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Sample records for development alcool combustivel

  1. Upper nozzle welding development transfer of Angra 2/00 fuel element to F.E.C. (Fabrica de Elemento Combustivel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, R.F. di; Almeida, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The technology development of upper nozzle welding of Angra-2 Combustible element, done at CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear), this technology transfer to FEC (Fabrica de Elemento Combustivel), the welders training of FEC in nozzle welding, the radiographic control of nozzle welds and the FEC personnel training in this nozzle welds radiography are presented is this report. (C.M.) [pt

  2. Sugarcane bioethanol and the sustainable development; Alcool combustivel derivado da cana-de-acucar e o desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Rodrigo Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The use of the sugarcane bioethanol in Brazil was strongly boosted during the 1970 's and 1980 's, with the advent of the National Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL). Following this period a decade of uncertainties came up, when the decline in the Program results were noticeable. Nowadays, it seems that new and good perspectives arise, due to the emergent external and internal markets. In this paper the evolution of the sugarcane bioethanol use in Brazil is addressed, stressing the importance and legacy of the PROALCOOL. The future perspectives of the alcohol are also discussed. (author)

  3. Development of solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Alencar, Marcelo Goncalves F. de; Amaral, Alexandre Alves do; Benedicto, Joao Paulo Santos; Silva, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells allow the energy production without the thermodynamic restriction of the conversion of heat into work. Among their various types, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), operating at high temperatures, allow the methane conversion into electricity directly on the anode. The main element of the SOFC is the structure A/E/C: anode/electrolyte/cathode, all sintered at high temperature as resistant ceramic materials. Dense electrolyte (YSZ: zirconia stabilized for Yttria) separates the anode (Ni+Co/YSZ: cobalt promoted nickel, supported on YSZ) and cathode (LSM: strontium-doped lanthanum manganite), both with porosity obtained by graphite addition. To obtain suitable A/E/C pellets, the layer sintering with appropriate mechanical and textural characteristics is essential, requiring excellent electric junctions between them. The cell performance has been evaluated between 850 and 950 degree C, using hydrogen or methane fuel; the tension and current for different resistance values in the electrical circuit have been measured. The cobalt addition to the cell anode significantly increased its activity for the reform reaction. The beneficial effect was probably due to the easier nickel reduction in cobalt presence. This work had the objectives of developing and evaluating electro-catalysts, as well as the solid oxide fuel cells using these catalysts as anode. Five SOFC models (SOFC 1 to SOFC 5) are described; all of them were developed aiming at improving the preparation of the anode/electrolyte/cathode structure (A/E/C). (author)

  4. Production of Methanol-Higher Alcohol Mixtures from Natural Gas via Syngas Chemistry Production de mélanges méthanol-alcools supérieurs à partir du gaz, via (CO + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevailing position of ethers (MTBE, TAME as octane boosters, and the low oil prices at present, alcohol synthesis remains one of the near future means of natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry. After a review of the available process development data in the field, this paper focuses on the IFP process studies, based on the CuCo and CuNi catalysts developed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFR, France and Idemitsu Kosan (Japan. The adequacy between the product specifications, and the optimization of the performances is then discussed in a technico-economic context, together with a presentation of lab scale, pilot scale and demonstration scale test results. As a conclusion, a prospective overall view brings together todays economics and some improvement guidelines dealing with investments, operating cost and catalyst performances. Cette publication présente les travaux de R & D (Recherche et Développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon en synthèse d'alcools. Elle situe les résultats dans le contexte technique et économique actuel. L'accroissement constant des ressources prouvées en gaz et, chronologiquement, les deux crises pétrolières, la suppression du plomb dans les essences, ont conduit le monde industriel à intensifier les recherches concernant la synthèse d'alcools. Très récemment, les effets bénéfiques de l'addition d'alcools sur les émissions de polluants ont été mis en évidence. Toutefois, l'additivation de carburants par les alcools est en voie de disparition au profit des éthers, alors que, indépendamment, les procédés de production d'ammoniac, de méthanol, d'acide acétique, également fondés sur le gaz, se sont seuls développés. La synthèse d'alcools a fait l'objet de nombreux travaux, résumés dans les tableaux 1 et 2. L'étude des différents aspects réactionnels amène à prendre en compte l'exothermicité importante des r

  5. Towards ProAlcool II - a review of the Brazilian bioethanol programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosillo-Calle, F.; Cortez, L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the creation of the National Alcohol Programme (NAP) in 1975, commonly known as ''ProAlcool'', it has gone through a number of fluctuations reflecting Brazilian political, economic and energy priorities. In 1996-1997 over 175 Mt of sugarcane (65% of 270 Mt harvested) was converted to ethanol fuel. The ProAlcool started as a highly innovative programme, but in recent years has lost part of its technological zeal and in certain areas is becoming stagnant. This is due to a combination of reasons, e.g. unclear energy policy, high sugar prices in the international market and lower investment in ethanol production as a result of low international oil prices. A new impetus is needed to reflect changing economic and energy policy in Brazil. This paper reviews the implications for ProAlcool of the new economic policies and the possibilities for restructuring the programme to guarantee its survival as a pioneering and sustainable renewable energy source. (author)

  6. Consommation d’alcool et lignes directrices pour la consommation d’alcool à faible risque chez les adultes : une analyse transversale de l’Alberta’s Tomorrow Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Brenner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : La consommation modérée ou élevée d’alcool constitue un facteur de risque de mortalité toutes causes confondues et de cancer. Nous disposons de données transversales grâce aux enquêtes nationales, mais jusqu'à présent aucunes données sur la consommation d’alcool en Alberta n'étaient disponibles pour une grande cohorte prospective. Notre objectif est de définir, à la lumière des lignes directrices de prévention du cancer, les niveaux de consommation d’alcool des adultes ayant pris part à l’Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Nous avons également analysé les liens entre la consommation d’alcool et certains autres comportements à risque, en particulier à risque élevé. Méthodologie : Entre 2001 et 2009, 31 072 hommes et femmes de 35 à 69 ans ont participé à l’Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, une grande étude de cohorte provinciale. Des données concernant la consommation d’alcool dans les 12 derniers mois ont été obtenues pour 26 842 participants ayant répondu à des questionnaires autoadministrés sur la santé et sur le mode de vie. Nous avons effectué des analyses transversales sur la consommation d’alcool quotidienne et les lignes directrices de prévention du cancer en matière de consommation d’alcool en lien avec des facteurs sociodémographiques. Nous avons aussi examiné la prévalence combinée de la consommation d’alcool, du tabagisme, de l’obésité et de diverses comorbidités. Résultats : Environ 14 % des hommes et 12 % des femmes ont déclaré consommer davantage d’alcool que ce que préconisent les recommandations en matière de prévention du cancer. Une consommation plus importante d’alcool a été rapportée chez les plus jeunes, les citadins, les personnes à revenu plus élevé et celles consommant davantage de viande rouge. En outre, le volume de consommation quotidienne d’alcool était positivement associé au tabagisme, tant chez les hommes que chez les femmes

  7. Certification for copper concentration in reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol; Certificacao da concentracao de cobre em material de referencia para alcool etilico anidro combustivel (AEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindomar Augusto dos; Rocha, Marcia Silva da; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Silva, Fagner Francisco da; Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; Araujo, Thiago Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: lareis@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This work aiming to obtain the first certified reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol relative to the copper concentration, which has his maximum limit determined by the in force legislation providing traceability and reliability for the measurement results.

  8. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  9. Production de méthanol et d'alcools supérieurs à partir de gaz via (CO + H2 Production of Methanol and Higher Alcohols from Gas via (Co + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre des procédés en développement pour la synthèse d'alcools à partir de syngas (CO + H2, ce mémoire présente certains résultats récents de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon. La première démonstration du procédé, sous programme R et D du RAPAD-Japon, a confirmé les performances et la faisabilité. Les alcools sélectivement produits, après fractionnement, présentent de bonnes propriétés pour l'usage carburant. L'optimisation de l'ensemble constitué par la production du syngas, la synthèse, le fractionnement des alcools, a permis une simplification sensible du procédé, une optimisation spécifique des performances, ce qui conduit à des données économiques plus favorables. Within the framework of processes being developed for alcohol synthesis from syngas, this article describes some recent results obtained by Idemitsu-Kosan (Japan and Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France. The first demonstration of the process as part of the RAPAD-Japan R & D program has confirmed both its performances and feasibility. The alcohols selectively produced, after suitable fractionation, present good properties as a blend for motor fuels. The optimization of the overall process for syngas production, alcohol synthesis and alcohol fractionation has led to a significant simplification of the process and to the optimization of its performances, leading to better economics.

  10. Development and scale-up of the production process of NovoCell fuel cells; Desenvolvimento e 'scale-up' do processo de producao de celulas a combustivel NovoCell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Dayse Caldas de; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita [NovoCell Sistemas de Energia S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells present the potentiality to substitute the engines of internal combustion in vehicles and to supply energy for stationary use. This potentiality, however, not yet reflected in its introduction in the market with regular lines of production, because of its high cost and lack of criteria that demonstrate its reliability and durability. These subjects are the main goals of the programs of development of fuel cells worldwide. NovoCell is a Brazilian company whose objective is to develop and to produce hydrogen/air fuel cells for stationary generation. All the project is guided by the use of technologies/processes and materials that allow production in large scale and to a competitive cost, giving support to a continuous program of innovation and development of the product. In this work the technological solutions developed by the company are presented. (author)

  11. Development and scale-up of the production process of NovoCell fuel cells; Desenvolvimento e 'scale-up' do processo de producao de celulas a combustivel NovoCell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Dayse Caldas de; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita [NovoCell Sistemas de Energia S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dayse.azevedo@novocell.ind.br

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells present the potentiality to substitute the engines of internal combustion in vehicles and to supply energy for stationary use. This potentiality, however, not yet reflected in its introduction in the market with regular lines of production, because of its high cost and lack of criteria that demonstrate its reliability and durability. These subjects are the main goals of the programs of development of fuel cells worldwide. NovoCell is a Brazilian company whose objective is to develop and to produce hydrogen/air fuel cells for stationary generation. All the project is guided by the use of technologies/processes and materials that allow production in large scale and to a competitive cost, giving support to a continuous program of innovation and development of the product. In this work the technological solutions developed by the company are presented. (author)

  12. Development of electrode-membrane-electrode assemblies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) by Sieve printing; Desenvolvimento de conjuntos eletrodo-membrana-eletrodo para celulas a combustivel a membrana trocadora de protons (PEMFC) por impressao a tela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Alexandre Bodart de

    2008-07-01

    The Sieve Printing process was studied in this work to apply the catalyst layers onto electrolytes utilized in PEMFC. Initially, 25 cm{sup 2} active area MEAs were built for comparison with others MEAs produced by the Spray technique. The two methods produced MEAs that showed current densities higher than 600 mA.cm{sup -2} at 600 mV. A scaling up study for 144 cm{sup 2} of active area MEAs was carried out. For this purpose, a new cell had to be projected for shelter the MEAs in such dimensions. The profile of the gas distribution channels was developed through the computational fluid dynamic tool 'Comsol Multiphysics'. For the design of the bipolar plates of the cell the 'Auto CAD' was used. The 144 cm{sup 2} MEAs made by Spray and by Sieve Printing methods were confronted with commercials MEAs ones of equal dimensions. These commercials MEAs presented better performance at 600 mV, however they were more costly than the solution developed in this study. The new method was showed to be adequate to fabricate low cost MEAs of different geometries and to produce any amount of MEAs for small scale stacks (up to 10 kW). (author)

  13. Development of electrode-membrane-electrode assemblies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) by Sieve printing; Desenvolvimento de conjuntos eletrodo-membrana-eletrodo para celulas a combustivel a membrana trocadora de protons (PEMFC) por impressao a tela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Alexandre Bodart de

