clear diagnostic criteria, accounting for 72.48%. 138 papers had clear efficacy evaluation criteria, accounting for 63.30%. Only 5.05% of the papers were classified as high-quality literature by using Jadad scale. In recent 20 years, some rules existed in acupoint selection for PH, but the support degree was low so it could not accurately guide clinical treatment. Although the clinical literature quality of acupuncture for PH was gradually increasing, the proportion of high-quality literature was low, therefore modern medical research model and foreign similar research should be followed to design a more rigorous trial protocol. As a result, the quality of clinical research is increased to provide reference for future clinical treatment.

  16. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The presence of contaminations in sewage sludge - The current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, Krzysztof; Rorat, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata J

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge/biosolids are by-wastes of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. As sources of nutrients (C, N, P) they are widely used in intensive farming where large supplementation of organic matter to maintain fertility and enhance crop yields is needed. However, according to the report of European Commission published in 2010, only 39% of produced sewage sludge is recycled into agriculture in the European Union. This situation occurs mainly due to the fact, that the sewage sludge may contain a dangerous volume of different contaminants. For over decades, a great deal of attention has been focused on total concentration of few heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) regulates the allowable limits of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg and pathogens and allows for recovery of sludge on land under defined sanitary and environmentally sound conditions. In this paper, a review on quality of sewage sludge based on the publications after 2010 has been presented. Nowadays there are several papers focusing on new serious threats to human health and ecosystem occurring in sewage sludge - both chemicals (such as toxic trace elements - Se, Ag, Ti; nanoparticles; polyaromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyl; perfluorinated surfactants, polycyclic musks, siloxanes, pesticides, phenols, sweeteners, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles) and biological traits (Legionella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157:H7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  19. AACSB Accreditation in China--Current Situation, Problems, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinrui; Gao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This paper first introduces the background of the AACSB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) accreditation, and then analyzes the current status of the participation of Chinese business schools in AACSB accreditation. Based on the data analysis, the paper points out that there are two main problems in the Chinese business…

  20. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  1. [Current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Jia; Cui, Rui; Zhan, Bi-Yu; Liao, Cai-Yan; Cao, Qi-Hua; Li, Gui-Lan; Guo, Yi

    2012-09-01

    The current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in the Taiwan region is introduced in this paper from the three aspects, named the development state of standard of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan, the implementation of Taiwan district standard and the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan. At present, the relevant standards of acupuncture and moxibustion in Taiwan just include the standard operation procedure of acupuncture and moxibustion, the reference guideline of the safe operation in the medical service centers of traditional Chinese medicine, and the faculty standard of Chinese medicine hospital, etc. It is concluded that the current situation of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibusiton presented the weak awareness of the standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in the industry, insufficient enterprise standard, less-quantity of the implemented standards and narrow coverage.

  2. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  3. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF PELIBUEY SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Ubaldo Aguilar Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries is descendant from Asian mouflon and was domesticated in the Near East. Later, sheep began its dissemination to West Africa, where it is believed that the ancestry of Pelibuey sheep came from. Pelibuey sheep were brought to America by the Spaniards to feed the crew of the boats. It is unclear whether these animals came directly from West Africa or from the Canary Islands. It is considered that Pelibuey sheep entered to Mexico between 1930 and 1940, although some authors think that this breed already existed in the country in the late nineteenth century. Since 1963, Pelibuey sheep has been the most studied breed in Mexico, due to its ability to produce in tropics, as well as its high adaptability to most agro-ecological zones of the country. A brief review about productive and reproductive traits in current Pelibuey herds, allowed to conclude that they are very similar to those of the first sheep studied almost 50 years ago. Currently, the breed has been subjected to  non-planned crosses with other breeds to increase productivity, which puts in risk this important genetic resource. Therefore, there is a need to realize the conservation of the breed.

  4. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  5. Yemen in a Time of Cholera: Current Situation and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2018-03-19

    Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease. The provision of clean water and adequate sanitation is imperative as an effective long-term solution to prevent the further spread of this epidemic. Cholera vaccination campaigns should also be conducted as a preventive measure.

  6. Enhancement of human capital assets role in current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechenaia Liudmila Timofeevna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents transformation of the notion “human capital assets” in economics. Methodical approaches to evaluation of human capital assets and involvement in innovation process. Generalization of theoretical overview data allows conclusion about strong interest to this economic category, testifying to good promise of this field development.

  7. Development situation of radiation curing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Songhua; Luo Junyi; Liu Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Due to fitting the '4E' principle, radiation curing technology, known as green technology, have shown its own superiority in many applications. It has been rapid developed in China and abroad in recent years, especially ultraviolet/electron beam (UV/EB) radiation curing technology. In order to let the researchers have a general understanding on the radiation curing materials and their development, in this paper a briefly introducing on the related radiation sources, chemical systems, curing mechanism, and the application, the common and difference of ultraviolet curing and electron beam curing has been made. A brief account of development of radiation-curable material in China and the outlook of the development of materials can be found in this paper. At last, we have proposed that the development of radiation curing technology will promote the development of the radiation curing material and benefit in the humanity. (authors)

  8. Noctuidae-induced plant volatiles: current situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanusa Rodrigues Horas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noctuids are phytophagous lepidopterans with some species causing significant damage to agriculture. The host plants, in turn, have developed defense mechanisms to cope with them, for instance chemical defenses. In this study we review the literature on plant volatiles induced by noctuids, and discuss the methodologies used to induce the production of volatiles that are usually employed in plant defense mechanisms. Future prospects involving this line of research in pest control are also discussed.

  9. Copenhagen Climate Change Conference: The Current Situation and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The Copenhagen climate change conference has failed to meet expectations but has also led to a shift in the structure of multilateral negotiations on climate change. States have reclaimed negotiations, while the UN-centred structure has been weakened. Relations between developed and emerging countries have shifted, with the latter influence growing. There has also been an increased participation of civil-society actors (NGOs) in the debate. A new negotiation structure is emerging but it faces the difficult challenge of avoiding fragmentation

  10. Biodegradable magnesium-alloy stent:current situation in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua; Zhao Xianxian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, permanent metal stents are employed in the majority of interventional therapies; nevertheless, such kind of stents carries the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. Therefore, the biodegradable magnesium alloy stent has become the focus of attention. Theoretically, it has overcome the problems caused by permanent metal stents, so it is the development direction to use the biodegradable magnesium alloy in future. The authors believe that biodegradable magnesium alloy stents will be widely used in interventional procedures for many diseases. (authors)

  11. Promotion of breastfeeding in Poland: the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królak-Olejnik, Barbara; Błasiak, Ilona; Szczygieł, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Objective Exclusive breastfeeding is safe and beneficial for healthy infants; it is the optimal feeding method during the first 6 months of life. Infants should be complementary fed in conjunction with breastfeeding until 12 months of age or longer. The aim of the present study was to analyse the duration of breastfeeding through 12 months of age. Methods Participants were 1679 women from 42 randomly selected hospitals in Poland. The data were obtained from surveys, including a paper and pencil interview that was conducted after mothers delivered in the hospital and before discharge. Computer aided telephone interviews were administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Results There was a high rate of initiating breastfeeding after birth (97%), a rapid abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding (43.5% at 2 months, 28.9% at 4 months and 4% at 6 months) and an onset of formula feeding during the first days of life, which is contrary to current recommendations. Conclusions It is necessary re-educate mothers, medical staff who care for mothers and children during the perinatal period, and other specialists.

  12. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  13. Management of anaphylaxis in Latin America: current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cardona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaphylaxis is a systemic and severe allergic reaction, which can be fatal. The first-line treatment of choice, according to international guidelines, is intramuscular adrenaline. However, different studies show that the performance of health professionals managing anaphylaxis is often inadequate Objective: To assess the current resources available in Latin American countries for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis. Methods: Online survey promoted by the Latin American Society of Allergy and Immunology to representatives of the national allergy societies of Latin American countries. Results: Responses were received from 10 countries out of the 14 countries invited to participate. Only five of the countries have clinical practice guidelines in anaphylaxis. Adrenaline autoinjectors are available only in two countries, Argentina and Brazil, but are not subsidized by public health systems. In all countries, adrenaline is available in ampoules, which is the presentation usually prescribed to patients for self-administration. The use of adrenaline was estimated to be less than 50 % of cases in five countries, while antihistamines and corticosteroids are almost always used. The determination of serum tryptase is possible in some health centers, often private, in five of the countries surveyed. Conclusion: It is necessary to improve resources related to the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in Latin American countries.

  14. The current situation of uranium mining in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdi-Krausz, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the history of uranium production in Hungary. It focuses on the Mecsek Ore Mining Company, now known as Mecsekuran Limited, and its relationship with the Hungarian Government. From the start of uranium production in 1963 until May 1989 all production was exported to the Soviet Union under a bilateral contract. In exchange the Soviet Union agreed to provide fabricated fuel for the future Hungarian nuclear power plant. In May 1989 the Government of Hungary announced closure of its uranium mining operations because of the high cost of production. The paper describes the history of events since 1989, as well as the current plans to terminate all uranium production by 31 December 1997. The Mecsek Mountains lie in the southern part of Hungary, west from the Danube, about 30 km from the former Yugoslavian border, and north from the city of Pecs. Its eastern side is built up from medieval limestone and dolomites, while the western part is from sandstone and clay from the geological Paleozoic. In the eastern part high quality cokeable coal has been mined for more than 200 years, east from the city of Pecs; and in the western part uranium ore was discovered and the mining began only a few decades ago. (author)

  15. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Rossell, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  16. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  17. WWER-1000 fuel cycles: current situation and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosourov, E.; Pavlov, V.; Pavlovichev, A.; Spirkin, E.; Shcherenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Usage mode of nuclear fuel in WWER type reactor has been changed significantly till the moment of the first WWER-1000 commissioning. There are a lot of improvements, having an impact on the fuel cycle, have been implemented for units with WWER-1000. FA design and its constructional materials, FA fuel weight, burnable poison, usage mode of units and etc have been modified. As the result of development it has been designed a modern FA with rigid skeleton. As a whole it allows to use more efficient configurations of the core, to extend range of fuel cycle lengths and to provide good flexibility in the operation. In recent years there were in progress works on increasing FA uranium capacity. As the result there were developed two designs of the fuel rod: 1) the fuel column height of 3680 mm, diameters of the fuel pellet and its central hole of 7.6 and 1.2 mm respectively and 2) the fuel column height of 3530 mm, the fuel pellet diameter of 7.8 mm without the central hole. Such fuel rods have operating experience as a part of different FA designs. Positive operating experience was a base of new FA (TVS-4) development with the fuel column height of 3680 mm and the fuel pellet diameter of 7.8 mm without the central hole. The paper presents the overview of WWER-1000, AES-2006 and WWER-TOI fuel cycles based on FAs with fuel rod designs described above. There are demonstrated fuel cycle possibilities and its technical and economic characteristics. There are discussed problems of further fuel cycle improvements (fuel enrichment increase above 5 %, use of erbium as alternative burnable poison) and their impact on neutronics characteristics. (authors)

  18. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed.

  19. Current situation and challenge of registry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Feng, Yuji; Qu, Zhi; Qi, Yali; Zhan, Siyan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing emphasis has been placed on registries for an organized system used in developing clinical research to improve health care. China has sufficient data that can be applied broadly, but the heterogeneity and irregularity of registries limit their applicability. This article aims to describe the status of registries in China and the related challenges. Patient registries for observational studies were retrieved from the International Clinical Trials Registry to quantitatively evaluate the number of comparatively high-quality registries in China. A literature search was also performed to provide support and updates. A total of 64 patient registries were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using disease, product, and health service as criteria. The sample sizes ranged from 15 to 30,400, with only 12 registries marked as completed. This article describes and compares the detailed information in many aspects. The efficient use of registries has already made considerable progress in China; however, registries still require standardization, high-quality transition, and coordinated development.

  20. Gas Markets in Asia. Current situation, prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Past and recent factors point to a remarkable growth of the Asian market in the medium and long term. This growth will depend on structural and institutional evolutions on the Asian market. Some regulatory and liberalization reforms have already been initiated to support the development of gas but this will require a long process. Oil-indexing will prevail for a long time (but which slope?) Supply flexibility must be improved (relaxation of destination clauses, quantity tolerances) to create a competitive gas market. Marketing innovations expected in new long-term contracts to enhance flexibility whilst preserving investment security. A growing portfolio approach (LNG portfolio, pipeline imports, unconventional gas) is implemented. In conclusion, regional cooperation among Asian buyers is very important

  1. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  2. [Antimicrobial treatment in complicated intraabdominal infections--current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnánek, F

    2009-04-01

    Compared to other infections, intraabdominal infections include wide spectrum of infections of various severity, have different ethiology, which is frequently polymicrobial, show different microbiological results, which are difficult to interpret. The role of surgical intervention is essential. Intraabdominal infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality. Their prognosis is significantly improved with early and exact diagnosis, appropriate surgical or radiological intervention and timely effective antimicrobial therapy. Practitioners may choose between older or more modern antibiotics, between monotherapy or combination therapy, however, they should also consider clinical condition of the patient, the antibiotic's spectrum of activity, the treatment timing and its duration, the dose and dosing scheme of the particular antimicrobials. Furthermore, antimicrobial therapy should be used with caution, with the aim to prevent development of antimicrobial resistence. Inappropriate choice of antimicrobials in initial empiric therapy results in relapsing infections, surgical intervention and prolongation of hospitalization, and even death rates reflect adequate and timely empiric therapy.

  3. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Ellies-Oury, Marie-Pierre; Lherm, Michel; Pineau, Christele; Deblitz, Claus; Farmer, Linda

    2018-05-24

    The European Union (EU) is the world's third largest producer of beef. This contributes to the economy, rural development, social life, culture and gastronomy of Europe. The diversity of breeds, animal types (cows, bulls, steers, heifers) and farming systems (intensive, extensive on permanent or temporary pastures, mixed, breeders, feeders, etc) is a strength, and a weakness as the industry is often fragmented and poorly connected. There are also societal concerns regarding animal welfare and environmental issues, despite some positive environmental impacts of farming systems. The EU is amongst the most efficient for beef production as demonstrated by a relative low production of greenhouse gases. Due to regional differences in terms of climate, pasture availability, livestock practices and farms characteristics, productivity and incomes of beef producers vary widely across regions, being among the lowest of the agricultural systems. The beef industry is facing unprecedented challenges related to animal welfare, environmental impact, origin, authenticity, nutritional benefits and eating quality of beef. These may affect the whole industry, especially its farmers. It is therefore essential to bring the beef industry together to spread best practice and better exploit research in order to maintain and develop an economically viable and sustainable beef industry. Meeting consumers' expectations may be achieved by a better prediction of beef palatability using a modelling approach, such as in Australia. There is a need for accurate information and dissemination on the benefits and issues of beef for human health and for environmental impact. A better objective description of goods and services derived from livestock farming is also required. Putting into practice "agroecology" and organic farming principles are other potential avenues for the future. Different future scenarios can be written depending on the major driving forces, notably meat consumption, climate

  4. Current situation in the Arab countries and the AAEA Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, Salaheddin

    2013-01-01

    Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA) is one of the organizations of the League of Arab States (LAS). AAEA is working within the framework of the LAS to coordinate the scientific efforts of the Arab Countries in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. So, AAEA works hard to enhance the socio-economical development in Arab countries by promoting the peaceful applications of atomic energy in many aspects of life. The Arab Authority contributes for the implementation of training programs for Arab staff in the field of parameters mentioned above through the implementation of training courses, workshops and expert meetings in addition to scientific visits exchanged between the researchers and Arabs scientists and translation of books from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Arabic language and circulated to the Arab countries. At Arab Summits (Riyadh - 2007 - Damascus and Doha 2008 - 2009), AAEA elaborates 12 projects on the Arab strategy for the peaceful uses of atomic energy until 2020 and planed all applications of atomic energy. Integration of radioisotopes production in the Arab countries is among these projects. This project aims to unify efforts and coordinate cooperation between the Arab countries together to develop the human potential and benefit from the expertise available in some Arab countries in the production of radioisotopes to insure the integration between Arab countries. Nuclear and radioactive facilities in Arab countries are:- Research reactors (RRs) that can produce isotopes (Egypt -2, -2 Algeria, Libya -1) and (-1 Morocco, Syria -1).- Ions accelerators (cyclotron) for isotope production (Morocco, Algeria, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt).- Ions accelerators (VDG) for research and analysis (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Jordan).- Electron accelerator (LINAC) for research and industry applications (Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE and Kuwait).- Electron accelerators (LINAC) for nuclear medicine therapy

  5. Antimicrobial Substances for Food Packaging Products: The Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerito, Alessandra; Ameen, Sara M; Micali, Maria; Caruso, Giorgia

    2018-04-04

    Antimicrobial substances are widely used in many anthropic activities, including sanitary and military services for the human population. These compounds are also known to be used in food production, agricultural activities, and partially correlated industrial sectors. However, there are concerns regarding the link between the abuse of antimicrobial agents in these ambits and the possible detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Modern food and beverage products are generally found on the market as prepackaged units, with several exceptions. Consequently, positive and negative features of a specific food or beverage should be considered as the result of the synergic action of different components, including the container (or the assembled sum of packaging materials). At present, the meaning of food container also includes the creation and development of new packaging materials that are potentially able to interact with the contained food. "Active" packaging systems can be realized with antimicrobial substances. On the other hand, a careful evaluation of risks and advantages correlated with antimicrobial agents is needed because of possible negative and/or unexpected failures.

  6. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  9. The current municipal solid waste management situation in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Lou, Zhiying; Ng, Silo; Luobu, Ciren; Ji, Duo

    2009-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of more than 4,000 m. The total area of Tibetan Plateau is 2,400,000 km2, which occupies 25% of the area of China. Due to the high altitude, the environment has low atmospheric pressure, low oxygen content, and low temperature, and is also fragile. Investigations concerning MSW generation and characteristics, MSW management, collection and transportation, and treatment and disposal of MSW covered four representative cities, including the urban areas of Lhasa city, Shigatse, Nedong of Lhoka and Bayi of Nyingtri. The results show that MSW generation in the urban areas of Lhasa city and Tibet were 450 t/d and 3,597 t/d, respectively, in 2006. However, accelerated economic development and flourishing tourism caused by the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) have greatly increased solid waste generation to a new high. It is predicted that MSW generation in Tibet will reach 4,026 t/d in 2010 and 4,942 t/d in 2020. MSW management and disposal lag behind MSW generation due to a number of factors such as equipment shortage, insufficient maintenance, exhaustion of waste treatment capacity and low recycling efficiency. Still, MSW in most areas is dumped in the open with no controls. Because no appropriate collection and treatment systems for leachate and landfill gas exist, untreated leachate is discharged directly into the environment, causing serious secondary pollution. Some suggestions on improving the MSW management system are presented in this paper.

  10. The current municipal solid waste management situation in Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianguo; Lou Zhiying; Ng Silo; Luobu Ciren; Ji Duo

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of more than 4,000 m. The total area of Tibetan Plateau is 2,400,000 km 2 , which occupies 25% of the area of China. Due to the high altitude, the environment has low atmospheric pressure, low oxygen content, and low temperature, and is also fragile. Investigations concerning MSW generation and characteristics, MSW management, collection and transportation, and treatment and disposal of MSW covered four representative cities, including the urban areas of Lhasa city, Shigatse, Nedong of Lhoka and Bayi of Nyingtri. The results show that MSW generation in the urban areas of Lhasa city and Tibet were 450 t/d and 3,597 t/d, respectively, in 2006. However, accelerated economic development and flourishing tourism caused by the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) have greatly increased solid waste generation to a new high. It is predicted that MSW generation in Tibet will reach 4,026 t/d in 2010 and 4,942 t/d in 2020. MSW management and disposal lag behind MSW generation due to a number of factors such as equipment shortage, insufficient maintenance, exhaustion of waste treatment capacity and low recycling efficiency. Still, MSW in most areas is dumped in the open with no controls. Because no appropriate collection and treatment systems for leachate and landfill gas exist, untreated leachate is discharged directly into the environment, causing serious secondary pollution. Some suggestions on improving the MSW management system are presented in this paper

  11. Situating competence development in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2017-01-01

    With the transition to a knowledge economy, research methodology has become an important part of the curricula of many business-oriented postgraduate programmes. In this paper, I will argue that research competence could and should be something more and something else than instrumental competence....... Inspired by Batesons logical categories of learning, I develop a conceptual typology of research methodology competencies in higher education, which highlight that research methodology competence includes not only instrumental, but also practical, analytical and critical competencies....

  12. Globalization, poverty and national development: the Nigeria situation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, poverty and national development: the Nigeria situation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This is because the inequality existing between the developed and Third World countries continues to deepen ...

  13. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  14. Present situation and proposal for nuclear medicine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Gonzalez, Juan P.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, the current situation of the Cuban nuclear medicine, after its introduction in the country in the 40s of the 20 th century and its expansion since 1962 and, particularly, from the installation of the first gamma camera in 1980, is analyzed. Nowadays, there is a total 14 Nuclear Medicine Departments or Services in our country within the National Oncology Networks and national Health System (SNS), which provide medical attention to the population depending on the nuclear equipment available A Program for the medical and technical personnel's training is proposed, as well as for gradual development of nuclear medicine department's (including the installation of gamma cameras, divided into two stages: 2003-2004 and 2005-2006). The prospective results of the proposed program are analyzed, as well as the impact on the populations health

  15. 城市公共交通协调调度现状与发展趋势%The Current Situation and Development Trend of Urban Public Transport Coordination Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓利; 陆化普

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of urban public transportation structure changes and informatization, this paper analyzes the necessity of public transportation coordination managing. It also presents the history and cur-rent situation of the coordination managing from multimode operation organization perspective. The problems about single transport mode are analyzed. Based on data mining and the mode, strategy and decision support of coordination managing, this paper points out the development trend of public transportation coordination manag-ing for the present and the future. The study also covers the study of public transport data from multiple sources to multiple topics, multi-dimensional data mining and the study of establishing compatible multi-way operation managing model with the main elements of the strategy and methodology. The paper proposes the researching di-rection of perfect public transport data, data storage and data mining analysis in the future and explores public transport intelligent dispatching model based on cloud service models in order to realize all kinds of dynamics, fine management of resources, and improvement of the efficiency of transportation organization.%从城市公共交通网络结构变化、信息化等角度分析公共交通协调调度的必要性;从多方式运营组织角度阐述城市公共交通协调调度的发展历史与现状,剖析目前我国公共交通单一交通方式下的运营组织协调调度存在的问题;从数据挖掘、协调调度模型与策略、调度决策支持等方面给出当前及今后一段时期内公共交通协调调度的发展趋势,研究针对多源公共交通数据进行多主题、多维度的数据挖掘并建立相适应的多方式运营组织调度模型与策略的主要内容和方法;提出今后一段时期内在完善公共交通数据资源库、海量数据存储和数据挖掘分析等方面的研究方向,探索基于云服务模式的公共交通智能调度

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: current epidemiological situation and control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Emilio A

    2012-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the paradigm of a transboundary animal disease. Beyond any doubt, it is the most serious challenge for livestock's health. Official Veterinary Services from free countries invest considerable amount of money to prevent its introduction, whereas those from endemic countries invest most of their resources in the control of the disease. A very important volume of scientific production is developed every year in different aspects of FMD, and for that reason, the current knowledge makes the diagnosis of the disease easier to a great extent. However, FMD is still endemic in about two-thirds of the countries, and periodically re-emergent in several countries. This paper is a review of recent publications, focusing mainly on control measures and current world epidemiological situation, emphasizing primarily pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Current Situation and Development Prospect of Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology in China%我国光伏发电技术的发展现状与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁云; 杨小天; 郭亮

    2015-01-01

    太阳能是一种广泛分布的能源,也是人类未来能源需求的重要来源之一.通过太阳能光伏发电技术将太阳能转变成人类可以直接利用的电能,这对缓解未来能源的紧张局面具有重要意义.在我国光伏发电技术的应用主要集中于民用和公用两大领域,并得到了快速的发展,为人们生活带来了诸多便利.光伏发电技术在世界各国发展迅速,其方便和无污染的特点使其具有较好的发展前景.%Solar energy is not only a kind of widely distributed energy, but also one of the important sources of man-kind's future energy needs. Through the solar photovoltaic power generation technology, we can convert the solar energy into the electric energy which can be directly used by human. And it is of great significance to alleviate the tense situation of energy in the future. Photovoltaic technology mainly used in Civil and public areas. In recent years, solar photovoltaic technology has been developing rapidly in our country and it has brought a lot of conven-ience for people. Photovoltaic power generation technology is developing rapidly in the world. Because that it has characteristics of convenience and no pollution so that it has good prospects for development.

  18. Analysis of the world epidemiological situation among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and the current situation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype. The rate of VREfm isolate spread varies greatly. The greatest percentage of VREfm is now recorded in the USA, Ireland and Australia. Supervision of VRE is implemented to varying degrees. Therefore, the epidemiological situation in some countries is difficult to assess due to limited data or lack thereof.

  19. FOSTERING AND DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICULTURALISM VIA SITUATIVE VOCABULARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Львова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for ways and means of fostering and development of multiculturalism is now of great importance for the world community. Situational vocabulary was previously proposed by the author as an ICT tool for fostering and development of communicative competence in foreign language. They contain lexical structures used in specific communicative situations, as well as modern ICT tools (blogs, chats, forums, mail, etc. to supplement already gained data and to discuss the ways and situations of use of various linguistic constructions or meanings of the words. Further study of the possibilities and ways of application of the instrument showed that students are not able to choose a relevant form for certain situations, or they lack or do not know the appropriate words and expressions, both in native and in a foreign language. In addition, the incorrect use of certain words or expressions in the situation may be regarded by representatives of other cultures as rude or disrespectful. The peculiarity of the method offered by the author is based on the idea of using situational vocabularies for gaining information and study of various linguistic and cultural aspects of the host country and other countries. In addition, the interaction in the familiar for learners ICT space motivates them and increase the effectiveness of such activities.

  20. USAGE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN GENERAL AVIATION: CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analyzing the current and future trends in usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV in gen- eral aviation (branches of economy. The main goal of the analysis is to determine the branches of economy, in which the usage of UAVs would be the most beneficial in the near- to mid-term future. The main requirements and restrictions of usage of the aircraft in general aviation were used as a basis for determining the types of operations, in which the usage of UAVs will be the most rational and effective. The effectiveness evaluation was based on the developed method, involving evaluation of the following factors such as: advantages of usage of manned aircraft, advantages of usage of unmanned air- craft, problems associated with the usage of manned aircraft, problems associated with the usage of unmanned aircraft. After evaluation of the mentioned aspects above the safety, operational productivity and ecological indicators were evaluat- ed. These qualitative assessments allowed identifying the branches of economy, where the usage of UAVs could potentially be the most advantageous. The article also discusses the possible strategies of UAVs development for general aviation. The so-called “mixed” strategy of UAV development is identified as the best in the current situation. This strategy combines the conversion of the existing military UAVs with the purpose of fitting them in to civilian use with the parallel development of brand new UAVs, which would be designed for operation in branches of economy right from the beginning (from scratch.

  1. Current Developments In Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Yaşar Sanhal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contraception (birth control prevents pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. There are different kinds of birth control that act at different points in the process. The rapid increase in the world population makes it mandatory to develop new contraceptive methods. According to WHO data, every year 200 billion new pregnancies occur and more than 50 billion of them are classified as unintended. To avoid complications of these unintended pregnancies and abortions, the contraception and kinds of contraceptive methods should be well known and understood. Recently, new hormonal contraceptive choices and regimen were adminestered and studies about male contraception and immunocontraception were performed. In this review, we discussed about the new development and progress on contraception.

  2. The current situation and prospect of fundamental research about nuclear logging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Wang Xinguang; Yuan Chao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear logging technology is one of the important methods to evaluate complex hydrocarbon reservoir in the process of petroleum exploration and development. The fundamental research of nuclear logging is an important step of logging technology innovation. Through analyzing the current situation of the development of nuclear logging technology at home and abroad in recent years, the problems and gaps are pointed out in the field of fundamental research of nuclear logging at home, and the future development of new nuclear logging technologies is concisely analyzed. Therefore, the optimal design and processing are conducted from aspects of ray source, detector, data acquisition and processing method. In addition, the fundamental research of LWD and pulsed neutron logging technology is taken as the main breach. In the fundamental research of nuclear logging technology, innovative thinking should be expressed and the innovation should be achieved in every field of the development of nuclear logging technology. Meanwhile, the logging key lab should be taken as the platform and the latest achievement in the field of nuclear logging technology should be fully utilized. Thus, the level of independent R and D and technology innovation of logging tools will be raised and service for the exploration and development of petroleum and other mineral resources. (authors)

  3. Development and Present Situation Analysis of Power Transformer State Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Sen; Li, Biao; Li, Huan

    2018-02-01

    The pivotal status of power transformer in the power system is one of the most important equipment. The safety and reliability of its operation is directly related to the safety and stability of power system. Based on the analysis of the present situation of power transformer state maintenance in home and abroad. The paper points out the deficiency of the current method and provides a theoretical basis for further research, which has a certain guiding significance.

  4. Macrophytes in the lower Ebro and exploitation of Asco NPP. Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munte Clua, L.; Esparza Martin, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this stage is to expose the information obtained during the last decade and to present the current situation of the river, the implications involved for the operation of the plant, the solutions adopted in the short term and the results obtained so as proposals that the Administration must respond.

  5. The current legal situation relating to food irradiation as assessed by the Land Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frede, W.

    1994-01-01

    Discussed is the current legal situation of food irradiation procedures as assessed by the Government of Northrhine-Westfalia. The topics highest on the agenda are the unrestrained exchange of merchandise within the Internal Market and the problems arising from deviating legal stipulations in the individual EU member states. (vhe) [de

  6. Current situation,problems and strategies of intermediary business development in Gansu Province Rural Credit Unit%甘肃省农村信用社中间业务发展现状、问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳俊; 杨林娟

    2015-01-01

    通过调查发现:甘肃省农村信用社中间业务存在营销力度小、产品种类少、层次低、缺乏创新等问题,对这些问题的深层次原因进行系统分析,包括员工思想认识有偏差、经营体制制约与基础设施落后、从业人员素质不高、同业竞争激烈与社会认知度不高,并据此提出提升中间业务的战略地位、促进中间业务深入基层、加强产品创新和完善人才培训制度等对策建议。%Through the survey,we found that there are currently some problems of intermediary business development in Gansu Province Rural Credit Unit,including small business marketing,less product varie-ty,low-level products,and lack of innovation.We further analysed the fundamental reasons and factors a-gainst the problems in Rural Credit Unit,which include insufficiency thinking of employees,limitation of management system,poor infrastructure,low quality of employees,high competition of industry and low so-cial awareness.Then some strategies against the problems were proposed,including enhancing the strategic position of intermediary business development, promoting intermediary business at grass-roots unit, strengthening product innovation and improving personnel training system.

  7. Epistemic Communities, Situated Learning and Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses open source software (OSS) development as an epistemic community where each individual project is perceived as a single epistemic community. OSS development is a learning process where the involved parties contribute to, and learn from the community. It is discovered that theory...... of epistemic communities does indeed contribute to the understanding of open source software development. But, the important learning process of open source software development is not readily explained. The paper then introduces situated learning and legitimate peripheral participation as theoretical...

  8. The Main Features of and Response to The Current Asian Security Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    I.The Main Features of the Current Asian Security Situation The strategic game between China and the United States becomes the most powerful driving force to change the Asian traditional security situation.The United States has tried its best to delay China’s rising pace or"to standardize"China’s rising path by using its huge military advantage and forward military deployment and strengthening its security network of alliance and friends,so as to maintain its dominant position in

  9. A brief introduction on the current situation of radiation protection in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qinju; Li Xutong

    2005-01-01

    China is a fast developing country now and is seeking for a way of sustainable development as other countries in the worlds. Its situations concerning radiation protection and policies on nuclear power development should be quite noticeable to all the scientists working in these fields within the country and abroad as well. A brief introduction of the legislation and organizational framework; researches or situations of environmental radiation, disposal and management on radiation wastes, occupational exposure of nuclear industry are described in this paper. (author)

  10. Radiation in pediatric health care: current situation and challenges in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Maria Gladys R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation exposure to human health has been the topic of much research to date, focusing particularly on children as they are especially vulnerable and have longer life span to develop log term health effects. Taking into account the higher vulnerability of children, prevention of unnecessary radiation exposure is critical in pediatric patients. Issues such as pediatric patient receive a higher dose than necessary has been identified because adult computed tomography (CT) settings are used for children. Assessment of population exposures resulting from medical use of radiation is mainly available in industrialized countries, while in developing countries such as the Philippines, data are scarce. This information is very much scarce in the field of pediatric medical exposures and appropriate national surveys including frequency of pediatric procedures and children doses are still lacking. A broader and more effective participation of the regulatory authorities in such surveys could contribute to children risk assessment. The presentation explains the current situation, approach and challenges in the Philippines in dealing with radiation in pediatric health care. (author)

  11. Current situation of used household batteries in Iran and appropriate management policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, A Daryabeigi; Abduli, M A

    2008-11-01

    Used household batteries are considered as hazardous wastes in many countries due to the potential environmental and human health risks associated with the heavy metals present in batteries. This article presents the current situation of waste household batteries and policies in Iran. Iran with more than 70 million people is a developing country where latest technologies like cell phones and laptops are in widespread use and battery consumption increases accordingly. The household battery demand in Iran has rapidly grown since 2001 and it is expected to increase more quickly in next years, due to increasing technological development. Based on the available data, more than 9800 metric tons of household batteries were imported into Iran in recent decade, with the market value of about US$ 42.6 million. At present, there is no program available in Iran regarding to collection, separation, recycling or safe disposal of used batteries. Therefore, almost all of the spent household are discarded into municipal solid waste (MSW) and sent to sanitary landfills. Appropriate policies to meet safe disposal of household batteries in Iran is also discussed in this investigation.

  12. Developing the Competence to Lead in Everyday Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anja Overgaard; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses how leaders help one another develop their ability to lead in everyday situations through collaborative work in learning groups, focusing on the interaction between theory and practice. The theme is how the understanding of course assignments and approaches changes during...... leaders’ participation in a module on personal leadership development, which is part of a master’s degree in public governance. The analytic framework concentrates on the work in learning groups as an integrated part of this module, and particularly on the development of learning relationships by viewing...

  13. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  14. Current situation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento, E-mail: rmv.fisica@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias (PUC-Goias), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Macedo, Luiz Eduardo Andrade [Hospital Chama, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    To assess the current situation of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix in Brazil, regarding apparatuses, planning methods, prescription, fractionation schedule and evaluation of dose in organs at risk. Materials and methods: in the period between March/2012 and May/2013, a multiple choice questionnaire was developed and sent to 89 Brazilian hospitals which perform HDR brachytherapy. Results: sixty-one services answered the questionnaire. All regions of the country experienced a sharp increase in the number of HDR brachytherapy services in the period from 2001 to 2013. As regards planning, although a three-dimensional planning software was available in 91% of the centers, conventional radiography was mentioned by 92% of the respondents as their routine imaging method for such a purpose. Approximately 35% of respondents said that brachytherapy sessions are performed after teletherapy. The scheme of four 7 Gy intracavitary insertions was mentioned as the most frequently practiced. Conclusion: the authors observed that professionals have difficulty accessing adjuvant three-dimensional planning tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  15. The Role Of The Media In The Political Culture Of Russia: The Current Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Леонидовна Кочурова

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the characteristics and activities of mass media as an institution of political culture, which should be aimed at raising citizens' awareness and capacity objective to organize information exchange between Government and citizens. Considered social acuteness and urgency of this problem, the main functions of the MASS MEDIA, a trend increase in the role and impact of the MEDIA on the current political situation in Russia.

  16. Esophageal stent implantation for the treatment of esophageal strictures: its current situation and research progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haidong; Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal stent implantation has been the most common therapy for the treatment of malignant and benign esophageal stenosis. At present, this technique is widely used in treating advanced esophageal cancerous stricture, refractory esophageal benign stricture and all kinds of esophageal fistulae or perforation. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation and research progress of the esophageal stent implantation in clinical practice. (authors)

  17. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pierlovisi; L. Pourchez

    2014-01-01

    Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the ...

  18. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  19. Family medicine practice in Saudi Arabia: The current situation and Proposed Strategic Directions Plan 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Al-Mogbil, Tariq I; Al-Khashan, Hesham I

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of the teaching and training of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in family medicine in KSA, assess the current practice of family medicine, and draw a roadmap to achieve Saudi vision 2020. This study was conducted with the support and collaboration of the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and World Health Organization (EMRO) in November 2015. Based on the literature review of previous studies conducted for similar purposes, relevant questionnaires were developed. These consisted of four forms, each of which was directed at a different authority to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. Data of all questionnaires were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 16. There are 2282 primary health-care centers (PHCCs), 60% of which are in rural areas. More than half of the PHCCs have a laboratory and more than one-third have a Radiology Department. Out of the 6107 physicians, 636 are family physicians (10%). All medical colleges have a family medicine department with a total staff of 170 medical teachers. Thirteen departments run family medicine courses of 4-8 weeks' duration for students. Fourteen colleges have internship programs in family medicine and four colleges have postgraduate centers for family medicine (27%). There are 95 training centers for Saudi Board (Saudi Board of Family Medicine [SBFM]) and 68 centers for Saudi Diploma (Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine [SDFM]). The total number of trainers was 241, while the total trainees were 756 in SBFM and 137 in SDFM. This survey showed that there is a shortage of qualified family physicians in all health sectors in Saudi Arabia as a result of the lack of a strategic plan for the training of family physicians. A national strategic plan with specific objectives and an explicit budget are necessary to deal with this shortage and improve the quality of health-care services at PHCCs.

  20. Sustainability of UK shale gas in comparison with other electricity options: Current situation and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jasmin; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and social aspects of shale gas to evaluate its overall sustainability. The focus is on the UK which is on the cusp of developing a shale gas industry. Shale gas is compared to other electricity options for the current situation and future scenarios up to the year 2030 to investigate whether it can contribute towards a more sustainable electricity mix in the UK. The results obtained through multi-criteria decision analysis suggest that, when equal importance is assumed for each of the three sustainability aspects shale gas ranks seventh out of nine electricity options, with wind and solar PV being the best and coal the worst options. However, it outranks biomass and hydropower. Changing the importance of the sustainability aspects widely, the ranking of shale gas ranges between fourth and eighth. For shale gas to become the most sustainable option of those assessed, large improvements would be needed, including a 329-fold reduction in environmental impacts and 16 times higher employment, along with simultaneous large changes (up to 10,000 times) in the importance assigned to each criterion. Similar changes would be needed if it were to be comparable to conventional or liquefied natural gas, biomass, nuclear or hydropower. The results also suggest that a future electricity mix (2030) would be more sustainable with a lower rather than a higher share of shale gas. These results serve to inform UK policy makers, industry and non-governmental organisations. They will also be of interest to other countries considering exploitation of shale gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An analysis of current and desirable situation of electronic government service provision in rural areas of the Hamedan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Aazami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The informative society is seen as the central element of rural development at the beginning of the third millennium and the development of information technology and communication in villages has always been considered in current summits across the world. Nowadays, information and communication technology service offices are the basis of electronic government. Therefore, recognition of these offices is necessary for sustainable rural development. The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis between the current situation and the desirable situation of e-government services in the rural districts of the Hamedan province as perceived by their directors (Hamedan, Bahar and Famenin Counties. The study population consists of 91 respondents who were chosen and studied through the census method. The findings of this research study consist of two sections. The items related to satisfaction with the activities in information and communication technology service offices were prioritized in the first section. Moreover, the current and the desirable conditions for electronic service provision were identified. The gap between these two were analyzed in the second section. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between these two conditions of electronic service provisions in rural areas. This significant difference was recognized through the paired T test at the 0.05 level with 6.33 value that illustrates the existence of a gap between these two situations. Electronic government, information technology and communication, information and communication technology service offices

  2. The 1957 Valencia flood: hydrological and sedimentological reconstruction and comparison to the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the knowledge of the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. In other words, the aim is to test if it is possible to explain the flood waves with the incorporation of sediment cycle to a distributed hydrological model. Furthermore, this work aims to be aware of the current consequences of a similar event, taking into account land use changes, particularly, the urban rise in the lower basin, and the current flood defenses of the city. To do this, the hydrological model was implemented in the current basin situation. Once implemented, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made and the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated. Then, the hydrographs in the chosen points were obtained. Finally, a simulation using the 1957 precipitation in the current basin situation was made, in order to be aware of the current consequences.

  3. [Clinical research outside of teaching hospitals: Current situation in north-eastern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C; Dupoux, A; Déloy, L; Hertz, C; Jeanmaire, T; Parneix, N

    2015-04-01

    Most clinical research in France takes place in teaching hospitals. There are, however, many advantages to developing it in other hospitals: access to innovative treatments, improvement in healthcare quality, attractiveness of hospitals, increased trial inclusion rates and reduced selection bias. The objectives of our study were to report on the current situation of clinical research outside teaching hospitals. A three-stage survey was conducted between January 2012 and May 2013 in non-teaching hospitals of north-eastern France. First, questionnaires were sent to administrative and medical boards of all hospitals with more than 100 beds, then to head doctors of every department in hospitals with more than 300 beds and finally meetings were organized with members of 20 selected hospitals. The administrative and medical boards of 85 hospitals participated in the first stage of the survey; half of these hospitals were engaged in clinical research activities and for 10 the internal structuring was cross-disciplinary. Answers from 178 departments were obtained during the second stage; 47% reported a clinical research activity. Meetings with research teams in 20 hospitals allowed us to identify difficulties concerning research funding, transversal organization and sponsoring. Clinical research existed in more than half of the respondent non-teaching hospitals. Obstacles to its development can be grouped in three categories: 1) internal structuring of clinical research, 2) access to information and knowledge of how clinical research functions and to interlocutors outside the hospital and 3) access to skills necessary to sponsor clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-04-01

    This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master's and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. FUTURE NEEDS: The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources capacity in the region will

  5. TBLT IN CHINA (2001-2011: THE CURRENT SITUATION, PREDICAMENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Shaoqian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the reform of English education in China since 2001, a communicative and task-based language teaching has emerged into Chinese English classroom. To understand task-based language teaching (TBLT practice in China, a synthesis study was conducted to analyze the current situation and predicament of TBLT in China over the last ten years based on the published TBLT articles (2001-2011 in Chinese journals and educational newspapers. The study shows that there is questioning and criticism on the effectiveness of TBLT in the forein languagae teaching classes despite the amazing growth of research in TBLT in China. It is also found that the predicament of TBLT may be attributable to a variety of factors such as no professional and systematic training TBLT for teachers, little knowledge of the latest development of TBLT, differences in student English proficiency, gap between local educational levels, no enough educational funds as well as misunderstanding and mispractice of TBLT. Thus, how to appropriately adapt and localize TBLT in China has become the major concern of researchers and educators as well as teachers. To solve the problem, this paper puts forward some suggestions to localize TBLT in the Chinese context, which is concerned with (1 task design; (2 integrating target tasks and pedagogical tasks; (3 balance between meaning and form; (4 tasks for big classes; (5 developing school based textbooks and (6 combining tasks and other teaching principles. Such a context-based approach to TBLT could provide a reference for other contexts similar to China.

  6. The energy situation and its sustainable development strategy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam; Jin, Hongguang

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes China's energy situation and sustainable development strategy as they were by 2009. The energy consumption in 2009 is reported to be 3.1 billion tons standard coal equivalent, 1/7 of the world total, 6.3% higher than in the year 2008, and its share of world CO 2 emissions increased rapidly to 20.3% in 2006. These trends are most likely to continue with China's plan to accomplish its social and economy development goals. To address these problems and also respond to increasing world pressure for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the Chinese government plans and has legislated promotion of energy conservation, efficiency, renewable energy technologies and use, and reduction of energy-related environmental impacts to reduce energy intensity by 20% during the 2006-2010 period, and to reduce the CO 2 emission/GDP ratio by 40-45% by 2020 relative to 2005. China is facing severe energy-related challenges that conflict resources shortages with the planned rapid economic development, energy use with the related environmental pollution, and new technology with the old production/consumption patterns. It is recognized that energy development must, however, follow a sustainable path to coordinate economy growth, social development, and environmental protection. -- Highlights: → A brief summary of China's energy situation and plans in 2009; → Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions are likely to continue rising; → China to reduce energy intensity, and the (CO 2 emission)/GDP ratio by 40-45% by 2020; → Energy-related challenges and desired sustainable development strategy are discussed; → The strategy core is energy conservation and non-fossil fuel energy development.

  7. An Investigation on the Current Situation of Management Information Systems Discipline in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YARLIKAŞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of management information systems field by evaluating the theses conducted at universities in Turkey in the departments of management information systems and science of management information systems. First, this study aims to determine the distribution of the theses in terms of years, subjects and the research methods used. Another purpose of this study was to determine which of the related disciplines of management information systems are used most in the theses. In addition, as a result of the study, the compatibility degree between the theses written and the courses taught in the graduate programs of management information systems were determined. In this research, content analysis method is used. Through this method, each of the theses was evaluated with a 10-question ‘thesis evaluation question set' constructed towards the purpose of the study. Through this evaluation, the current situation of the field was determined. It was observed that the number of doctoral theses associated with the field was less. Using the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques most in the theses denoted that the interdisciplinary approaches were adopted in the theses associated with management information systems. It was observed that the literature analysis and survey techniques were the most studied research methods in the theses. Besides, statistical techniques were used highly in the theses. As a result of this study, it was concluded that out of the associated disciplines of management information systems, management science, computer science and statistics disciplines were more associated with the investigated theses. When the study results were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that significant progress was made in the discipline of management information systems compared to the early 2000s.

  8. The Role and Situation of the Scientometrics in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Noroozi Chakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement and evaluation of science, that scientometrics is followed, subsequently has always been in the world since it has been assumed that science can help the health and welfare of the inhabitants of the planet. Using the results of researches can effect on the economic, social, political, scientific, and cultural foundations. Therefore, the scientometrics researches are attractive for scientific and research societies that draw the distant horizons for themselves. This article introduced the scientometrics dimensions concisely and discusses the effects of results of these researches on economic, social, political, scientific, and cultural development in the countries and emphasizes its effects on the services of library and information centers. So, this paper presented the situation of scientometrics in science policy processes and states its role in the society development process based on the library method and using the analytical approach.

  9. Current Situation and Future Perspectives of Chinese Popular Music in Global Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Music industry, as a rising star of cultural industries, is playing an increasingly important role in globalization of international economy. Nowadays western music has cornered most of the modern music market for a long time while Korea and Japan’s modern music developed quickly these last 20 years which gave Chinese music market huge pressure. Under the background the author aims to observe and analyze present market situation and future perspective of Chinese popular music in this study. ...

  10. [Current situation and thinking of diagnosis and treatment in some types of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Yu, Y; Li, D P; Dong, L

    2017-04-07

    As arising incidence of thyroid cancer, the treatment for thyroid carcinoma is becoming increasingly standardized. But there are different opinions on the treatment for some types of thyroid cancers, including the determination of operative opportunity, surgical method, and follow-up observation plan. There are mainly two categories of patients, namely the patients diagnosed as familial thyroid cancer mutation carriers through family screening, including medullary thyroid carcinoma and familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, and the patients with thyroid microcarcinoma that can be observed after diagnosed by fine needle biopsy cytology. We will discuss current situation for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  11. [Current situation on new psychoactive substances abuse among methadone maintenance treatment patients in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z; Dai, M M; Cao, X B

    2018-04-10

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) greatly contributed to the successful outcomes of prevention and control on both AIDS and drug abuse in China. However, the features on drug abuse changed in the past decades, and the prevalence of new psychoactive substances abuse potentially somehow offset the achievement of MMT. This paper concised the information on research and surveys of this issue that targeting on the current situation, characteristics, related factors and relevant public health problem on new psychoactive substances abuse, among patients who have been on MMT, in China.

  12. Current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchy, L.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution shows the basic information about the crucial milestone of 3. building and the current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce. Contribution also shows what activities were realized and what material in area of designation of the technical and safety standard of the project was elaborated in the past, the main activities planned for 2006 have been described, support for Feasibility Study elaborated by ENEL and description of the integrated management system. The basic thesis crucial for the next steps on the project of 3. and 4. block of Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce is presented in the conclusion

  13. Implementation of systematic training approach in Kozloduy Training Centre - Current situation. Presentation of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosturkov, L.

    1993-01-01

    To identify the needs in implementation of the systematic training approach, a relation between the number of trainees, duration of the training and the type of training should be made. In other hand, as it was stated in the TWG-T(93) Status Report, in order to be better identified outstanding training needs, the existing capabilities and other related projects should be taken into account. This report is pointed to give more details for the current situation in Bulgaria and to clarify the needs of international assistance. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  14. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  15. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  16. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  17. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  18. The current situation of personal dose monitoring in Chinese medicine radiation and undamaged detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liangan; Zhang Wenyi; Yuan Shuyu; Song Shijun; Chang Hexin; Sun Kai

    1993-01-01

    The situation of personal dose monitoring in γ(X) external exposure in China is mainly outlined. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) was adopted for personal dose measurement of the radiation workers. The computer software and data base for the work have been developed and applied. National intercomparison of TLD, monitoring control of personal dose monitoring in field, and technical training were carried out for quality control. In China, the dominant occupational exposures is X-ray diagnosis and it increases year by year, the highest values is about 22.6%. The highest values of annual collective dose and annual average of individual dose (AAID) are 272.8 man·Sv and 3.21 mSv respectively. This work shows that the fraction of the population receiving high dose is decreased with time rapidly. The situation for whole occupational exposures is also described. (3 tabs.)

  19. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pierlovisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the omnipresence of symbolism or the complexity of healers’ roles at the crossroads of social, sacred and therapeutic registries.The study shows that the national policy on traditional medicine improves gradually the promotion of these practices too often undervalued. Nevertheless, the institutional context exposes weaknesses which might explain the difficulty encountered by some tradipractitioners to find their place in this new regulation. Indeed, regarding the current context, a reducing process of the healers' practices is likely to emerge.

  20. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future.

  1. Development of a model of situational leadership in residential care for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brighide M; McCormack, Brendan; McCance, Tanya

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to present the process used to develop a composite model of situational leadership enacted within a person-centred nursing framework in residential care. Transforming the culture of the residential unit from a restrictive institution to a vibrant community of older adults requires transformational leadership. Situational leadership is one form of transformational leadership, which claims that there is not one leadership style that works in all situations. A model of situational leadership in residential care was developed through a series of systematic steps that identified direct linkages between situational leadership and the main constructs of the Person-Centred Nursing Framework. The process included reviewing the evidence, undertaking a comparative analysis, identifying key concepts, connecting the concepts and developing a model. A conceptual model is presented which integrates person-centredness with leadership thinking in order to effectively impact on the follower's performance in managing the care environment and delivering person-centred care. Currently the model is being utilized in an action research study to evaluate the role of leaders in the practice setting of long-term care. While some of the connecting concepts have been identified in the present study, more work needs to be done to unravel these connections in further study of leaders in practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  3. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  4. Co-occurring Mental Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment: the Current Health Care Situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauber, Hanna; Braun, Barbara; Pfeiffer-Gerschel, Tim; Kraus, Ludwig; Pogarell, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the current health care situation for patients with co-occurring mental disorders in addiction treatment. Therefore, data from the German Substance Abuse Treatment System ( N  = 194,406) was analysed with regard to the prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, treatment characteristics and outcomes of patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnosis. In outpatient setting, the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses was considerably lower (4.6%) than in inpatient setting (50.7%), but mood and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent additional diagnoses in both settings. In the treatment of patients with these comorbid disorders, we found higher rates of complementary internal and external (psychiatric) treatment, more co-operations and referrals after treatment, and positive treatment process outcomes. Findings indicate that the knowledge of an additional diagnosis influences the health care provision of affected patients and can therefore be seen as the essential precondition for providing adequate and comprehensive treatment. This highlights the importance of a sufficient consideration and diagnostic assessment of mental disorders in addiction treatment to further improve the health care situation of comorbid patients.

  5. Current situation and future plans in radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, H.; Jimenez, M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief introduction is offered in this document in order to explain the importance which is given in Mexico to the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Secretaria de Energia, Minas e Industria Paraestatal is the organization responsible for this issue. Also, a brief historical background is offered so as to understand the evolution of these activities since they were originated. This background allows us to describe the present situation, which consists in a substantial change in the volume of produced radioactive wastes; in other words, before the present situation only the, nuclear wastes from the application of radioisotopes were generated whereas currently, with the starting of commercial operation of the first unit of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP), large volumes of industrial radioactive wastes are being generated. A mention is given as well of the acquired experience during more than 20 years of waste management and of the technologies which have been applied or practiced in the use and disposal of such wastes. Finally, some general trends in relation to the future planning are indicated, which essentially consist in the siting and characterization of a site so as to, design and construct a permanent disposal facility in order to dispose the operational radioactive wastes from LVNPP

  6. TUBERCULOSIS EPIDEMIC SITUATION IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC IN CURRENT SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mikhailovna Alekseeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the most important medical and social problems in the whole world as well as in Russia and its separate regions. Purpose. The study was aimed at assessment of tuberculosis epidemic situation in the Chechen Republic in the current socio-economic conditions after counterterrorist operations. Materials and methods. The authors analyzed the annual reports of the Ministry of Health of the Chechen Republic for 2010–2015, data of Rosstat, statistical data form for tuberculosis (№ 8 and № 30. Results. The results shown a threefold increase in the main tuberculosis indicators (incidence, prevalence and mortality after counterterrorist operations (1994–1996, and a decrease in these indicators in 2010–2015. The authors have found the cities and rural municipal districts with the most and the least favorable tuberculosis situation. The study results demonstrated an increase in the number of patients with bacillary, with fibrous-cavernous form, as well as patients with tuberculosis in combination with HIV infection. The authors proved the relation between the prevalence of fibrous-cavernous form of tuberculosis and mortality rate. Tuberculosis incidence in children (0–14 years and adolescents (15–17 years decreased in 2010–2015 while the incidence in adolescents remains higher than the incidence in children. Conclusion. Effective antituberculosis work in the Chechen Republic needs to improve the quality of medical examinations, early detection of tuberculosis, timely immunization, and health education.

  7. Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-15

    In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses. In this review, we mainly focused on the epidemiological dynamics, biological characteristics, molecular phylogeny and vaccine strategy of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus in China to present an overview of the situation of H9N2 in China.

  8. [Tracheal Intubation by Paramedics in a Local Community: Current Situation and Future Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takinami, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    As of April 2013, 164 paramedics are certified to perform tracheal intubation in Fukui Prefecture. This study investigated the current situation surrounding tracheal intubation performed by paramedics in prehospital care. Subjects were 58 paramedics who completed practical training at our hospital. Post-training duration, number of tracheal intubation cases, number of attempts before successful tracheal intubation, disease involved, rate of return of spontaneous circulation, and prognosis were examined. Tracheal intubation was successful on the first attempt in 92% of cases. Rate of return of spontaneous circulation was high in paramedics whose post-training duration was short. No return of spontaneous circulation occurred after a second attempt. Four patients survived asphyxia or aspiration. It is important to perform successful tracheal intubation on the first attempt, to recognize the probability of successful resuscitation in patients with exogenous disease, and to strengthen the medical control system.

  9. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Analysis of current situation of information disclosure of listed companies on GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirong Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the afternoon on October 23th, 2009, GEM was officially launched in our country. Due to the lack of experience in the market supervision, information disclosure violations frequently occurred. In April 2015, Shenzhen Stock Exchange puts forward morning information disclosure system to strengthen the reform of information disclosure system. Therefore, this paper deeply focuses on the current situation of information disclosure violations on GEM for the purpose of attracting more attention to the problems. Through studying the information disclosure violations of the listed companies on GEM from 2011 to September 30th, 2015, this paper divides the violations into the following four types: false record, misleading statement, material misstatement and delayed disclosure. On the other hand, we find that these types of violations are concurrent. From this discussion, we may safely draw the conclusion that the information disclosure of listed companies on GEM has the problem of untruthfulness, incorrectness, incompleteness and delay.

  11. The current situation and mid-term prospects for European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the current situation and mid-term prospects for European electricity markets presents: the objectives of energy policy, the historical legacy, the attempts at European integration and the Internal Energy Market (IEM), the coming of the Climate Change Package, the impact of the world economic and Euro-zone crises, the impact of shale gas and the new world of fossil fuel abundance, the impact of renewables on emissions, the impact of renewables on electricity markets, the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) and the renewables and the electricity markets, the coming of capacity crunch in some cases, the capacity markets, the return of central buyers and national energy policies, and what is to be done for the world electricity markets

  12. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  13. Characteristics of gifted and talented student: the current situation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current situation in Portugal with regard to high capability and talented students, focusing on the authors’ experience in the National Association for Study and Intervention in Giftedness (ANEIS. In a sequential argument, we focus on the concept of giftedness, the most specific characteristics of high ability students, and the procedures used in their initial identification and assessment. Also, the most frequent educational responses to these students are described. Finally, we underline some studies conducted as a result of the collaboration between ANEIS and several Portuguese universities. These studies refer to the instruments and procedures used for the assessment of giftedness and talent, and the impact of the implemented educational measures.

  14. [The current situation of acupuncture definition in international organizations and legislation of some countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Baoyan; He, Liyun; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jia

    2017-12-12

    Acupuncture is developing rapidly in the world, and more attention is paid on acupuncture in various countries. Because of the cultural differences, there are different views on acupuncture between China and the west, which has brought influence and challenge to the development of acupuncture in the world. Acupuncture-related research is becoming increasingly extensive and complex, but the definition of acupuncture is lack of unified standards. The definition of acupuncture is in urgent need. Based on the analysis of acupuncture definition in the 201 international organizations of 48 countries on five continents and legislation of representative countries, this paper summarized the development status of acupuncture in foreign countries, and put forward that the definition of acupuncture should adopt the model of small connotation and large extension, integrate discipline superiority, expand the scope of acupuncture, and focus on the overall situation.

  15. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  16. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  17. The Current Situation of Field Experience in a Five-Year Science Teacher Education Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the current situation in managing the field experience of a five-year science teacher education program in one university in Thailand. A number of methods were used to assess field experience situation: (1) a questionnaire on the perceptions of pre-service science teachers of field experience management; (2) participant…

  18. Simulation Development for Dynamic Situation Awareness and Prediction II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Kevin C

    2006-01-01

    ... within the simulation environment. These simulations provide feedback to prototype C4ISR systems in the form of mission status reports, sensor tracks, and other ISR mission results reports, which can be used to maintain situation...

  19. [Survey of current situation of schistosomiasis health education in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-jun; Gao, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Bing

    2015-04-01

    To understand the current situation of schistosomiasis health education in in Wuxi City where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the health education strategies. Face to face interviews and a professional designed questionnaire were used to collect the information of the current schistosomiasis health education and investigate the awareness of schistosomiasis knowledge in primary and middle schools and in communities. The total awareness rate of schistosomiasis knowledge was 87.7% among 873 students and the figure was 83.0% among 693 community residents. The students who studied in the schools with more than 1 class hour of schistosomiasis health education, completed schistosomiasis health education material or teaching plan, and implementing health education through multiple ways had higher knowledge awareness rates compared with the schools without (χ2 = 291.408, 709.622, 13.751, all P <0.001). The residents living in the communities with schistosomiasis health education through broadcast/TV or square propaganda had a higher knowledge awareness rate compared with the communities without (χ2= 90.772, 47.436, all P < 0.001). The awareness rates of schistosomiasis knowledge among both students and community residents in Wuxi City are low. Therefore, the schistosomiasis control health education should be strengthened.

  20. Current Situation of Treatment for Anaphylaxis in a Japanese Pediatric Emergency Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninchoji, Takeshi; Iwatani, Sota; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Kamiyoshi, Naohiro; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Morisada, Naoya; Ishibashi, Kazuto; Iijima, Kazumoto; Ishida, Akihito; Morioka, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that sometimes requires prompt treatment with intramuscular adrenaline. The aim of the study was to investigate the current situation regarding anaphylaxis treatment in a representative pediatric primary emergency facility in Japan. We retrospectively examined the medical records dating from April 2011 through March 2014 from Kobe Children's Primary Emergency Medical Center, where general pediatricians work on a part-time basis. Clinical characteristics and current treatments for patients with anaphylaxis who presented to the facility were investigated. Furthermore, we compared the clinical characteristics between anaphylaxis patients given intramuscular adrenaline and those not given it. During the study period, 217 patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis. The median Sampson grade at the time of visit was 2, and 90 patients (41%) were grade 4 or higher. No patients received self-intramuscular injected adrenaline before arrival at our emergency medical center because none of the patients had been prescribed it. Further treatment during the visit was provided to 128 patients (59%), with only 17 (8%) receiving intramuscular adrenaline. Patients given intramuscular adrenaline had significantly lower peripheral saturation of oxygen at the visit (P = 0.025) and more frequent transfer to a referral hospital (P < 0.001) than those not given intramuscular adrenaline. Education for Japanese pediatric practitioners and patients is warranted, because no patients used self-intramuscular injected adrenaline as a prehospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and only severely affected patients who needed oxygen therapy or hospitalization received intramuscular adrenaline in a pediatric primary emergency setting.

  1. Geriatric oncology in Spain: survey results and analysis of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, R; Morilla, I; Guillen-Ponce, C; Torregrosa, M D; Paredero, I; Bustamante, E; Del Barco, S; Soler, G; Losada, B; Visa, L; Llabrés, E; Fox, B; Firvida, J L; Blanco, R; Antonio, M; Aparisi, F; Pi-Figueras, M; Gonzalez-Flores, E; Molina-Garrido, M J; Saldaña, J

    2017-12-11

    Geriatric oncology (GO) is a discipline that focuses on the management of elderly patients with cancer. The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) created a Working group dedicated to geriatric oncology in February 2016. The main goal of this study was to describe the current situation in Spain regarding the management of elderly cancer patients through an online survey of medical oncologists. A descriptive survey was sent to several hospitals by means of the SEOM website. A personal e-mail was also sent to SEOM members. Between March 2016 and April 2017, 154 answers were collected. Only 74 centers (48%) had a geriatrics department and a mere 21 (14%) medical oncology departments had a person dedicated to GO. The vast majority (n = 135; 88%) had the perception that the number of elderly patients with cancer seen in clinical practice had increased. Eighteen (12%) oncologists had specific protocols and geriatric scales were used at 55 (31%) centers. Almost all (92%) claimed to apply special management practices using specific tools. There was agreement that GO afforded certain potential advantages. Finally, 99% of the oncologists surveyed believed it and that training in GO had to be improved. From the nationwide survey promoted by the Spanish Geriatric Oncology Working Group on behalf of SEOM, we conclude that there is currently no defined care structure for elderly cancer patients. There is an increasing perception of the need for training in GO. This survey reflects a reality in which specific needs are perceived.