    2008-07-01

    The Sieve Printing process was studied in this work to apply the catalyst layers onto electrolytes utilized in PEMFC. Initially, 25 cm{sup 2} active area MEAs were built for comparison with others MEAs produced by the Spray technique. The two methods produced MEAs that showed current densities higher than 600 mA.cm{sup -2} at 600 mV. A scaling up study for 144 cm{sup 2} of active area MEAs was carried out. For this purpose, a new cell had to be projected for shelter the MEAs in such dimensions. The profile of the gas distribution channels was developed through the computational fluid dynamic tool 'Comsol Multiphysics'. For the design of the bipolar plates of the cell the 'Auto CAD' was used. The 144 cm{sup 2} MEAs made by Spray and by Sieve Printing methods were confronted with commercials MEAs ones of equal dimensions. These commercials MEAs presented better performance at 600 mV, however they were more costly than the solution developed in this study. The new method was showed to be adequate to fabricate low cost MEAs of different geometries and to produce any amount of MEAs for small scale stacks (up to 10 kW). (author)

  14. Development and testing of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for stationary generation; Desenvolvimento e ensaios de uma celula a combustivel de polimero solido (PEMFC) para geracao estacionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellern, Mara; Boccuzzi, Cyro Vicente [ELETROPAULO, Sao Caetano, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mara.ellern@aes.com; Ett, Gerhard; Saiki, Gerson Yukio; Janolio, Gilberto [ELECTROCELL, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jardini, Jose Antonio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell uses a simple chemical reaction to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current in the process. It works something like reversed electrolysis: at the anode, hydrogen molecules give up electrons, forming hydrogen ions (this process is made possible by the platinum catalyst). The proton exchange membrane allows protons to flow through, but not electrons. As a result, the hydrogen ions flow directly through the proton exchange membrane to the cathode, while the electrons flow through an external circuit. As they travel to the cathode through the external circuit, the electrons produce electrical current. At the cathode, the electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water. In a fuel cell, hydrogen's natural tendency to oxidize and form water produces electricity and useful work. No pollution is produced and the only byproducts are water and heat. The huge advance on materials development combined with the growth demand of lower impact on environment is placing the fuel cells on the top of the most promising technologies world-wide. They are becoming in medium term feasible alternatives for energy generators up to energy plants of few MW. (author)

  15. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 cm{sup 2} proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Desenvolvimento de um modelo numerico computacional aplicado a uma celula a combustivel unitaria de 144 CM{sup 2} tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  16. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 CM{sup 2} proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Desenvolvimento de um modelo numerico computacional aplicado a uma celula a combustivel unitaria de 144 CM{sup 2} tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm{sup 2} of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  17. Microstructural development and characterization of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics to application in solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento microestrutural e caracterizacao de ceramicas a base de cromita de lantanio para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Furtado, J.G. de M.; Soares, C.M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rnunes@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This work has for objective to investigate and to characterize the microstructural development of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics (LaCrO{sub 3}) doped with earth alkaline metals, correlating the microstructural parameters (mainly the densification level) and processing parameters with the electrothermal properties reached. Lanthanum chromite-based ceramic systems doped with earth-alkaline metals (Ca, Mg and Sr) had been produced from respective metallic nitrates by solid state reactions process. The phase compositions were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the densification level by Archimedes method. The microstructural characterization was effected by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermal analysis techniques. Electrical tests were used to evaluate the electrical conductivity of the studied ceramics. The obtained results corroborate the literature comments concerning the difficulty of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics with high densification level and evidence the great influence of the nature of the dopants on the sintering mechanism and the microstructural and electric characteristics of the produced ceramics. The best ones results, in terms of densification and electrical conductivity, had been gotten through multiple doping with calcium and strontium, and in sintering temperature conditions lower that the normally considered to pure or monodoped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics. (author)

  18. Development of materials for use in solid oxid fuel cells anodes using renewable fuels in direct operation; Desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos aplicados em anodos de celulas a combustivel de oxidos solidos para operacao direta com combustiveis renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, D.B.P.L. de [Instituto Federal do Parana (IFPR), PR (Brazil); Florio, D.Z. de; Bezerra, M.E.O., E-mail: daniela.bianchi@ifpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Fuel cells produce electrical current from the electrochemical combustion of a gas or liquid (H2, CH4, C2H5OH, CH3OH, etc.) inserted into the anode cell. An important class of fuel cells is the SOFC (Solid Oxide Cell Fuel). It has a ceramic electrolyte that transports protons (H +) or O-2 ions and operating at high temperatures (500-1000 °C) and mixed conductive electrodes (ionic and electronic) ceramics or cermets. This work aims to develop anodes for fuel cells of solid oxide (SOFC) in order to direct operations with renewable fuels and strategic for the country (such as bioethanol and biogas). In this context, it becomes important to study in relation to the ceramic materials, especially those that must be used in high temperatures. Some types of double perovskites such as Sr2MgMoO6 (or simply SMMO) have been used as anodes in SOFC. In this study were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, analyzed and characterized different ceramic samples of families SMMO, doped with Nb, this is: Sr2 (MgMo)1-xNbxO6 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The materials produced were characterized by various techniques such as, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and electrical properties determined by dc and ac measurements in a wide range of temperature, frequency and partial pressure of oxygen. The results of this work will contribute to a better understanding of advanced ceramic properties with mixed driving (electronic and ionic) and contribute to the advancement of SOFC technology operating directly with renewable fuels. (author)

  19. Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

    2008-07-01

    This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature

  20. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À l'échelle mondiale, l'alcool est le troisième facteur de risque associé à la charge de morbidité. Sa consommation abusive a eu des effets considérables sur la morbidité, la mortalité et les coûts de la santé en Amérique du Sud et dans les Caraïbes. Ce projet vise à éclairer les responsables des politiques de deux pays qui ...

  1. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  2. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale; O desempenho eco-ambiental de tres usinas produtoras de alcool combustivel de pequeno, medio e grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Monitoramento Ambiental e de Recursos Naturais por Satelite

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized.

  3. Performance of direct ethanol and methanol fuel cells as function of alcohol concentration applied to the anode of those cells; Desempenho de celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de etanol (CCADE) e celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de metanol (CCADM) em funcao da concentracao do alcool aplicado ao anodo destas celulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchor, P.M.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Correa, J.P.; Kuhn, C.K.; Carpenter, D. [FURB -Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the performance of a CCADE and a CCADM as function of diminishing of concentration of alcohol applied top the anode of each cell. As result, reaching a diminishing the concentration of each alcohol through the mix of each one with the deionized water, one obtained a improved humidification and sensible reduction of the permeability of cationic membrane, generating a gain of performance of the functioning both cells. (author)

  4. Dosage direct des alcools dans les carburols par chromatographie en phase gazeuse Direct Gas Chromatographie Determination of Alcohols in Gasolines Blended by Oxygenated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroff N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on décrit une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse utilisant une colonne remplie ; elle permet de doser, sans préfractionnement, les alcools jusqu'aux butanols dans les carburols (carburants additionnés de composés oxygénés. La phase stationnaire sélectionnée est le glycérol. This report describes a gas chromatographie method using a packed column. It allows the direct determination of alcohols up to butanols in gasolines blended with oxygenated compounds without prefractionation. Glycerol has been selected as stationary phase.

  5. Development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao do combustivel nuclear tipo placa monolitico da liga U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb revestido em zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Geraldo Correa

    2014-06-01

    The autocthonal production of nuclear fuel in Brazil for test and research reactors is restricted to MTR (Material Test Reactor) fuel type dispersion plate, using U3Si2 alloy, coated and dispersed in aluminum, developed by IPEN-SP for use in IEA-R1 reactor. Moreover, the UO{sub 2} fuel rod type for power reactors is manufactured by Rezende (RJ) with a German technology by INB under license. Currently, Brazil is performing two programs of developing reactors. Currently, Brazil is developing two reactors. One of them is the development, by CNEN, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), for testing, research and radioisotope production. The other one is the development a power reactor for naval propulsion, conducted by the Brazilian Navy. This dissertation presents the development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy (ZRY), on a laboratory scale. Due to its innovative features and properties, this fuel can be used as fuel in both test reactors, research and producing radioisotopes for power reactors as small and medium sizes. Thus, this high potential fuel can be used in domestic reactors currently under development. The development of monolithic fuel plate type is made using the technique called 'picture-frame' where a sandwich composed of a monolith alloy U-2.5Zr- 7.5Nb coupled to a frame and coated sheets of Zry is obtained. The alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb was obtained by melting in an induction furnace and then was cast into rectangular ingots of graphite, thus achieving an ingot with approximate dimensions of 170 x 50 x 60 mm. The obtained ingot was hot rolled at 850 ºC, with a 50 % reduction in thickness, in order to refine the raw structure of fusion. Samples cut from the alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, with dimensions 20 x 20 x 6 mm were placed in frames and plates Zry and joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) under an atmosphere of argon, obtaining a set of 10 mm thick, 45 mm wide and 100 mm long. The sandwiches were

  6. Development of a membrane electrode as assembly production process for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by sieve printing; Desenvolvimento de processo de producao de conjuntos eletrodo-membrana-eletrodo para celulas a combustivel baseadas no uso de membrana polimerica conditora de protons (PEMFC) por impressa a tela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2010-07-01

    Energy is a resource that presents historical trend of growth in demand. Projections indicate that future energy needs will require a massive use of hydrogen as fuel. The use of systems based on the use of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has features that allow its application for stationary applications, automotive and portable power generation. The use of hydrogen as fuel for PEMFC has the advantage low pollutants' emission, when compared to fossil fuels. For the reactions in a PEMFC is necessary to build membrane electrode assembly (MEA). And the production of MEAs and its materials are relevant to the final cost of k W of power generated by systems of fuel cell. This represent currently a technological and financial barriers to large-scale application of this technology. In this work a process of MEAs fabrication were developed that showed high reproducibility, rapidity and low cost by sieve printing. The process of sieve printing and the ink composition as a precursor to the catalyst layer were developed, which allow the preparation of electrodes for MEAs fabrication with the implementation of the exact catalyst loading, 0.6 milligrams of platinum per square centimeters (mgPt.cm{sup -2}) suitable for cathodes and 0.4 mgPt.cm{sup -2} for anode in only one application step per electrode. The ink was developed, produced, characterized and used with similar characteristics to ink of sieve printing build for other applications. The MEAs produced had a performance of up to 712 m A.cm{sup -2} by 600 mV to 25 cm{sup 2} MEA area. The MEA cost production for MEAs of 247.86 cm{sup 2}, that can generate 1 kilowatt of energy was estimated to US$ 7,744.14 including cost of equipment, materials and labor. (author)

  7. Evaluation and application of PEMFC fuel cell's technologies developed at IPEN applied to a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack; Avaliacao e aplicacao de tecnologias de celulas a combustivel tipo PEMFC desenvolvida no IPEN em um modulo de 500 W{sub e} de potencia nominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Edgar Ferrari da

    2009-07-01

    This work is part of a research project on PEMFC technologies carried out in IPEN to develop and optimize a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack. The MEAs scaling up from 25 cm{sup 2} to 144 cm{sup 2} produced by the method of sieve printing; computational fluid dynamics by computer simulation of gas flow channels in bipolar plates using COMSOL{sup R} program and the use of Pt/C electrodes developed by alcohol reduction method in single cells were used to build a stack of 500 W{sub e} nominal power for possible commercial applications, produced with national technology and industrial support. A 100 hours fuel cell's test was carried out in a 144 cm{sup 2} single cell to study the stability of the MEA fabricated by sieve printing method. This single cell showed good stability within this period of time. The developed stack has reached the maximum power of 574 W{sub e} at 100 A (694.4 mA cm{sup -2}). The operating power of 500 W{sub e} was obtained at 77.7 A (540.1 mA cm{sup -2}) and potential of 6.43 V, with efficiency of 43.3%. In terms of cogeneration, the thermal power or generated heat by the stack was 652 W{sub t}. The initial estimated cost for the 500 W{sub e} stack was about R$ 4,500.00, considering only the used materials for its construction. (author)

  8. Evaluation and application of PEMFC fuel cell's technologies developed at IPEN applied to a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack; Avaliacao e aplicacao de tecnologias de celulas a combustivel tipo PEMFC desenvolvida no IPEN em um modulo de 500 W{sub e} de potencia nominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Edgar Ferrari da