  2. Cystic echinococcosis in Spain: current situation and relevance for other endemic areas in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Rojo-Vazquez

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians.

  3. Cystic Echinococcosis in Spain: Current Situation and Relevance for Other Endemic Areas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A.; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  4. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  5. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  6. Photovoltaics in Switzerland - Present situation and prospects for further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Gutschner, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the contributions made by Switzerland in the areas of research, innovation and production technologies for photovoltaics. The intensive developments that can be noted in the Swiss photovoltaics area are commented on. Growth rates in the photovoltaics industry are quoted and commented on. The state-of-the-art and present trends are discussed, including organic and inorganic solar cells and concentrating systems. The author comments on the many technologies currently being worked on, with newer technologies catching up with the more traditional crystalline silicon systems. Balance-of-system products, such as inverters, cabling systems and controllers are briefly discussed. Also, increased interest and developments in monitoring systems for the power produced by the solar installations is noted. Swiss research and production facilities are commented on. Price-parity for solar power and its future effect on the European and Swiss solar markets is discussed

  7. Energy planning and management Current situation in the World, Turkey and ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaygil, Sermin

    2006-01-01

    efficiency measures applied in the end-use sectors such as, industrial processes, heating and electrical home appliances. When energy intensity values of some countries are compared, it can be easily seen that Turkey, having the energy intensity of 0.38, consumes more energy than Japan having the value of 0.09, US with that of 0.25, world mean as 0.29 and even if Greece, Turkeys neighbor, as 0.20. Since Turkey is in the pre-accession period for being a member to European Union (EU), the harmonization with the EU legislation is carried out in every sector negotiated together with EU, including energy. The purposes of EU energy policy can be summarized as to improve competitiveness, energy supply security, energy efficiency, market share of renewable energy sources and to contribute protection of the environment. In each progress report prepared by EU for Turkey, it is stated that in order to harmonize with the related EU legislation and to decrease the energy intensity, Turkey should enact a framework energy efficiency law. Considering this suggestion, Draft Law on Energy Efficiency was prepared by taking the opinions of all related government and private sector representatives and it is waiting for ratification in Turkish Grand National Assembly. It is indicated that world energy consumption shall increase twice in 2050 as compared to 2005 while it is required to decrease this consumption to half for protecting the current climate of the world. Therefore, in order to prevent the adverse effects of climate change by means of economical measures, energy must be used 4 times efficient than it is used today. Within this framework, the major and inevitable measure is stated as the rational use of energy by each country considering their national situations including energy, economy and environment points of view. Generally, such studies are conducted by neutral and institutional organizations like Russian Energy Efficiency Center, Energy Conservation Center of Japan and Ukraine

  8. Road Situation and the Development of Katsina State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an assessment of the road transport situation in the state based on the road network, road quality, vehicular movement and other infrastructures. It was found that there are many problems facing road transportation in the State. These problems are multi-faceted and range from high traffic, bad condition ...

  9. A Survey of the Current Situation of Clinical Biobanks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Ni, Mingyu; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    The development of biomedical research urgently needs the support of a large number of high-quality clinical biospecimens. Therefore, human biobanks at different levels have been established successively in China and other countries at a significantly increasing pace in recent years. To better understand the general current state of clinical biobanks in China, we surveyed 42 clinical biobanks based in hospitals and collected information involving their management systems, sharing mechanisms, quality control systems, and informational management systems using closed questionnaire methods. Based on our current information, there has not been such a large-scale survey in China. An understanding of the status and challenges current clinical biobanks face will provide valuable insights for the construction and sustainable development of higher quality clinical biobanks.

  10. Selection, Placement and Instatement of School Managers in Turkey: Evaluation of the Current Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…

  11. [Current treatment situation and progress on bone defect of collapsed tibial plateau fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chang-qi; Fang, Yue; Tu, Chong-qi; Yang, Tian-fu

    2016-02-01

    Characteristics of collapsed tibial plateau fracture determines that the joint surface must remain anatomical reduction,line of force in tibial must exist and internal fixation must be strong. However, while renewing articular surface smoothness, surgeons have a lot of problems in dealing with bone defect under the joint surface. Current materials used for bone defect treatment include three categories: autologous bone, allograft bone and bone substitutes. Some scholars think that autologous bone grafts have a number of drawbacks, such as increasing trauma, prolonged operation time, the limited source, bone area bleeding,continuous pain, local infection and anesthesia,but most scholars believe that the autologous cancellous bone graft is still the golden standard. Allograft bone has the ability of bone conduction, but the existence of immune responses, the possibility of a virus infection, and the limited source of the allograft cannot meet the clinical demands. Likewise, bone substitutes have the problem that osteogenesis does not match with degradation in rates. Clinical doctors can meet the demand of the patient's bone graft according to patient's own situation and economic conditions.

  12. [Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in Spain: its beginnings, current situation and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Donate, V E; Perez-Lorensu, P J; Garcia-Garcia, A; Asociacion de Monitorizacion Intraquirurgica Neurofisiologica Espanola Amine, Asociacion de Monitorizacion Intraquirurgica Neurofisiologica Espanola Amine; Sociedad Espanola de Neurofisiologia Clinica Senfc, Sociedad Espanola de Neurofisiologia Clinica Senfc; Grupo de Trabajo de Monitorizacion Neurofisiologica Intraoperatoria de la Senfc, Grupo de Trabajo de Monitorizacion Neurofisiologica Intraoperatoria de la Senfc

    2018-05-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is nowadays another tool within the operating room that seeks to avoid neurological sequels derived from the surgical act. The Spanish Neurophysiological Intra-Surgical Monitoring Association (AMINE) in collaboration with the Spanish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SENFC), and the IONM Working Group of the SENFC has been collecting data in order to know the current situation of the IONM in Spain by hospitals, autonomous communities including the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the opinions of the specialists in clinical neurophysiology involved in this topic and further forecasts regarding IONM. The data was gathered from November 2015 to May 2016 through telephone contact and/or email with specialists in clinical neurophysiology of the public National Health System, and through a computerized survey that also includes private healthcare centers. With the data obtained, from the perspective of AMINE and the SENFC we consider that nowadays the field of medicine covered by IONM is considerably large and it is foreseen that it will continue to grow. Therefore, a greater number of specialists in Clinical Neurophysiology will be required, as well as the need for specific training within the specialty that involves increasing the training period of MIRs based on competencies due to the increase in techniques/procedures, as well as its complexity.

  13. Significance of single lung transplantation in the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryo; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Aoyama, Akihiro; Menju, Toshi; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Although bilateral lung transplantation is the procedure of choice internationally, single lung transplantation is preferred in Japan because of the severe donor shortage except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of single lung transplant recipients and outcomes of this procedure at one of the largest lung transplant centers in Japan. Between April 2002 and May 2015, 57 cadaveric lung transplantations (33 single and 24 bilateral) were performed in Kyoto University Hospital. The clinical characteristics of the lung transplant recipients and outcomes of these procedures, including overall survival and postoperative complications, were investigated. Overall, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 86, 77, and 72 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who underwent single lung transplantations and those who underwent bilateral lung transplantations (p = 0.92). The median waiting time was significantly shorter for single lung transplant patients than for bilateral lung transplant patients (p = 0.02). Native lung complications were seen in 14 out of 33 patients (42 %) who underwent single lung transplantation. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with and without postoperative native lung complications. Single lung transplantation has been performed with acceptable outcomes in our institution. In the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan, single lung transplantation can remain the first choice of treatment except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation.

  14. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

  15. [Current situation of suicide in Japan, and what pharmacists contribute to suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

      In Japan, a national countermeasure has been forwarded since the enactment of the Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures in 2006 and the Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative in 2007. The distinctive policy of the Japanese countermeasure is expressed as the word, "comprehensive," which means that suicide prevention may not only be carried out only by mental health measures but also by comprehensive measures including chance of administrative practices. This policy is proper, although mental health measures appear to be too simple inclining to psychiatric treatments for the classic type of "depression" by a pharmacotherapy. The authors have insisted that mental health measures including psychiatric treatments are also required to be more comprehensive. This paper describes that benzodiazepine (BZ)-abuse problems including overdosing by suicidal intents have got worse recently as psychiatric clinics have increased and most of BZ abusers obtain the abused drugs form psychiatrists. This current situation indicates that pharmacists need to monitor psychiatrists' prescribing behavior and qualities of psychiatric treatment is required to be refined, suggesting pharmacists may be one of the "Gate Keeper," as supporting resources for suicide prevention. Additionally, this paper explained that basic attitudes and responses acquired by pharmacists as a supporter for suicide prevention.

  16. Current situation and problems of cancer-reproductive therapy from the standpoint of male reproductive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Takeshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Nishio, Koujiro; Arai, Manabu; Okada, Horoshi; Nozaki, Miwako; Kaji, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current situation and problems of cancer - reproductive therapy from the standpoint of male reproductive therapy. Common causes for male infertility include spermatogenic dysfunction, seminal duct dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. Causes of male infertility in cancer patients include the presence of cancer itself, as well as pathological conditions due to surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for cancer, namely spermatogenic dysfunction, seminal duct dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) presents the risk classification of infertility due to anti-cancer drugs or radiotherapy. Cancer treating physicians evaluate infertility risk associated with treatment according to this risk classification and provide patients with information. If a patient wishes to preserve fertility, it is recommended in ASCO's fertility preservation guidelines to introduce the facilities that can store frozen sperm. Questionnaire surveys on sperm cryopreservation to blood physician show that the description of sperm cryopreservation is made at only about two-thirds of facilities and there is a problem that the systemization of cryopreservation has not progressed. The only way to acquire a baby in a patient who has undergone cancer treatment without cryopreservation and became permanent azoospermia is microscopic testis sperm collection and microinsemination. (A.O.)

  17. [Current situation and impact factors of acid deposition in main cites of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qiao-xian; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Mu, Jin-bo; Zhang, De-zhi

    2006-12-01

    Based on the monitoring data for years in Shandong Province, current situation of acid rain in every city was assessed, and the temporal distribution of the dry, wet and total sulfur deposition in Jinan and Qingdao were studied. The results showed that Qingdao which had the largest precipitation acidity was the single city whose annul average precipitation pH was below 5. 60. The precipitation acidities in the main cities of Shandong Province were in a descent tendency. The total sulfur desposition in Jinan and Qingdao was basically stable or in a descent tendency, but also reached 10 t/(km(2)x a) or so. Among the total sulfur deposition flux, the dry deposition of sulfur had the greater contribution, and the contribution of SO2 dry deposition was higher than that of SO42- dry deposition. By analyzing the relation between the precipitation acidity and the SO2 discharge intensity, soil acidity and meteorological condition, the impact factors of acid precipitation in the cities of Shandong Province were revealed.

  18. The current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel farming in the gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawtawee, T.; Songsangjinda, P.; Sangnoi, Y.; Uppabullung, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel Perna viridis farming in Surat Thani, Phetchaburi and Samut Prakan provinces where were located in the gulf of Thailand. Samples were collected during April, August and November in 2014. Based on the results of this study, there were three major types of mussel culture patterns in Thailand: bouchot culture, longline culture (rope culture), and raft culture. Mussel farmers encountered problems on decreasing of larvae mussel in the water column, water quality degradation, high production cost and farmer’s lack of negotiation power to control the price. The water quality of the mussel farms, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), fecal coliforms bacteria and the total coliforms bacteria met the standard for aquaculture. However, the nutrient, such as ammonium (NH4-N), nitri-nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) were higher than the value of marine aquaculture standard. The results of the contamination of Salmonella spp. bacteria were not found in the mussel’s tissue, however Escherichia coli was found at very low level.

  19. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  20. Risk factors of mesenteric venous thrombosis and current situation of diagnosis and treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Zhiwei; Zhu Huanxing; Xu Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of mesenteric venous thrombosis and current situation of diagnosis and treatment in China. Methods: One hundred and seven case of mesenteric venous thrombosis reported in literature were analyzed. The literature from 2003 to 2007 were retrieved from Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodical Database and Wanfangdata. Results: One hundred and seven papers included 978 MVT patients, male: female = 1. 9:1, the average age was 47. 9. The most common risk factors were portal hypertension (28. 9% ), splenectomy (18. 8%) and thrombophlebitis (11. 5%) in 833 cases with integrated medical history. Final diagnosis was established by medical imageology (40. 0%) and exploratory laparotomy (60. 0%). The achievement ratio of thrombolysis therapy was 83. 9% (73 /87) by peripheral vein and 90. 0% (63 /70) by superior mesenteric artery. 34. 7% patients took warfarin orally after discharge. Conclusions: Portal hypertension, splenectomy and thrombophlebitis may be the most common risk factor for MVT; through peripheral vein or superior mesenteric artery urokinase thrombolytic therapy is an effective means of treatment of early MVT; MVT diagnostic awareness and anticoagulant therapy after surgery awareness of the importance is to be strengthened. (authors)

  1. The current situation of uranium resources exploration in East China: Problems, thought and countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Mao Mengcai

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyzing the current situation of uranium resources and exploration effort in East China, the main existing problems, technical thought and countermeasure for the future exploration in East China are discussed in this paper. The degree of both uranium exploration and study in East China is relatively high, philosophy of scientific mineral-prospecting should be established in the new round of mineral prospecting. Under guidance of metallogenic theory of large mineralization cluster area and uranium metallogenic theory of multi-sources, previous data and research achievement should be analyzed and summarized. With the help of metallogenic model, useful methods and means should be applied to set up exploration model in order to realize news phase of model exploration, comprehensive exploration, 3D exploration and quantitative exploration. Efficiency of exploration of uranium resources should be strugglingly increased. High profitable uranium resources will be actively found with rich, shallow, near and easy features. The prospecting targets and strategy reserves of uranium resources will be increased in East China. (authors)

  2. [Lung transplantation in Reunion Island, current situation from January 2005 till May 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Allou, N; Schlossmacher, P; Gendry, T; Delay, L; Gazaille, V

    2017-04-01

    Lung transplantation (LT) is a therapeutic option for patients with terminal respiratory failure and high risk of mortality in two years. Until now, this activity is not performed in Reunion Island. The candidate potential are thus directed to the metropolitan reference centres causing logistics and financials constraints. This work presents a current situation of the pulmonary transplantation in Reunion Island. This retrospective study includes patients from Reunion Island with respiratory insufficiency who have been transferred to metropolitan centres to apply to LT. The selection was made from January, 2005 till May, 2015. Twenty-nine patients included, aged from 14 to 64 years, were transferred to metropolitan France: 13 patients with cystic fibrosis, 13 patients with pulmonary fibrosis, 1 patients with bronchiectasis, 1 patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 1 patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fifteen patients underwent LT (4 live in Reunion Island, 5 live in metropolitan France and 6 are dead), 1 patient is alive on waiting list, 3 died on the waiting list, 7 patients were refused for transplantation and 3 patients are lost to follow-up. The number of patients transferred for LT increases over 10 years with a maximal incidence in 2013 of 7 repatriated patients including 3 transplanted patients. LT could be performed in half of our patients with possible come back and follow-up on Reunion Island. Indications follow the current trends except an under representation of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Present Situation and Future Development Trend of Smart Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Fengfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, our daily clothes are changing quietly. Wearable smart clothing has gradually the leading role in the clothing market. This article first explains the concept of wearable intelligent clothing in china, and then I analyze the various types of wearable smart clothing that is currently facing problems, and summarized about the key points and future directions of wearable intelligent clothing design. From the beginning of 2013, smart watches, bracelets, glasses have entered the public vision, become a "trendsetter who sought the object", this year the industry was identified as "the first year of wearable equipment". In simple terms, a wearable device is a portable device that can be worn directly on the body, or integrated into the user's clothing or accessories. However, with the development of wireless sensor technology, kinds of wearable smart clothing gradually appeared in people's life, the smart clothing is made up of small chip, electronic components, power equipment, embedded into clothing, can achieve a specific function, in order to facilitate people's life.

  4. Development situation about the Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Joo Hwan

    2009-07-15

    The CANDU reactor is the most versatile commercial power reactor in the world. The acronym 'CANDU', a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for 'CANada Deuterium Uranium'. CANDU uses heavy water as moderator and uranium (originally, natural uranium) as fuel. All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada exports CANDU type reactor in abroad. CANDU type is used as the nuclear power plants to produce electrical. Today, there are 41 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and the design has continuously evolved to maintain into unique technology and performance. The CANDU-6 power reactor offers a combination of proven, superior and state-of-the-art technology. CANDU-6 was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types. One of its characteristics is a very high operating and fuel efficiency. Canada Nuclear Power Generating Stations were succeeded in a commercial reactor of which the successful application of heavy water reactor, natural uranium method and that on-power fuelling could be achieved. It was achieved through the joint development of a major project by strong support of the federal government, public utilities and private enterprises. The potential for customization to any country's needs, with competitive development and within any level of domestic industrial infrastructure, gives CANDU technology strategic importance in the 21st century.

  5. Development situation about the Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Joo Hwan

    2009-07-01

    The CANDU reactor is the most versatile commercial power reactor in the world. The acronym 'CANDU', a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for 'CANada Deuterium Uranium'. CANDU uses heavy water as moderator and uranium (originally, natural uranium) as fuel. All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada exports CANDU type reactor in abroad. CANDU type is used as the nuclear power plants to produce electrical. Today, there are 41 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and the design has continuously evolved to maintain into unique technology and performance. The CANDU-6 power reactor offers a combination of proven, superior and state-of-the-art technology. CANDU-6 was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types. One of its characteristics is a very high operating and fuel efficiency. Canada Nuclear Power Generating Stations were succeeded in a commercial reactor of which the successful application of heavy water reactor, natural uranium method and that on-power fuelling could be achieved. It was achieved through the joint development of a major project by strong support of the federal government, public utilities and private enterprises. The potential for customization to any country's needs, with competitive development and within any level of domestic industrial infrastructure, gives CANDU technology strategic importance in the 21st century

  6. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  7. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  8. A development of a quantitative situation awareness measurement tool: Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed quantitative situation awareness (SA) evaluation technique. • We developed a computer based SA evaluation tool for NPPs training environment. • We introduced three rules and components to express more human-like results. • We conducted three sets of training with real plant operators. • Results showed that the tool could reasonably represent operator’s SA. - Abstract: Operator performance measures are used for multiple purposes, such as control room design, human system interface (HSI) evaluation, training, and so on. Performance measures are often focused on results; however, especially for a training purpose – at least in a nuclear industry, more detailed descriptions about processes are required. Situation awareness (SA) measurements have directly/indirectly played as a complimentary measure and provided descriptive insights on how to improve performance of operators for the next training. Unfortunately, most of the well-developed SA measurement techniques, such as Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) need an expert opinion which sometimes troubles easy spread of measurement’s application or usage. A quantitative SA measurement tool named Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions (CoRSAGE) is introduced to resolve some of these concerns. CoRSAGE is based on production rules to represent a human operator’s cognitive process of problem solving, and Bayesian inference to quantify it. Petri Net concept is also used for graphical expressions of SA flow. Three components – inference transition, volatile/non-volatile memory tokens – were newly developed to achieve required functions. Training data of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario for an emergency condition and an earthquake scenario for an abnormal condition by real plant operators were used to validate the tool. The validation result showed that CoRSAGE performed a reasonable match to other performance

  9. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Djalalov, Sandjar

    1998-01-01

    Irrigation in Uzbekistan is of great importance since the country is an arid zone. The use of water in agriculture is described and its relationship as a constraint to economic development discussed. The current technical and organizational characteristics of irrigation systems need study and analysis to identify opportunities for improvements. The characteristics of demand for water at the farm level are described and irrigation and land improvement activities are outlined. Reform of water u...

  10. Classification of radiation effects for dose limitation purposes: history, current situation and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes cancer and non-cancer health effects, each of which differs greatly in the shape of the dose–response curve, latency, persistency, recurrence, curability, fatality and impact on quality of life. In recent decades, for dose limitation purposes, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has divided such diverse effects into tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic and deterministic effects) and stochastic effects. On the one hand, effective dose limits aim to reduce the risks of stochastic effects (cancer/heritable effects) and are based on the detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficients, assuming a linear-non-threshold dose response and a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor of 2. On the other hand, equivalent dose limits aim to avoid tissue reactions (vision-impairing cataracts and cosmetically unacceptable non-cancer skin changes) and are based on a threshold dose. However, the boundary between these two categories is becoming vague. Thus, we review the changes in radiation effect classification, dose limitation concepts, and the definition of detriment and threshold. Then, the current situation is overviewed focusing on (i) stochastic effects with a threshold, (ii) tissue reactions without a threshold, (iii) target organs/tissues for circulatory disease, (iv) dose levels for limitation of cancer risks vs prevention of non-life-threatening tissue reactions vs prevention of life-threatening tissue reactions, (v) mortality or incidence of thyroid cancer, and (vi) the detriment for tissue reactions. For future discussion, one approach is suggested that classifies radiation effects according to whether effects are life threatening, and radiobiological research needs are also briefly discussed. PMID:24794798

  11. [Current situation of the organisation, resources and activity in paediatric cardiology in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ferrer, Francisco; Castro García, Francisco José; Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, Javier; Roses Noguer, Ferrán; Centeno Malfaz, Fernándo; Grima Murcia, María Dolores; Brotons, Dimpna Albert

    2018-04-26

    The results are presented on the «current situation of the organisation, resources and activity in paediatric cardiology in Spain». It was promoted by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart disease. An analysis was carried out on the results obtained from a specifically designed questionnaire, prepared by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart disease, that was sent to all hospitals around the country that offer the speciality of paediatric cardiology. A total of 86 questionnaires were obtained, including 14 hospitals that perform cardiac surgery on children. A total of 190 paediatric cardiology consultants, 40 cardiac surgeons, and 27 middle grade doctors performing their paediatric residency (MIR program) were identified. All hospitals had adequate equipment to perform an optimal initial evaluation of any child with a possible cardiac abnormality, but only tertiary centres could perform complex diagnostic procedures, interventional cardiology, and cardiac surgery. In almost all units around the country, paediatric cardiology consultants were responsible for outpatient clinics and hospital admissions, whereas foetal cardiology units were still mainly managed by obstetricians. The number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was similar to those reported in the first survey, except for a slight decrease in the total number of closed cardiac surgery procedures, and a proportional increase in the number of therapeutic catheterisations. Paediatric Cardiology in Spain is performed by paediatric cardiology consultants that were trained initially as general paediatricians, and then completed a paediatric cardiology training period. Almost all units have adequate means for diagnosis and treatment. Efforts should be directed to create a national registry that would not only allow a prospective quantification of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, but also focus on their clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  12. Current situation of the facilities, equipments and human resources in nuclear medicine in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2008-01-01

    The current situation of nuclear medicine in Argentina, taking into account the facilities, their equipment and human resources available is presented in this paper. A review and analysis of the equipment, including technical characteristics and a survey of the professionals and technicians of the area, was carried out. In Argentina, there are 266 centers of nuclear medicine distributed all over the country. The operating licenses are granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN). Forty four percent of the installed equipment are SPECT of 1 or 2 heads and 39,4 % are gamma camera. Besides, there are eleven PET operating in Argentina. There are 416 nuclear medicine physicians with individual permit for diagnostic purposes and 50% of them has also individual permit for treatment purposes. With the purpose of analyzing the regional distribution of the available resources in nuclear medicine, the country was divided into 7 geographical regions: City of Buenos Aires, Province of Buenos Aires, Pampa, Cuyo, Northeast, Northwest and Patagonia. From the analysis of the gathered information it is possible to conclude that the nuclear medicine equipment as well as the personnel present an irregular distribution, with a major concentration in the City of Buenos Aires and Province of Buenos Aires. The Northeast region presents the lowest number of Nuclear Medicine centers and the Patagonia region has the lowest number of medicine nuclear physicians with individual permits. The number of SPECT and gamma cameras is 7,3 per million of inhabitants. The information about the available resources in nuclear medicine presented in this paper and its comparison with the international information available provide elements for a better planning of the future activities in the area not only for the operators but also from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  13. Current situation of Islamabad solid waste dumpsite and options for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.; Elahi, R.E.; Malik, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the existing situation of H-12 dumpsite, where solid waste from Islamabad City is being dumped since 1988, and to propose options for its improvement. The study methodology involved collection of baseline information, topographical survey, analysis of leachate samples, characterization of incoming waste and evaluation of options for rehabilitation and improvement of the site. The results of the study revealed that solid waste dumped at the H-12 dumpsite, which currently receives about 320 tons of solid waste daily, covers an area of 22.4 hectares. The corresponding volume and weight of the waste were found to be 0.45 million m3 and 0.143 million tons, respectively. Specific weight and moisture content of the old dumped waste were found to be 22 percent and 320 kg/m3, respectively. Analysis of leachate samples collected from the dumpsite were found to be highly contaminated. Characterization of solid waste delivered at the site showed that it mainly comprises a mix of construction and demolition waste, food waste and hospital waste thus indicating that material recovery operations would not be feasible. In order to improve and rehabilitate the dumpsite with a view to mitigate its adverse environmental impacts, three options were considered. These include (a) improvement and rehabilitation of the site without making provision for further inflow of waste; (b) improvement and rehabilitation of the dumpsite with provision to receive the waste for a period of another 10 years; and (c) shifting the dumped waste to the proposed Kurri Landfill site. Technical and financial aspects of all the three options are described and recommendations regarding the most environment friendly option are presented. (author)

  14. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  15. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  16. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  17. Child injuries in Ethiopia: A review of the current situation with projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Alonge, Olakunle; Lawhorn, Collene; Ambaw, Yirga; Kumar, Smita; Jacobs, Troy; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-01-01

    Heavy burden of child injuries and lack of policy response in Ethiopia call for an improved understanding of the situation and development of action plans from multiple governmental agencies and stakeholders. A consortium of international and Ethiopian researchers and stakeholders used extensive literature review and mixed analytical methods to estimate and project the burden of fatal and non-fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia from 2015 to 2030. Estimates were derived for children aged 0-14 years. Data sources include a longitudinal study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank as well as model-based estimates from World Health Organization 2017 and Global Burden of Disease 2016 project. Injuries caused about 25 thousand deaths among 0-14-year olds in Ethiopia in 2015. The leading cause of fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia was road-traffic injuries, followed by fire, heat and hot substances and drowning. The death rate due to injuries among 0-14 years olds was about 50 percent higher in males than females. Rural children were exposed to a greater risk of injury than their urban peers. The longitudinal survey suggests that the incidence rate of child injuries increased during the period 2011-2014. The annual mortality caused by injuries is projected to increase from 10,697 in 2015 to 11,279 in 2020 and 11,989 in 2030 among children under 5 years, an increase of 12 percentage points in 15 years. The number of deaths among 0-14-year olds will be 26,463, 27,807, and 30,364 respectively in 2015, 2020, and 2030. As the first multisectoral collaboration on child injuries in Ethiopia, this study identified gaps in understanding of the burden of child injuries in Ethiopia. In consultation with Ethiopian government and other stakeholders, we propose starting an injury surveillance system at health clinics and hospitals and building an intervention package based on existing platforms.

  18. Cerâmicas odontológicas: o estado atual Ceramic in dentistry: current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gomes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As cerâmicas dentais são conhecidas pela sua excelência em reproduzir artificialmente os dentes naturais. No século XVIII foi empregada pela primeira vez na Odontologia como dente artificial para próteses totais. A partir do século XX passou a ser utilizada para a confecção de restaurações metalocerâmicas e mais recentemente, com o aprimoramento da tecnologia cerâmica, surgiram as restaurações livres de metal. As cerâmicas têm apresentado rápida evolução em âmbito científico com o intuito de melhorar suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas para suprir as necessidades estéticas que são cada vez mais exigidas pela sociedade moderna. Nesse contexto, é preciso conhecer cada sistema cerâmico disponível atualmente no mercado, desde suas principais características até suas limitações, para saber indicá-lo de modo correto em cada situação clínica específica.Dental ceramics are known for their excellence in artificially reproduce natural teeth. In the XVIII century they were employed for the first time in Dentistry as artificial tooth for complete dentures. Since the XX century they were used to fabricate metal ceramic restorations and, nowadays, all-ceramic restorations are obtained as a result of ceramic technology improvement. Ceramics present a fast progress in the scientific field in order to improve their physical and mechanical properties to provide for aesthetic needs so required by modern society. In this context, it is important to know each ceramic system currently available on the market, regarding not only its main features but also its limitations, to an accurate indication for each specific clinical situation.

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    . Presented with the current poverty levels failure to institute result oriented control measures will exacerbate the already life-threatening situation.

  20. [Thirty years of platelet immunology in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia management, current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, R

    2017-09-01

    Fetal and neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is considered as a rare disease due to the incidence (1/1000-1/2000 births). The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial hemorrhage and neurologic sequelae following. Serology and molecular biology developments have reconfigured the platelet immunology diagnosis. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunisation is responsible for more than 80% FNAIT cases with a high recurrence rate of severe bleeding complications. Therapeutic management has changed over the coming years from an invasive concept associating fetal blood sampling and in utero platelet transfusion to a non invasive treatment by intravenous immunoglobulins injection (IVIg). The purpose of this article is to provide an update on FNAIT management in the light of current developments over the past 30years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  2. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.

  3. The Role of Indigenous Languages in National Development: A Case Study of Nigerian Linguistic Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ayodele Olaoye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous languages are indispensable cultural legacies without which all forms of human interactions can be carried out. National development is the development of individuals in a nation. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically, and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate policies through various indigenous languages. Development indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. Based on these assertions, the author studied the current linguistic situations in Nigeria and found that native languages play fundamental role on issues  such as democracy, technology, metalanguage and linguistic globalization .There are however some challenges in the optimum  utilization of these mother tongues. The major problems being orthographic inadequacy,the multiplicity of minority languages, linguistic desertification and deforestation and  language endangerment.The author then suggests a way forward.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine and cancer: History, present situation, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction.