    2009-07-01

    This work is part of a research project on PEMFC technologies carried out in IPEN to develop and optimize a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack. The MEAs scaling up from 25 cm{sup 2} to 144 cm{sup 2} produced by the method of sieve printing; computational fluid dynamics by computer simulation of gas flow channels in bipolar plates using COMSOL{sup R} program and the use of Pt/C electrodes developed by alcohol reduction method in single cells were used to build a stack of 500 W{sub e} nominal power for possible commercial applications, produced with national technology and industrial support. A 100 hours fuel cell's test was carried out in a 144 cm{sup 2} single cell to study the stability of the MEA fabricated by sieve printing method. This single cell showed good stability within this period of time. The developed stack has reached the maximum power of 574 W{sub e} at 100 A (694.4 mA cm{sup -2}). The operating power of 500 W{sub e} was obtained at 77.7 A (540.1 mA cm{sup -2}) and potential of 6.43 V, with efficiency of 43.3%. In terms of cogeneration, the thermal power or generated heat by the stack was 652 W{sub t}. The initial estimated cost for the 500 W{sub e} stack was about R$ 4,500.00, considering only the used materials for its construction. (author)

  9. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts; Estudo e desenvolvimento de conjuntos membrana-eletrodos (MEA) para celula a combustivel de eletrolito polimerico condutor de protons (PEMFC) com eletrocatalisadores a base de paladio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2013-07-01

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm{sup 2} single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm{sup -2}, showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm{sup -2} and power of 2.2 kW{sub net} per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary

  10. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  11. Experience de conduite, alcool et environnement monotone. In Sandrine Gaymard et Teodor Tiplica (Eds.) Sécurité routière : un défi à l'aube du XXIème siècle

    OpenAIRE

    BERTHELON, Catherine; GALY, Edith

    2017-01-01

    L'hypothèse est faite que la prise d'une faible dose d'alcool en début d'après-midi, au moment de la baisse physiologique du niveau de vigilance (creux post prandial), pourrait entraîner un assoupissement précoce, notamment chez les jeunes conducteurs novices, ayant des répercussions sur la performance. La baisse de performance devrait s'amplifier au fur et à mesure de la conduite, de par la monotonie et la longueur de la séance de conduite. Seize jeunes conducteurs de 18 ans venant d'obtenir...

  12. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  13. Optimization through experiment planning for determination of experimental conditions which guarantees the metrological reliability for analysis of chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol; Otimizacao via planejamento de experimento para determinar as condicoes experimentais que garantam confiabilidade metrologica para analise de cloreto e sulfato em alcool combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza e Silva, Renata; Araujo, Thiago de Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: rsouza@inmetro.gov.br, toaraujo@inmetro.gov.br; Aguiar, Paula Fernandes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: pfaguiar@ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a method of analysis to determine chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol which allowed eliminate or minimized the matrix effect in sample of fuel alcohol, using the Doehlert planning for the stage of optimization.

  14. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous obtenons toujours presque exclusivement l'acool 17{beta} le plus stable. D

  15. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous

  16. Prise en charge en soins primaires des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool et de la consommation à risque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de soins primaires des renseignements et des conseils fondés sur des données probantes concernant la prise en charge de la consommation à risque et des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool (TUA). Sources des données Nous avons entrepris une recherche documentaire non systématique à l’aide d’expressions de recherche en anglais, notamment primary care; screening, interventions, management et treatment; et at-risk drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol dependence et alcohol abuse; ainsi que des interventions spécifiques en médecine et en counseling pertinentes aux soins primaires. Principaux messages Dans le cas de patients ayant une consommation à risque ou un TUA, les médecins devraient offrir du counseling et, au besoin (p. ex. les patients dont le TUA est de modéré à grave), prescrire et connecter. Counseling : Offrir à tous les patients ayant une consommation à risque une brève séance de counseling et un suivi. Offrir à tous les patients ayant un TUA des séances de counseling et un suivi constant (fréquent et régulier). Prescrire : Offrir des médicaments (disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) à tous les patients ayant un TUA de modéré à grave. Connecter : Encourager les patients souffrant d’un TUA à suivre des programmes de counseling de jour ou en résidence et d’adhérer à des groupes d’entraide. S’il est indiqué de le faire, demander une consultation pour le patient auprès d’un spécialiste en médecine des dépendances, de services concurrents en santé mentale et en toxicomanie ou une thérapie spécialisée pour traumatisme. Conclusion Les médecins de famille peuvent prendre en charge efficacement les patients qui ont une consommation à risque ou des TUA.

  17. L'auto adaptation à des mélanges essence/alcool utilisés comme carburant automobile: le moteur souple The Self-Adapting of Gasoline/Alcohol Mixtures Used As Automotive Fuel: the Flexible Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur souple est un moteur susceptible d'être alimenté par des carburants constitués de mélanges d'une essence classique et d'un alcool léger (méthanol ou éthanol; si la concentration de chacun des composants de ces mélanges varie, les réglages nécessaires au bon fonctionnement du véhicule se font automatiquement. Dans cet article, sont tout d'abord exposées les propriétés caractéristiques en tant que carburant automobile de l'un de ces alcools légers, le méthanol. Puis viennent les descriptions des dispositifs qui font le moteur souple c'est-à-dire d'une part les systèmes de reconnaissance du carburant et d'autre part les appareillages susceptibles de modifier les réglages du moteur (alimentation et allumage en fonction de la qualité du mélange consommé. A flexible engine is one capable of running on fuels consisting of mixtures of conventional gasoline and a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol. If the concentration of each of these components of such mixtures varies, the tuning required for the proper running of the vehicle takes place automatically. This article begins by describing the characteristic properties of one of these light alcohols (methanol as an automotive fuel. Then the equipment is described that makes an engine flexible, i. e. both the fuel recognition systems and the equipment capable of changing engine tuning (feed and ignition as a function of the quality of the mixture burned.

  18. Étude de cas : la consommation d'alcool et sa représentation sociale dans les séries télévisées américaines et françaises ces 15 dernières années.

    OpenAIRE

    Mentior, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Ce mémoire a comme objectif principal de comprendre la représentation sociale de la consommation d'alcool dans les séries télévisées américaines et françaises durant ces 15 dernières années. Mais également quelle influence que celles-ci peuvent-elles avoir sur les téléspectateurs. À travers deux volets : une partie théorique et une analyse de contenu. Le volet théorique établit différentes notions telles que : la représentation sociale de l'alcool et de l'alcoolisme, les stéréotypes de la con...

  19. Electrochemical studies for an acid fuel cell; Estudos eletroquimicos de uma celula a combustivel acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.R.; Avaca, L.A.; Ticianelli, E.A.; Ferreira, A.C.; Oliveira, J.C.T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1984-12-31

    This work describes the main steps for the development of the components of an one-kilowatt phosphoric acid H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell stack. The electrochemical characteristics of fundamental components-electrodes and electrolyte-matrix have been evaluated in unitary fuel cell prototype by stationary polarization curves and continuous operation curves. The results confirmed the better efficiency of the hydrogen electrode and anticipated a very fair performance for the one-kilowatt stack. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  20. Electrochemical studies for an acid fuel cell; Estudos eletroquimicos de uma celula a combustivel acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E R; Avaca, L A; Ticianelli, E A; Ferreira, A C; Oliveira, J C.T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1985-12-31

    This work describes the main steps for the development of the components of an one-kilowatt phosphoric acid H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell stack. The electrochemical characteristics of fundamental components-electrodes and electrolyte-matrix have been evaluated in unitary fuel cell prototype by stationary polarization curves and continuous operation curves. The results confirmed the better efficiency of the hydrogen electrode and anticipated a very fair performance for the one-kilowatt stack. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  1. Séparation des mélanges eau-alcool à l'aide du CO2 supercritique : application au mélange éthanol eau Separation of Water-Alcohol Mixtures by Supercritical CO2: Application of the Ethanol- Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel W.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les marchés accessibles à la technique d'extraction supercritique utilisant le CO2 seront plutôt orientés vers les alcools dérivés de la pétrochimie (isopropanol, butanol secondaire ou du gaz de synthèse (mélange d'alcools allant de l'éthanol à l'hexanol que vers les produits issus des fermentations pour lesquels la sélectivité de la séparation est théoriquement insuffisante et la concentration en alcool dans le moût fermenté trop faible. Markets for the supercritical extraction technique using CO2 will mainly be aimed for alcohols derived from petrochemicals (isopropanol, secondary butanol or from synthetic gas (mixture of alcohols ranging from ethanol to hexanol rather than for products from fermentations for which separation selectivity is theoretically insufficient and the alcohol concentration in the wort much too weak.

  2. Development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, F.M.B. de; Carvalho, L.F.V. de; Alencar, M.G de; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DFQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept de Fisico-Quimica. Grupo de energia e Ciencias dos Materiais], e-mail: bventura@ufba.br

    2008-07-01

    The most promising technology for generating electric power, with reduced environmental impact, is the fuel cell. This technology is virtually non-polluting and the fuel supplies can be renewable. Therefore is necessary to study the technique of preparing the entire anode / electrolyte / cathode to optimize its operation. There are still major challenges to making the SOFC economically viable. The key is the improvement of manufacturing of its components and use of materials that can simultaneously reduce costs and reduce the temperature of operation. Among the properties of the cell, was shown the dependence of the efficiency of the device on the properties of the electrolyte, particularly its thickness. The mixture of YSZ with GDC in the composition of the anode and electrolyte aims to obtain a material with greater ionic conductivity. After sintering the cell was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  3. The dynamics of some oxidative stress markers in 3, 6 and 12-months alcohol abstinent patients: possible relevance for the usage of antioxidants in alcohol withdrawal / Dinamica unor markeri ai stresului oxidativ la 3, 6 şi 12 luni de abstinenţă de la alcool: posibila relevanţă a utilizării de antioxidanţi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrariu Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available În prezentul articol am fost interesaţi să studiem relevanţa stresului oxidativ în cadrul proceselor legate de abstinenţa de la alcool, având în vedere în special faptul că literatura de specialitate este extrem de controversată în acest domeniu de cercetare. Astfel, am determinat nivelul unor markeri specifici ai stresului oxidativ la pacienţii selectaţi după 3, 6 şi 12 luni de abstinenţă de la alcool. 62 de pacienţi de sex masculin au fost selectaţi pentru studiu. În cadrul studiului s-au prezentat 33 de pacienţi pentru determinările bazale, 14 pacienţi la 3 luni, 14 pacienţi la 6 luni şi 15 pacienţi la 12 luni de abstinenţa de la alcool, în timp ce lotul control a inclus 32 de persoane sănătoase, potrivite ca vârstă si sex-ratio cu celelalte grupuri de studiu. Astfel, în ceea ce priveşte rezultatele, în cazul superoxid dismutazei (SOD am observat o diferenţă semnificativă între cele trei loturi de studiu (p<0.0001, precum şi o creştere semnificativă din punct de vedere statistic a valorilor SOD la pacienţii aflaţi la 3 luni (p<0.0001, 6 luni (p<0.0001 şi respectiv 12 luni (p<0.0001 de abstinenţa de la alcool, faţă de determinările bazale. De asemenea, în cazul glutation peroxidazei, am observat o diferenţă semnificativă din punct de vedere statistic între grupuri (p=0.0003, plus creşteri importante la 6 luni (p=0.03 şi 12 luni (p=0.006, faţă de determinările bazale. În ceea ce priveşte malondialdehida (MDA, ca şi principal marker al proceselor de peroxidare lipidică, am putut observa de asemenea diferenţe semnificative între grupurile de studiu (p<0.0001. Mai mult, în cazul tuturor celor 3 grupe de pacienţi s-au putut observa scăderi semnificative ale concentraţiei de MDA, în comparaţie cu determinările bazale (p=0.003 pentru 3 luni, p=0.01 pentru 6 luni şi p=0.0002 pentru 12 luni. În concluzie, aceste date confirmă un stress oxidativ crescut la pacienţii consumatori