  5. Land administration in Ecuador; Current situation and opportunities with adoption of fit-for-purpose land administration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorovski, D.; Salazar, Rodolfo; Jacome, Ginella; Bermeo, Antonio; Orellana, Esteban; Zambrano, Fatima; Teran, Andrea; Mejia, Raul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore current land administration situation in Ecuador and identify opportunities for fit-for-purpose (FFP) land administration approach that could improve the land administration functions for the country and its citizens. In this paper, initially literature about land

  6. The current situation and related problems of percutaneous vertebroplasty in clinical treatment of osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luchang; Wu Chungen; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    As an effective, safe and less-invasive technique in interventional radiology, percutaneous vertebroplasty has satisfactory therapeutic results with fewer complications in treating osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation and related problems of percutaneous vertebroplasty in clinical treatment of osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture. (authors)

  7. Molecular Targets for PET Imaging of Activated Microglia: The Current Situation and Future Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronel, Claire; Largeau, Bérenger; Santiago Ribeiro, Maria Joao; Guilloteau, Denis; Dupont, Anne-Claire; Arlicot, Nicolas

    2017-04-11

    Microglia, as cellular mediators of neuroinflammation, are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of microglia has matured over the last 20 years, through the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting several molecular biomarkers of microglial activation and, among these, mainly the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO). Nevertheless, current limitations of TSPO as a PET microglial biomarker exist, such as low brain density, even in a neurodegenerative setting, expression by other cells than the microglia (astrocytes, peripheral macrophages in the case of blood brain barrier breakdown), genetic polymorphism, inducing a variation for most of TSPO PET radiopharmaceuticals' binding affinity, or similar expression in activated microglia regardless of its polarization (pro- or anti-inflammatory state), and these limitations narrow its potential interest. We overview alternative molecular targets, for which dedicated radiopharmaceuticals have been proposed, including receptors (purinergic receptors P2X7, cannabinoid receptors, α7 and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, adenosine 2A receptor, folate receptor β) and enzymes (cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinase, β-glucuronidase, and enzymes of the kynurenine pathway), with a particular focus on their respective contribution for the understanding of microglial involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. We discuss opportunities for these potential molecular targets for PET imaging regarding their selectivity for microglia expression and polarization, in relation to the mechanisms by which microglia actively participate in both toxic and neuroprotective actions in brain diseases, and then take into account current clinicians' expectations.

  8. Prospect and current situation survey of nuclear agricultural research in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Lihong; Ye Qingfu; Hua Yuejin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the survey result, which investigated 22 related institutes and universities in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences in China in Sep. 2007, this paper introduces the current status of research conditions, existing facilities and research progress on isotope tracing technology, new biological resources creation, research of nuclear irradiation and irradiation processing technology form 1996 to 2006. Due to not enough financial supports on this field, the development of nuclear agricultural sciences was slow down. However, the solid basis set up during last several decades, and the great efforts made by all the researchers, significant social and economic achievements were gained. Some of the researches have already taken the leading position in the world. (authors)

  9. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Juan C.; Salgado, Mercedes; Idoyaga Navarro, Maria L.; Escobar, Carolina; Mallaupoma, Mario; Sbriz, Luciano; Moreno, Sandra; Gozalez, Olga; Gomez, Patricia; Mora, Patricia; Miranda, Alberto; Aguilar, Lola; Zarate, Norma; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  10. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  11. Current Situation in Occupational Health and Safety Education in Higher Education Institutions of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman SİVRİKAYA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, “the occupational health and safety” topic, which has gained importance in different countries in the world, has got attention in Turkey as well. The importance of human life and health is being increased in the world especially in the developed countries. As a result of this, in order to prevent the work accidents involving death or personal injury in the work life, the importance of the “occupational health and safety” is increasing gradually. In Turkey, the regulation studies are being carried out on this topic with the successive regulations especially during recent years. The application aspect of the topic, which is related to employers on the occasion of legal liabilities in accordance with the regulations, and for the graduates who are seeking for a job and especially want to be occupational safety specialists, it is popular from the point of view to be hope for a job. However, due to the difficulties to follow the rapidly changing developments, efficient awareness about the topic is not possible. It is possible that to get true and current information about the topic is possible by showing necessary sensitivity about occupational health and safety education. The graduates from different departments wonder the topics such as what is “occupational health and safety” education and “what kind of an education is necessary to become an occupational safety specialist”. Hence, in this article, by giving current information about occupational health and safety education and their content in the higher education institutions in Turkey, the points, which have had improvements compared to the past, are considered, and certain suggestions are presented to have better occupational health and safety education.

  12. Lifelong Education (Learning) in China: Present Situation and Development Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhupeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…

  13. Politics and strategies for radioactive waste management: current situation and perspective for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Eliana; Cruz, Paulo Ferruz; Gonzalez, Abel; Telleria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In some countries of the Latin America Region, policy and national strategy are well established and documented, while in others there is not an explicit formal declaration, although they may be implicit in the content of the laws, regulations and existing guides; but they are not consolidated in a single document, making it difficult to put into practice by the Government institutions, the organisms responsible for the regulation and those responsible for the safe management of waste. For practical reasons, the work concentrates the situation in the Region with the waste from medical, industrial practices, research and production, which generate a common problem in the region. This document also contains some recommendations to improve the situation in this topic in the Region

  14. An Overview of Hydropower Reservoirs in Brazil: Current Situation, Future Perspectives and Impacts of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Dias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, related to the greenhouse gases emission, impacts hydroelectric power generation mainly due to the increase in air temperature and changes in the precipitation patterns. As a consequence, it affects basin evapotranspiration process, runoff, sediment transport as well as evaporation of reservoirs. This study analysed the current and future Brazilian context of hydroelectric reservoirs and investigated the potential impacts of climate change on hydropower generation and possible mitigation adjustments, giving relevant examples from around the world. Moreover, it is key to consider other factors that influence the availability of water resources such as: (a upstream development of reservoirs, mainly the development of agricultural systems, which can contribute to increased water demand; (b changes in land use, which can have an impact on soil degradation and sediment transport. Hydroelectric dams are a possible alternative to mitigate the impacts of climate change considering that those impacts could generate the need of adaptive actions. The assessment of climate change impacts’ projections anticipates possible future scenarios and can assist in strategic planning together with the definition of adaptive operational policies.

  15. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  16. [100 years of drinking water regulation. Retrospective review, current situation and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Krasovsky, G N; Egorova, N A; Mikhailova, R I

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.

  17. Development and Construct Validation of a Situational Judgment Test of Strategic Knowledge of Classroom Management in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…

  18. Culture, Learning, and Development and the Natural World: The Influences of Situative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The study of human learning and development from situative or sociocultural perspectives has had significant impacts on a wide range of scholarship largely driven by the theoretical and methodological focus on understanding the role of "activity systems" in cognition and development. This article first explores how situative perspectives…

  19. Developing situation-aware applications for disaster management with a distributed rule-based platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Moreira, Joao; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dockhorn Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance interoperability and productivity in the develop-ment of situation-aware applications for disaster management, proper mecha-nisms and guidelines are required. They must address the lack of semantics in modelling emergency situations. In addition, the ever changing and

  20. Developing a Curriculum for Initial Teacher Education Using a Situated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the implications of the concept of situated learning are important when developing a curriculum for initial teacher education (ITE). It describes and analyses the use of a model of ITE designed to stimulate discussions promoting the development of professional craft knowledge situated mainly in schools and to connect these…

  1. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  2. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  3. Energy in the strategy to Sahel development : Situation- Perspectives- Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Energy plays an important role in the development of the Sahel Countries. For instance, in these countries, the use of wood fire is essential as a source of energy. However, the increase in the wood supply leads to environmental problems; hence the necessity for the states to promote alternative source of energy to replace the wood. Used in the field of agriculture, transport, industry and construction, energy in Sahel countries hurts to financial problems such as difficulties in the funding of oil import and supply security. It is then indispensable to develop energy resources in the Sahel countries. Energy policies must emphasize on hydroelectric energy, nuclear energy and also better reorganize certain sources of energy such as gas, oil, and coal. Thus this political assumption of responsibility through a comprehensive approach will contribute to generate the development of the Sahel countries [fr

  4. [Present situation and development of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Jun; Zhu, An-Ning; Liao, Xiu-Lian; Ouyang, Qiang-Bo

    2013-10-01

    The development history, education, legislation, charge and institutes of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore are introduced in this article. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been developed in Singapore since 1840. Nowadays there are three universities that set up standard Chinese medicine courses and two acupuncture-moxibustion associations. Legislation of acupuncture and moxibustion is published in 2000. The acupuncture and moxibustion is applied for approximately 50 kinds of diseases. The acupuncture and moxibustion is at one's own expense in public or private institutions, but cheap or completely free in charity.

  5. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The arti......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes....... The article draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby’s concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby...... to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra...

  6. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The artic...

  7. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent

  8. Development of an Objective Measurement Method for Situation Awareness of Operation Teams in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Ar Ryum; Kim, Hyoung Ju; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community since the need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Even though complex and dynamic environments such as main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is operated in teams and still SA which teams posses is important, research is currently focused on individual SA not for team situation awareness (TSA). Since there are not many measurement methods developed for TSA, individual SA measurement methods are at first reviewed and the critical requirements which new TSA measurements should consider are derived. With an assumption that TSA is an integration of individual SA, a new and objective TSA measurement method is developed. This method is developed mainly based on logical connections between TSA and team communication and implements verbal protocol analysis. This method provides measure for each level of TSA. By performing preliminary analysis with this method, it was shown that this method is feasible to some extent.

  9. Energy in the strategy to Sahel Development : Situation - Perspectives - Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Burkina Faso does not have fossil energy source. The problem of energy thus arises with acuity for the rural and urban populations. The energy sources used are primarily the hydrocarbons, electrical energy, the woody fuels as new and renewable energies which are the biomass, the solar energy and the wind energy. The hydrocarbons are 100% imported, which makes the country very depend on over sea with respect to its conventional energy supply. These imports represent, for the years 1987 to 1992, 12 to 29% of the export earnings of the country. In addition to this dependence, there is a great weakness of the electrical communication and the too high cost of energy which led to the development of a strategic planning of the scientific research centered on the energy sector. In this field, research made it possible to undertake a study of the Burkina Faso energy system, to evaluate and exploit solar energy and wind mill, to develop the use of new methods allowing the energy saving in the households and the safeguard of the environment. In addition research shows that an economy is possible in the administrative buildings. Work is undertaken on air-conditioning by evaporation, the technology of the cold and the valorization of nonfood plant oils. There is also a work done on the de-pollution of industrial waste water, the energy valorization of the biomass as well as the improvement of the technology of the dolo, local beer containing sorghum. All these scientific research activities aim at the definition of a development policy on the energetic sector which takes into account the reduction of the cost of energy, the access of the populations to this resource, the reduction in the invoice of oil products imports as well as the promotion of environmental protection, the industrial development and that of the new methods of local technology as regards energy in Burkina Faso [fr

  10. [E-health within the Dutch mental health services: what is the current situation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Odile; Martin Abello, Katherina; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek; Boon, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The 'e-mental health' currently available, which also covers m-health and i-health, varies from psycho-education and self-tests to self-help, treatment and contact with fellow sufferers. Many programs are based on cognitive behavioural therapy, but other types of therapy are also used. Research shows that online programs for depression, alcohol problems and anxiety can reduce these symptoms and can be cost effective. This applies to both self-help and treatment programs. Many e-programs in the Netherlands have been developed for the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care (GGZ) and for treatment of addiction problems. One problem with e-mental-health is that provision is fragmented, and there is no national overview, while insight into quality is important for patients and professionals. The quality hallmark 'Onlinehulpstempel.nl' ('Online help hallmark') provides this insight. The use of e-mental-health within Dutch healthcare services is still in its infancy. New financing methods are stimulating general practitioners to use it. The consolidation of online and face-to-face care ('blended e-health') provides an opportunity for patients and GGZ support personnel within general practice to start to use e-health.

  11. Current Situation of Scientific Research at the University of Jordan from the Viewpoint of Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Omar Bin Tareef

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the current status of scientific research at the University of Jordan as perceived by graduate students and the differences between students of science and humanities faculties, and to identify their opinions regarding ways to improve scientific research at the University of Jordan. The study followed a descriptive methodology based on a survey that was developed specifically for the purpose of this study. The survey consisted of 40 items covering 5 themes, and was distributed to a sample of 104 male and female participants representing science and humanities faculties. The data were analyzed, using the two-way ANOVA, the standard deviation and means. In addition, students’ opinions and obstacles to effective participation of graduate students were categorized. The results showed significant differences between students’ assessment of the status of scientific research in science and humanities faculties, which was (3.2 for students in humanities faculties and (2.8 for students in science faculties. The difference also appeared in all the five domains of the scientific research, while there was no presence of gender effect, neither was there effect for the interaction between the variables (gender and the faculty. The study recommended to provide financial support to scientific research, and to establish a refereed scientific Journal for publishing students’ innovative ideas and research projects. Keywords: Scientific research, Graduate students.

  12. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  13. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of on-board vehicle measurements for emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollo, R.; Renier, S.; Testini, Y.; Sontag, M.

    1992-01-01

    In case of accident in a nuclear power plant, measurements must be carried out very quickly around the site, in order to control and limit the consequences for the population. Measurements which have the priority are the gamma dose rate, the total beta activity, the gamma activity due to I 131 (charcoal filter) and due to Cs 134/137 (paper filter). To fulfill the requirement, EDF has developed and selected necessary equipment, putting the emphasis on the reliability and on the ease of use. A computer-controlled system dedicated to dose rate measurement and gamma spectroscopy is described, as well as an autonomous programmable, air and water-sampling device. (author)

  15. Development of In-situation radioactivity Inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Sujung; Lee, Sanghun; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang; Park, Jungkyun

    2015-01-01

    Many Korean people worry about radioactive contamination of Japanese and Korean marine products. Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time will be developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Product performance assessment and tests will be conducted later. When the system develops and its commercialization begins, people's anxiety about radioactive contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident will be eased and people will be able to trust the radioactive inspection

  16. Development of In-situation radioactivity Inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sujung; Lee, Sanghun; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang [ORIONENC Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jungkyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Many Korean people worry about radioactive contamination of Japanese and Korean marine products. Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time will be developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Product performance assessment and tests will be conducted later. When the system develops and its commercialization begins, people's anxiety about radioactive contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident will be eased and people will be able to trust the radioactive inspection.

  17. THE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE IN ROMANIA. AN EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE ON THEIR CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinke Joop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is aimed at identifying the social enterprises according to EMES criteria by investigating the social economy actors in Romania. As an emerging field of study, social entrepreneurship and social enterprise have captured the attention of both practitioners from Europe and North America, and in recent years on other continents. In Romania, very little research has been conducted into the field, mostly as part of academic research papers from doctoral study students or masters, both from Romania and abroad. In Europe, several studies have been conducted among member state of the European Union, to bring to light this new emerging field.. Investigations in regard to social entrepreneurship in Europe have revealed the existence of this field among social economy actors, in the form of social enterprise, namely work integration social enterprises and social cooperatives. So far, Romania has not been included in them This papers tries to fill the gap of knowledge on this phenomena, by exploring, from a European perspective, the actors of social entrepreneurship in Romania. The methodology used was an analysis of secondary data in the form of legal documents (laws, reports of the social economy sector and scholarly articles related to social entrepreneurship in Romania. The assessment instrument is the EMES set of economic and social criteria that the social enterprises need to meet. Also, parallels have been made with the entities of the same nature in the European Union. The paper concludes on the state of social enterprise in Romania, with an underline on what its and implications for their further study. As main finding, two types of organizations fit best with the EMES criteria, authorized protected units and companies set up by associations and foundations. Also, further developments are expected as Romania is preparing for a law defining the social enterprise and social economy. The main implications of this research is drawing

  18. [Out-of-hours primary care in Germany: general practitioners' views on the current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhauser-Mannuß, J; Goetz, K; Scheuer, M; Szescenyi, J; Leutgeb, R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore views, experiences und perspectives of German GPs related to current out-of-hours service provision covering both urban and rural settings. In the context of the international project EurOOHnet (European Research Network for Out-of-Hours Primary Health Care) the German members (of EurOOHnet) developed a questionnaire about organisational structures, infrastructure requirements and the procedures of information flow between regular care and out-of-hours care in 2011. This questionnaire was adopted in every participating country. A comprehensive postal questionnaire was sent to 410 feneral practice cooperatives in Germany. Qualitative content analysis and an inductive reasoning process, supported by the use of Atlas.ti, were used to identify key themes from responses to open-ended questions in the survey. Results were grouped into 3 overarching categories and each of these were grouped into 3 sub-categories. The questionnaire response rate was 44% (181/410). The analysis identified organisational issues (e. g., financing) and infrastructure barriers (e. g., lack of motivated GPs for out-of-hours care) as key themes. Significantly, different priorities between rural and urban GPs were identified. In particular, rural GPs highlighted shortages of GPs and distance between the GP practice and patients' residence as concerning factors impacting on out-of-hours care. Based on reported views from survey respondents, urban and rural primary care service needs vary significantly and, therefore, different solutions are needed to improve out-of-hours primary care and optimise service quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The management of family agriculture in the municipality of Pinar del Río: a diagnosis of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamil Otero Hidalgo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Family agriculture is of great importance to food self-sufficiency of the productive families and a generating source of local development. In this sense, its points of link with cooperative movement and other forms of social and solidary economy such as associations, foundations and mutualities, are obvious. The work was carried out in the municipality of Pinar del Rio, in order to characterize the current situation of the management process of family agriculture and its contribution to food and nutrition security, based on the analysis of primary and secondary sources of information to assess the actual state of the object of study. In the research were applied theoretical and empirical methods, including some techniques as the questionnaire, applied to different levels of decision regarding the structure of urban, suburban and family agriculture program, and surveys to small family farmers whose production units classified as courtyards and plots. Finally, the information obtained using the technique of triangulation, allowed to establish the main positive and negative aspects related to the management of family agriculture and its contribution to the food and nutrition security in the municipality selected.

  20. Current situation of energy consumption and measures taken for energy saving in the iron and steel industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.C.; Fu, Z.X.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the key issues associated with the development in the Chinese iron and steel industry and current situations of energy consumption are described in this paper. The apparent production of crude steel in China expanded to 418.78 million tonnes in 2006, which was about 34% share of the world steel production. The iron and steel industry in China is still one of the major high energy consumption and high pollution industries, which accounts for the consumption of about 15.2% of the national total energy, and generation of 14% of the national total wastewater and waste gas and 6% of the total solid waste materials. The average energy consumption per unit of steel is about 20% higher than that of other advanced countries due to its low energy utilization efficiency. However, the energy efficiency of the iron and steel industry in China has made significant improvement in the past few years and significant energy savings will be achieved in the future by optimizing end-use energy utilization. Finally, some measures for the industry in terms of the economic policy of China's 11th five-year plan are also presented.

  1. Current Situation Survey of Garbage Management in rural areas of Heilongjiang province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper makes investigation to 120 administrative villages, count the the output, the distribution characteristics, the composition and the treatment model of the rural garbage at this stage. The research shows that the composition of the rural garbage is very complicated, the total annual output of rural garbage is 5 295 600 tonnes, and the daily output per capital of household garbage is 0.8925 kg. According to the situation of Heiliongjiang Province, this paper analyze the main problem during the garbage disposal, some control measures are presented, this reaesrch could provide basic data and research for the following treatment. The significant new findings of the research is that the rational governance path of garbage is that, first classification, second recycling and third harmless treatment.

  2. Current situation and consideration of training base hospitals for residents of neurosurgical specialization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-zeng JIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015

  3. [Investigation on current situation of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals of Nantong City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Sheng, Ding; Cai-Qun, Cao; Ping, Miao; Mei-Fang, Gu; Xiao-Bin, Cao

    2016-11-18

    To understand the quality of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals, so as to provide the evidence for continuing the malaria blood examinations in the stage of post-malaria elimination. A total of 64 township hospitals were investigated and 640 negative malaria blood slides were scored individually according to 10 indicators in "Malaria Elimination Technical Scheme" in 2013 and 2014. The single and multiple indicators were calculated, and the work of blood examinations and situation of technicians were investigated. The data of malaria blood examinations and patient discovery in township hospitals of Nantong City were collected and analyzed during the period of 2011-2014. For the single indicator, 29.5% of the thick blood films did not reach the standard, and 35.8% of thin blood films did not reach the standard. For the multiple indicators, blood slides with more than 4 indicators below the standard (poor quality) accounted for 32.5%. From malaria blood examinations and malaria situation, the number of slides was 194 635 during the period of 2011-2014, and there were no local vivax malaria casesin 4 consecutive years from 2011 to 2014, and local malaria has been effectively controlled in Nantong City. For health facilities where malaria patients initially presented, the township and village level accounted for 16.3%, and county and higher level accounted for 83.7%. The quality of malaria blood examinations in township level hospitals of Nantong City is not high and the microscopic examination has a relatively low efficiency in the discovery of malaria cases. A new model for malaria blood examinations needs to be further explored.

  4. [School escorts in inclusive education- the current situation in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Katharina; Thurn, Leonore; Besier, Tanja; Künster, Anne K; Fegert, Jörg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2014-11-01

    In the context of inclusive education, so-called «Schulbegleiter» (school escorts) have been installed to assist children with special needs. However, adequate conceptions of their role are lacking, and no provisions exist describing the exact tasks and duties of these school escorts. This article presents data on a statewide empirical study and provides information on the professional background, qualifications, and assignments of such escorts as well as the nature of the assisted children in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The data were collected in nearly 50 % of all schools providing general education in Baden-Württemberg, and a total of 526 school escorts completed a questionnaire on their work. Children with special needs who received such assistance were aged 6 to 19 years (M = 10.4) and had a mental disorder in nearly three-fourths of all cases, with autism spectrum disorders being most common (59.4 %). The most frequent assignments of the escorts were providing practical assistance during classes and mobilizing the child as well as providing direct support in emotionally challenging situations. Such escorts can make a significant contribution to the inclusive education of disabled children. They do, however, need an adequate qualification and practical competences to meet the diverse challenges of children with special needs. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are supposed to stay involved in the process, not only by planning interventions, but also during the course of inclusive education itself. Thus, the emotional situation and adjustment of included children with mental disorders over time must be monitored adequately.

  5. Bringing Mohamed to the Mountain: Situated Professional Development in a Ubiquitous Computing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Kratcoski, Annette; Mazzer, Pat; Schenker, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an ongoing situated professional development program in which teachers bring their intact classes for an extended stay in a ubiquitous computing environment equipped with a variety of state-of-the-art computing devices. The experience is unique in that it not only situates teacher learning about technology integration in…

  6. Investigation of the current situation of massive blood transfusion in different surgical departments: a large multicenter study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Jin, Zhan-Kui; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Dang, Qian-Li; Zhang, Li-Jie; Chen, Hong-Nan; Song, Yao-Jun; Yang, Jiang-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to learn about the current situation of surgical massive blood transfusion of different surgical departments in China’s Tertiary hospitals, which could provide the basis for the formulation of guidelines on massive blood transfusion. Method: A multicenter retrospective research on the application status of blood constituents during massive blood transfusion was conducted and a comparative analyses of survival and length of hospitalization in patients from different ...

  7. Significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Catrine; Lindberg, Magnus; Rissén, Dag

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to examine significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses. A second objective was to examine the associations between age, gender, length of employment, work engagement, work ability, self-rated health indicators and attractiveness of the current work situation. The attractiveness of work is rarely taken into account in research on nurse retention. To expand this knowledge, it is relevant to examine factors that make work attractive and their associations with related concepts. Correlational, cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Questionnaires were answered by 147 nurses in four operating departments in Sweden. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. The nurses rated the significance of all factors of work attractiveness higher than they rated those factors in their current work situation; salary, organisation and physical work environment had the largest differences. The most significant attractive factors were relationships, leadership and status. A statistically significant positive correlation between work engagement and attractive work was found. In the multiple regression model, the independent variables work engagement and older age significantly predicted work attractiveness. Several factors should be considered in the effort to increase work attractiveness in operating departments and thereby to encourage nurse retention. Positive aspects of work seem to unite work engagement and attractive work, while work ability and self-rated health indicators are other important dimensions in nurse retention. The great discrepancies between the significance of attractive factors and the current work situation in salary, organisation and physical work environment suggest ways in which work attractiveness may be increased. To discover exactly what needs to be improved may require a deeper look into the construct of the examined factors. © 2015 John

  8. [Current situation of pediatric emergency in tertiary and teaching hospitals in 15 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China Mainland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pre-hospital care, emergency department and critical care medicine are the key components of emergency medical service system. Two investigations about the pediatric critical care medicine in China mainland showed great progress. In recent years, most hospitals in China mainland have established emergency department, hardware configuration and staff status were gradually standardized. But most of the emergency departments mainly provide service to adult patients and pediatric emergency medicine lags behind. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the current situation and main problems of pediatric emergency in China mainland. A questionnaire developed by the Subspecialty Group of Pediatrics, Chinese Society of Emergency Medicine and the Subspecialty Group of Emergency Medicine, Chinese Society of Pediatrics was e-mailed to the members of the above-mentioned two subspecialty groups. The contents of the questionnaire included 46 items which were divided into 5 categories: the general situation of the hospital, the pediatric emergency setting and composition, key equipments and techniques, staff status, training program and running data from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-three questionnaires were delivered and 27 (42.9%) hospitals responded which located in 15 different provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Among the 27 hospitals, 10 (37.0%) had no pediatric resuscitation room; 25 (92.6%) had no equipments for cardiac output monitor and gastric lavage; 13 (48.1%) had no bedside fibrolaryngoscope or fiberbronchoscope; 5 (18.5%) had no blood gas analyzer; 4 (14.8%) without respirator, defibrillator, bedside radiography or ultrasonic equipment; 2 (7.4%) had no neonatal incubator; 9 (33.3%) could not do intraossous infusion. The average ratio of professional emergency pediatricians to all physicians was 43.5%. Twenty hospitals incompletely filled in the pediatric emergency running data. The main problems existing in pediatric emergency include: imperfect

  9. BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: Current Situation in a Resource-Limited Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooprasert, P; Rotjanapan, P

    Data on BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and treatment strategy in a resource-limited country are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiology of BKVAN and its situation in Thailand. A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult kidney transplant recipients at Ramathibodi Hospital from October 2011 to September 2016. Patients' demographic data, information on kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infections, and allograft outcomes were retrieved and analyzed. This study included 623 kidney transplant recipients. Only 327 patients (52.49%) received BK virus infection screening, and 176 of 327 patients had allograft dysfunction as a trigger for screening. BKVAN was identified in 39 of 327 patients (11.93%). Deceased donor transplantation and cytomegalovirus infection were associated with a higher risk of BKVAN (odds ratio = 2.2, P = .024, 95% confidence intervals [1.1, 4.43], and odds ratio = 2.6, P = .006, 95% confidence intervals [1.29, 5.26], respectively). BKVAN patients were at significantly higher risk for allograft rejection (P < .001) and allograft failure (P = .036). At the end of the study, 4 graft losses were documented (12.12%). BKVAN was associated with high rate of allograft rejection and failure. However, surveillance of its complications has been underperformed at our facility. Implementing a formal practice guideline may improve allograft outcome in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum: The current situation of two major canine heartworms in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Meireles, José; Schnyder, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís; Belo, Silvana; Deplazes, Peter; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2018-03-15

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes are life-threatening pet parasites increasingly reported throughout Europe, with overlapping endemic areas. Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne whilst Angiostrongylus vasorum is a snail-borne pathogen. Both adult nematodes reside in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic and wild canids, causing a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from cough, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance to severe vascular and pulmonary disease with hearth failure that may lead to death. Information about the prevalence and distribution of cardiopulmonary parasites is essential for the control of animal diseases and, in the case of D. immitis, for the control of potentially associated illnesses in humans. However, in Portugal, heartworm studies are limited to few surveys and case reports, possibly underestimating the relevance of these nematodes. The present work reviews the data on cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis and angiostrongylosis in dogs in Portugal, providing a comprehensive update of the epidemiological situation during the past 20 years. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of the development of the radiological situation resulting from the accident, intervention levels and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Kutkov, V.A.; Bariakhtar, V.G.; Petriaev, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    Great efforts have been made in the frame of the national and international research programs to get complete data on the radioactive releases, environmental contamination and radiological situation resulted from the Chernobyl accident. Beginning from the first publication (IAEA meeting, August 1986) these data have been considerably improved and added. The most important change of them with their influence on the decision making in the mitigation activity and the current situation is described and analyzed. The national and international regulatory documents at the moment of the accident were neither complete nor perfect in some necessary aspects especially in respect to the countermeasures at the intermediate and long-term phases. New documents have been worked out during the intervention activity. From 1986 series of documents were developed on the national and international levels. These documents are considered and analyzed in the context of their practical implementation and by the modern experience and research results. The history of countermeasures adopted on the different intervention phases are described. These documents mainly establish intervention levels in terms of averted doses and regulate only radiation protection. They don't content any intervention levels in terms of residual doses and risk, which are necessary for regulation of social and health protection of population suffered from the accident. Other restriction for the optimal regulation comes from use of the effective dose for establishing intervention levels. These and other respective aspects are discussed

  12. Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are important natural enemies of many pests in crop ecosystems throughout the world. Although several species are currently mass-reared and sold by biocontrol companies, there is an urgent need to reduce rearing costs. Cost effective mass rearing of...

  13. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  14. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  15. Courts of customary law in the post-soviet states: history and the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Васильєв

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting and relevance of the research topic. Research of courts of customary law is not a new trend in the domestic legal science. However, it should be noted that this issue was covered mainly in the historical and ethnographic aspect, and, as a rule, in relation to specific countries or peoples. Taking into account the fact that in some post-Soviet states the rules of the customary law have remained and take effect even under the current conditions, there is a need to study people’s judgment on the basis of historical experience, taking into account the fact that there is no special scientific research on this subject. Paper objective. On the basis of studying the courts of customary law that existed in the territory of the post-Soviet states, to reveal their diversity, special features and peculiarities of formation and to analyze the contemporary forms of the aforementioned courts. Paper main body. The courts of customary law existed in various nations and nationalities since ancient times. The identity of one or another traditional court depended on such facts as the territorial location of the community, the level of economic and cultural development, type of religion, etc. In this paper the organization of the traditional justice of post-Soviet states in the second half of the XIX century was studied, when the basic territorial boundaries of the Russian Empire were formed. It is within these boundaries the peoples lived, who subsequently became Soviet republics, and then independent states. The main characteristic features of traditional courts that existed in the territory of post-Soviet states have been emphasized (1 judicial procedure was not regulated in detail; (2 the rules of the customary law (adat rules were the basis of the justice; (3 members of the court were competent persons of the community; (4 the court was common for all members of the community; (5 disputes were resolved through reconciliation of the parties; (6

  16. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  17. [Current situation and surveillance on dengue fever in China, 2005 - 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xu, Zhen; Dou, Feng-Man; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yin, Wen-Wu; Li, Qun

    2009-08-01

    To provide scientific evidence for prevention and control program on dengue fever through analyzing the situation of dengue fever in China, from 2005 to 2007. Data was collected from Internet-based National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System, National Enhanced Dengue Fever Surveillance System and field investigation on dengue outbreaks, described and analyzed with descriptively and by SPSS statistical software. There was a total number of 1623 dengue cases (including 1356 laboratory confirmed cases and 267 probable cases) and 1 death case reported in China from 2005 to 2007. Among the identified cases, 151 were imported from foreign countries as the Southeast Asian countries, accounting for 9.3%, while the rest 1472 cases were reported from local infections, identified only in 9 cities from Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Data from the monitoring program on Aedes Mosquitoes indicated that: The indicators of BI from 84.6% of the sentinels were over 5, and BI from 72.2% of the sentinels were over 10. This index was especially at a higher level during summer in the southern areas of China. Aedes albopictus was found in all the sentinel sites while Aedes aegypti was only found in Hainan and in limited counties of Guangdong. No dengue virus was isolated from mosquito vectors collected from national sentinel sites, whereas positive results had been detected by PCR test in Guangdong province. It was assumed that a sustainable local circulation of dengue virus had not yet been established successfully in Mainland China according to the surveillance data. However, more local outbreaks reported in Guangdong and Fujian with the wide distribution and high-level density of aedes mosquito, low antibody level in healthy population and the increasing number of imported dengue cases, there is a potential of Dengue outbreaks in southern China. An integrated mosquito vector monitoring and management system is needed in high risk area to reduce the transmission of dengue

  18. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  19. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-01-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current “state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non‐electronic methods—a combination that is currently referred to as “blended” learning. PMID:17403945

  20. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-04-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current "state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non-electronic methods-a combination that is currently referred to as "blended" learning.