  4. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2{theta} =40 deg, 47 deg, 67 deg and 82 deg, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2-3 nm. For Pt Sn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2 = 34 deg and 52 deg that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. Pt Sn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electro catalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature Pt Ru/C, Pt Sn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  5. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2θ = 40{sup 0}, 47{sup 0}, 67{sup 0} and 82{sup 0}, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2–3 nm. For PtSn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2θ = 34{sup 0} and 52{sup 0} that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. PtSn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electrocatalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  6. Effect of alcohol and formaldehyde on the ä13C and ä15N isotopic composition of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes = Efeito do alcool e formol sobre a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e de ƒÂ15N em Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Iachstel Manetta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the ƒÂ13C and ƒÂ15N isotopic composition in frozen samples (control, samples in alcohol and in formaldehyde of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. From each individual we extracted a strip of muscle from the region above the lateral line, in the dorsal fin base, that was divided into three equal parts, each one was submitted to one type of treatment: freeze . control group (-15oC, conservation in alcohol 70%and fixation in formaldehyde 4%. Samples were kept under those treatments for 30 days, washed and submerged in distilled water for 4 hours. Afterwards, they were dried up in air oven at 60oC for 48 hours and macerated until the obtaining of a fine powder. A significant difference was found in isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen, between the control and the samples in alcohol and formaldehyde, except for ƒÂ13C from the H. edentatus samples in formaldehyde. The carbon isotopic values of samples in alcohol were mostly enriched compared to control, whereas the samples in formaldehyde presented depleted values in relation to the control. The nitrogen isotopic values for both samples preserved in alcohol and formaldehyde were enriched when compared to the values of frozen samples, independently of used preservatives. Therefore, the isotopic correction should be accomplished according to the isotope and preservative employed for species of freshwater fish.O presente estudo investiga a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e ƒÂ15N entre as amostras congeladas (controle, em alcool e em formol de Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus. De cada individuo foi extraida uma faixa de musculo localizada na regiao acima da linha lateral, na base da nadadeira dorsal, a qual foi subdividida em tres partes iguais, sendo cada uma delas submetida a um tipo de tratamento: congelamento - grupo control (-15oC, conservacao em alcool 70% e fixacao em formol 4%. As amostras foram mantidas nos

  7. Experimental analysis of a PEM fuel cell 15 W; Analise experimental de uma celula a combustivel PEM 15W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells have been considered a promising alternative for electric energy generation. In order to contribute with the development of this technology, a PEM fuel cell was installed and new experiments were carried out at LabCET (Laboratory of Combustion and Thermal System Engineering). Previous results have shown polarization curves identifying the need of rigorous controlling of humidification temperature of the fuel cell. In this paper, new results were carried out considering the use of a fan connected to the fuel cell and possible degradation in the electrolyte, after a relative long time operation. New polarization curves were plotted for comparison with previous results. (author)

  8. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  9. Cross-Linking of P.V.A. by Gamma Radiation; Reticulation de l'alcool polyvinylique par les rayons gamma; Dejstvie gamma-luchej na poperechnuyu svyaz' polivinologo spirta; Reticulacion del alcohol polivinilico por irradiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieu, H; Desreux, V

    1960-07-15

    The action of gamma rays on aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol was observed by determination of the viscosity, sedimentation constant and acetylation rate. There was a very definite critical concentration, 0.28%, below which a B gel could not be formed by any dose. Above the critical concentration, the chief reaction was apparently intermolecular cross-linking which increased with dosage. Below the critical concentration the reactions were much more complex. At small doses there was probably some competition between inter- and intra- molecular cross-linking and the formation of more symmetrical molecular clusters. At higher doses the aggregates and the molecular clusters were subject to more and more internal and external cross-linking, leading finally to the formation of micro-gel particles. At decreasing concentrations (0.2 - 0.6%) intra-molecular cross-linking apparently became increasingly important. The effects of radiation were thought to depend upon the initial concentration of the polyvinyl alcohol solutions. (author) [French] L'action des rayons gamma sur des solutions aqueuses d'alcool polyvinylique a ete suivie par determination de la viscosite, de la constante de sedimentation et du taux d'acetylation. Il existe une concentration critique bien definie 0,28%, au-dessous de laquelle il est impossible d'obtenir la formation d'un gel B quelque soit la dose. Au-dessus, le phenomene important semble etre une reticulation intermoleculair e qui augmente avec la dose. Au-dessous de la concentration critique, les phenomenes sont beaucoup plus complexes. Aux faibles doses il y a probablement competition entre les phenomenes de pontage inter- et intramoleculaires et formation d'amas moleculaires de configuration plus symetrique. A doses plus fortes, les aggregats et les amas moleculaires subissent un pontage interne et externe de plus en plus prononce avec finalement formation de particules de micro-gel. A des concentrations de plus en plus faibles (0

  10. Determining the amount of anhydrous alcohol evaporated in vertical cylindrical tanks; Determinacao da quantidade de alcool etilico anidro evaporado em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the anhydrous alcohol evaporated amount in vertical cylindrical tanks was developed a calculation methodology based on the rate of mass transfer of the product, the Reynolds number and the mass transfer coefficient. An Excel spreadsheet was prepared with data entry of the tank and physical and chemical properties of the product (temperature and density). For a temperature of 50 deg C, the volume evaporated reaches values of 0.8% by day. (author)

  11. A broad model for demand forecasting of gasoline and fuel alcohol; Um modelo abrangente para a projecao das demandas de gasolina e alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonfiglio, Antonio [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Dept. Industrial; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1992-12-31

    Formulating a broad, mixed: econometric/end-use, demand forecasting model for gasoline and fuel alcohol is the main objective of this work. In the model, the gasoline and hydrated alcohol demands are calculated as the corresponding products if their fleet by the average car mileage, divided by the average specific mileage. Several simulations with the proposed forecasting model are carried out, within the context of alternative scenarios for the development of these competing fuels in the Brazilian market. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Development of perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Desenvolvimento de catodos de perovskitas para celula a combustivel solido de eletrolito solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: joelma@iq.unesp.br; Pereira, J.T.; Saeki, M.J. [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2006-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are energy conversion systems of great interest for industrial applications because they present a high efficiency for energy generation and several advantages for the environment. In this work, perovskite type oxides La{sub 085}Sr{sub 0,15}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 0,7} Sr{sub 0,3}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 0,6}Sr{sub 0,4}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 0,85}Sr{sub 0,15}CoO{sub 3}, La{sub 0,7}Sr{sub 0,3}CoO{sub 3}, La{sub 0,6}Sr{sub 0,4}CoO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0,4}Fe{sub 0,8}Co{sub 0,2}O{sub 3} e La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0,4}Fe{sub 0,4}Co{sub 0,6}O{sub 3} were prepared by a polymeric method with the purpose of using them as cathodes in SOFCs. The electrochemical cell was mounted utilizing YSZ (ZrO{sub 2} - 8 mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) disks as electrolyte, where a paste containing Pt was calcined onto one face while the other one was covered with the oxide materials synthesized ('screen printing'). The oxide materials prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oxygen reduction reaction was studied by taking polarization curves in oxygen and/or air (800 deg C a 950 deg C). The best performance was obtained for 15 {mu}m thickness electrodes La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0,4}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0,4}MnO{sub 3} with addition of dispersed Pt. (author)

  13. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  14. Metrological evaluation of petroleum, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol flow computers; Avaliacao metrologica de computadores de vazao de petroleo, seus derivados, gas natural e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, A.F.; Callegario, E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], Emails: afo@puc-rio.br, callegario@puc-rio.br; Ferreira, A.; Pinheiro, J.A.; Oliveira, T.B.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: andref@petrobras.com.br, jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents results of petroleum flow computers, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol, used on fiscal measurements, appropriation and custodial transfer system. It is intended that the used proceed give subsides for the model approval and verify initially the flow computers, besides the periodic verification of installed flow computers. The test procedures are focused at the algorithm deviations, at the A/D (analog - digital) and D/D (digital-digital)conversion deviations, simulating static pressure transmitters, pressure differential, temperature, specific mass, BSW (Basic Sediment and Waste), and at the pulse counting deviations of the flow computer. The presented methodology is based on specific document for certification and initial verification of flow computers for the WELMEC (European Cooperation in Legal Metrology), and improved to attend the measurement requirements in Brazil. The test show various no conformities among the performance of tested flow computers compared with allowed values by the developed procedure.

  15. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  16. Depolymerization of post-consumer PET with multifunctional alcohol through melt processing; Despolimerizacao de PET pos-consumo com alcool multifuncional atraves de processamento por fusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Tathiane C.R.F.; Mendes, Luis C.; Dias, Marcos L., E-mail: tathianecr@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano. Centro de Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare oligomers from post-consumer PET with multifunctional alcohol, through melt processing, aiming to develop a new material, able to play a role as filler or property modifier. Maintaining constants the process conditions, content and kind of catalyst, the influence of the solvolysis agent on the PET depolymerization was investigated. The products were evaluated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). The changes in the WAXD curves and the shift of the maximum degradation temperature suggested that the ester linkages were broken being the ethylene glycol moieties replaced with hydroxyl-terminal groups of the multifunctional alcohol, as result of a transesterification reaction. The chemical structure of the new ester was named 'star-branching polymer'. (author)

  17. Micro-syntheses for the use of carbon 13 or carbon 14. Micro-preparations of methyl alcohol, methyl iodide, and sodium acetate labeled in the methyl group; Microsyntheses pour l'emploi de carbone 13 ou de carbone 14. Micropreparations d'alcool methylique, d'iodure de methyle et d'acetate de sodium marque sur le groupement methyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baret, C; Pichat, L

    1951-11-01

    Apparatus and technique are described in detail for (1) reduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 3}OH with LiAlH{sub 4}, (2) conversion of the methanol to CH{sub 3}I by HI, (3) formation of the Mg Grignard reagent, and (4) addition of inactive CO{sub 2} to form CH{sub 3}COOH. All these operations have been carried out on 0.005 moles. Methyl-labeled Na acetate has been prepared in 67% yield based on the Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} used as starting material. (author) [French] Description detaillee d'une technique deja connue pour la reduction du gaz carbonique en alcool methylique par LiAlH{sub 4}. Conversion du methanol en iodure de methyle. Ce dernier transforme en reactif de Grigard, et carbonate, fournit de l'acide acetique. Toutes ces operations on ete effectuees sur 5 x 10{sup -3} moles. La methode a ete appliquee a la synthese d'acetate de sodium marque par le groupement methyle par {sup 14}C avec un rendement global de 67% base sur le carbonate de baryum radioactif mis en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  18. Économie d'un procédé d'hydrolyse enzymatique et fermentation de la paille de blé pour la production d'alcool carburant Economics of a Process for Producing Alcohol Fuels by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après définition des grandes lignes d'un procédé de base d'hydrolyse-fermentation de la paille de blé, l'analyse de sensibilité montre que le rendement de l'hydrolyse a une grande importance sur les bilans énergétique et économique. Des rendements de l'ordre de 85 % permettent d'obtenir des valeurs d'investissement par tonne de pétrole économisée tout à fait comparables à celles obtenues par d'autres techniques de valorisation de la biomasse en alcool, telle la synthèse du méthanol obtenu après gazéification du bois à l'oxygène. The basic features of a process for production from cereal straw of an acetone-butanol mixture for use as a gasoline substitute are described. They include pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate followed by fermentation of the sugars produced. A cost evaluation based on the performances of a reference process is presented. Then, an analysis of the sensitivity of the cost price of the process to the variation of the important parameters such as production capacity, enzyme productivity, hydrolysis yield is carried out. The energy balance of the process is presented.