  1. [Current situation and reflection on the prevention and treatment of burns in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J P; Huang, Y S

    2017-09-20

    With ageing of the population, it is estimated that the percentage of old people aged above 65 years old will be approached to 30% in China by 2035. This presents a considerable challenge to geriatric burn treatment, as elderly burn patients have more serious injuries, longer hospital lengths of stay, and higher rates of complications and mortality. In this article, we analyze the current status of burns in the elderly in China and the factors contributing to the outcome of the elderly, and put forward therapeutic strategies so as to improve the level of prevention and treatment of burns in the elderly.

  2. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  3. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Situation and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Eduard; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Jassem, Jacek; Popescu, Razvan A; Mardiak, Jozef; Pirker, Robert; Čufer, Tanja; Bešlija, Semir; Eniu, Alexandru; Todorović, Vladimir; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Kurteva, Galia; Tomašević, Zorica; Sallaku, Agim; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Bajić, Žarko; Šikić, Branimir I

    2016-10-01

    : The incidence of many cancers is higher in Western European (WE) countries, but mortality is frequently higher in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. A panel of oncology leaders from CEE countries participating in the South Eastern European Research Oncology Group (SEEROG) was formed in 2015, aiming to analyze the current status and trends of oncology care in CEE and to propose recommendations leading to improved care and outcomes. The SEEROG panel, meeting during the 11th Central European Oncology Congress, proposed the following: (a) national cancer control plans (NCCPs) required in all CEE countries, defining priorities in cancer care, including finance allocation considering limited health care budgets; (b) national cancer registries, describing in detail epidemiological trends; (c) efforts to strengthen comprehensive cancer centers; (d) that multidisciplinary care should be mandated by the NCCPs; (e) that smaller hospitals should be connected to multidisciplinary tumor boards via the Internet, providing access to specialized expertise; (f) nationwide primary prevention programs targeting smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption and centrally evaluated secondary prevention programs for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancers; (g) prioritize education for all involved in cancer care, including oncology nurses, general practitioners, and palliative care providers; (h) establish outpatient care in day hospitals to reduce costs associated with the current inpatient model of care in CEE countries and to improve patients' quality of life; (i) long-term pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new therapies in CEE countries; (j) increase national oncology budgets in view of the higher mortality rates in CEE compared with WE countries; and (k) CEE countries urgently need help from the European Union to increase and monitor overall investment in cancer care. Significant differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed between European countries

  4. Fowl adenovirus-induced diseases and strategies for their control - a review on the current global situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Anna; Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Hess, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The stand-alone pathogenicity of fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) had long been disputed, given the ubiquity of the viruses versus sporadic outbreaks, and variation between experimental studies. However, a globally emerging trend of FAdV-associated diseases has marked the past two decades, with hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome mainly in Asia besides Arabian and Latin American countries, and geographically more disseminated outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis. Finally, the appearance of FAdV-induced gizzard erosion (AGE) in Asia and Europe completed the range of diseases. Epidemiological studies confirmed serotype FAdV-4 as agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, whereas inclusion body hepatitis is related to FAdV-2, -8a, -8b and -11. Members of the biologically more distant serotype FAdV-1 induce AGE. Urged by increasing problems in the field, numerous pathogenicity studies with FAdVs from outbreaks substantiated the primary aetiologic role of particular strains for distinct clinical conditions. Developments in the poultry industry towards highly specialized genetic breeds and rigorous biosecurity additionally contribute to the growing incidence of FAdV-related diseases. Confirming field observations, recent studies connected a higher susceptibility of broilers with their distinct physiology, implying the choice of bird type as a factor to be considered in infection studies. Furthermore, elevated biosecurity standards have generated immunologically naïve breeding stocks, putting broilers at risk in face of vertical FAdV transmission. Therefore, future prevention strategies should include adequate antibodies in breeders prior to production and - if necessary - vaccination, in order to protect progenies. This review aims to deliver a detailed overview on the current global situation about FAdV-induced diseases, their reproduction in vivo and vaccination strategies.

  5. Analysis of the current cost situation of wind power in Germany; Untersuchungen der aktuellen Kostensituation der Windenergienutzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Inst. Sucursal en Espana, Pamplona (Spain); Schwenk, B. [InnoVent GmbH, Varel (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Against the background of the discussion concerning the Reimbursement Act (StrEG) and the draft Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), the Bundesverband Windenergie e.V. (BWE) asked the Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (DEWI) to investigate the current cost situation of wind power in Germany. This involved a statistics of wind power generation cost over a period of 20 years. The data were obtained from wind power system operators, technical experts, producers of wind power systems and insurance companies. It was found that especially the cost of component replacement was higher than expected, so that long component life must be one of the main goals in the further development of wind power systems. According to the technical experts, component life today is much less than the rated life of 20 years. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund der Diskussion um das Stromeinspeisegesetz (StrEG) bzw. des Neuentwurfs zum Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) wurde das Deutsche Windenergie-Institut (DEWI) vom Bundesverband Windenergie e.V. (BWE) beauftragt, eine Studie ueber die aktuelle Kostensituation in Deutschland zu erarbeiten. Erstmals wurden hierbei Stromerzeugungskosten aus Windenergieanlagen (WEA) ueber einen Zeitraum von 20 Jahren ermittelt. Hierbei wurden Umfrageergebnisse von Betreibern von WEA, technischen Sachverstaendigen sowie von Herstellern von WEA und Versicherungsgesellschaften verwendet, um belastbare Aussagen ueber Betriebskosten und notwendige Ersatzinvestitionen zu erhalten. Insbesondere die Aussagen ueber notwendige Ersatzinvestitionen durch die technischen Sachverstaendigen waren hoeher als erwartet, so dass es in Zukunft Ziel sein muss, insbesondere bei der Weiterentwicklung von WEA auf wesentlich laengere Lebensdauern der Bauteilkomponenten von WEA zu draengen. Nach Aussage der technischen Sachverstaendigen liegen bisher die Lebensdauern wesentlicher Bauteile der WEA, wie Rotor, Bremssystem, Pitchregelung usw., weit unter der kalkulierten Lebensdauer von 20 Jahren

  6. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat, the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, World Food Programme (WFP and selected measures used by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU for the construction of the Global Food Security Index. It has been showed that to the greatest extent the problem of maintaining food security occur in developing countries which are characterised by low per capita income, while in developed countries the scale of hunger is marginal and it afflicts less than 1% of the population. On a regional scale the daily dietary energy supply is greater than the minimum dietary energy requirement in all regions of the world, but the extent to which the dietary needs are satisfied increases along with the increase in national income. In order to reduce the problem of hunger it is necessary to solve the problem of asymmetrical distribution of global income, e.g. by taking actions to accelerate the economic growth in less developed regions and increase the purchasing power of the population.

  7. [Current situation and thoughts on radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of thyroid cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Dong, W W

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was originally used primarily for the treatment of regional metastatic lymph nodes from recurrent thyroid cancers in the field of thyroid surgery. In recent years it is gradually used to treat a part of benign thyroid nodules. However, the domestic issues resulting from indiscriminately enlarged RFA indication and lack of standardization of therapy become more and more prominent, including initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers by RFA, which is against by the current consensus about RFA for patients with thyroid nodules and management guidelines for patients with thyroid cancers. Therefore, RFA should be avoided for initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers before the introduction of guidelines based on evidence-based medicine.

  8. Current situation of management of radioactive wastes in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, Priscila M.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Echternacht, Marcus V.

    2000-01-01

    As its own legal responsibility, Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN has received radioactive wastes generated in Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo states. But, from July 1997 to June 1999, IEN was not able to receive wastes because of the lack of space in the temporary repository. Recent studies show that increasing the treatment facilities could contribute to optimize the disposal of wastes. According to National Commission of Nuclear Energy resolutions, IEN was several times requested for discarding of lightning rods containing Am-241 and Ra-226. This fact motivated IEN to look for options to make possible the receiving of wastes until a new deposit were built. A temporary place was prepared and since last July it has been receiving wastes again. In this paper it is described the current structure of radioactive waste management at IEN, objectives and goals to be reached until December 2000. (author)

  9. Technical appraisal of the current situation in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Industrial activities are regarded as safe even though a small risk always exists. The philosophy of radiation protection accepts this and recognises that some level of risk will also be associated with safe radioactive waste management. Therefore the objective of radioactive waste management is to look for a strategy which, taken as a whole, is considered safe and provides an acceptable balance of all the radiological, technical, social, political and economic considerations. The RWMC's appraisal underlines the need for such a balance while concentrating on radiological and technical factors, particularly on the long term safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The fundamental conclusion is that detailed short and long term safety assessments can now be made which give confidence that radiation protection objectives can be met with currently available technology for most waste types, and at a cost which is only a small fraction of the overall cost of nuclear-generated power

  10. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined.

  11. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality...

  12. Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education--Trends and Current Situation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Gerhard; Grafe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as…

  13. [Voluntary and non-remunerated blood donation; current situation and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsellier, M

    2017-09-01

    The voluntary and unpaid blood donation is recommended by all international authorities (WHO, Council of Europe, ISBT, EBA), because it represents the best way of aiming towards self-sufficiency in blood products of all kinds, while preserving an optimal level of quality and safety for recipients as for donors. Still infrequent in many developing countries it tends to develop. However, the objective assigned by the WHO to reach 100% of unpaid and voluntary blood donations in 2020 appears ambitious, in particular for the collection of plasma intended to the splitting industry. The close evaluation of European directives concerning the donation of human body elements should allow harmonization of practices by Member States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Current situation and countermeasures of the defense technology industry intellectual property management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fei

    2014-01-01

    In Defense technology industry is a strategic industry of our country, is an important foundation for China to achieve modernization of national defense, is also important driving force of our national economy. Intellectual property plays a very important role in the defense industry ' strengthen the basis of capacity, combining military and civilian, leapfrog development' strategy. Defense-related science, technology and industry advanced nature of intellectual property management and its ownership is a direct reflection of the capability of independent innovation and sustainable development of the defense industry. Therefore, how to make the effective protection and management of intellectual property rights in the Defense Industry has also become a new issue that we face. In this paper, by analyzing the status of the defense technology industry intellectual property management, at home and abroad, and other industry advanced experience in intellectual property management, put forward recommendations to strengthen our national defense science and technology industry intellectual property management. (author)

  15. [Occlusion: current situation and prospect in view of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M Q; Liu, X D

    2017-08-09

    The rise of holistic integrative medicine (HIM) is an inevitable consequence of modern medical development which emphasizes the change from specialization to integration of the most advanced medical knowledge. It does not mean a simple collection of the medical theories, but means the digestion of those theories for the clinical practical application. Because occlusal therapy is characterized as not only a high level of individualization, but also a relation to many stomatology and other disciplines, such as plastic surgery, orthopedics, neurosciences and psychology. It needs the HIM to guide the clinical practice. With undertaking occlusal therapy, to avoid the limitation due to the excessive specialized disciplines, and to provide effective treatment plans for abnormal occlusion induced diseases, it is necessary to develop the discipline of the holistic integrative stomatology.

  16. A study on the current situation and trend of college students’ love in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the incorrect love mentality of contemporary college students in China, the author not only elaborates measures of guiding students to form a healthy view of love in different aspects, such as strengthening college students’ sexual health education, carrying out campus cultural activities, enriching campus life, reinforcing the construction of school rules and disciplines, restraining and managing students’ behaviors, etc., but also analyzes the development trend of college students’ view of love in China.

  17. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-08-28

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia.

  18. [Current situation of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Peng, Li

    2018-01-10

    To understand the current status of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province, so as to provide the reference for promoting the integrative ability of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in Henan Province. The questionnaires were designed and the method of census was adopted. The information, such as the amounts, majors, education background, technical titles, working years, and turnover in each parasitic disease control and prevention organization was collected by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) at all levels. The data were descriptively analyzed. Totally 179 CDCs were investigated, in which only 19.0% (34/179) had the independent parasitic diseases control institution (department) . There were only 258 full-time staffs working on parasitic disease control and prevention in the whole province, in which only 61.9% (159/258) were health professionals. Those with junior college degree or below in the health professionals accounted for 60.3% (96/159) . Most of them (42.1%) had over 20 years of experience, but 57.9% (92/159) of their technical post titles were at primary level or below. The proportion of the health professionals is low in the parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province. The human resource construction for parasitic disease control and prevention at all levels should be strengthened.

  19. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  20. New tools, technology and techniques applied in geological sciences: current situation and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Technological tools and work methodologies most used in the area of geological sciences are reviewed and described. The various electronic devices such as laptops, palmtops or PDA (personal digital assistant), tablets and smartphones have allowed to take field geological data and store them efficiently. Tablets and smartphones have been convenient for data collection of scientific data by the diversity of sensors that present, portability, autonomy and the possibility to install specific applications. High precision GPS in conjunction with LIDAR technology and sonar technology have been more accessible and used for geological research, generating high resolution three-dimensional models to complement geological studies. Remote sensing techniques such as high penetration radar are used to perform models of the ice thickness and topography in Antarctic. Modern three-dimensional scanning and printing techniques are used in geological science research and teaching. Currently, the advance in the computer technology has allowed to handle three-dimensional models on personal computers efficiently way and with different display options. Some, of the new areas of geology, emerged recently, are mentioned to generate a broad panorama toward where can direct geological researches in the next years [es

  1. Current Issues and Situation of Producer Responsibility in Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Priyo Nugroho Sulami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Producer responsibility for wastes has been encouraged in Indonesia since 2008. The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia also promoted the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R concept using the community-based approach of waste banks integrated with the extended producer responsibility (EPR concept. However, related research and implementation are still limited. This study aims to identify the challenges of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management and determine whether the integration concept could generate outcomes expected from the EPR concept. A semi-structured interview survey of several stakeholders from the government, industrial, and waste management sectors was conducted and the data generated was used to simulate an integration scheme using a system dynamics approach. Secondary data and information from Bandung municipality were used as input for the simulation. The interview survey found that the concerns and issues of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management include lack of awareness, unavailability of clear guidelines, and the limited capacity of the current recycling sector. The results of the simulation suggested that if the integration scheme is applied, each business entity might bear the responsibility of IDR 29.4 million per year and 14.7 tons of waste per year for the scope of four sectors and IDR 34.1 million per year and 17 tons of waste per year for the scope of two sectors.

  2. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  3. Psychotherapy in psychiatry: the current situation and future directions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review how psychotherapy is dispensed to patients in psychiatric treatment and to render the future perspectives of psychotherapy in psychiatric outpatient and inpatient care in Germany. We demonstrate that--according to the currently available data about healthcare providers, allocation of financial resources and curricular regulations--the presently used definition of the term "psychotherapy" is ambiguous. One major problem for the application of psychotherapy in psychiatry is obviously constituted by the dominance of the major guideline therapies ("Richtlinienverfahren") within psychiatric services. Here, guideline therapies do not meet the needs of a significant proportion of acutely, severely and/or chronically ill psychiatric patients and restrain the application of scientifically approved, disorder-oriented and context compliant interventions in psychiatric practice. As a future perspective, we suggest that the training of psychiatrists should impart profound interpersonal skills and provide the competence to offer psychotherapy within a multimodal, modular, and flexible treatment plan on the background of the self-conception of psychiatry as a medical discipline. Moreover, future concepts of psychiatric psychotherapy should promote an evidence-based selection and application of scientifically approved, disorder-oriented, and integrative treatment methods, which are available in growing number.

  4. General Technical Approvals for Decentralised Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS—The Current Situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Dierkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of decentralised, sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS for the treatment of stormwater runoff is becoming increasingly prevalent in Germany. Decentralised SUDS can offer a viable and attractive alternative to end of pipe treatment systems for stormwater runoff from urban areas. However, there is still some uncertainty regarding the long-term performance of SUDS, and the general legislative requirements for SUDS approval and testing. Whilst the allowable pollution levels in stormwater runoff that infiltrate into ground and/or water table are regulated across Germany by the Federal Soil Protection Law, there is presently no federal law addressing the discharge requirements for surface water runoff. The lack of clear guidance can make it difficult for planners and designers to implement these innovative and sustainable stormwater treatment systems. This study clarifies the current understanding of urban stormwater treatment requirements and new technical approval guidelines for decentralised SUDS devices in Germany. The study findings should assist researchers, designers and asset managers to better anticipate and understand the performance, effective life-spans, and the planning and maintenance requirements for decentralised SUDS systems. This should help promote even greater use of these systems in the future.

  5. Communicative Interaction among Local Editorial Staff Members: Current Situation and the Ways of its Improving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Korotitskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication between management and employees is very important in organizations. However, communication problems might be more felt in any media organization as a whole and in the local media staff in particular. It’s obvious that news workers have everyday communicative interaction with different newsmakers. The article deals with the study and analysis of the communicative interaction between the local editorial creative staff members. Internal and external organizational understanding data are considered. It is determined that the level of organizational communication development influences the local editorial success and employees’ performance. Mutual understanding as the basic criterion of effective communication has several forms. The subject of our study is organizational understanding, that is, a special type of editorial staff relationship which is limited by the boundaries of the organization and is essential for its successful functioning and development. The analysis of empirical data allowed to identify the main problematic aspects and to work out the recommendations for vertical and horizontal communication development.

  6. Current situation of the project finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznan, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the contribution there is the basic information mentioned about history of building and the current situation at the finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce with the use of project digitization. Further on the contribution shows what kinds of supporting material has been elaborated, what kind of decisions have been issued to the finishing of the building, way of financing and also the assumption of investment return under the defined conditions. An orientation time schedule of the finishing of the building and the crucial steps for its security are presented in the conclusion

  7. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nutrition situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: current scenario, past trends, and data gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Galicia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance. Methods A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries’ nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1 analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2 identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies. Information on iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency was also collected and collated. Results Twenty-two of the 46 LAC countries/territories (48% had information on undernutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting in children under 5 years old and women of reproductive age (WRA. Seventeen countries (38% had information on anemia in children under 5 years old and WRA, and 12 (27% had information on anemia in pregnant women. Although overall nutritional status has improved in the past few decades in all countries in the region, some LAC countries still had a high prevalence of stunting and anemia in children and WRA. Overweight affected at least 50% of WRA in nine countries with available data, and was increasing in children. Data for school-age children, adolescents, adult males, and older adults were scarce in the region. Conclusions Overall nutritional status has improved in the LAC countries with available information, but more efforts are needed to scale up nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions to tackle malnutrition in all its forms, as stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency are still a public health problem in many countries, and overweight is an epidemic. Nutrition information systems are weak in the

  9. [Current situations and problem analysis of influencing factors of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on forming quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. REALIZATION OF INFORMED CONSENT AS ONE OF PATIENT'S RIGHTS: CURRENT SITUATION IN AZERBAIJAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustamova, F A; Mammadov, V G; Munir, K M

    Azerbaijan is a country in which the law is based on democratic principles. The mentioned principles underlie the national health care law. Democratic values, such as respect for human rights and freedoms, human dignity, as well as universal bioethical principles that are widely implemented in the national law, create conditions for the implementation of the patient's rights. The basic law governing the doctor-patient relationship, Law on Protection of Health of Population in Azerbaijan, reflects the basic patients' rights and obligations of doctors and medical institutions. Informed consent, which is a key component of patient rights, is also reflected, however, to date, a significant drawback of the Azerbaijan medical legislation is described in the article in this field. For example, at the moment there is no single standardized informed consent form in the country's different medical institutions. Due to the absence of any legally approved standards for informed consent forms, public and private health care institutions individually develop such forms, which sometimes can differ significantly. At the moment, one of the important directions in the field of healthcare is its improvement in accordance with international standards. The research made it possible to make conclusions about the necessary measures to improve and unify the informed consent form. The authors also analyzed the main provisions of the medical law of Azerbaijan and identified the main trends of its further development.

  11. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened. Only one nation, Russia, has announced a policy permitting the import of radioactive wastes from other countries, but Russia's policy is not to import the wastes for deep disposal, but for chemical reprocessing. Various nations have made very different choices as to the schedule for proceeding with a repository. The rationales for each national choice differ significantly. The decision, different from country to country, comes down to balancing various seemingly conflicting values, including (a) whether the technology for deep disposal is judged to be mature enough; (b) whether surface storage during a lengthy delay is judged adequately safe against accidents and adequately secure against terrorists; (c) whether technologies for separating some of the waste constituents for re-use or recycle into reactors, or technologies for transmuting some waste constituents, are sufficiently promising to merit delaying until those technologies are more mature; (d) issues of the cost of disposal and who should bear that cost; (e) issues related to disposal of wastes from nuclear weapons programs, as distinct from wastes from reactor operations; and (f) issues about the linkage between disposal and the future of nuclear power. Finally, the decision to proceed with a repository often is governed by whether the government has the political will or ability to proceed, taking account of public opinion

  12. ABSTRACT——Current Situation and Future Direction of Marxism Popularity Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, academic circles has made important progress in the following studies on the basic connotation of Marxist popularity, the relations between popularity of Marxism and sinicization, the relations between popularity of Marxism and epochal character, the realizing method of popularity of Marxism. Next, study on popularization of Marxism has to make efforts in the following two aspects: the relationship between the popularity of Marxism and socialist theory system with Chinese characteris- tics, and integration of the popularity of Marxism and the ideological and political education. Meanwhile the efforts should be made to deepen the study of Marxism popularity through the process of sinicization of Marxism, to study Marxism popularity from the viewpoint of the three dimensional perspective of the development of Marxism, also to strengthen the research of basic princi- ples of Marxism popularity and deepen the studies of basic forms of Marxism popularity, thus to build a study system of Marxism popularity.

  13. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  14. Report on the current situation and the perspectives for nuclear equipment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietti, A.; Hubert, G.; Frant, G.

    1994-01-01

    1993 was the year the 1300 MW series was completed as the twentieth GOLFECH 2 unit came on line. The 1400 MW-N4 series has progressed as planned: the first CHOOZ B unit is due to be connected to the grid in the Winter of 95/96. The fourth unit of the series, CIVAUX 2 was engaged in 1993. As for the FNR system, 1994 should be the year when the CREYS-MALVILLE power plant project, which will play a vital role in gathering industrial experience on this system, is restarted. In spite of the present weak development forecasts, nuclear power has strong prospects over the next fifty years. Therefore, EDF is working on several projects with the object of reinforcing safety and maintaining economic competitiveness, while, at the same time, taking into account the results of the research carried out into different systems and industrial criteria. (authors). 5 figs

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors (MMPIs from Marine Natural Products: the Current Situation and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of more than twenty five secreted and membrane-bound zinc-endopeptidases which can degrade extracellular matrix (ECM components. They also play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs have been identified as potential therapeutic candidates for metastasis, arthritis, chronic inflammation and wrinkle formation. Up to present, more than 20,000 new compounds have been isolated from marine organisms, where considerable numbers of these naturally occurring derivatives are developed as potential candidates for pharmaceutical application. Eventhough the quantity of marine derived MMPIs is less when compare with the MMPIs derived from terrestrial materials, huge potential for bioactivity of these marine derived MMPIs has lead to large number of researches. Saccharoids, flavonoids and polyphones, fatty acids are the most important groups of MMPIs derived from marine natural products. In this review we focus on the progress of MMPIs from marine natural products.

  16. Exploring a Model of Situated Professional Development: Impact on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan; Lotter, Christine; Feller, Robert; Gates, Harry

    2011-04-01

    A hallmark of current science education reform involves teaching through inquiry. However, the widespread use of inquiry-based instruction in many classrooms has not occurred (Roehrig and Luft in Int J Sci Educ 26:3-24, 2004; Schneider et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42:283-312, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a professional development program on middle school science teachers' ability to enact inquiry-based pedagogical practices. Data were generated through evaluation of teacher practice using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawada et al. in School Sci Math 102:245-253, 2002) at three distinct junctures, before, during, and after the professional development treatment. Analysis of teacher-participant post-institute reflections was then utilized to determine the perceived role of the various institute components. Statistical significant changes in RTOP scores indicated that the teachers were able to successfully transfer the enactment of the inquiry-based practices into their classrooms. The subsequent discussion provides connection between these pedagogical changes with use of professional development strategies that provide a situated learning environment.

  17. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Pattaya; Napasirth, Viengsakoun

    2018-05-24

    Lao-native beef cattle are primarily Bos indicus, and most ruminant production in Laos is still dominated by small-scale or backyard producers that use traditional practices, resulting in low productivity. The cattle herd size in Laos has grown by an average of 5 percent per year from 1.52 million in 2010/11 to 1.81 million in 2014/15. In 2016, the Laos cattle population was 1.88 million head, with smallholder farmers representing 98% of production despite efforts by the Laos government to develop commercial-scale farms. There were 170 commercial cattle farms in 2016, with 56 percent in the Central region of Laos. Although, overall, ruminant meat production has tended to increase with consumption of 7.29 kg/capita/year in 2013, it remains insufficient to meet demand. Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products used in ruminant diets include rice straw, cassava pulp and wet brewers' grains as roughage, energy and protein sources, respectively. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) proposed by China in 2013 will connect China closely with all countries in Southeast Asia. This initiative will change landlocked Laos to land linked for investors who will benefit from convenient transport at a lower cost, promoting agricultural production in Laos.

  18. Current economic situation and estimated future trends of the electricity generation options in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvoye, J.

    1996-01-01

    In Belgium, the electrical engineers have to periodically establish, for the government, a national equipment plan which justifies the provided investments for a period of 10 years after the publication of the plan. The elaborated development is appreciated by four criteria: the environmental impact, the park workableness, its economic robustness and the production saving. In order to estimate this last criteria, the method used is called of the 'leveled discounted electricity generation costs'. It is recommended and used by international agencies such as the IAEA, OECD, UNIPE. The comparisons between the nuclear production cost, carried out during two successive equipment plans (1988 and 1994), show the evolution of technologies, costs and forecasts of these last ten years. In particular, the last valuation has to take into account uncertainty ranges of which the importance prevents to draw a definitive conclusion about the production mean which will be the most inexpensive in the future: competition is open between the different types of factories and fuels. The recent national equipment plan (1995-2005) proposes to cover 53% of the additional needs by gas combined-cycle power plants, 29% by coal combined-cycle power plants and 18% by the Belgian interest in French B. Chooz nuclear powered plants. The nuclear choice is open for the future. (O.M.)

  19. Review of Singapore's air quality and greenhouse gas emissions: current situation and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Roth, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Singapore has many environmental accomplishments to its credit. Accessible data on air quality indicates that all criteria pollutants satisfy both U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) air quality standards and guidelines, respectively. The exception is PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter pollutant in Singapore but may potentially be the major local air pollution problem and cause for health concern. Levels of other airborne pollutants as well as their physical and chemical processes associated with local formation, transformation, dispersion, and deposition are not known. According to available emission inventories, Singapore contribution to the total atmospheric pollution and carbon budget at the regional and global scales is small. Emissions per unit gross domestic product (GDP) are low compared with other countries, although Singapore's per-capita GDP and per-capita emissions are among the highest in the world. Some information is available on health effects, but the impacts on the ecosystem and the complex interactions of air pollution and climate change at a regional level are also unknown. This article reviews existing available information on atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and proposes a multipollutant approach to greenhouse gas mitigation and local air quality. Singapore, by reducing its per-capita emissions, increasing the availability of information (e.g., through regularly publishing hourly and/or daily PM2.5 concentrations) and developing a research agenda in this area, would likely be seen to be a model of a high-density, livable, and sustainable city in Southeast Asia and other tropical regions worldwide.

  20. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  1. [Survey on the current situation of the young neurologists in Spain: analysis of their current working stability and degree of social protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, J F; Cisteré, V; Bonaventura, I; Coll-Cantí, J; Luquin, M R; Martínez-Vila, E

    2006-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the working stability and degree of social protection of the Spanish young neurologists, and to know their opinion about their own situation. The 343 neurologists that became specialists in Spain between 2000 and 2004 were asked to participate in two consecutive surveys. The first, conducted online, included questions about the availability to change the place of work and the opinion about the situation of young neurologists, and obtained 66 answers. The second was a telephonic and online survey, answered by 217 neurologists, whose questions referred to: places of neurological education and work, type of working contract, and degree of social protection (estimated by the percentage of worked time during which they paid Social Security contributions). Sixty-three per cent (136/217) of the Spanish young neurologists had an unstable job. The most frequent unstable working contracts were: eventual (n=65; 31%), on-call contracts (n=54; 25%) and grants (n=53; 24%). Forty-eight per cent of the neurologists who ended their specialization in 2000 still remained working-unstable. The mean percentage of worked time with full social protection was 71.01+/-36.74%. Less than a half (n=101; 46%) had social protection during the entire worked time, 60 (28.6%) were socially protected during protection. A direct relationship was observed 68 between working instability and lower social protection (p=0.0002). The working situation of the Spanish young neurologists was seen as problematic by 97% of the 66 participants in the first survey. The current situation of the Spanish young neurologists, attending their working stability and degree of social protection, seems precarious and problematic. Urgent actions should be taken by the Administration to improve it.

  2. Situation and problematic of energy in China: nuclear power development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavardes, D.

    2004-09-01

    The author first comments the Chinese GDP growth and electricity production increase, which raise the question of energy security and electricity shortage for this country. He comments the evolution of the primary energy assessment in China since 1996, and more precisely the evolutions of coal production and consumption, oil consumption (China is the second world consumer), gas consumption (the objective is to reach 7 % in 2010 and 10 % in 2020, and gas has to be imported). The author comments the evolution of the electric power sector in terms of production (thermal energy and hydraulic energy as sources, consumption evolution, and production stock), of capacity, of predictions for the next three years, and of implemented policies. He discusses the introduction and development of the electronuclear sector (objective of 36 GW in 2020, i.e. 4 % of the total installed power). The author then comments the development of the Chinese electronuclear program since its first steps in 1955 with the cooperation agreement with the USSR, the launching of a civilian program and the building of the first power plant, the French-Chinese cooperation which resulted in the construction of several plants. It outlines the initial dispersion of technologies and the focussing on pressurized water reactors. The author finally describes the current situation and the re-launching of a more-standardized nuclear program

  3. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  4. Association of current work and sleep situations with excessive daytime sleepiness and medical incidents among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the current work and sleep situations of physicians in Japan and to clarify the association between these situations and excessive daytime sleepiness as well as medical incidents. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Medical Association in 2008. The randomly selected subjects comprised 3,000 male physicians and 1,500 female physicians. Valid responses were obtained from 3,486 physicians (2,298 men and 1,188 women). Mean sleep duration was 6 h 36 min for men and 6 h 8 min for women. The prevalence of lack of rest due to sleep deprivation was 30.4% among men and 36.6% among women; the prevalence of insomnia was 21.0% and 18.1%, respectively; and the prevalence of EDS was 3.5%. The adjusted odds ratio for EDS was high for physicians who reported short sleep duration, lack of rest due to sleep deprivation, and a high frequency of on-call/overnight work. Physicians who had experienced a medical incident within the previous one month accounted for 19.0% of participants. The adjusted odds ratio for medical incidents was high for those subjected to long working hours, high frequency of on-call/overnight works, lack of rest due to sleep deprivation, and insomnia. In order to facilitate optimal health management for physicians as well as securing medical safety, it is important to fully consider the work and sleep situations of physicians.