  19. Adsorption de l'eau dissoute dans les mélanges supercarburant-alcools en vue de leur stabilisation. Comparaison entre adsorbants classiques et résines échangeuses d'ions Adsorption of Dissolved Water in Premium-Fuel/Alcohol Blends with a View to Their Stabilization. Comparison Between Conventional Adsorbents and Ion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernasconi C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une réponse possible au problème de la déstabilisation par démixtion des mélanges supercarburant-alcools est l'abaissement de leur teneur en eau par adsorption physique. La forte affinité pour l'eau des résines échangeuses d'ions de type polystyrène sulfonate permet d'envisager leur utilisation dans ce cas spécifique d'application. Le principal intérêt de ce nouveau matériau adsorbant est de pouvoir se régénérer avec des calories de bas niveau (100-120°C. Nous avons donc étudié, du point de vue capacité d'adsorption et cinétique d'adsorption, le comportement de cet adsorbant et comparé ses performances à celles d'adsorbants plus classiques tels que le silicagel, l'alumine et le tamis moléculaire 3 Å. Les formes ioniques de la résine mises en oeuvre sont les formes : K+, Na+ et Mg2+. Sur le plan de la capacité totale d'adsorption, la résine, quelle que soit sa forme ionique, présente des performances supérieures à celles de l'alumine et du silicagel. Seule la forme Mg2+ adsorbe autant d'eau que le tamis moléculaire. L'efficacité de la résine est sensible à la nature de l'alcool du mélange considéré et augmente selon la séquence méthanol A possible answer to the problem of destabilization by the segregation of premium-fuel/alcohol blends lies in decreasing their water content by physical adsorption. The strong affinity of water for ion-exchange resins of the polystyrene sulfonate type suggests their use for this specific application. The main advantage of this newadsorbent material is that it can be regenerated with low-level heat (100-120°C. We thus investigated the behavior of this adsorbent from the standpoint of its adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics. Its performances were compared to those of more conventional adsorbents, such as silicagel, alumina and a 3Å molecular sieve. The ionic forms of the resin used are in the form of K+, Na+ and Mg2+. From the standpoint of total adsorption capacity

  20. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of solid electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell; Preparacao, caracterizacao e propriedades eletricas de eletrolito solido para celula a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Marco Antonio Coelho; Garcia, Carlos Mario; Matos, Jeferson Hrenechen [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: felsky@latec.org.br, garcia@latec.org.br, jeferson.h@latec.org.br

    2010-04-15

    Solid electrolytes of BaCe{sub 08}Gd{sub O29} were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. X-ray diffraction data shows a single phase with orthorhombic crystalline structure. The densification process was followed by scanning electronic microscopy and apparent density measurements. The apparent density was developed for different temperatures of sintering, reaching > 96% for sintered temperature of 1550 {sup 0}C deg . The electrochemical impedance analysis was development in the temperature of 400-700 deg C, in air atmosphere at 700 deg C a value of 30,6 mS.cm{sup -1} was obtained. The results of conductivity have confirmed the gadolinium doped barium cerate has a great potential for use as solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell, at experimental controlled conditions. (author)

  1. Performance of a diesel engine transformed to spark ignition using natural gas; Desempenho de um motor diesel convertido para utilizacao de gas natural como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Ricardo H.R. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LEDAV/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Dinamicos e Analise de Vibracao; Belchior, Carlos R.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LMT/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Maquinas Termicas; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC/Minas), MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for a diesel engine converted for dedicated use of natural gas was developed in this work. The computational model covers from the time of closing the inlet valve to the time of opening the exhaust valve and it was divided into three stages (compression, combustion and expansion). A model based on the first law of thermodynamics for closed cycle has been developed to study the performance of the engine. The combustion process was modeled using the equation of Wiebe. It was taken into consideration the convective heat transfer through the walls of the cylinder and the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by the Eichelberg correlation. It was also considered that the thermodynamic properties vary with temperature. To represent the gas mixture behavior inside the cylinder two approaches (Ideal Gas Equation and Van Der Waals's Real Gas Equation) were used and results compared. The computational model was validated with experimental tests. (author)

  2. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  3. Study for application of multi fuel technology in the Brazilian automobilistic market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the automobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  4. Study for application of flexible fuel technology in the Brazilian automobile market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the auto mobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  5. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications; Anodos multi-metalicos para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais; Leite, D. Will [Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Industriais (IPEI/FEI), Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Industrial

    2009-07-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  6. Interpenetrating polymer network membranes for fuel cells: infrared vibrational spectroscopy; Membranes baseadas dm redes polimericas interpenetrantes para celulas a combustivel: estudo por espectroscopia vibracional no infravermelho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Felipe A.M.; Rocco, Ana Maria [Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amrocco@eq.ufrj.br; Pereira, Robson Pacheco [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, proton conductive membranes based on IPN matrices doped with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were developed. The characterization by infrared vibrational spectroscopy evidenced the polymerization of DGEBA and the immobilization of PEI chains, originating a structure containing basic sites suitable for proton coordination and conduction. The FTIR characterization evidenced the polymerization of DGEBA in the presence of PEI thus forming Semi-IPN membranes which, after doped with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, exhibited conductivity values of 10{sup -4} W{sup -1}cm{sup -1} at room temperature and 10{sup -3} {omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} at 80 degree C, as well as a dependency of conductivity with temperature following the Arrhenius model. The activation energy values (14,33 and 12,96 kJ.mol{sup -1}) indicated a proton conduction mechanism predominantly vehicular in the matrices studied under 100% relative humidity. (author)

  7. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-07-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  8. Polypropylene (PP) based proton exchange membrane for use in fuel cell; Obtencao de membrana trocadora de protons para uso em celula a combustivel, a base de polipropileno (PP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zen, Heloisa Augusto

    2008-07-01

    The radiation-induced graft of styrene onto polypropylene (PP) films was carried out by simultaneous irradiation method in a cobalt-60 source. The PP films were immersed in a solution of styrene with toluene (1:1 and 4:1, v/v) under inert atmosphere and at room temperature and then submitted at 20, 40, 80 and 100 kGy. After graft reaction the films were kept at room temperature under inert atmosphere for periods of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in order to evaluate the degree of grafting. At the end of each period the films were sulfonated to provide the hydrophilic property to PP. The degree of grafting (DOG) was gravimetric determined and the chemical changes in the grafted and sulfonated films were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the Ion Exchange Capacity (IEC) was calculated. The greatest DOG was obtained after 21 days of post-irradiation. By TGA the grafted films exhibited a decrease in the thermal stability, while the sulfonated exhibited an increase. By DSC was possible to verify that matrix polymeric did not suffer any drastic change in the melting temperature after grafting and sulfonation reactions. The IEC calculated shows that the new membrane developed has ionic conductivity property. (author)

  9. Technological study of experimental proton exchange polymer membrane fuel cells; Estudo tecnologico de celulas a combustivel experimentais a membrana polimerica trocadora de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Thais Aranha de Barros

    2004-07-01

    Experimental studies to achieve an optimized behavior of a unit PEM-fuel cell with an active area of 25cm{sup 2} were carried out. Polarization curves, surface response methodology and regression methodology were used for the analysis. The different methodologies identified the interactions between the parameters that were studied. These parameters were, humidifying temperature, fuel cell operating temperature and the flows of hydrogen and oxygen. MEAs were produced by the spray and hot pressing hybrid method, developed at IPEN. The studies were done with these MEAs and equivalent commercial ones. The MEAs producing method used induced an important variation on the quantity of platinum in the electrodes. This fact has showed to have a great influence in the results. The optimized values were: oxygen flow from 30 to 35% of consume (70 to 65% of excess), fuel cell operating temperature from 60 to 62 deg C and 0.41 mg of platinum in the electrodes. The hydrogen flows and the humidifying temperature have not showed a major influence in the fuel cell behavior, in the studied variable range. (author)

  10. Fabrication and tests of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell; Fabricacao e testes de celula a combustivel de oxido solido suportada no anodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, D.Z. de [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dzflorio@ipen.br; Fonseca, F.C.; Franca, Y.V.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Muccillo, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berton, M.A.C.; Garcia, C.M. [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A laboratory setup was designed and put into operation for the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Ceramic single cells were fabricated by low-cost methods, and emphasis was given to the use of ready available raw materials. The whole project consisted of the preparation of the component materials - anode, cathode, and electrolyte - and the buildup of a hydrogen leaking-free sample chamber with platinum leads and current collectors for measuring the electrochemical properties of single SOFCs. Anode-supported single SOFCs of the type (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + NiO) anode / (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) electrolyte / (La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} + ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cathode have been prepared and tested at 700 deg C and 800 deg C after in situ H{sub 2} anode reduction. The main results show that the slurry coating method resulted in single-cells with good reproducibility and reasonable performance, suggesting that this method can be considered for fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  11. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  12. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  13. Scaffold of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde for tissue engineering applications;Constructos de blendas de quitosana/poli(alcool vinilico) reticulados quimicamente com glutaraldeido para aplicacao em engenharia de tecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ezequiel de S., E-mail: escjr50@deii.cefetmg.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (DEM/CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICB/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan/PVA based films were chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) in order to achieve scaffolds for potential tissue engineering application. Both precursors and developed films were characterized by FTIR and XRD in order to determine the presence of chemicals groups and nanostructural order, respectively. The results have showed that the GA crosslinking have altered the crystallinity of the chitosan and the increase on the C=N bands and decreasing of NH{sub 2} bands suggest that Chitosan/GA crosslinking has preference to occur in the carbon 2 by Schiff's base. The mechanical properties, swelling behavior, degradation rate in vitro and cellular viability were compatible with the characteristic of an epithelial tissue. The material presented a toughness range from 1.4 to 34MJ/m3, swelling from 150% to 700% in 24h, degradation rate from 20% to 75% (wt%) in 24h and cellular viability in vitro above 60% compared to the cellular control. The developed scaffolds from the films have also showed swelling and degradation in vitro properties well-matched for biomedical applications in tissue engineering (author)

  14. Transient behaviour of an adsorption refrigerator. Experimental study of the alcohol/activated carbon system; Comportement transitoire d`une machine frigorifique a absorption. Etude experimentale du systeme alcool / charbon actif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des sciences du genie chimique; Feidt, M. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present an experimental study of an adsorption refrigerator, accounting for the transient phenomena in each component of the machine, in particular in the adsorber. The couples adsorbate/adsorbent investigated (activated carbon/methanol or ethanol) have been chosen on the basis of an earlier comparative study. We have performed a full series of experiments to investigate the transient evolution of temperatures, pressures and the cycled mass, in a discontinuous cycle, and along the components of the refrigerating machine. The influence of various parameters is studies by varying one at a time: adsorbate/ adsorbent couple, alcohol load in adsorber, alcohol flowrate, heating power, initial desorption temperature. All these experimental observation are discussed and compared to transient models developed in a separate article. (authors) 12 refs.

  15. Analysis and development of an ethanol compact reformer for hydrogen production for fuel cell; Analise e modelagem de reformador compacto de etanol para obtencao de hidrodenio para celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, P.R.F.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: renzo@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact and modular reforming unit designed for the generation of 1 kw of electrical power. For this, initially the thermodynamic limits for the steam reforming of ethanol are calculated in order to assess the limits in the production of hydrogen and other by-products and to select the best values of process stoichiometry, temperature and pressure for maximum hydrogen selectivity and minimum coke formation. In the following, a First and second Laws analysis is performed to analyze the equilibrium conditions of the main chemical reactions and to estimate the magnitude of the heat transfer required by the heating, evaporation, superheating and reforming of ethanol. Then, the catalytic reformer reactor is analyzed and sized, basing the analysis into the application of the equation for the conservation of mass of the chemical species and a model for the chemical kinetics. A basic reactor design is then proposed accompanied by the corresponding sizes and operating conditions. (author)

  16. Central Asia | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Commodities in the West Bank. Language English. Read more about Étude des politiques relatives à l'établissement des prix et à la taxation de l'alcool en Inde. Language French. Read more about Subvention institutionnelle à l'Institut ...

  17. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  18. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  19. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  20. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  1. Vegetable oil as fuel for electric power generation at Rondonia, BR, small agglomerate as way of revenue generation; Oleo vegetal como combustivel para energia eletrica em pequenos aglomerados de Rondonia como forma de geracao de renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)]. E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2006-07-01

    This text approaches the question energy having as based alternative combustible reference in vegetal oils and the Decentralized Generation of Energy, for attendance of isolated systems and with small load, having as conceptual base the partner-economic-ambient sustain ability, being the economic chain of the entailed and conditional energy to the ambient, social aspects, technician, politicians, financiers and economics. This text intends to demonstrate to the mechanisms used in a research and development project (P and D) for the determination and domain of energy generation, electricity and power, from vegetal oils of suitable oleaginous to the State of Rondonia for a Extractive Reserve. Having as reference the contribution for the local and sustainable development of isolated localities, for the generation of job and income, for the energy self-sufficiency of isolated localities and to make available alternative to the companies of the electric sector of energy availability of isolated communities. (author)

  2. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  3. Project of multiple controller models for the maintenance of air/fuel ratio in natural gas internal combustion motors; Projeto de controladores multiplos modelos para manutencao da relacao ar/combustivel em motores de combustao interna movidos a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Junior, Fernando Sousa e; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo [Sao Paulo Univ. SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ffreitas@usp.br; agfleury@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of advanced control techniques for the reduction of pollutant gases generated by internal combustion engines powered by natural gas. In this paper three techniques are applied to control the fuel injection and the ignition timing: the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and H{infinity} Control by Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). To each one of those techniques were developed a multiple model structure seeking to include the vast operation region of the engine. The controller's performance is measured by the efficiency in maintaining the fuel/air ratio around 1% of maximum deviation in relation to the stoichiometric value. The results show the possibility of controlling pollutant emission generated by this kind of engine to conform to international emission standards, improving life quality. (author)

  4. Optimal design of a hybrid photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation system, to supply isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon; Dimensionamento otimo de sistemas hibridos, com geracao fotovoltaica e celula a combustivel, para atendimento a comunidades isoladas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Batista da

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electricity in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon has become one of the greatest barrier for the development of the region. Currently, the main technologies that provide electricity to these communities are diesel generators, batteries and dry cells. These non-renewable energy sources may pose serious problems to the environment and human health and have high maintenance and operational costs. Therefore, the search for renewable energy sources, such as water and sunlight, which are highly abundant in the region, has become a great challenge. This thesis presents the studies on application of solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) technologies to supply electric power in an uninterrupted manner. Outlined are the technical and cost issues of a pilot project set up in an environmentally protected area, next to Bananal island, located in the Southwestern region of the state of Tocantins. The pilot project relies on PV solar power as the primary source of energy for the production of electricity. The surplus energy is stored in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of the water supplied locally, which is reconverted into electric power by fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. In this context, the aim of the study was to propose a sizing of a hybrid distributed generation system (HDGS), comprised of a PV system, FC and batteries, that optimizes implementation and operational costs, as a potential source of energy for isolated communities in the Amazon. The work was carried out with the help of simulation software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Simulations and a comparative study were carried out of the technologies and potential configurations that meet the needs of these isolated communities. The results showed an optimal solution of HGDS PV-FC batteries with a reduction in the initial cost of the project in about 60% compared to

  5. Performance evaluation of a fuel cell with NiO-YSV anode operating with natural gas; Avaliacao do desempenho de uma celula a combustivel com anodo de NiO YSZ operando com gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Vasconcelos, Carmel Suzarte Ayres; Lima, Luiz Rogerio Pinho de Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBa), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais]. E-mail: shayennedn@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy into electric energy. The natural gas, for its proven improvement in the income of the equipment in relation to other energy ones, has been very used to feed the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the generation of electric power. Ceramics of Yttria-stabilized zirconia had been used as electrolyte and when supported with nickel oxide they act as anode in the solid oxide fuel cell, due to raised ionic conductivity that these materials present in high temperatures, while lanthanum with strontium and manganite are used as cathode. In the composition of the anode, the concentration of Ni O, acting as catalytic in the YSZ confers high electric conductivity and high electrochemical activity of the reactions, providing the internal reform in the SOFC. In this work, the solid oxide fuel cell, formed by Yttria- stabilized zirconia, nickel oxide, and lanthanum with strontium and manganite were tested in the reform had been prepared samples of electrode/electrolyte for use in SOFC of the natural gas in the presence of low water text, similar condition to the operation of the SOFC, operating in temperatures range from 700 to 800 deg C. This cell also was characterized using the impedance spectroscopy technique. These results allowed the development of components of the current versus voltage. (author)

  6. Vitrification of nanotoxic waste (Ru) from the production of nano-catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells; Vitrificacao de nano-residuos toxicos (Ru) provenientes da producao de nano-catalisadores para celulas a combustivel de etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Julio-Junior, O.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructured catalysts have been developed for ethanol directly use in fuel cells, which due to the economic advantages that should have widespread use in the near future. The catalysts for these devices using nano-structured metal are based, where the toxic nature and environmental risks presented by these metals are largely enhanced by nano-dispersion. Thus, the production of nano-catalysts are potentially generating highly hazardous waste for public health and the environment. This study presents the treatment and inertization of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles waste containing by the vitrification technique and consequent attainment of silicate glasses for potential commercial use. Compositions were prepared containing up to about 20 wt % of nano-waste by changing the basic composition of glass soda-lime-borosilicate. After the fusion, at a temperature of 1100 deg C, the glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infra-red in the Fourier transform (FT-IR) techniques. The chemical stability was evaluated by hydrolytic attack test. The glass containing 20 wt % of nano-residue showed a high chemical stability, similar to a usual soda-lime glass. (author)

  7. Hydrogen production through allothermal ethanol reforming for fuel cells application: first generation prototype; Producao de hidrogenio atraves da reforma-vapor do etanol para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel: prototipo de primeira geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Energia do Hidrogenio, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained with the allothermal ethanol reforming system for synthesis gas (syn-gas) production and hydrogen upgrading and purification for fuel cell applications. The system was designed to supply hydrogen to a 500 W PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell, with an electrical efficiency of 45%, which requires approximately 0.45 m3.h-1 of hydrogen, with a maximum carbon monoxide concentration of 20 {mu}mol.mol-1 (ppm). The study was performed changing the operation temperature and analyzing the resulting syn-gas through gas chromatography for a specific catalyst. This catalyst was tested up to 700 deg C, 1 bar and fixed stoichiometric steam to carbon ratio. The syn-gas, before carbon monoxide shift reactor implementation, was submitted to a two-bed-three-segments purification step composed of chemical and physical molecular sieves for hydrogen purification. The carbon monoxide shift reactor (water gas shift reactor) is under development to improve the efficiency-to-hydrogen and maximize the life of the purification bed. The final results also include a discussion about possible reactions involved in ethanol steam-reforming for such catalyst. (author)

  8. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  9. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  10. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  11. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes; Sintese e processamento de compositos de zirconia-alumina para aplicacao como eletrolito em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-07-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher

  12. Fuel densification study about uranium- 7% nanostructured gadolinium (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}); Estudo da densificacao do combustivel uranio - 7% gadolinio (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoestruturado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Antonio da Costa

    2016-11-01

    The sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets has been investigated in this work for its importance in the nuclear industry and for its complex behavior during sintering. Sintering blockage occurs from 1300 deg C upwards, when densification is shifted toward higher temperatures and the final density obtained is decreased. This research includes the development of nuclear fuel for power reactors in order to increase its efficiency inside the reactor core by raising the burnup. The use of nanosized Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in the range from 10 to 30nm, which was added to UO{sub 2}, trying to verify the occurrence of characteristic sintering blockage due to Kirkendall sintering effect observed in previous research. The samples were produced by dry mechanical mixture of UO{sub 2} powder and 7% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (macro- and nanostructured). The powders were compacted and the pellets were sintered at 1700 deg C under H{sub 2} atmosphere. These results indicate that the characteristic blockage during sintering in macrostructured system UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in the temperature range of 1300-1500 deg C, which slows down the densification. It was observed a less intense effect when using the nanostructured Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}; it took place at the temperature of 900 deg C, then facilitating to get an additional densification. The dilatometric tests indicated shrinkage of 22, 18 and 20% respectively in UO{sub 2} pellets, macrostructured UO{sub 2}-7% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and nanostructured UO{sub 2}-7%Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We detected 2% higher shrinkage, when nanostructured Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used instead of macrostructured Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is used commercially. Then, the nanostructured results showed more adequate density for nuclear fuel usage. (author)

  13. Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Explores the theories and models of self-actualization and human development. Twelve tables illustrate developmental stages, ways of knowing, moral and ethical development, management style, goals of learning, organizational development, and other dimensions. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1…

  14. Developer

    OpenAIRE

    Lakew, Lakachew

    2016-01-01

    As companies grow managing the work becomes harder and harder, thus the ad-vantages of technology come into hand for increasing communication and facili-tating work. This thesis documents the design and development of a web and mobile applica-tion for a service company. The web and mobile applications are built using Laravel and Android Studio respectively. These two applications are designed to communicate with one another so that similar data can be used across these two platforms. ...

  15. Pervaporation de melange eau-ethanol a travers des membranes en alcool polyvinylique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La deshidratación del etanol a partir de una mezcla de composición azéotropica (4,4% en masa de agua fue efectuada por paso en una unidad de pervaporación a través de una membrana orgánica a base de alcohol polivinilo PVA. La pervaporación es un método de separación por membrana utilizado para las mezclas líquidas difíciles a tratar por los métodos convencionales. Se efectuaron algunas pruebas de pervaporación a través de membranas de PVA puro con el fin de poner de relieve la influencia de tales parámetros: el tipo de acetilación de las membranas, el tratamiento de colodión generador, el acondicionamiento de las películas membranarias así como la temperatura de la carga. El aumento del tipo de acetilación mejora el flujo de transferencia pero vuelve la membrana difícilmente manipulable. El tratamiento del colodión generador así como el acondicionamiento de las membranas a base de PVA4 aumentan el flujo de pervaporación de la mezcla agua-etanol sin que la selectividad se afecte demasiado. La variación de la temperatura de la carga nos permite determinar la energía de activación de la membrana

  16. Pervaporation de melange eau-ethanol a travers des membranes en alcool polyvinylique

    OpenAIRE

    Mahacine Amrani

    2006-01-01

    La deshidratación del etanol a partir de una mezcla de composición azéotropica (4,4% en masa de agua) fue efectuada por paso en una unidad de pervaporación a través de una membrana orgánica a base de alcohol polivinilo PVA. La pervaporación es un método de separación por membrana utilizado para las mezclas líquidas difíciles a tratar por los métodos convencionales. Se efectuaron algunas pruebas de pervaporación a través de membranas de PVA puro con el fin de poner de relieve la in...

  17. ALCOol, vigiLAnce, Charge de travail : facteurs d'accident chez les jeunes conducteurs

    OpenAIRE

    BERTHELON, Catherine; GALY, Edith; PAXION, Julie; Ferrier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    D'après le modèle de courbe en U renversé d'Ansseau et Timsit-Berthier (1987 ; in Hadj-Mabrouk, 2001), le niveau de performance augmente avec celui de la vigilance jusqu'à un optimum, au-delà de cet optimum l'augmentation de la vigilance entraîne au contraire une baisse de la performance. L'excès de vigilance que représentent la tension (stress) ou l'hyperexcitation a un pouvoir de dégradation plus rapide sur les activités complexes que sur les activités les plus simples. Il y a donc un nivea...

  18. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  19. Literacia em saude mental de adolescentes e jovens portugueses sobre abuso de alcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel de Jesus Loureiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a literacia em saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens relativamente ao consumo abusivo de álcool, nas diversas componentes do conceito de literacia. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, em que foi aplicado o QuALiSMental a uma amostra representativa de 4.938 adolescentes e jovens, com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 24 anos, que frequentam escolas do 3º ciclo do ensino básico e do ensino secundário da região centro de Portugal. RESULTADOS: O reconhecimento da vinheta do consumo abusivo de álcool pelos participantes é elevado (72,4%, ainda que seja também identificado como alcoolismo (70,3%, o que no entanto indica a percepção do problema como grave. Os participantes apresentam níveis modestos de literacia nas restantes componentes, preferindo as fontes informais de ajuda. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que há necessidade de implementação de programas nas escolas que promovam a literacia em saúde mental, para adoção de comportamentos saudáveis nos jovens, que os transferem para a idade adulta.

  20. Épidémiologie de la consommation d'alcool par les femmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... Methodology and results: A survey was conducted in health centers in the city of Abidjan. This survey ... Conclusion and application of results: On these grounds, the state should start a campaign to raise awareness ... association de retard mental et de dysmorphie ..... Préférence et consommation effective.