  5. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  6. Development of high current electron beam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook [and others

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs.

  7. Development of high current electron beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs

  8. Mansonella ozzardi and its vectors in the New World: an update with emphasis on the current situation in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P

    2017-10-25

    Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. Studies conducted in Haiti between 1974 and 1984 allowed the first complete description of the adult worm and permitted clarification of the taxonomic position of this filarial species. This paper reports the known geographical distribution of M. ozzardi in Neotropical regions of the Americas, and focuses on the current situation in Haiti where this filariasis remains a completely neglected public health problem.

  9. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sandoval-Comte

    Full Text Available Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  10. Large-scale integration of renewable and distributed generation of electricity in Spain: Current situation and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossent, Rafael; Gómez, Tomás; Olmos, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other European countries, mechanisms for the promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RESs) and combined heat and power (CHP) production have caused a significant growth in distributed generation (DG) in Spain. Low DG/RES penetration levels do not have a major impact on electricity systems. However, several problems arise as DG shares increase. Smarter distribution grids are deemed necessary to facilitate DG/RES integration. This involves modifying the way distribution networks are currently planned and operated. Furthermore, DG and demand should also adopt a more active role. This paper reviews the current situation of DG/RES in Spain including penetration rates, support payments for DG/RES, level of market integration, economic regulation of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), smart metering implementation, grid operation and planning, and incentives for DSO innovation. This paper identifies several improvements that could be made to the treatment of DG/RES. Key aspects of an efficient DG/RES integration are identified and several regulatory changes specific to the Spanish situation are recommended. - Highlights: ► Substantial DG/RES penetration levels are foreseen for the coming years in Spain. ► Integrating such amount of DG/RES in electricity markets and networks is challenging. ► We review key regulatory aspects that may affect DG/RES integration in Spain. ► Several recommendations aimed at easing DG/RES integration in Spain are provided. ► Market integration and the transition towards smarter grids are deemed key issues.

  11. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Comte, Adriana; Pineda, Eduardo; Aguilar-López, José L

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  12. Development of a high current ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Wan; Jin, Jeong Tae

    1990-01-01

    A high current ion implanter of the energy of 100 Kev and the current of about 100 mA has been developed for using the high dose ion implantation, surface modification of steels and ceramics, and ion beam milling. The characteristics of the beam extraction and transportation are investigated. A duoPIGatron ion source compatible with gas ion extraction of about 100 mA, a single gap acceleration tube which is able to compensate the divergence due to the space charge effect, and a beam transport system with the concept of the space charge neutralization are developed for the high current machine. The performance of the constructed machine shows that nitrogen, argon, helium, hydrogen and oxygen ion beams are successfully extracted and transported at a beam divergence due to space charge effect is negligible in the operation pressure of 2 x 10 -5 torr. (author)

  13. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  14. Success Avoidant Motivation and Behavior; Its Development Correlates and Situational Determinants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    This paper reports on a successful attempt to understand success avoidant motivation and behavior by the development of an empirically sophisticated scoring system of success avoidant motivation and the observation of its behavioral correlates and situational determinants. Like most of the work on achievement motivation, the study was carried out…

  15. Current status of ion source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the current status of ion source development will be discussed. In September 2001, the 9th International Conference on Ion Sources (ICIS01) was held in Oakland, U.S.A. Referring the talks presented at ICIS01, recent topics in the ion source research fields will be described. (author)

  16. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  17. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  18. Presynaptic miniature GABAergic currents in developing interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2010-04-29

    Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  20. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1995-11-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H{sup -}-sources each delivering a 70 mA H{sup -}-beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs.

  1. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H - -sources each delivering a 70 mA H - -beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs

  2. Agency in Professional Self-Determination of Adolescentswith Special Social Situations of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron I.S.,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of agency in professional identity formation as a conscious, independent, active, responsible, professional choice relevant in modern society. Psychological readiness for agency is considered its integral indicator which includes cognitive, activity, motivational, and personality components. The paper presents outcomes of a research on the specifics of psychological readiness to professional self-determination in adolescents with special social situations of development. This research involved 211 adolescents including orphans, teenagers with deviant behavior, and gifted teenagers. A set of techniques used in the research consisted of five standard techniques and a questionnaire developed by the author. The obtained results revealed that there is a lack of readiness for professional self-determination in all adolescent groups: orphans and teenagers with deviant behaviors showed insufficient rates for all four components of readiness, while gifted adolescents showed low rates for activity and personal components. The results of this research may help develop differentiated, person-centered technologies for promoting agency in professional self-determination of adolescents with special social situations of development. The author links the prospects of further investigations with the study of positive characteristics of psychological readiness of young people with special social situations of development to professional self-determination; these characteristics can serve as a compensatory and developmental potential of agency in professional self-determination in the context of specific social contexts and limited agency-based resources of professional self-determination.

  3. Development of a standard communication protocol for an emergency situation management in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol, E-mail: charleskim@kaeri.re.k [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hanjeom; Kim, Yoon Joong [YGN Nuclear Power Division Training Center, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, 517 Kyemari, Hongnong-eup, Yeongkwang-gun, Chonnam 513-880 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Correct communication between main control room (MCR) operators is an important factor in the management of emergency situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, a standard communication protocol for the management of emergency situations in NPPs has been developed, with the basic direction of enhancing the safety of NPPs and the standardization of communication protocols. To validate the newly developed standard communication protocol, validation experiments with 10 licensed NPP MCR operator teams was performed. From the validation experiments, it was found that the use of the standard communication protocol required more time, but it can contribute to the enhancement of the safety of NPPs by an operators' better grasp of the safety-related parameters and a more efficient and clearer communication between NPP operators, while imposing little additional workloads on the NPP MCR operators. The standard communication protocol is expected to be used to train existing NPP MCR operators without much aversion, as well as new operators.

  4. Current developments in DICOM and IHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildenberger, P.; Wein, B.; Bursig, H.-P.; Eichelberg, M.

    2005-01-01

    The broadening use of imaging management systems in radiology and other disciplines is due in large part to the success of the DICOM standard (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine), which has been accepted worldwide for more than 10 years and meanwhile represents one of the most successful standards in medicine. The central intent of establishing the initiative ''Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise'' (IHE) was to ensure interoperability of different IT systems in medical processes. IHE is essentially based on widespread standards such as DICOM or HL7. This overview article briefly addresses the principles and organization of DICOM and IHE and describes the current developments in both domains. (orig.) [de

  5. The current state of industry development in Ukraine: advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Maryna Valeriyivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the industry of Ukraine are considered at the article. The author determined that the stabilization of the situation and further development of the industry need first of all cessation of hostilities. It is necessary to implement effective measures to combat corruption, the development of consistent, constructive and concerted action on the formation of institutions guaranteeing stability, predictability and transparency of the market rules and procedures that minimize the impact of shadow factors, and implementation of professional privatization and limitation of monopoly at the markets, forming a transparent, competitive business environment, the introduction of new energy saving technologies. These measures will help attract investment, increase production and improve enterprise profitability.

  6. Situation of bio-methane in France and lines of thought for the sector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, Christophe; Clodic, Simon; Fritz, Dominique; Lannou, Gregory; Lesteven, Sandra; Lubet, Thomas; Lupion, Julien; Schmit, Julien; Simon, Thibault; Touati, Julien

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes an overview of the bio-methane market which is, in France, a dynamic sector with a strong growth potential, and of technologies which are an opportunity for the development of an innovating and value-creating French technological offer. It also sheds a light on the sector economy with support mechanisms adapted to the present situation, and with efficient economic levers for tomorrow, and on its financing for which opportunities are to be seized by actors able to integrate all the peculiarities of this sector. For each of these issues (market, technologies, economy, and financing), the authors propose a description of the present situation, an overview of challenges and opportunities, and a set of recommendations

  7. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category......This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...

  8. The Current Situation of Knowledge Economy at Yemeni Universities from Academic Staff Perspectives: A field Study at Sana'a University and University of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood A. H. M. Al-Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the current situation of the knowledge economy in the Yemeni universities (Public and private from the point of view of their faculty members. A further investigation into the possible significant differences between faculty members’ views regarding the knowledge economy in both Yemeni public and private universities was also attempted. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers used the descriptive approach, and designed a questionnaire as the research tool which consisted of four main dimensions: research, development, innovation, education and training, ICT infrastructure, and governance. The validity and reliability of the tool were statistically checked, and data was analyzed using SPSS program. The study revealed the following results: -        The current knowledge economy at Sana’a University was rated as very low by the faculty members.-        The current knowledge economy at the University of Science and Technology was rated by the academic staff as medium.-        There were statistically significant differences between the opinions of the members of the research sample in favor of the University of Science and Technology. A number of recommendations and suggested areas for further research were proposed. Keywords: Knowledge economy, Research, Development, Innovation, Education and training, ICT infrastructure, Governance.

  9. The long-term supply/demand trend of world energy and the current oil situation in the Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    1996-01-01

    Total world primary energy consumption excluding the FSU increased by 2.9% in 1995, which is somewhat above the 10 year average rate of 2.4%. This reflected strong economic growth in most parts of the world. The increase in demand confirmed the recovery of the link between the economic growth and consumption of primary energy, which broke down in the period of oil crises. Oil demand in the Asian Emerging Market Economies has continued to be very strong. Oil demand has doubled in a decade in this region and is now one sixth of world consumption. Malaysia was the fastest growing oil market in the world in 1995 at 15.5%. In volume terms, S. Korea grew the most in the world by 170,000 b/d, closely followed by China and India. Because of the fast growing oil demand, many energy economists expect a tight supply situation in the Asian oil market in the early 21st Century. However, recent technological developments would be able to supply crude oil appropriate for an increase in oil demand. (author)

  10. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  11. Taiwanese adolescent cognitive autonomy and identity development: the relationship of situational and agential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E

    2012-01-01

    Taiwanese professionals have adopted information about adolescent psychosocial development from Western societies. However, scholars know little about whether they have properly applied the models to both rural and urban youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of cognitive autonomy and ego identity in Taiwanese adolescents from Taipei City and surrounding rural counties. We controlled for gender and examined both situational (residential location, family income, and school type) and agential factors (culture value affiliation, attachment, and resiliency) to determine the extent to which each predicted psychosocial developmental outcomes. Among all the factors in this study, resiliency had the most distinctive relationship with adolescent psychosocial development. Each factor successfully predicted specific aspects of psychosocial development for these youth. We conclude with a discussion of the utility of using Western models of development.

  12. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station - occurrence of the accident, current situation and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation author analyse course of accident on Fukushima Dai-chi NPPs as well as consequences of this disaster. The following parts are presented: (1) Occurrence of the accident; (2) Evacuation of the residential people; (3) Deterioration and protraction of the accident; (4) Impact on society; (5) Situation of decontamination; (6) Long-term steps towards decommissioning; (7) Situation of other nuclear power stations; (8) Conclusions and lessons learned.

  13. NADIR: A Flexible Archiving System Current Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; De Marco, M.; Smareglia, R.; Molinaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    The New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR) is under development at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) to increase the performances of the current archival software tools at the data center. Traditional softwares usually offer simple and robust solutions to perform data archive and distribution but are awkward to adapt and reuse in projects that have different purposes. Data evolution in terms of data model, format, publication policy, version, and meta-data content are the main threats to re-usage. NADIR, using stable and mature framework features, answers those very challenging issues. Its main characteristics are a configuration database, a multi threading and multi language environment (C++, Java, Python), special features to guarantee high scalability, modularity, robustness, error tracking, and tools to monitor with confidence the status of each project at each archiving site. In this contribution, the development of the core components is presented, commenting also on some performance and innovative features (multi-cast and publisher-subscriber paradigms). NADIR is planned to be developed as simply as possible with default configurations for every project, first of all for LBT and other IA2 projects.

  14. Current situation regarding the co-combustion of waste materials in power plants; Aktuelle Situation der Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, U.; Krueger, H.; Puch, K.H. [VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In view of the wholly insufficient capacity, relative to current arisings, of waste incineration plants, residue processing plants and plants for the utilisation of other combustible materials we are inevitably faced with the question whether power plant furnaces might not be suited for the thermal treatment and utilisation of wastes and residues. This possibility has been studied by many VGB member companies and seriously investigated for its practicability in several cases. The investigations were premised on the following fundamental positions. The VGB members are prepared to contribute to the solution of the above problems as long as this is possible without detriment to their duties as energy suppliers. They can only assume this responsibility if the requirements of the licensing laws are observed. This concerns the quality and arising quantities of wastes to be taken in, emissions, and the disposal of combustion residues. Power plants typically make more or less complete use of their own process residues, a feature which as far as possible should not be impaired by the co-combustion process. The technical problems posed by the co-combustion of suitable residues and wastes are usually solvable. Co-combustion offers an alternative and a supplement to dedicated waste utilisation plants or plants for the utilisation of suitable residues. Beyond this some companies are interested in profiting from the fees that will be due to them for utilising wastes. From 1990 to 1992 a VGB working group studied the option of co-combustion on the basis of the above premises. The material elaborated by the group now in turn serves as a basis for the following deliberations. [Deutsch] Da die Kapazitaet der Abfallverbrennungsanlagen, der Anlagen zur Reststoffverwertung und der Anlagen zur Nutzung sonstiger brennbaren Stoffe fuer das vorhandene Angebot bei weitem nicht ausreicht, ergibt sich die Frage der Eignung von Kraftwerksfeuerungen zur thermischen Behandlung und Verwertung von

  15. [Mass casualty incidents - current concepts and developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinsky, Godo; Stuhr, Markus; Kappus, Stefan; Trümpler, Stefan; Wenderoth, Stephan; Wohlers, Jan-Hauke; Paschen, Hans-Richard; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-12-01

    Medical concepts and strategies are permanently changing. Due to the emergency response in a mass casualty incident everyone who is involved has to work together with different organisations and public authorities, which are not part of the regular emergency medical service. Within the last 25 years throughout the whole country of Germany the role of a "chief emergency physician" has been implemented and in preparation for the FIFA World Cup 2006 mobile treatment units were set up. In 2007, special units of the "Medical Task Force" - funded by the german state - were introduced and have been established by now. They will be a permanent part of regional plannings for mass casualty incidents. This article highlights current concepts and developments in different parts of Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Rhetorical Approaches to Crisis Communication: The Research, Development, and Validation of an Image Repair Situational Theory for Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    In this project a product to aid educational leaders in the process of communicating in crisis situations is presented. The product was created and received a formative evaluation using an educational research and development methodology. Ultimately, an administrative training course that utilized an Image Repair Situational Theory was developed.…

  17. The Dortmund low background facility. Current status and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden. The overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, in combination with a multi-layer lead castle and an active muon veto are shielding a high-purity germanium detector of 60 % relative efficiency. The background level is remarkably low compared to a conventional spectrometer system without special shielding and enables sensitivities well below 1 Bq/kg. Thus, material screening measurements as well as environmental monitoring measurements are possible on an easy-accessible location above ground at the campus of the Technische Universitaet Dortmund. The integral background count rate between 40 keV and 2700 keV is 2.528±0.004 counts/kg/min, which is comparable to systems that are situated below ground. In the talk, an overview of the current status of the DLB is given and recent developments are presented.

  18. A learning arena for knowledge development by the use of didactics and situated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    This paper unfolds the concept of a learning arena as a means of building robust and effec-tive global operations networks through a focus on organizational didactics and situated learning. The paper builds on six case studies in three MNEs which have come far in establishing capabilities...... for the transfer of operations activities. However, they have tended to take a piecemeal and substance-based approach in relation to learning. A new model shows the contours of a learning arena, and case studies illustrate how different learning arenas may be used for supporting knowledge development....

  19. Development of Multichannel Eddy Current Testing Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jong; Cho, Chan Hee; Nam, Min Woo; Yoon, Byung Sik; Yoo, Hyun Joo

    2010-01-01

    Four main techniques of electromagnetic testing are used for commercial applications: eddy current testing, alternating current field testing, magnetic flux leakage testing and remote field testing. Eddy current testing is a nondestructive evaluation method, which makes eddy current flow on a specimen by applying driving pulse to eddy current probe coil, by using eddy current testing device, and makes the change of eddy current which is dependently caused by flaws, material characteristics, testing condition, receiving through eddy current, and analyzes material properties, flaws, status on the specimen. Application of EC instrumentation varies widely in industry from the identification of metal heat treatment to the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. In this study, we have designed multichannel EC instrument which can be applicable to the NDE of the tube in heat exchanger for electric power facility, chemistry, and military industry, and finally confirmed the proper function of EC instrumentation

  20. [Strategies to ensure careers of young academics in plastic surgery - analysis of the current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E

    2013-08-01

    Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Development and verification of an alcohol craving-induction tool using virtual reality: craving characteristics in social pressure situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sangwoo; Ku, Jeonghun; Park, Jinsick; Han, Kiwan; Lee, Hyeongrae; Choi, You Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Shen, Dong Fan

    2008-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease that affects parts of the brain that control emotion, decisions, and behavior. Therapy for people with alcoholism must address coping skills for facing high-risk situations. Therefore, it is important to develop tools to mimic such conditions. Cue exposure therapy (CET) provides high-risk situations during treatment, which raises the individual's ability to recognize that alcohol craving is being induced. Using CET, it is hard to simulate situations that induce alcohol craving. By contrast, virtual reality (VR) approaches can present realistic situations that cannot be experienced directly in CET. Therefore, we hypothesized that is possible to model social pressure situations using VR. We developed a VR system for inducing alcohol craving under social pressure situations and measured both the induced alcohol craving and head gaze of participants. A 2 x 2 experimental model (alcohol-related locality vs. social pressure) was designed. In situations without an avatar (no social pressure), more alcohol craving was induced if alcohol was present than if it was not. And more alcohol craving was induced in situations with an avatar (social pressure) than in situations without an avatar (no social pressure). The difference of angle between the direction of head gazing and the direction of alcohol or avatar was smaller in situations with an avatar alone (social pressure) than in situations with alcohol alone. In situations with both alcohol and an avatar, the angle between the direction of head gaze and the direction of the avatar was smaller than between the direction of head gaze and the direction of the alcohol. Considering the results, this VR system induces alcohol craving using an avatar that can express various social pressure situations.

  2. A Brief Analysis of Development Situations and Trend of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan

    2017-12-01

    in recent years, the rapid development of Internet technology has radically changed people's work, learning and lifestyles. More and more activities are completed by virtue of computers and networks. The amount of information and data generated is bigger day by day, and people rely more on computer, which makes computing power of computer fail to meet demands of accuracy and rapidity from people. The cloud computing technology has experienced fast development, which is widely applied in the computer industry as a result of advantages of high precision, fast computing and easy usage. Moreover, it has become a focus in information research at present. In this paper, the development situations and trend of cloud computing shall be analyzed and researched.

  3. The current situation of human resources for health in the province of Cabinda in Angola: is it a limitation to provide universal access to healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaia, Damas; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2017-12-28

    Angola is among sub-Saharan African countries dealing with a crisis of Human Resources for Health (HRH). The province of Cabinda, besides the efforts, still suffers from both HRH shortage and a badly distributed health workforce. In Cabinda, one can find urban concentration and rural shortages of healthcare professionals, many rural areas' healthcare facilities often secured only by basic or medium level HRH; and difficulties in developing HRH retention strategies in rural areas where most services are covered by foreign HRH. This study aims at analysing the situation of HRH in the province of Cabinda. It considers organizational issues, policies and practices resulting from the HRH strategy followed in the recent years, moreover the creation of a medical school. The context that affects the distribution of the health workforce is analysed to contribute to the development of evidence-based policies that promote a better HRH allocation in the poorest and distant villages in the province. A mixed-methods study was developed, combining a quantitative and qualitative approach to analyse HRH situation in the province of Cabinda. Data was collected from key informants, selected by intentional sampling from public and private health organizations, to respond to a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Quantitative and qualitative data was analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis respectively. The study was complemented by a comprehensive desk review. Results show a clear change in HRH data from 2011 to 2015 with significant fluctuations due to variations in retirement, migration and lack of regular public HRH recruitment tenders. HRH density is apparently better in rural when compared with urban areas. However, one should bear in mind that often HRH allocated to rural areas do not stay there, which leads to real geographical imbalances. Factors like lack of proper incentives for HRH retention and social support goes against

  4. CURRENT TRENDS IN DEVELOPING URBAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Yıldız

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of architecture and other disciplines in studies of developing tourism is  significant in terms of continuity of past and future. Now architects and urban designers are working in collaboration with social sciences disciplines in the field of urban tourism. Some examples of cultural, artistic and social activities can be listed as: re-transformation of port districts, opening of new museums, new additions to the fabric of the historic city, theme parks, coastal regulations, re-use of historic structures, innovative approaches to accommodation services, production of the metropolitan centers, architectural competitions organized by central and local governments, prestige landscapes, innovative, technological and ecological approaches in architecture, festivals, design and fashion weeks, guided tours, city walks, local meetings, lectures, courses in art education, concerts, sport events, fairs , the cultural capitals. The paper analyses these works companion to tourism in detail and in a holistic sese, questions these studies in urban,  economic, cultural and social movement axes. This inquiry aims to discuss current  projects being carried out in Istanbul which is an important city in the world, also to offer a wide range of tips for conducting a collaborative, multi-dimensional perspective studies carried out in the field of tourism.

  5. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  6. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharinezhad, Salime; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities' job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue.

  7. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Goharinezhad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. Design: This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. Results: The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. Discussion: According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities’ job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue.

  8. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  9. Situation and role of industrial fields in nuclear fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Gen-ichi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established the nuclear fusion technical committee in October, 1980, and has investigated the attitude of industrial fields in progressing nuclear fusion research and development and the measures to cooperate with national development plans. Corresponding to the new long term plan and the establishment of the basic policy for nuclear fusion research and development by Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in June, 1982, JAIF has settled the policy on the situation and role of industrial fields. In this report, first the necessity of firmly grasping the position of nuclear fusion research in atomic energy development is described, next, the present status of the research and development in Japan is reported, and it is mentioned that the role of manufacturers in reinforcing engineering has become more important in industrial fields. In the stage of the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor, the experiences in the engineering safety in fission reactors, environmental safety and system engineering will be utilized. Japanese industrial fields feature that they have made larger cooperation with national projects even in the research and development stage as compared to foreign countries. When the plan of next phase system will be promoted in the future, the cooperating methods in the past should be evaluated, investigated and improved, and the experiences in fast breeder reactors and advanced heavy water reactors should be referred to. Finally, the problems and the countermeasures in nuclear fusion development are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Current situation in gynecological oncology training in Spain: where we are and where we want to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Iserte, P; Minig, L; Zapardiel, I; Chiva, L; Laky, R; de Santiago, J

    2018-04-01

    It is important to know what a young gynecologic oncologist perceives as a need to achieve a good training in gynecologic oncology. This study aims to evaluate the level of training in gynecologic oncology in Spain. A Web-based anonymous questionnaire was sent via e-mail to Spanish trainees listed in European Network of Young Gynecological Oncology (ENYGO). The survey was developed in four sections: (1) general training in gynecologic oncology, (2) distribution of current clinical activity, (3) surgical training, and (4) perspective future gynecologic oncology. It contained 51 questions, with multiple-choice answers that had to be answered by the ENYGO members. The questionnaire was sent to 64 people listed in the ENYGO database. Of these, 37 members responded (response rate of 58%). Overall, more training in surgery is necessary, to perform radical oncological surgeries. It is claimed a sub-specialty recognition, to ensure an equalitarian and homogeneous training.

  11. The development of the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework: Revealing the being of person-centredness in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Brighide M; McCance, Tanya; McCormack, Brendan; Brown, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives\\ud \\ud To implement and evaluate the effect of using the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework to develop person-centred care within nursing homes.\\ud \\ud \\ud Background\\ud \\ud Many models of nursing leadership have been developed internationally in recent years but do not fit with the emergent complex philosophy of nursing home care. This study develops the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework that supports this philosophy. It forms the theoretical ba...

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma - A synopsis of current developments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathogenesis", "liver transplantation", "local ablative therapy”, and “novel drug therapies”. Additional information was obtained by a manual search of the references from the key articles, current advances in treatment. Only articles in English were ...

  13. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  14. SACRI: A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.N.; Follesoe, K.; Volden, F.S.; Torralba, B.

    1994-01-01

    Control room operator support systems and their interface designs have as one goal the enhancement of the operators' situation awareness of the dynamically changing process state. This paper describes a technique for measuring situation awareness within the Human Factors evaluation of control room operator-system interfaces. The technique, referred to as SACRI, has been evaluated in four simulator studies and the main findings from these studies are summarized in this paper. It is concluded that SACRI can be a useful supplement to operator performance measures currently existing for use within control room interface evaluations. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Necessities of the Development of a Database for the Communications Between Nuclear Power Plant Operators in Simulated Emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2007-01-01

    Communications among main control room (MCR) operators is an important factor for understanding how and how well MCR operators manage abnormal or emergency situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). As mentioned by many researchers, the performance of MCR operators in emergency situations in NPPs is strongly affected by not only the cognitive process of each operator, but also by communications and collaboration among operators. Despite of the importance of correct communications among NPP operators, the possibilities of human errors in communications have not received much attention. A representative example for the lack of interests in communication-related problems is the lack of considering communication-related human errors in human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. HRA methods are used, in general, to provide human error probabilities to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of NPPs. In THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction), which was developed by Swain and Guttmann and currently is one of the most widely used HRA method, the human errors in communications are not directly considered. The human error probability (HEP) and error factor (EF) data that we could find as the most related ones to communication-related human errors are the estimated probabilities of errors in recalling oral instruction items which are not written down. But, it is obvious that the failure in recalling oral instruction items and misunderstanding oral instruction items are different error types

  16. Development of a dosimetric system for emergency situation involving person of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Zelia Maria da

    1999-01-01

    A dosimetric system was developed for emergency situation based on electron spin resonance spectrometry (E.S.R.) and some materials such as tooth enamel, bovine bone, CaCO 3 and sugar as detector. The purpose of this work was to find common materials, which are both reliable and sensitive and make possible quickly to assess the absorbed dose. The research includes the collection and preparation of samples, the evaluation, treatment and interpretation of ESR signal and the procedure for dose reconstruction. The calibration of the dosemeter was performed using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The results obtained confirm the variability of the use of this system in case of an accident. (author)

  17. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  18. Current developments in departmental PACS for ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L E; Eng, P

    1995-01-01

    subnet on a larger PACS backbone, one which could function in a local or mixed local and wide area environment and one which could provide a cost effective implementation based on currently available technologies. 4. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES. In order to attain the product design objectives, ALI made the following critical implementation decisions: 1) to build the UltraPACS application as a suite of separable UNIX processes based on a message passing client server model; 2) to host the application and operating system on a Digital Equipment Corporation PC using an Intel microprocessor because of the competition and broad variety of suppliers in the PC arena; and 3) to use NEXTSTEP as the UNIX variant of choice because of NEXTSTEPUs strong object orientation, superb development tools, and the excellent integration between the Graphical User Interface level and the underlying operating system layers. 5. CONCLUSION. ALI is convinced that a departmental approach to PACS offers significant advantages over monolithic PACS in several key areas including: optimization for modality specific clinical practice and workflow, cost effectiveness, the potential for an institution to implement PACS in a stepwise fashion, starting with the department with the potential for the greatest savings, and the capability for an institution to build a "best of breed" solution for large scale PACS.

  19. Consideration on information work under new situation consider the situation, integrate the resources, develop the innovate, improve the information work level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Erni

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear document information work under the new socioeconomic development situation in China shall focus on the nuclear fuel cycle industry, accelerate the information network informatization process, establish the information network platform so as to improve the management efficiency and benefit and reduce the resource consumption and management cost through publicity and information acquisition; we shall narrow the difference in understanding and application between the specialized technical personnel and informatization personnel during informatization management process, and speed up the structural readjustment through information resources sharing and network information system; during the transformation of the nuclear information work and nuclear resources into effective productive power, we shall conduct management and technology innovation and resource integration according to the development strategy of the enterprise so as to promote the enthusiasm for informatization as well as invention, creation and technological innovation in the enterprise and the whole country, in general, the nuclear information work shall be in the service of the nuclear manufacturing enterprises and we shall change our ideology and work style under the new situation so as to improve the overall capability and level of our scientific and technological information system by advanced science and technology. (author)

  20. Modulational instability development and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel, S.I.; Vladimirov, S.V.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Recently many investigations on current driven by lower-hybrid (LH) waves in a plasma of toroidal nuclear fusion installations are carried out. Usually a theoretical approach taking into account quasilinear and binary collisions effects is used to describe current drive. However a problem of comparison of the results obtained with the aid of the above theoretical approach and experimental data takes place. Namely the experimentally observed currents driven by LH waves is two-three orders of magnitude larger than those calculated. The above discrepancy between theory and experiment is related with the existence of the so-called ''spectral gap'', that is the gap between the parallel phase velocities of LH waves ω/k || (where ω, k || are LH wave frequency and a component of wavenumber k parallel to the external magnetic field) which are necessary for effective Landau damping of LH waves (i.e. velocities as high as several electron thermal velocities) and the lowest parallel phase velocity in the injected LH wave spectrum. Experimentally observed current drive may be explained if one accounts for filling of the ''spectral gap'' by LH waves. Some nonlinear effects have been drawn in current drive description to explain the ''spectral gap'' filling by LH waves. However the LH wave modulational instability (MI) effect has not been considered yet in application to current drive description. The aim of this paper is to investigate this MI influence. We shall show that for sufficiently intensive pump level of LH wave the MI can lead to ''spectral gap'' filling. (author) 4 refs

  1. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: The current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. We performed a systematic review of: (i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and (ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Of the 1521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002-0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: (i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; (ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and (iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  3. Current Developments in Community College Performance Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…

  4. Exploring the impact of situational context – A case study of a software development process for a microservices architecture

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rory; Elger, Peter; Clarke, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, a variety of software development processes have been proposed, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. It is however widely accepted that there is no single process that is perfectly suited to all settings, thus a software process should be molded to the needs of its situational context. In previous work, we have consolidated a substantial body of related research into an initial reference framework of the situational factors affecting the software development pro...