  1. Study of phase transformation of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb alloys for application in advanced nuclear fuel; Estudo das transformacoes de fases nas ligas U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb para aplicacao em combustivel nuclear avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, Rafael Witter Dias

    2015-07-01

    Metal fuels are relevant in the nuclear area due to the versatility of its use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the alloys of uranium investigated with high potential for use in nuclear power reactors, U-Zr-Nb alloys appear as an important alternative because of their superior physico-chemical and metallurgical properties. These alloys have also potential for use in nuclear testing, research and production radioisotopes of high performance nuclear reactors. Therefore, the development of these alloys is strategic since they are planned to be used in national reactors as RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) and LABGENE (Electrical Generation Core Laboratory), currently under development in Brazil. In this work it was realized a extensive study in the scope of the manufacturing, heat treatment and phase transformations of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb (m/m%) and U-3ZR-9NB (m/m%) fuel alloys. Ingots of both alloys were produced employing a specific methodology developed in this study. This methodology comprised the melting process in a vacuum induction furnace at high temperatures (1500 °C) and thermal-mechanical processing to break the as-cast structure. Samples with typical dimensions (17 x 7 x 2.5 mm) free from macrostructural defects were homogenized at 1000 °C in vacuum of 10{sup -5} torr for 17.5 hours with a 10°C/min cooling rate until to 820 °C and, subsequently, quenched in water. The samples, randomly selected, were subjected to isothermal treatment tests under different conditions of time and temperature. Isothermal treatments for transformation and retention phases were carried out in a special assembly designed for this work. After the tests, the samples were characterized by the usual phase characterization techniques with particular emphasis for the X-ray diffraction technique. In this way, the Rietveld refinement method was applied. In the case of uranium based alloys it is quite challenging due to the lack of data in the literature. In this work a strategy for the

  2. Taking advantage of natural gas for the energy and fuel supply for the Brazilian energy intensive industries: aluminium, siderurgy and chemical products; O aproveitamento do gas natural para o suprimento de energia e combustivel para as industrias energointensivas brasileiras: aluminio, siderurgia e produtos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jose Fernando Leme [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: romero@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work intend to analyse natural gas success in the energy generation for siderurgy industry, aluminium and basic organic chemical products. There is a necessity to inform economy-policy and the energy policy relationship, showing the Brazilian State actuation in the economic development mechanism and electric energy supply. Cast iron and iron, metals and no-irons are considered as electric intensives and energy intensives industry activities. These are sectors that produce merchandises for exportation and spend many quantities of electrical energy for each produced physical unity of law aggregate economic value. (author)

  3. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal; Metodologia baseada em sistemas de informacao geografica e analise multicriterio para a selecao de areas para a construcao de um repositorio para o combustivel nuclear usado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-07-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  4. Use of phyllosilicates in electrochemical devices: possible use of sepiolite as a support of catalysts in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC); Utilizacao de filosilicatos em dispositivos eletroquimicos: possivel uso da sepiolita como suporte de catalisadores em celulas a combustivel com uso direto de etanol (DAFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra-Silva, J.; Silva, A.C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cerpa, A. [Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Direct alcohol Fuel cells (DAFC) are interesting to use Brazil for reasons of fuel logistics and availability. The catalysts used in these devices to promote the oxidation of alcohol at the anode need to be fixed on a substrate which must provide high specific surface area, porosity, chemical and thermal resistance, this target can be achieved with the characteristics sepiolite. This paper proposes sepiolite as catalyst support for DAFC. Sepiolite is a phyllosilicate with double layered tetrahedral silicon cells and fibrillar structure. Catalysts (Pt / Sb / Sn) were prepared by cation substitution method and tested by cyclic voltammetry. Techniques as XRD and FT-IR were also used for characterizing materials. Was obtained up to 35 mA / g (Pt) peak current (redox ethanol) indicating the possibility of sepiolite technology development to use un proposed purpose. (author)

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology: importance in the integration of the fuel cell technology type PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells); Metodologia da analise de ciclo de vida: importancia na insercao da tecnologia de celula a combustivel do tipo PEMFC (membrana polimerica trocadora de protons)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais], e-mail: shfukuro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    To improve the standard of society's quality of life, it is necessary to improve the quality of distributed energy and its inherent services within a sustainability process. Among different technological routes that produce more sustainable energy are the fuel cells - also known as combustible batteries. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has identified the fuel cells as a potential technology to reduce, in the future, the effect of greenhouse gases in both developed and developing countries. Although there are various types of fuel cells, the most used technology for research studies on fuel cells is the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (FEMFC). However, economic issues - related to the high cost of the membrane's materials and of the catalysts of groups of platinum metals - are still some of the obstacles that need to be overcome for this technology to be more accessible. There are also socio-environmental aspects related to the impacts caused by the extraction, the use and the destination of these metals. Taking in consideration the challenges of complying with the demands of the market and the society as well as with the growing tendency of more rigid patterns of environmental control, the objective of the present work is to show the tool of environmental management - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - and its importance on the pursuit for socio-economic and environmental alternatives feasible to the recycling of the catalysts of platinum of the PEMFC. This way, it intends to collaborate to the progress of the knowledge about environmental and socio-economic subjects related to the productive process of the PEMFC. (author)

  6. Establishment and prioritization of relevant factors to the safety of fuel cycle facilities non reactor through dynamics archetypes evaluation; Estabelecimento e priorizacao de fatores relevantes para a seguranca de instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel exceto o reator atraves da avaliacao da dinamica de arquetipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2012-07-01

    The present work aims to establish and prioritize factors that are important to the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in order to model, analyze and design safety as a physical system, employing systemic models in an innovative way. This work takes into consideration the fact that models that use adaptations of methodologies for nuclear reactors will not properly work due to the specificities of fuel cycle facilities. Based on the fundamentals of the theory of systems, the four levels of system thinking, and the relationship of eight socio technical factors, a mental model has been developed for safety management in the nuclear fuel cycle context. From this conceptual model, safety archetypes were constructed in order to identify and highlight the processes of change and decision making that allow the system to migrate to a state of loss of safety. After that, stock and flow diagrams were created so that their behavior could be assessed by the system's dynamics. The results from the analysis using the model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the variables (socio technical factors) indicated, as expected, that the system's dynamics proved to be an appropriate and efficient tool for modeling fuel cycle safety as an emergent property. (author)

  7. Application of PtSn/C catalysts and Nafion SiO{sub 2} membranes in direct ethanol fuel cell at high temperatures; Aplicacao de catalisadores PtSn/C e membranas Nafion SiO{sub 2} em celulas a combustivel de etanol direto em elevadas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2014-07-01

    This work has as objective to evaluate anodes and electrolytes in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) operating at high temperature (130 deg C). As anode materials, electrocatalysts based on Pt Sn/C were prepared by Modified Polyol Method with various Pt:Sn atomic ratios. Such methodology promotes self organized electrocatalysts production with narrow particle size distribution and high alloying degree. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, and CO stripping. The results showed that these materials presented high alloying degree and Eonset CO oxidation at lower potential as commercial materials. As electrolyte, Nafion-SiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized by sol-gel reaction, by the incorporation of oxide directly into the ionic aggregates of various kinds of Nafion membranes. The synthesis parameter, such sol-gel solvent, membrane thickness and silicon precursor concentration were studied in terms of silica incorporation degree and hybrid mechanical stability. Finally, the optimized anodes and electrolytes were evaluated in DEFC operating at 80 - 130 deg C temperature range. The results showed a significant improvement of the DEFC performance (122 mW cm{sup -2}), resulted from the acceleration of ethanol oxidation reaction rate due to anode material optimization and high temperature operation once the use of hybrids possibilities the increase of temperature without a significant conductivity loses. In this sense, the combination of optimized electrodes and electrolytes are a promising alternative for the development of these devices. (author)

  8. Comparative analysis between two systems to generate electric energy for isolated community in the interior of the Amazon state: fuel cells with natural gas reformer versus diesel generation; Analise comparativa entre dois sistemas de geracao de energia eletrica para a comunidade isolada no interior do estado do Amazonas: celula a combustivel com reformador para gas natural versus gerador diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Paula Duarte; Bergamini, Cristiane Peres; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Esteves, Gheisa Roberta Telles [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas e Estudos Ambientais; Silva, Ennio Peres da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2004-07-01

    Although great part of the domestic territory is already supplied with electric energy, still there are many regions where the system is precarious or nonexistent, generically called isolated communities. In the majority of the cases these communities are supplied with Diesel oil generators and the substitution of this fuel for available alternative energy in the localities has been object of study of some institutions of research spread throughout the country. Currently, the use of fuel cells has been strongly argued in the generation of electric energy associated with the local energy necessity, from the use of a regional fuel and this is due to the high efficiency of allied energy conversion to the low ambient impacts that this equipment offers. Most of the different types of fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel to produce electricity, and it is extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources of energy. Then, the article has the objective of comparing in first analysis the energy efficiency and the cost between the two systems: the ones used currently in the great majority of the isolated communities, constituted of a Diesel engine-generator system, with Natural Gas Reformer System/ Purifier of Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell/ and to analyze if such project presents characteristics that qualifies it to get the carbon credits proposed in the Mechanism of Clean Development. (author)

  9. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions listed in the Kyoto Protocol by the utilization of landfill gas using solid oxide fuel cells; Reducao das emissoes de gases de efeito estufa listados no protocolo de Quioto pelo aproveitamento do gas gerado em aterros sanitarios utilizando celulas a combustivel de oxido solido. Estudo de caso do aterro municipal de Santo Andre, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Alexandre Gellert

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, the Kyoto Protocol had been a subject very debated, at first, in a restricted niche, manly academics and professionals related to the area of climate changes. On 16th February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and with this a lot of publicity all over the world, so today is common to hear about it at the mass communications media. The extension of the subject is broad, this work discuss the utilization of one the Kyoto's flexibility mechanisms, to contribute to financing the use of the landfill gas in the solid oxide fuel cells. Among the three mechanisms presented in the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) in article 12, is the only one that can be implemented by non-Annex I countries, the case of Brazil. In other hand, the issue of solid waste in Brazil is critical. Even being illegal, most of the solid waste goes to uncontrolled areas in open air places 'lixoes', causing degradation of the environment and the communities around this areas, and also emission of green house gases (GHG), deregulating the global climate system. Decontaminate this areas and the construction of landfills to replace than, considering the landfill as a bioreactor, and the utilization of the biogas to generate power can improve nowadays picture that we are facing. The utilization of an innovative alternative technology as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) instead the conventional technologies will be more efficient and environmentally better. Among other barriers the cost is pointed as the biggest. In this context, the SOFC is the most expensive fuel cell, so the utilization of CDM can contribute to finance the application of this technology. Scenarios were made of 250 kW, 500 kW, 1,000 kW, 5,000 kW and 10,000 kW of installed power using biogas from the Municipal Landfill of Santo Andre. The calculations of the emission factor were done ex ante and ex post according to ACM0002. Comparing the costs of the installed power studied and the

  10. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions listed in the Kyoto Protocol by the utilization of landfill gas using solid oxide fuel cells; Reducao das emissoes de gases de efeito estufa listados no protocolo de Quioto pelo aproveitamento do gas gerado em aterros sanitarios utilizando celulas a combustivel de oxido solido. Estudo de caso do aterro municipal de Santo Andre, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Alexandre Gellert

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, the Kyoto Protocol had been a subject very debated, at first, in a restricted niche, manly academics and professionals related to the area of climate changes. On 16th February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and with this a lot of publicity all over the world, so today is common to hear about it at the mass communications media. The extension of the subject is broad, this work discuss the utilization of one the Kyoto's flexibility mechanisms, to contribute to financing the use of the landfill gas in the solid oxide fuel cells. Among the three mechanisms presented in the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) in article 12, is the only one that can be implemented by non-Annex I countries, the case of Brazil. In other hand, the issue of solid waste in Brazil is critical. Even being illegal, most of the solid waste goes to uncontrolled areas in open air places 'lixoes', causing degradation of the environment and the communities around this areas, and also emission of green house gases (GHG), deregulating the global climate system. Decontaminate this areas and the construction of landfills to replace than, considering the landfill as a bioreactor, and the utilization of the biogas to generate power can improve nowadays picture that we are facing. The utilization of an innovative alternative technology as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) instead the conventional technologies will be more efficient and environmentally better. Among other barriers the cost is pointed as the biggest. In this context, the SOFC is the most expensive fuel cell, so the utilization of CDM can contribute to finance the application of this technology. Scenarios were made of 250 kW, 500 kW, 1,000 kW, 5,000 kW and 10,000 kW of installed power using biogas from the Municipal Landfill of Santo Andre. The calculations of the emission factor were done ex ante and ex post according to ACM0002. Comparing the costs of the installed power

  11. Membranes for hydrogen and fuel cell technology; Membranas para celula combustivel e separacao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira [GKSS-Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany)]. E-mail: nunes@gkss.de