  5. Prospects of uranium supply-demand situation in world nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Wang Xingwu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the newest materials and data published by authoritative organizations, this paper introduces the near-term and medium to long-term development situation of world nuclear power, summarizes the main characteristics of recent world uranium production, preliminarily analyses the relationship between uranium supply and demand to 2030. It is suggested that from the view-point of whole world, uranium resources are fully sufficient for the near-term and medium to long-term world uranium production and uranium demand of nuclear power. World uranium production can meet the near-term uranium demand for nuclear power. However, a big supply-demand gap may exist after 2015 as world nuclear power will be developed with high speed. In case if all const ruction plans of new uranium mines and production- expansion plans of existing uranium mines will be completed on time, it is quite possible for the world uranium production to meet the long-term uranium demand of nuclear power development. (authors)

  6. The current limitations of in vitro genotoxicity testing and their relevance to the in vivo situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    The standard regulatory core battery of genotoxicity tests generally includes 2 or 3 validated tests with at least one in vitro test in bacteria and one in vitro test on cell cultures. However, limitations in in vitro genotoxicity testing may exist at many levels. The knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of genotoxicity is particularly useful to assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. In order to avoid wrong conclusions regarding the actual genotoxicity status of any test substance, it appears very important to be aware of the various origins of related bias leading to 'false positives and negatives' by using in vitro methods. Among these, mention may be made on the metabolic activation system, experimental (extreme) conditions, specificities of the test systems implemented, cell type used etc. The knowledge of the actual 'limits' of the in vitro test systems used is clearly an advantage and may contribute to avoid some pitfalls in order to better assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  8. Biorefineries: Current activities and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper reviews the current refuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biorenewable raw materials with those of chemical intermediates and final products. Char production by pyrolysis, bio-oil production by pyrolysis, gaseous fuels from biomass, Fischer-Tropsch liquids from biomass, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, supercritical liquefaction, and biochemical processes of biomass are studied and concluded in this review. Upgraded bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis can be used in vehicle engines as fuel. (author)

  9. Biorefineries: Current activities and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current refuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biorenewable raw materials with those of chemical intermediates and final products. Char production by pyrolysis, bio-oil production by pyrolysis, gaseous fuels from biomass, Fischer-Tropsch liquids from biomass, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, supercritical liquefaction, and biochemical processes of biomass are studied and concluded in this review. Upgraded bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis can be used in vehicle engines as fuel.

  10. Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond, H P

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide enquiry was undertaken in 1986-1987 to obtain up-to-date information about mycotoxin legislation in as many countries of the world as possible. Together with some additional data collected in 1981, information is now available about planned, proposed, existing or absence of legislation in 66 countries. Details about tolerances, legal bases, responsible authorities, prescribed methods of sampling and analysis and disposition of commodities containing inadmissible amounts of mycotoxins, are given. The information concerns aflatoxins in foodstuffs, aflatoxin M1 in dairy products, aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs, and other mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs. In comparison with the situation in 1981, limits and regulations for mycotoxins have been expanded in 1987 with more countries having legislation (proposed or passed) on the subject, more products, and more mycotoxins covered by this legislation. The differences between tolerances in the various countries are sometimes quite large, which makes harmonization of mycotoxin regulations highly desirable.

  11. Development of a new CBR-based platform for human contamination emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, J.; Henriet, J.; Broggio, D.; Laurent, R.; Fontaine, E.; Chebel-Morello, B.; Sauget, M.; Salomon, M.; Makovicka, L.; Franck, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of a radiological emergency situation, involving accidental human exposure, it is necessary to establish as soon as possible a dosimetry evaluation. In most cases, this evaluation is based on numerical representations and models of the victims. Unfortunately, personalised and realistic human representations are often unavailable for the exposed subjects. Hence, existing models like the 'Reference Man' representative of the average male individual are used. However, the accuracy of the treatment depends on the similarity of the phantom to the victim. The EquiVox platform (Research of Equivalent Voxel phantom) developed in this work uses the case-based reasoning principles to retrieve, from a set of existing phantoms, the most adapted one to represent the victim. This paper introduces the EquiVox platform and gives the example of in vivo lung monitoring optimisation to prove its efficiency in choosing the right model. It also presents the artificial neural network tools being developed to adapt the model to the victim. (authors)

  12. Situation and development trend of nuclear power and uranium industry in the united states and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the situation, trend of nuclear electrical and uranium industry in the United States and Russia. The United States and Russia are the two biggest countries in the world which generated nuclear power earliest. After 40 years' development, nuclear power in the United States and Russia are approximately 20%, 11% respectively of the total generation capacity in 2001. In the United States, only 6% of the nuclear power consumed uranium resource is domestic, in Russia about half of its uranium production is for export. Due to the collision between the energy development and environment protection, nuclear power in USA is still strong, but the uranium industry declines. In the future, uranium production for nuclear power in the United States will depend on the international market and the uranium storage of different levels. On the basis of pacifying people and making the country prosper, Russia has established their great plans for nuclear power with their substantial uranium resources. The author considers the supply and demand of uranium industry will remain balanced in the future decade on the whole, despite the United States and Russia's trend of uranium industry could take a major effect on uranium industry to the world. (authors)

  13. The limiting current in a one-dimensional situation: Transition from a space charge limited to magnetically limited flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Raghwendra; Biswas, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    For a nonrelativistic electron beam propagating in a cylindrical drift tube, it is shown that the limiting current density does not saturate to the electrostatic one-dimensional (1D) estimate with increasing beam radius. Fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation studies show that beyond a critical aspect ratio, the limiting current density is lower than the 1D electrostatic prediction. The lowering in the limiting current density is found to be due to the transition from the space charge limited to magnetically limited flow. An adaptation of Alfven's single particle trajectory method is used to estimate the magnetically limited current as well as the critical radius beyond which the flow is magnetically limited in a drift tube. The predictions are found to be in close agreement with PIC simulations

  14. Disclosure of weather risks of European Utilities : Assessment of the current situation of listed utilities domiciled in Germany, France, Austria, United Kingdom and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Leibfried, Peter; Schuchter, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    With regards to the scientific fact about climate change, weather risk is of increased importance to companies in weather dependent industries. Increasing volatility in temperatures and precipitation as well as unseasonal weather result in increased financial risk to weather dependent companies. This white paper assesses the current situation disclosure of weather dependency and weather risks of European exchange listed companies with the aim to promote transparency in risk reporting to ...

  15. Recent developments and current concepts in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, N U; Mynarek, M; von Hoff, K; Friedrich, C; Resch, A; Rutkowski, S

    2014-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. While prognosis has significantly improved in the last decades with multimodal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, one third of patients still succumb to their disease. Further research is needed to find more efficient treatment strategies for prognostically unfavorable patient groups and to minimize long-term sequelae of tumor treatment. This review gives a summary of the current state of treatment concepts including an outlook on the near future. We describe recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms, their potential impact on risk stratification in upcoming clinical trials, and perspectives for the clinical implementation of targeted therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Status of Pyroprocessing Development at KAERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansoo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing technology has been actively developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI to meet the necessity of addressing spent fuel management issue. This technology has advantages over aqueous process such as less proliferation risk, treatment of spent fuel with relatively high heat and radioactivity, and compact equipments. This paper describes the pyroprocessing technology development at KAERI from head-end process to waste treatment. The unit process with various scales has been tested to produce the design data associated with scale-up. Pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration facility (PRIDE was constructed at KAERI and it began test operation in 2012. The purpose of PRIDE is to test the process regarding unit process performance, remote operation of equipments, integration of unit processes, scale-up of process, process monitoring, argon environment system operation, and safeguards-related activities. The test of PRIDE will be promising for further pyroprocessing technology development.

  17. Current developments in TREAT hodoscope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Volpi, A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of fuel motion monitoring is traced from its inception through present operation and into future programs. After noting the role of fuel motion studies in terms of safety assurance for the LMFBR, the history of in-pile fuel monitoring is reviewed. The operational record of the present TREAT fast neutron hodoscope is summarized with attention to various performance features. Development plans for the TREAT hodoscope are described in some detail. Application of the hodoscope has been considered for eight safety facilities other than TREAT. In addition, there is a possible role for fuel monitoring techniques to be extended to real-time ex-vessel core surveillance in operating reactors. Certain intrinsic strengths of the hodoscope technique for material monitoring are identified. The pattern of development may be characterized as an adaptation of several technologies to fit available requirements and resources

  18. [The current situation and agendas in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kiyoko; Uda, Hidenori; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Yano, Ryosuke; Saijo, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satomi, Maki; Yoshida, Aya; Oishi, Osamu; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Kamenosono, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In Vietnam, the number of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been increasing in recent years in association with the country's remarkable economic growth and corresponding changes in its population's lifestyle. The purposes of this research were to identify the challenges in the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and to discuss countermeasures for NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Methods As a 2015 Regional Public Health Overall Promotion Project, an investigation team consisting of 11 public health physicians visited Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, and its vicinities from January 11, 2016 to January 15, 2016. In Hanoi and its vicinities, we visited local healthcare institutions, such as the World Health Organization(WHO) Representative Office in Vietnam and Ministry of Health of Vietnam, and discussed the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Results According to a survey in 2014, 73% of people of all age groups in Vietnam died from NCDs and the number of people suffering from NCDs has been sharply increasing in recent years. Major behavioral risk factors are dietary risks, tobacco smoke, alcohol use, and physical inactivity. There are four main problems with prevention and control of NCDs: 1) low awareness among the people of NCDs, 2) regional disparity of medical services, 3) shortage of healthcare staff members with professional knowledge, and 4) poor NCD surveillance. In Vietnam, an NCD program with screening methods and medical guidelines for respective diseases was developed in 2002. However, it only covered tertiary prevention and did not fully describe the primary and secondary prevention measures. Currently, with the technical assistance of the WHO, the implementation of countermeasures emphasizing prevention and control to reduce NCD risk factors has only just begun.Conclusion It was considered that educating each person in Vietnam on NCD prevention measures would be necessary and that a national policy

  19. Current developments in silicene and germanene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.; Schreckenbach, G.; Freund, M. S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the unusual properties of the two-dimensional materials silicene and germanene is a very active research field in recent years. This paper therefore reviews the latest developments, focusing both on the fundamental materials properties and on possible applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Current status of FBR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2008-01-01

    'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project has been conducted since 2006. In this project, design study and research and development (R and D) on innovative technologies for fast reactor (FR) cycle system are implemented in order to present the conceptual designs of commercial and demonstration facilities by 2015 and start operating demonstration fast reactor in 2025. The R and Ds has been stepped forward into the development stage to establish the realization of innovative technologies which bring excellent performance to fast reactor cycle system. The purpose of R and D by 2010 is to decide whether innovative technologies shall be adopted. In the FaCT project, R and D stage for the realization of innovative technologies, it is important to take full advantage of JAEA's R and D facilities toward demonstration and commercialization stages. Particularly, it is indispensible for the realization of innovative technologies to develop the fuel and material by irradiation tests using an experimental reactor 'Joyo', to verify the reliability for power-generating plant through the experience of operation and maintenance, and to establish technologies of operation, maintenance and repair for the plant with a prototype reactor 'Monju'. Several possible R and D have been effectively carried out within the frameworks of international cooperation, such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), Generation IV International Forum (GIF), and International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). (author)

  1. Current developments in silicene and germanene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2016-01-18

    Exploration of the unusual properties of the two-dimensional materials silicene and germanene is a very active research field in recent years. This paper therefore reviews the latest developments, focusing both on the fundamental materials properties and on possible applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. GIS based approach for atmospheric carbon absorption strategies through forests development in Indian situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Surendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    National Mission for a Green India as part of the 'National Action Plan on Climate Change' (NAPCC) becomes operational, the capability of the forestry sector to contribute in GHG removal will further enhance. Furthermore, afforestation and reforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest land covered under the National Mission with participation of Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) would be able to add another 18 mt of carbon = 66 mt of CO 2 eq (approximately) by 2020. In Indian situations and similarly in other regions on the globe, atmospheric carbon absorption productivity may be enhanced through forests development with reasonable efforts. Similar efforts anywhere on the globe may be useful to develop waste lands and degraded forest areas to enhance overall atmospheric carbon absorption productivity. (orig.)

  3. GIS based approach for atmospheric carbon absorption strategies through forests development in Indian situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Surendra Kumar [CCS Univ., Meerut (India). SCRIET

    2013-07-01

    National Mission for a Green India as part of the 'National Action Plan on Climate Change' (NAPCC) becomes operational, the capability of the forestry sector to contribute in GHG removal will further enhance. Furthermore, afforestation and reforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest land covered under the National Mission with participation of Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) would be able to add another 18 mt of carbon = 66 mt of CO{sub 2}eq (approximately) by 2020. In Indian situations and similarly in other regions on the globe, atmospheric carbon absorption productivity may be enhanced through forests development with reasonable efforts. Similar efforts anywhere on the globe may be useful to develop waste lands and degraded forest areas to enhance overall atmospheric carbon absorption productivity. (orig.)

  4. Energy and electricity economy in France. Current situation and development until 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinpeter, M.

    1994-01-01

    France, Germany's southwestern neighbour, is known for its inexpensive electricity production, most of which coures from nuclear energy and hydropower. Between 1980 and 1993 the country reduced the share of coal and oil in its electricity production from 40% to 3%. The share of nuclear power in electricity production rose from 26% to 83% during the same period. The present article gives an account of the motives behind the strong expansion of nuclear energy utilisation and explains why nuclear energy is less beset with acceptance problems in France than elsewhere. An extrapolated cost comparison shows that France will still have no economically feasible alternative to nuclear energy by the year 2003. (orig.) [de

  5. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  6. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement of the earth flow site will be monitored by differential GPS to get high precision information on displacements of marked points. Photogrammtetry based on octocopter surveys will provide spatial information on movement patterns. A similar approach will be followed for the debris flow catchment. Here, the focus lies on a monitoring of the landslide failures in the source area which prepares the material for subsequent debris flow transport. In addition to the methods already mentioned, repeated terrestrial laserscanning campaigns will be used to monitor geomorphological changes at all sites. All important data, which can be single measurements, episodic or continuous monitoring data for a given point (e.g. rainfall, inclination) or of spatial character (e.g. LiDAR measurements), are collected and analysed on an external server. Automatic data analysis methods, such as progressive failure analysis, are carried out automatically based on field measurements. The data and results from all monitoring sites are visualised on a web-based platform which enables registered users to analyse the respective information in near-real-time. Moreover, thresholds can be determined which trigger automated warning messages to the involved scientists if thresholds are exceeded by field measurements. The described system will enable scientists and decision-makers to access the latest data from the monitoring systems. Automatic alarms are raised when thresholds are exceeded to inform them about potentially hazardous changes. Thereby, a more efficient hazard management and early warning can be achieved. Keywords: landslide, rockfall, debris flow, earth flow, monitoring, early warning system.

  7. Current status of the development of international exemption principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For the past several years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. Initial efforts were conducted under the general heading of de minimis. Interest in this topic arises from international recognition that a significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that applying regulatory controls may be unwarranted. The IAEA evaluation has been conducted by Advisory Groups considering two interrelated topics: to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. The IAEA Advisory Groups developed the criteria from modeled assessments of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of radioactive materials. Although the scenarios and models used by the IAEA are necessarily generic, consultants to the Advisory Groups attempted to identify the most important radiation exposure pathways based on available literature. This approach is intended to provide the basic framework for the numerical derivation of generic exempt quantities that would be conservative in most situations. This paper discusses the current status of the IAEA's efforts on the subject of exemption and presents the generic results expressed as overall exemption limits for municipal wastes and materials for recycle and reuse

  8. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  9. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, A.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 950 0 . The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 1000 0 C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  10. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  11. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  12. The Current Situation of Hypertension among Rural Minimal Assurance Family Participants in Liaoning (China): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yintao; Yu, Shasha; Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-12-02

    In China, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing and is showing an epidemic accelerating trend. However, there is a lack of studies reporting the hypertension status of rural residents with minimum living allowances. We performed a cross-sectional study including 11,435 (5285 men and 6150 women) from the general population aged ≥35 years in the Liaoning Province of China from 2012 to 2013, of which 1258 (11.0%) participants came from minimal assurance families. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported lifestyle factor information were collected by trained personnel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of hypertension. We found that the prevalence of hypertension was as high as 61.9% in participants from minimal assurance families and the odd ratio for hypertension was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The awareness, treatment, and control rates among treated hypertensive participants did not increase with higher level of income and education. In the total sample, the lower income levels increased the risk for hypertension, but education didn't show a significant association with hypertension. Thus, there is a severe hypertension situation in the Liaoning rural population of minimal assurance families, which need more attention and prevention and control measures for hypertension.

  13. Situated cognitive engineering: Developing adaptive track handling support for naval command and control centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Brake, G.M. te; Ven, J.G.M. van de; Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Greef, T.E. de; Lindenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dit artikel presenteert een 'situated cognitive engineering' (SCE) methode voor het verkrijgen van een theoretisch en empirisch onderbouwde Requirements Baseline, waarin operationele, human factors, en technische eisen in samenhang naar voren komen. De methode wordt toegelicht met een ontwerp van

  14. Antenatal screening for aneuploidy--surveying the current situation and planning for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Ashley; Webster, Dianne; Taylor, Juliet; Mckay, Richard; McEwen, Alison; Sullivan, Jan; Pope-Couston, Rachel; Stone, Peter

    2016-01-29

    To gauge clinical opinion about the current system and possible changes as well as providing a forum for education about Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT). A series of workshops for doctors and midwives, supported by the National Screening Unit of the Ministry of Health and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, were held in the main centres of New Zealand. Following a brief education session, a structured evaluation of current screening and future possibilities was undertaken by questionnaire. One hundred and eight maternity carers participated in 5 workshops. Over 40% identified barriers to current screening. More than 60% would support NIPT in the first trimester. The majority of carers provided their own counselling support for women. The survey has shown general enthusiasm for the introduction of publically funded NIPT into prenatal screening in New Zealand. Barriers to utilisation of the current system have been identified and enhancements to screening performance with guidelines around conditions to be screened for would be supported.

  15. DISCOS- Current Status and Future Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.; Parrilla, E.; Sanchez, N.; Oliveira, J.; Pina, F.

    2013-08-01

    We present ESA's Database and Information System Characterizing Objects in Space (DISCOS). DISCOS not only plays an essential role in the collision avoidance and re-entry prediction services provided by ESA's Space Debris Office, it is also providing input to numerous and very differently scoped engineering activities, within ESA and throughout industry. We introduce the central functionalities of DISCOS, present the available reporting capabilities, and describe selected data modelling features. Finally, we revisit the developments of the recent years and take a sneak preview of the on-going replacement of DISCOS web front-end.

  16. Current status of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is not a viable energy source for Sri Lanka at present because of a number of reasons, the main reason being the non-availability of small and economically viable nuclear power plants. However several suppliers of nuclear power plants are in the process of developing small and medium power plants (SMPRs) which could be economically competitive with coal. The paper deals with past and future trends of nuclear power plants, their economics and safety. It also deals with environmental effects and public acceptance of nuclear power plants

  17. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  18. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  19. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  20. Purinergic signalling: from discovery to current developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This lecture is about the history of the purinergic signalling concept. It begins with reference to the paper by Paton & Vane published in 1963, which identified non-cholinergic relaxation in response to vagal nerve stimulation in several species, although they suggested that it might be due to sympathetic adrenergic nerves in the vagal nerve trunk. Using the sucrose gap technique for simultaneous mechanical and electrical recordings in smooth muscle (developed while in Feldberg's department in the National Institute for Medical Research) of the guinea-pig taenia coli preparation (learned when working in Edith Bülbring's smooth muscle laboratory in Oxford Pharmacology), we showed that the hyperpolarizations recorded in the presence of antagonists to the classical autonomic neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and noradrenaline, were inhibitory junction potentials in response to non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission, mediated by intrinsic enteric nerves controlled by vagal and sacral parasympathetic nerves. We then showed that ATP satisfied the criteria needed to identify a neurotransmitter released by these nerves. Subsequently, it was shown that ATP is a cotransmitter in all nerves in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The receptors for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterized in the early 1990 s, and immunostaining showed that most non-neuronal cells as well as nerve cells expressed these receptors. The physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic signalling is discussed.

  1. Hydropericardium syndrome: current state and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Manu; Chandra, Rajesh; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-05-01

    Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is a highly infectious disease caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAV-4) affecting poultry, especially broiler birds. The disease was initially reported from Angara Goth, Pakistan, and then from India during 1994, in the poultry belt of Jammu and Kashmir, and thereafter, from almost all parts of the country, causing heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. The disease occurs predominantly in broilers of the age group of 3-5 weeks, characterized by sudden onset of high mortality up to 80 %. The causative agent of HPS is fowl adenovirus 4, which is a member of the species Fowl Adenovirus C, genus Aviadenovirus, family Adenoviridae [60]. FAV-4 is non-enveloped and icosahedral in shape, measuring 70-90 nm in size and containing a linear dsDNA of approximately 45 kb in size as its genome. The livers of affected birds show necrotic foci and basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes. The disease can be diagnosed from its gross and microscopic changes in the liver and by various serological tests, such as agar gel immunodiffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, indirect haemagglutination, fluorescent antibody techniques, and ELISA. In the past few years, PCR has been used as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of fowl adenoviruses. The disease has been brought under control by the use of formalin-inactivated, attenuated or live vaccines in experimentally infected birds. Advancement in the field of computational immunology accelerates knowledge acquisition and simultaneously reduces the time and effort involved in screening potential epitopes, leading toward the development of epitope-based vaccines.

  2. Nutrient inputs and hydrology together determine biogeochemical status of the Loire River (France): Current situation and possible future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette; Ramarson, Antsiva; Billen, Gilles; Théry, Sylvain; Thiéry, Dominique; Thieu, Vincent; Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina

    2018-05-10

    The Grafs-Seneque/Riverstrahler model was implemented for the first time on the Loire River for the 2002-2014 period, to explore eutrophication after improvement of wastewater treatments. The model reproduced the interannual levels and seasonal trends of the major water quality variables. Although eutrophication has been impressively reduced in the drainage network, a eutrophication risk still exists at the coast, as shown by the N-ICEP indicator, pointing out an excess of nitrogen over silica and phosphorus. From maximum biomass exceeding 120 μgChla l -1 in the 1980's, we observed decreasing maximum values from 80 to 30 μgChla l -1 during the period studied. Several scenarios were explored. Regarding nutrient point sources, a low wastewater treatment scenario, similar to the situation in the 1980's, was elaborated, representing much greater pollution than the reference period (2002-2014). For diffuse sources, two agricultural scenarios were elaborated for reducing nitrogen, one with a strict application of the agricultural directives and another investigating the impact of radical structural changes in agriculture and the population's diet. Although reduced, a risk of eutrophication would remain, even with the most drastic scenario. In addition, a pristine scenario, with no human activity within the basin, was devised to assess water quality in a natural state. The impact of a change in hydrology on the Loire biogeochemical functioning was also explored according to the effect of climate change by the end of the 21st century. The EROS hydrological model was used to force Riverstrahler, considering the most pessimistic SRES A2 scenario run with the ARPEGE model. Nutrient fluxes all decreased due to a >50% reduction in the average annual discharge, overall reducing the risk of coastal eutrophication, but worsening the water quality status of the river network. The Riverstrahler model could be useful to help water managers contend with future threats in the

  3. Situational Judgment Tests and Transformational Leadership: An Examination of the Decisions, Leadership, and Experience in Undergraduate Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Greg; Sharf, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    We examined a large multi-year undergraduate leadership development program (LDP) across seven universities and used an integrated framework of transformational leadership and situational judgment tests (SJTs) during a critical and formative period of leadership development. This study was the first to show a significant relationship between…

  4. Leprosy: current situation, clinical and laboratory aspects, treatment history and perspective of the uniform multidrug therapy for all patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rossilene Conceição da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Penna, Maria Lúcia F; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Talhari, Sinésio

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the most relevant and current epidemiological data, the main clinical, laboratory and therapeutical aspects of leprosy are presented. Detailed discussion of the main drugs used for leprosy treatment, their most relevant adverse effects, evolution of the therapeutic regimen, from dapsone as a monotherapy to the proposed polychemotherapy by World Health Organization (WHO) can be found in this CME. We specifically highlight the drug acceptability, reduction in treatment duration and the most recent proposal of a single therapeutic regimen, with a fixed six months duration, for all clinical presentations, regardless of their classification.

  5. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  6. The current situation and challenges of screening for and treating hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguelin, Charles; Fall, Fatou; Seydi, Moussa; Wandeler, Gilles

    2018-05-16

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Although the tools to curb the epidemic are known, only a minority of HBV-infected persons are currently diagnosed and treated. Areas covered: We discuss HBV epidemiological trends in SSA, describe important determinants of its natural history, and summarize current knowledge on the continuum of HBV care. Using the results of a systematic review of the literature, we describe the proportion of patients with liver fibrosis at presentation for care. Throughout the manuscript, we highlight major research gaps and explore potential ways to improve uptake of HBV testing, evaluation of liver disease, access to antiviral therapy and monitoring of complications. Expert commentary: Less than 1% of HBV-infected individuals are diagnosed in SSA, despite the availability of rapid tests with good diagnostic accuracy. Up to 15% of individuals enter care with liver cirrhosis, a clear indication for antiviral therapy. Although the proportion of patients eligible for immediate antiviral treatment is generally below 20%, there are few published data from prospective cohort studies. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma could be reduced with improved access to antiviral therapy.

  7. Fuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The situation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of recent studies of air pollution in developing-country cities, each of necessity relying heavily on the one available source of comparative international ambient monitoring data, Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS). In this review, therefore, rather than simply reproduce the GEMS data. The author chose to examine developing-country air pollution from the standpoint of a useful analysis technique that has been under development in recent years: Basically the review is composed of four parts: (1) a brief description of the historical and current relationship between energy use and air pollution; (2) an explanation of the idea of exposure assessment and the power that it can bring to analyses of the health impacts of air pollution; (3) focusing on developing countries, a global exposure assessment, combining demographic data with GEMS outdoor data and less-developed country (LDC) indoor air-monitoring studies; (4) a review of the health effects literature relevant to the micro-environments found to harbor the largest human exposures. 104 refs

  8. Declining groundwater level caused by irrigation to row crops in the Lower Mississippi River Basin, Current Situation and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Gao, F.; Ouyang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River is North America's largest river and the second largest watershed in the world. It flows over 3,700 km through America's heartland to the Gulf of Mexico. Over 3 million hectares in the Lower Mississippi River Basin represent irrigated cropland and 90 percent of those lands currently rely on the groundwater supply. The primary crops grown in this region are soybean, corn, cotton, and rice. Increased water withdrawals for irrigating those crops and stagnant recharging jeopardize the long-term availability of the aquifer and place irrigation agriculture in the region on an unsustainable path. The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the current groundwater level in the Lower Mississippi River Basin based on the water table depth observed by Yazoo Mississippi Delta Joint Water Management District from 2000 and 2016; 2) determine trends of change in groundwater level under conventional and groundwater saving irrigation management practices (ET or soil moisture based full irrigation scheduling using all groundwater or different percentages of ground and surface water). The coupled SWAT and MODFLOW model was applied to investigate the trends. Observed results showed that the groundwater level has declined from 33 to 26 m at an annual decrease rate of 0.4 m in the past 17 years. Simulated results revealed that the groundwater storage was decreased by 26 cm/month due to irrigation in crop season. It is promising that the groundwater storage was increased by 23 cm/month, sometimes even 60 cm/month in crop off-growing season because of recharge from rainfall. Our results suggest that alternative ET or soil moisture based groundwater saving irrigation scheduling with conjunctive use of surface water is a sustainable practice for irrigated agriculture in in the Lower Mississippi River Basin.

  9. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  10. Brucellosis in West and Central Africa: A review of the current situation in a changing landscape of dairy cattle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, L; Meyer, A; Chengat, B; Musallam, I; Akakpo, J; Kone, P; Guitian, J; Häsler, B

    2018-03-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected endemic zoonosis in West and Central Africa. In this narrative review, evidence of livestock and human infection is presented along with details of past and current control strategies in 14 selected countries. Data from available literature is combined with expert opinion elicited during a regional workshop on brucellosis diagnostics. Demographic changes that affect both the epidemiology of brucellosis and the success of control or surveillance are also considered. The evidence suggests that brucellosis prevalence in emerging peri-urban dairy cattle systems may be higher than that found in traditional transhumant extensive systems. Accurate microbiological and epidemiological evidence across the region is lacking but it appears there is inherent interest in controlling the disease. There are many data gaps which require collaborative future research to evaluate fully the social and economic impact of the disease in an evolving livestock sector heavily influenced by high rates of urbanisation and regional population growth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey on paediatric tumour boards in Europe: current situation and results from the ExPo-r-Net project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ribelles, A; Berlanga, P; Schreier, G; Nitzlnader, M; Brunmair, B; Castel, V; Essiaf, S; Cañete, A; Ladenstein, R

    2018-01-08

    Under the ExPO-r-NeT project (European Expert Paediatric Oncology Reference Network for Diagnostics and Treatment), we aimed to identify paediatric oncology tumour boards in Europe to investigate the kind of technologies and logistics that are in place in different countries and to explore current differences between regions. A 20-question survey regarding several features of tumor boards was designed. Data collected included infrastructure, organization, and clinical decision-making information from the centres. The survey was distributed to the National Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Societies that forwarded the survey to the sites. For comparative analysis, respondents were grouped into four geographical regions. The questionnaire was distributed amongst 30 countries. Response was obtained from 23 (77%) that altogether have 212 paediatric oncology treating centres. A total of 121 institutions answered (57%). Ninety-one percent of the centres hold multidisciplinary boards; however, international second consultations are performed in 36% and only 15% participate on virtual tumor boards. Videoconferencing facilities and standard operational procedures (SOPs) are available in 49 and 43% of the centres, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between European regions concerning meeting infrastructure and organization/logistics: specific room, projecting equipment, access to medical records, videoconferencing facilities, and existence of SOPs. Paediatric tumor boards are a common feature in Europe. To reduce inequalities and have equal access to healthcare, a virtual network is needed. Important differences on the functioning and access to technology between regions in Europe have been observed and need to be addressed.

  12. [Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implantable devices for treatment of disturbed heart rhythm: review of the current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridova, A A

    The question of the possibility of MRI scanning in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) appeared simultaneously with the introduction of MRI in clinical practice. A lot of in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical researches were performed to estimate wat going on with CIED in strong magnetic field and is it possible to perform some unified protocol of safe MRI-scanning for these patients. Recommendations were provided, but not for the wide practice. MRI remained strongly contraindicated for CIED patient. To meet the clinical need CIEM manufacturers changed the design of devices to made them MRI-compatible, including reducing of ferromagnetic components, additional filters, new software. Lead coil design was changed as well to minimize lead heating and electrical current induction. Now all leaders of CIED industry have in their portfolio all types of MRI-conditional implanted cardiac rhythm management devices (pacemakers, ICDs, CRTs). "Conditional" means MRI scanning can be done only under specific condition. For MRI device and lead in one system have to be from the same manufacturer. Now, if you need to implant the device, you must proceed from the fact that the patient is more likely to need an MRI in the future and choose the appropriate model, not forgetting that the electrodes should also be MRI-compatible.

  13. A review of global outlook on fluoride contamination in groundwater with prominence on the Pakistan current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Farooqi, Abida; Xiao, Tangfu; Ali, Waqar; Noor, Sifat; Abiola, Oyebamiji; Ali, Salar; Nasim, Wajid

    2017-12-19

    Several million people are exposed to fluoride (F - ) via drinking water in the world. Current review emphasized the elevated level of fluoride concentrations in the groundwater and associated potential health risk globally with a special focus on Pakistan. Millions of people are deeply dependent on groundwater from different countries of the world encompassing with an elevated level of fluoride. The latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of fluorosis. India and China, the two most populous countries of the world, are the worst affected. In Pakistan, fluoride data of 29 major cities are reviewed and 34% of the cities show fluoride levels with a mean value greater than 1.5 mg/L where Lahore, Quetta and Tehsil Mailsi are having the maximum values of 23.60, 24.48, > 5.5 mg/L, respectively. In recent years, however, other countries have minimized, even eliminated its use due to health issues. High concentration of fluoride for extended time period causes adverse effects of health such as skin lesions, discoloration, cardiovascular disorders, dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal fluorosis. This review deliberates comprehensive strategy of drinking water quality in the global scenario of fluoride contamination, especially in Pakistan with prominence on major pollutants, mitigation technologies, sources of pollution and ensuing health problems. Considering these verities, health authorities urgently need to establish alternative means of water decontamination in order to prevent associated health problems.

  14. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Janet; Werts, Melanie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica

    2017-10-02

    Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

  15. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet van den Boer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min. Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods—representing the whole Dutch diet—was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min for chocolate milk. Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

  16. Current situation of sexual and reproductive health of men deprived of liberty in the Institutional Care Center of San Jose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorita Rivas Fonseca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the current status of the issue of sexual and reproductive health ofthe prisoners Institutional Care Center (CAI of San Jose. It is a descriptive study. Through a strategic samplingdetermined the participation of 102 men. The information was obtained by applying a self-administeredquestionnaire with closed and open questions. As a result relevant to your socio-demographic profile, it appearsthat deprived of their liberty is a very heterogeneous group. As regards sexual and reproductive health, the firstconcept they relate to the prevention of disease and the second reproductive aspects, this shows limitations inknowledge on the topics, something that affects the daily life activities and self-care. It is concluded that researchby nurses Gyneco-obstetric in the deprived of liberty is almost null not only in the country but in the world,especially if it comes with the male population. In the case of CAI Prison, health care is not enough for thenumber of inmates who inhabit (overpopulation of almost 50%, this implies a deterioration in health and physicalcondition of these people, as well as sexual and reproductive health

  17. Development of the Real Time Situation Identification Model for Adaptive Service Support in Vehicular Communication Networks Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Kurmis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses analyses and assesses the key proposals how to deal with the situation identification for the heterogeneous service support in vehicular cooperation environment. This is one of the most important topics of the pervasive computing. Without the solution it is impossible to adequately respond to the user's needs and to provide needed services in the right place at the right moment and in the right way. In this work we present our developed real time situation identification model for adaptive service support in vehicular communication networks domain. Our solution is different from the others as it uses additional virtual context information source - information from other vehicles which for our knowledge is not addressed in the past. The simulation results show the promising context exchange rate between vehicles. The other vehicles provided additional context source in our developed model helps to increase situations identification level.

  18. The Development of Teachers' Responses to Challenging Situations during Interaction Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvio, Markus; Lonka, Kirsti; Komulainen, Erkki; Kuusela, Marjo; Lintunen, Taru

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative changes in teachers' responses in challenging situations were analysed during a four-day Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET) course, which aimed at improving teachers' interpersonal dynamics with pupils, parents and colleagues. The participants were 21 teachers from one elementary and 23 teachers from one secondary school…

  19. [Prospect and Current Situation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors 
in First-line Treatment in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Yun

    2017-06-20

    With the breakthroughs achieved of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy as first-line and second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the treatment strategy is gradually evolving and optimizing. Immune combination therapy expands the benefit population and improves the curative effect. A series of randomized phase III trials are ongoing. In this review, we discuss the prospect and current situation of immune checkpoint inhibitors in first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients.

  20. Determination of cyanobacteria toxins (microcystins): current situation; Problematica y situacion actual de la determinacion de toxinas de cianobacterias: microcistinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Navarro, I. M.; Pichardo Sanchez, S.; Carmean Fernandez, A. M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A review of the different biological and chemical methods developed to determine cyano bacterial toxins, microcystins (MC), in freshwater has been carried out. However, any of them have been accepted as a standard method by the official environmental agencies. Biological methods as the mouse bioassays, immunoassays or protein phosphatase, inhibition assays are used as screening methods to detect MC. Analytical methods as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), with different detectors, allow to identify and quantify the individual toxins produced by different cyano bacterial species. (Author) 40 refs.

  1. Development of indigenous irradiator - current progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Aznor Hassan; Fadil Ismail; Julia A Karim; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The development of indigenous irradiator is one of Prototype Development Center main project to support Nuclear Malaysia services. Three (3) projects have been identified and currently the status is in final stage of design. There are some issues and challenges encountered, which delayed the project progress. The paper will discuss the current progress of development and challenges faced in designing the irradiator. (Author)

  2. CURRENT SITUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN ROMANIAN PRE-UNIVERSITY EUCATION CONTEXT OF E.U. INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Claudia CORBU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present development of human resource in the process of accession to the European Union took into account the standards proposed by the European Union, as formulated at the level of principles and objectives, the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union, including the Treaty Amsterdam, then the sequence of documents developed by the European Commission. It is expected that documents the evolution of education and training in the European Union around concepts such as: further education, knowledge society, knowledge - skills - competitiveness, globalization, discrimination and inequality etc. Around this concept formulated a strategy for workforce training to meet European standards and to escape from captivity regional. But this process of convergent evolution of the labor force for the European market has gone from multiple realities. One of these areas, with its own legacy in terms of human resources and how to perceive its specific educational objectives proposed by Europe was Romania. Knowing one of the toughest centralized systems, the labor market was absorbing all graduates of vocational education, high school and university, after 1989, Romania was confronted with a massive disturbance of the labor market. This dimension has been linked to a certain inadequacies supply training system Romanian, which itself on the one hand, a transformation natural caused by seclusion has been maintained for several years, on the other hand, in a process of adaptation to European standards.

  3. Report on the current situation with regard to nuclear fuel and the operations of Svensk Kaernbraenslefoersoerjning AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The cost of supplying nuclear fuel, including the reserve stockpile, has averaged about SEK 0.033/kWhe during the report period. Within the sea transportation system, the ship m/s Sigyn was delivered during the month of October. The temporary storage facility for spent fuel, CLAB, is scheduled to be completed at Simpevarp at the beginning of 1985. Licensing applications have been submitted to the appropriate authorities for the construction of a final repository for reactor waste (SFR) in an underground facility to be built in the rock adjacent to the Forsmark nuclear power station. The first outbound shipment from Ringhals under the reprocessing contract between SKBF and COGEMA of France is planned to take place around the start of 1983. Reprocessing will commence in 1985 at the earliest. The uranium (approx. 850 tonnes) and plutonium (approx. 6 tonnes) obtained from reprocessing is Swedish property. Broad and long-range research is currently being conducted in order to further refine the technology and select a site for the final repository, SFL. Efforts are now being concentrated on the final storage of spent fuel without reprocessing. Construction of the repository is scheduled to start in 2010 and operation in 2020. SKBF has been entrusted with the management of the international Stripa project. Pursuant to the new Financing Act, SKBF submitted a report on 30 June of this year to the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (NAK). The report included a cost estimate in 1981 prices for the management and various stages in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The estimate, comes out to SEK 32 billion, which represents about 10percent of the value of the electrical power produced by the nuclear power plants. The Government has decided upon a rate of SEK 0.017/kWhe of electricity generated by nuclear power as the 1982 charge to be paid to the state (NAK). The total cost picture for nuclear fuel (including provision for the costs of decommissioning of nuclear power

  4. CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OF PRODUCTION AND RESERVES OF PERMANENT MAGNETS OF RARE EARTHS: BRAZIL × WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Weschenfelder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating energy from renewable sources is not an easy task since it requires different types of technologies, which can add much cost to the system. For this reason, investment in research in this area can be an alternative for economic feasibility of wind power plants, for example. One line of research in this area is the study of new materials such as permanent magnets, with even better properties. These magnets, when used in wind generators add many advantages in the operation there of, and a high torque/volume. For this application it is necessary that these magnets have high coercive field (Hc and high remanent induction (Br. Brazil still has no competition in the industry of permanent magnets, so many studies by government and private enterprise are under development in the country. There is a special focus to the Rare Earths Magnets, the primary raw material for production of permanent magnets.

  5. Environmental services in Zavidovici (Bosnia Herzegovina): current situation and proposals for intervention-Part 1.: Drinking water treatment and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccari, M.; Collivignarelli, C.; Vitali, F.

    2009-01-01

    The state of the environment in Bosnia Herzegovina, already compromised before the war by the development of heavy industry, worsened after the conflict. The country is facing difficult issues in the supply of environmental services, which have recently been overlooked with regard to full coverage of the territory with adequate infrastructures and appropriate management of the existing ones. Several years ago CeTAmb started collaborating with the Local Democracy Agency in Zavidovici and local institutions: within that cooperation a survey of environmental services (water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, solid waste management) supplied to the municipal territory was implemented. The first part of the paper presents the different issues, and relative improvement solutions proposed, resulting from an analysis of the water supply infrastructures, with regard to both quantity and quality. [it

  6. Nitrogen dioxide - current knowledge on the pollution situation and health effects; Stickstoffdioxid - Kenntnisstand zur Belastungssituation und zu gesundheitlichen Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Since the 1990s atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) pollution has mainly been determined by the volume of road traffic, especially in the urban centres of Germany. NO{sub 2} can be regarded as an important air pollutant inasmuch as it affects the health of a large part of the population. In places exposed to road traffic NO{sub 2} concentrations can easily reach and even exceed mean annual values of 100 {mu}g/m-3 and short-time peaks of 200 {mu}g/m-3. The main NO{sub 2} sources of indoor air pollution are open fireplaces (e.g. gas stoves, gas-fired heating systems and water heaters) and tobacco smoking. NO{sub 2} measurements in German kitchens yielded mean concentrations of up to 50 {mu}g/m-3 and peak concentrations of almost 200 {mu}g/m-3. Indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations in rooms without internal NO{sub 2} sources are determined by local atmospheric concentrations and have been found to lie between 20 and 30 {mu}g/m-3 on average. The WHO's revised NO{sub 2} guide values of 1998 are 40 {mu}g/m-3 in the annual average and 200 {mu}g/m-3 as hourly mean level. Being an oxidative and slightly water-soluble the tear gas NO{sub 2} mainly affects the periphery of the lungs. Its chief health effects are changes in pulmonary function and an increase in bronchial reactivity. Exposure studies on current pollution levels have shown that indoor sources contribute up to 5 {mu}g/m-3 on average and airing habits are an important influencing factor. [German] Seit den 90er Jahren bestimmt ueberwiegend der Kfz-Verkehr die Belastung der Aussenluft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}), vor allem in den staedtischen Ballungsraeumen Deutschlands. NO{sub 2} kann als eine wichtige Luftschadstoffkomponente fuer die Gesundheit eines Grossteils der Bevoelkerung angesehen werden. An Kfz-exponierten Messstellen koennen die NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen durchaus 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} im Jahresmittel und 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} als kurzzeitige Spitzenwerte erreichen oder ueberschreiten. Offene

  7. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation, challenges, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Design: Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years. Programs were predominantly (78% run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%, with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24% or overnutrition (2%. Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on

  8. Germany and the nuclear non-proliferation; Current situation and prospects; Deutschland und die nukleare Nichtverbreitung; Zwischenbilanz und Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisinger, J.

    1993-07-01

    A summary is given of the consequences, both positive and negative, of international non-proliferation policy. The numerous, complex branches and connections of national measures and inter-stake agreements for the peaceful, controlled uses of nuclear technology and related military technologies are expertly described, and assessed on their effectiveness. Weak aspects of the nuclear non-proliferation regime are pointed out and past reforms are illustrated and assessed in the light of recent developments. The interests of the German Federal Republic from the centre of this analysis. The author shows that, after a certain hesitary, German diplomacy has now become active in the establishment of an international non-proliferation regime. He concludes that Germany should take a strong initiative role in maintaining a peaceful international nuclear order. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ein Resuemee der bisherigen Erfolge und Misserfolge internationaler Nichtverbreitungspolitik gezogen. Die komplexen, vielfach veraestelten und verschachtelten nationalen Massnahmen und zwischenstaatlichen Vereinbarungen zur Ueberwachung und friedlichen Zweckbindung von Nukleartechnologie und militaerisch relevanten Anschlusstechnologien werden sachkundig erlaeutert und auf ihre Wirksamkeit ueberprueft. Schwachstellen des nuklearen Nichtverbreitungsregimes werden offengelegt, Reformschritte der vergangenen Jahre werden dargestellt und im Lichte der juengsten Entwicklungen bewertet. Dabei steht die Interessenlage der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Zentrum der Analyse. Der Autor zeigt, dass die deutsche Diplomatie sich nach einer gewissen Zurueckhaltung schliesslich aktiv in die Gestaltung des internationalen Nichtverbreitungsregimes eingeschaltet hat. Er plaediert fuer eine kraftvolle Initiativrolle Deutschlands zur Erhaltung einer friedlichen internationalen Nuklearordnung. (orig.)

  9. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - current situation and perspectives. Congress volume; Dezentrale Energieversorgung 2020 - Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokojski, M. (ed.) [Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In its study on ''Electric power supply in 2020'', which was published in 2005, the ETG made clear what consequences certain paths of development in the German power economy could have for the achievement of political goals regarding energy saving, environmental relief and the economy at large. One of the more important findings of the study was that the share of renewable energy is expected to grow and that decentralised energy supply systems will make a significant contribution to tomorrow's electricity supply. In autumn 1995 the ETG set up the ''2020 Electric Power Supply Task Force'' to assess this contribution. This working group analysed the possibilities and consequences of a growing decentralised power supply, taking into account all types of electricity and heat production such as cogeneration, wind power, photovoltaic and solar thermal plants. Another technology that fall into this category are thermal or electrical energy storages, which permit dissociating the exigencies of supply and demand. Following the conception of energy supply systems as holistic systems the Task Force also studied IT and telecommunication technologies and outlined possible communication systems for decentralised power supply plants, including even virtual power plants.

  10. Curriculum Development for Quantitative Skills in Degree Programs: A Cross-Institutional Study Situated in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Belward, Shaun; Coady, Carmel; Rylands, Leanne; Simbag, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Higher education policies are increasingly focused on graduate learning outcomes, which infer an emphasis on, and deep understanding of, curriculum development across degree programs. As disciplinary influences are known to shape teaching and learning activities, research situated in disciplinary contexts is useful to further an understanding of…

  11. Development of an IOS App Using Situated Learning, Communities of Practice, and Augmented Reality for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development process and framework used to construct a transportation app that uses situated learning, augmented reality, and communities of practice. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause social impairments as well as the limit the potential for the individual to achieve independence…

  12. Variability of Self-Regulatory Strategies in Children with Intellectual Disability and Typically Developing Children in Pretend Play Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, N.; Vieillevoye, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study has examined whether or not self-regulatory strategies vary depending on pretend play situations in 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 typically developing children. Method: Their cognitive, linguistic and individual symbolic play levels were assessed in order to match the children of the two groups. During two…

  13. Managing the Current Situation of Young People in National and European Context in Terms of their Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braica Alexandra Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and research into this phenomenon of social marginalization and social exclusion of young people at both national and European levels has as a target to find methods of prevention and reduction of this phenomenon and understand the fact that it is only through communication, debates and dialog that will we be able to establish benchmarks for joint action. Young people are one of the age segments which are most affected by the economic recession. It is also accepted that in each of the Member States of the EU, despite different circumstances and levels of economic development, major issues faced by young people are the same: from access to essential services (such as education and health and up to their integration into the labour market with a view to achieving a higher standard of living. The decision makers are constantly interested in solving these stringent problems, which can be found in the policies and strategies for economic recovery and fighting the austerity measures adopted by the Member States of the EU, through a series of programs that have as main objectives combating unemployment and poverty among young people and providing opportunities for more active involvement in their community life: political, social, economic, cultural. In Romania, the problem of young people constitutes an issue of major importance for the Government, which has drawn up for the first time an Integrated Strategy of Romania with regard to young people called "National Strategy for Youth 2014-2020", with particular emphasis on the first role that education must play in this context. Examples of solutions identified by the governors are: an increase in public funding for mentoring programs, for the prevention of school dropout rates, establishment of differentiated educational offers, training schemes designed to eliminate lack of qualification in young people, in such a way as to maintain a competitive and well-prepared generation in the country

  14. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  15. Development of a Vision-Based Situational Awareness Capability for Unmanned Surface Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    camera), which is similar to the movement of the ship in the electro-optics (EO) video imagery. An image of the model representing the ship with a...with both color video imagery and infrared video imagery, and the results obtained from processing the images demonstrated the viability of using this...situational awareness capability, which is required to achieve autonomous navigation. The algorithm was tested with both color video imagery and infrared

  16. The current Russian model of social development, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Paramonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Article 7 of the Constitution of Russia adopted in 1993 defines the country as a social state, the contemporary social and economic situation is significantly different from this declaration. The author considers the current situation focusing on the foundations of the welfare state. The indicators of social inequality and stratification that allow to identify the country as a social state prove the widening gap between the rich and poor. In recent years, nothing has been done to achieve the more equitable distribution of income and national wealth, which led to the further growth of social inequality exceeding the global indices. The author believes that the high level of social inequality negatively affects the economic growth. Based on the studies of Russian scientists he concludes that equal distribution of income provides higher rates of economic growth and prosperity of the country. The modified theory of the factors of production explains this interconnection, and adds a few more factors, including such a specific resource as sales market, to three factors introduced by J.B. Say at the beginning of the XIX century. The huge social inequality and, consequently, a significant number of the poor deprive the country of such an important resource. To change the situation, the author proposes to return to the progressive tax scale and introduce the zero rate of income tax for the poorest groups in order to create prerequisites for the growth of consumer demand under the economic crisis.

  17. District heating and cogeneration in the EU-28: Current situation, potential and proposed energy strategy for its generalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rosales-Asensio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, EU-28 conventional thermal generating plants reject a greater amount of energy than what ultimately is utilised by residential and commercial loads for heating and hot water. If this waste heat were to be used through district heating networks, given a previous energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in imported fossil fuels for heating. As a consequence, benefits in the form of an energy efficiency increase, an energy security improvement, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases would occur. Given that it is not expected for heat demand to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. However, to make this happen, some barriers that are far from being technological but are mostly institutional and financial need to be removed. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the potential of using waste heat from conventional thermal power plants (subsequently converted into cogeneration plants in district heating networks located in the EU-28. For this, a preliminary assessment is conducted in order to show an estimate of the cost of adopting an energy strategy in which district heating networks are a major player of the energy mix. From this assessment, it is possible to see that even though the energy strategy proposed in this paper, which is based on a dramatic increase in the joint use of district heating networks and cogeneration, is capital-intensive and would require an annual investment of roughly 300 billion euros, its adoption would result in a reduction of yearly fuel expenses in the order of 100 billion euros and a shortening of about 15% of the total final energy consumption, which makes it of paramount interest as an enabler of the legal basis of the “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” future enacted by the EU-28 Horizon 2020.

  18. Future trials of endovascular mechanical recanalisation therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients: a position paper endorsed by ESMINT and ESNR. Pt. 1. Current situation and major research questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Turjman, Francis [Hopital Neurologique, Centre de Neurosciences Cognitives, Department of Neuroradiology, Lyon (France); White, Philip M. [Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bakke, Soeren Jacob [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Mangiafico, Salvatore [University Hospital Careggi, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Florence (Italy); Kummer, Ruediger von [University of Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Muto, Mario [University of Naples, Department of Neuroradiology, Naples (Italy); Cognard, Christophe [Hopital Purpan, Service de Neuroradiologie, Toulouse (France); Gralla, Jan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Neuroradiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A new era of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-triever). Multiple case series and the first randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have now been published. More studies are under way involving large numbers of patients, which in turn has resulted in less strict ''pragmatic'' study protocols. Problems with current trials include a lack of standardisation in the conduct of the recanalisation procedure, the definition of primary endpoints such as the grade of arterial recanalisation and tissue reperfusion, and the post-surgical care provided. In Part 1 of this two part series, we outline the current situation and the major research questions. (orig.)

  19. Situation and development of solid state dosimetry from the PTB-point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Nink, R.

    An outline is given of the legal situation concerning dosimetry in the field of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany which is ruled by the German law of verification. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) therefore has worked out requirements for the type approval of TLD systems the main points of which are discussed briefly. A further progress of TLD - measuring methods and materials - seems desirable. Therefore, extended research with regard to preparation, TL mechanism and dosimetric properties is necessary. Examples of the activities in the solid state physics group of PTB - mainly concerning TLD an LiF - are given

  20. Situation of the development of renewable energies in Poitou-Charentes - Year 2013, Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These reports propose a presentation of data regarding renewable energy production and the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption (situation by the end of year, avoided emissions, evolution since 1990, predictions by 2020, social-economic data), an overview of thermal renewable energy or heat production (wood under various forms, energetic valorisation unit, geothermal thermal biogas, solar thermal), of electricity-producing renewable energies (wind energy, solar photovoltaic, electric biogas, hydraulic energy), and agri-fuels (only one unit in service in the region). For each energy source, sites and their production are indicated

  1. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  2. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  3. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy situation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, I

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the energy problem in the world, and then studies in detail the situation in Jordan. It covers the energy supply of crude oil, refined products, and non-commercial energy; energy demand; the current pattern of energy consumption of oil and electricity; a forecast of energy demand; the government subsidy of energy; new energy resources in Jordan (oil exploration and oil shale, tar sands, radioactive minerals, and renewable energy sources including geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind). The report concludes that alternative energy sources must be developed by Jordan to meet the increased demand for energy and to reduce the dependence of Jordan on oil in the next decades.

  5. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  6. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  7. Nuclear energy over the last 20 years and current developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The round-table debate was chaired by Jose Maria Fernandez-Rua, who began with a presentation of the current situation in the nuclear sector, namely the permanent shutdown of Lemoniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo nuclear power plants, and continued with the introduction of the participants: Javier de Pinedo, Director of Generation for Iberdrola; Alberto Lopez, General Manager of Enresa; Guillermo Velarde, Director of the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of the ETSIIM; Adolfo Garcia Rodriguez, General Manager of Empresarios Agrupados; Enrique Garcia Alvarez, technical Director of the Endesa Group; Rafael Caro, Member of the Nuclear Safety Council; Juan Velarde Fuentes; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and Agustin Alonso, Professor of Nuclear Technology at ETSIIM (Author)

  8. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the etiologic agent of TB. The World Health Organization estimates that about eight to ten million new TB cases occur annually worldwide and the incidence of TB is currently increasing. In this context, TB is in the top three, with malaria and HIV being the leading causes of death from a single infectious agent, and approximately two million deaths are attributable to TB annually. In particular, pulmonary TB, the most common form of TB, is a highly contagious and life-threatening infection. Moreover, enhanced susceptibility to TB in HIV-infected populations is another serious health problem throughout the world. In addition, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has been increasing in incidence in many areas, not only in developing countries but industrialized countries as well, during the past decade. These situations, particularly the global resurgence of TB and the rapid emergence of MDR-TB, underscore the importance of the development of new antituberculous drugs and new protocols for efficacious clinical control of TB patients using ordinary antimycobacterial drugs. Concerning the development of new antituberculous drugs, the following points are of particular importance. (1) Development of drugs which display lasting antimycobacterial activity in vivo is desirable, since they can be administered with long intervals and consequently facilitate directly observed therapy and enhance patient compliance. (2) Development of novel antituberculosis compounds to combat MDR-TB is urgently needed. (3) The eradication of slowly metabolizing and, if possible, dormant populations of MTB organisms that cause relapse, using new classes of anti-TB drugs is very promising for prevention of TB incidence, because it will markedly reduce the incidence of active TB from persons who are

  9. Situational Requirements Engineering for the Development of Content Management System-based Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, J.; van de Weerd, I.; Versendaal, J.M.; Brinkkemper, S.

    2005-01-01

    Web applications are evolving towards strong content-centered Web applications. The development processes and implementation of these applications are unlike the development and implementation of traditional information systems. In this paper we propose WebEngineering Method; a method for developing

  10. Limitation of life-sustaining treatment in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU. Current situation in Spain as seen from the EPIPUSE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tejedor, A; Martín Delgado, M C; Cabré Pericas, L; Algora Weber, A

    2015-10-01

    Limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LLST) is a recommended practice in certain circumstances. Limitation practices are varied, and their application differs from one center to another. The present study evaluates the current situation of LLST practices in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU who suffer worsening of their condition. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Seventy-five Spanish ICUs. A total of 589 patients suffering 777 complications or adverse events with organ function impairment after day 7 of admission, during a three-month recruitment period. The timing of limitation, the subject proposing LLST, the degree of agreement within the team, the influence of LLST upon the doctor-patient-family relationship, and the way in which LLST is implemented. LLST was proposed in 34.3% of the patients presenting prolonged admission to the ICU with severe complications. The incidence was higher in patients with moderate to severe lung disease, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment or dependence for basic activities of daily living. LLST was finally implemented in 97% of the cases in which it was proposed. The decision within the medical team was unanimous in 87.9% of the cases. The doctor-patient-family relationship usually does not change or even improves in this situation. LLST in ICUs is usually carried out under unanimous decision of the medical team, is performed more frequently in patients with severe comorbidity, and usually does not have a negative impact upon the relationship with the patients and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. [Analysis on the current situation of neglected rural children aged 0 - 6 years and its impact factors in the western areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-yu; Zhong, Zhao-hui; Pan, Jian-ping; Wang, Ying-xiong; Zhong, Yin; Yang, Xin; Hu, Chen; Cai, Lin-li; Xu, Ya

    2012-02-01

    To learn the current neglected situation and its impact factors on rural children in two provinces in Western China. The investigation was conducted by using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in some parts of the Shanxi province and the city of Chongqing. 1488 subjects, aged from 0 to 6, were recruited in the present study. Results showed that the total prevalence rates of neglected rural children in the two research sites were 31.59% and 48.32 respectively. No significant difference was found on the prevalence of neglected for boys and girls (χ(2) = 0.86, U = 1.51, P > 0.05). The degrees of negligence in the older children showed a significant increase than in the younger children (χ(2) = 13.36, F = 33.45, P children families, both in terms of prevalence and degree of negligence. Our data demonstrated the degrees of negligence in children whose parents were away from home, were higher than the children whose parents stayed with them (χ(2) = 30.30, U = 6.76, P children were as follows: parents were away from home (OR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.20 - 1.97); structure of the family (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.16 - 1.65); father's occupation (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.78 - 0.97); schooling of the children's mother (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.07 - 1.52); relationship between children and their fathers (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.07 - 1.91) etc. The situation of negligence in children living in the rural areas, were serious in Shanxi and Chongqing provinces, which called for the strengthening on the publicity and education of the issue. School and the society should also pay more attention to this problem.

  12. Development present situation analysis of nuclear power industry in China and South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the present state and primary development experiences of South Korean nuclear power industry and the present state of Chinese nuclear power industry development, and comparatively analyzes and researches the differences between China and South Korea in nuclear power industry. At last, we come up with some suggestions and ideas to refer the follow-up development of Chinese nuclear power industry. (author)

  13. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  14. Creating Sustainable Societies: Developing Emerging Professionals through Transforming Current Mindsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Future professionals will bear the brunt of creating sustainable societies. Equipping them for the task is the challenge of current educators. Educational experiences facilitating the development of sustainable habits of mind are needed. This research reports on the experiences of developing scientists and engineers engaged in a sustainable energy…

  15. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic energy power generation is recognized to be important to solve the problems of the competitive relations among the Asian developing countries due to the increasing dependency on the crude oil produced in the Middle East and the insecurity of transport route of the oil. The reorganization and inauguration of JNC(former PNC) has been carried out for the development of liquid metal reactor and related fuel cycle technology as the national development project to prevent the global green house effect and to continue the economic development. The construction of light water reactor, the utilization of plutonium in light water reactor and the enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel of light water reactor are classified as proven technologies which will be covered by the industry. The government will lead to the environment favorable for introduction of the atomic energy and will monitor the situation. The specifics of atomic energy development project and the development system for the 21th century will be contained in the long term atomic energy development plan which will be completed by 2000 and the reorganization operation has been initiated. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 30 figs

  16. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  17. Texas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Bowmer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was formed in 1981 to address the Texas low-level radioactive waste problem consistent with the direction of P.L. 96-573. The Authority has completed technical tasks, including source term evaluations, preliminary conceptual designs, economic assessments, and long-range planning, and has work in progress on facility design, site selection, operating procedures, and licensing. Site selection has been the major technical activity and will be completed in 1987 after on-site evaluations of potential sites. The Authority expects to have its site licensed and operating in 1992. Texas has been the leader in site selection. Political concerns and the uncertainty of the national agenda led Texas policy makers to slow down the state's progress. The lessons learned through the Texas situation should be instructive to other states and compacts and may well be a prediction of events for these other groups. This paper discusses the background and status of Texas development activities, future plans, and lessons learned

  18. Development of the assessment method for the idealized images of teams. Investigation on the teamwork in emergency response situation (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Since the occurrence of the Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and the nuclear disaster in 2011, the strengthening of emergency response training has been emphasized in Japanese electric industries. When disasters and accidents occur in a nuclear power plant, workers should collaborate with each other to mitigate possible hazards and to recovery from emergencies, as self-effort is not sufficient in these times. Effective teamwork is essential for the success of emergency response. However, the aspects of teamwork that are required in emergencies remain unclear. This study developed a questionnaire instrument to assess the idealized image of effective power plant operator teams in three different levels of emergencies. A pilot test of the instrument was conducted with 21 training instructors who are subject-matter experts in nuclear power plant operation. In the questionnaire, three hypothetical situations of differing emergency levels were presented: 'normal' (routine operation), 'abnormal' (trouble shooting and malfunction correction), 'emergency' (severe accident and disaster response). The idealized image of teams in each situation was also assessed in four aspects: 'decision-making', 'coordination', 'adaptation and adjustment', and 'command and control'. Questionnaire responses were summarized in a profile form to picture the idealized images, ant the profile scores in each situation were compared. Results suggested that, the idealized image of effective teams is different depending on the level of emergency. The Implications of results for training and future research directions are discussed. (author)

  19. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  20. Lived on school situations, self-respect and development of the moral judgment in the latency period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile-Henri Riard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an approach of clinical social psychology, the point of view adopted in this article is triple: 1- to consider the "common" school situations as potentially generators of difficulties; 2-join upstream to the adolescence to improve the understanding of this last one; 3 - to consider the lived of the pupils. The research led in France (children, 6 to 11 years old, by questionnaire (48 situations raising from the schooling: class, school playground, route place of residence / school, and place ofresidence were proposed; test of self-respect (Coopersmith; moral development (Kohlberg. Variables: age, sex, mode of housing environment, school position, classification, department....The results (variance’ analysis demonstrate a functioning "altogether" of the level of lived on difficulty. As significant variables, in ascending order lessening: the sex (the boys feel more the difficulties than the girls; the age (the level of lived difficulty decreases with the age but concerns especially the school playground; the mode of housing environment (collective. The class is the most carrier space of differences of lived on difficulties independently of variables. The level of autonomy and the self-respect are proportionned in broad outline conversely at the level of difficulty lived. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the effects interactive and of accumulation of the situations