    2005-07-01

    Membranes for fuel cell were prepared using as polymer matrix sulfonated polyether ketones. New sulfonated copolymers (poly oxazoles, poly imides and poly ketones) were synthesized. Nano composites using zirconium oxide and phosphates, as well as modified silicates were obtained aiming the application on direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The performances of membranes containing fillers with different aspects (spherical, layers, tubular, networks) and surface modification (hydroxy, imidazole, acid oligomers) were compared. The effect of surface modification was much more pronounced than that of the aspect. A good balance of proton conductivity and methanol permeability was obtained with silicates modified with imidazole groups. Good performance in DMFC were obtained with membranes containing zirconium phosphate. Acid oligomers also led to particularly high conductivity values above 100 deg C. Polyimide membranes with H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} larger than 100 were obtained. (author )

  12. Individual internal monitoring of workers of Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marcelo X.

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary excretion, faecal excretion, chest counting and personal air sampling (PAS). The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  13. Feasibility of biogas utilization in fuel cells; Viabilidade do uso de biogas em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Humberto Elias [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia (PRODETEC/LACTEC/IEP), Cutitiba, PR (Brazil); Cantao, Mauricio Pereira [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio.cantao@utp.br

    2010-10-15

    Waste water treatment stations using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) produce biogas, composed of carbon dioxide diluted methane plus minority compounds. This kind of reactor is worthwhile but demands methane burning in order to reduce atmospheric pollution and damage to ozone layer. Meanwhile, biogas can be used for energy generation due to its heating value. In this paper a technical and economic feasibility study about the use of biogas as a hydrogen source for fuel cells feeding is presented. Two methods for assessment of biogas production in UASB reactor were compared for ETE Atuba Sul case. (author)

  14. Bioethanol fuel: an opportunity for Brazil; Bioetanol combustivel: uma oportunidade para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira Leite, Rogerio Cezar de; Sobral Junior, Manoel; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2009-10-15

    This book is divided in 10 chapters approaching the following subjects: Bio ethanol perspectives in the market of liquid fuels for light vehicles, description of the production process - agricultural phase and industrial phase, potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane production, existent infrastructure and improvement projects, technological scenarios construction on the production of bio ethanol in Brazil, Evaluation of social and economical impacts related to the large scale production of bio ethanol in Brazil, sustainability, regulatory mark, and identification of the necessities of R and D and alternative suggestions for his financing.

  15. A case study of a sugar and alcohol plant: prospects for the production of alcohol and exceeding energy; Um estudo de caso de uma usina de acucar e alcool: perspectivas para a producao de alcool e energia excedente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cristhalmeman@gmail.com; Halmenan, Radames Juliano [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Brazil stands out in the world scene as the largest producer and exporter of sugar and the main producer of ethanol derived from sugar cane, which generates the bagasse used to produce electrical energy for the plant as well as for electricity companies. Energy products from sugar cane, such as ethanol and bagasse have contributed significantly to reduce the gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by replacing fossil fuels, that is, gasoline and diesel. The research is defined as exploratory and descriptive, the data were obtained in June, 2009 in a sugar cane and alcohol plant located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was sought through direct interviews, to check what the prospects for the processing of sugar cane, alcohol production and generation of exceeding energy are. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to contextualize the current production of alcohol and electrical energy, with projections up to 2016. (author)

  16. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet s'inscrit dans une étude menée dans plusieurs pays, l'International Alcohol Control Study (IAC). Il aura recours à une méthode longitudinale reposant sur des panels et tirera parti d'expériences réalisées dans les conditions naturelles, dans le cadre desquelles des modifications aux politiques seront apportées ...

  17. Politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool et de réduction de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West African Research and Training Hub on Environmental and Occupational Health in the Informal Economy. This project will help establish a West African Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEO Health) Hub in environmental and occupational health. View moreWest African Research and Training Hub on ...

  18. Programa de prevencao do uso/abuso de alcool para adolescentes em contexto escolar: parar para pensar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Mendes Diniz de Andrade Barroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do programa Parar Para Pensar na prevenção do uso/abuso de bebidas alcoólicas de adolescentes em contexto escolar. MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo quasi-experimental, com pré e pós-teste, com 178 participantes, estudantes no 7º ano escolar; o grupo experimental (n = 70 foi sujeito à intervenção durante um ano, e o grupo de controle (n = 108 não sofreu intervenção. Foram utilizados o Questionário de Conhecimentos Acerca do Álcool; Questionário de caracterização dos consumos; Escala de Expectativas Acerca do álcool e Escala de Aptidões Sociais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que os adolescentes submetidos ao programa apresentaram evolução positiva nas seguintes variáveis: frequência do consumo e ocorrência de episódios de embriaguez; e, ainda, melhorou os conhecimentos, as expectativas acerca do álcool e a percepção do consumo pelos pares (p < 05. CONCLUSÃO: O programa foi eficaz na estabilização do consumo, no aumento dos conhecimentos, na estabilização das expectativas positivas e na percepção do consumo pelos pares. Sugerem-se novos estudos e manutenção de follow-up para consolidar os resultados encontrados.

  19. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. ALCOol, vigiLAnce, Charge de travail : facteurs d'accident chez les jeunes conducteurs. Rapport final ALCOLAC

    OpenAIRE

    BERTHELON, Catherine; GALY, Edith; PAXION, Julie; FERRIER, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    D'après le modèle de courbe en U renversé d'Ansseau et Timsit-Berthier (1987 ; in Hadj-Mabrouk, 2001), le niveau de performance augmente avec celui de la vigilance jusqu'à un optimum, au-delà de cet optimum l'augmentation de la vigilance entraîne au contraire une baisse de la performance. L'excès de vigilance que représentent la tension (stress) ou l'hyperexcitation a un pouvoir de dégradation plus rapide sur les activités complexes que sur les activités les plus simples. Il y a donc un nivea...

  2. La publicité de la cigarette et de l'alcool dans la presse gratuite suisse d'information.

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are ordinary consumer goods that are still two overriding preventable causes of death in Switzerland. Massive advertising supports their selling and contributes to maintain a major public health problem up to date. The widely read free press represents an interesting advertising mean. The study of tobacco and alcohol advertisements published in the free newspaper 20 minutes through the year 2012 gives us a good idea of these products' advertising strategies. Compared to th...

  3. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Health Implications of Alcohol Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Programs (Latin America). Researchers are raising growing concerns over the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in the alcohol industry. View morePublic Health Implications of Alcohol Industry Corporate Social ...

  4. Consumo de alcool e risco para doenca coronariana na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo: uma analise do Projeto GENACIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a associação entre consumo de álcool e risco para doença coronariana em amostra populacional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, conduzido de janeiro/2006 a junho/2007, na região metropolitana de São Paulo, como parte do estudo internacional (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. Os sujeitos (1.501, sendo 609 homens e 892 mulheres eram residentes da região metropolitana de São Paulo, tinham 30 anos ou mais de idade e foram selecionados aleatoriamente, a partir de amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Todos os indivíduos consentiram em participar da pesquisa. A variável dependente foi risco cardíaco avaliado através do WHO Rose Angina Questionnaire. A análise multivariada consistiu em regressão logística, tendo sido realizado ajuste para uso de tabaco e índice de massa corpórea. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi 75%. Ser mulher, ter mais idade, ser negro, fumante e ter um índice de massa corpórea elevado, foram associados a maior risco para doença coronariana. Indivíduos que nunca beberam na vida (OR = 2,22 e ex-bebedores (OR = 2,42 tiveram maior risco de doença cardíaca do que aqueles que informaram beber até 19 g de álcool por dia, sem episódios de beber excessivo. Entre os que tiveram episódios de embriaguês observou-se uma tendência a maior risco (OR = 3,95, p = 0,09. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem um menor risco para doença coronariana entre os bebedores moderados. Destaca-se que os estudos que avaliam o impacto do álcool sobre doença cardíaca precisam identificar o padrão de uso de álcool dos sujeitos, visto que este aspecto pode modificar o risco. Políticas públicas são necessárias para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool e a morbidade a ele relacionada no país.

  5. Politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool et de réduction de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Crise du virus Ebola : Améliorer la communication scientifique et le journalisme local en période d'urgence et après une éclosion. La World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) dirige un programme régional de communication et de formation pour les journalistes locaux, dans le but d'améliorer le journalisme.

  6. Consommation d’alcool et culture masculine dans l’Europe de l’époque moderne

    OpenAIRE

    Tlusty, B. Ann

    2018-01-01

    Pourquoi les gens buvaient-ils à l’époque moderne ? Mathias von Abele, un juriste allemand du xviie siècle, relève au moins quarante-cinq bonnes raisons de le faire, au nombre desquelles on peut citer l’amitié, l’honneur, la vertu, la bravoure, la virilité, les affaires et le commerce, sans oublier le plaisir de la dégustation et une agréable compagnie ; la rancœur et la mauvaise humeur, l’envie, la défiance, l’ennui et l’oisiveté sont également des motifs tout aussi impérieux. Le vocabulaire...

  7. Oxydation par l’oxygène moléculaire d’alcools en phase liquide en synthons carbonyles

    OpenAIRE

    Frassoldati , Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The selective alcohols oxidation to aldehydes, acids and ketones is an important transformation in chemistry. The use of molecular oxygen as oxidant is in adequation with a green chemistry perspective, since water is the only by-product. The oxidation of primary alcohols (1-octanol and geraniol) and secondary alcohols (2-octanol, 1-phenylethanol and pyridine substituted alcohols) has been studied in the presence of platinum supported carbon catalysts under air pressure in organic or mixed org...

  8. Isolamento e estudo experimental de duas novas culturas de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes de muco nasal de leprosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The A. described on December 14, 1951, his first culture of acid-fast bacillus isolated from nasal mucus of a leprous girl. in this paper the A. describes two new strains of acid-fast bacilli gotten also from nasal mucus of other two leprous girls, L3 cases. The first patient (layse S had her mucus treated by petroff's method on December 16, 1952 and sown onto three tubes of loewenstein medium and in glycerin broth. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all three tubes of Loewenstein showed many punctiforme and pin-head yellowish colonies, whose microscopic examination proved to be of a pure acid-fast bacillus culture. This sample inoculated in rats and mice produced, after 55 days incubation, small tumors from which the culture was easily recovered. On April, 9, 1953 a new sample of nasal mucus of the same patient was sown in three tubes of Loewenstein. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all 3 tubes showed germination of small yellowish colonies of acid-fast bacilli. Within four months being gotten two samples of identical cultures in all smeared tubes of Loewenstein medium sown, proved that such cultures were not an ordinary ambient contamination. Second patient: - Maria N. After various sowing of different kinds of material from her, february 26, 1953 her nasal mucus treated by soda and sown onto Loewenstein medium, after 25 days incubation showed in only one tube, one small round colony, at first white, becoming creamy after three months. Transplants in various media grew at first slowly and after 2 or 3 generations grew faster. The "Layse" strain produced pellicle in glycerin broth and Dubos medium; the "Maria N." strain did not produce as yet. Both strains (Layse I and II, and Maria N. gave weak positive Dubos test in half-an-hour and negative after 24 hours reading. Both were strongly positive when stained by Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fontes methods. Both strains gave also positive fluoroscopy. These cultures are being studied. The A. concludes that, according to his experience, the slower growing cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated from leprosy material, are the more suitable for experimental work. Aknowledgement. The A. thanks to Miss MARIA DE LOURDES SANTANA for her valuable collaboration in the studies of the described cultures.

  9. Validation d'une méthode de quantification de l'alcoolémie chez les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LOQ (0.146 g/L) was perfectly adapted to the needs of the Drink-Driving Law in Cote d'Ivoire (Statutory threshold ≤ 0.8 g/L). Blood Alcohol Concentrations in drivers who have drunk was on average 2.4 times the statutory threshold in Cote d'Ivoire. Conclusion: The application of our analytical method to the study of trauma ...

  10. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de, [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Machado, Paulo Romeu M [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  11. Use of biomass as fuel for Stirling motors; Uso de biomassa como combustivel para acionamento de motores Stirling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Robledo Wakin; Aradas, Maria Eugenia Coria; Cobas, Vladmir Rafael Melian; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: robledo@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    The search to increase the electrical generation, together with the need to decrease the pollution emission, has encouraged the alternative energy sources. Nowadays around the world there are a lot of alternative energy sources incentive programs. In Brazil have PROINFA - Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program. An example of alternative energy sources is the use of biomass as combustible. In the electrical generation, the biomass can be used directly, having it's directly combustion, and transforming the thermal energy liberated in electrical energy, or can be transformed in gas or liquid, and after use technology as internal combustion engine and gas turbine to generate electricity with these combustibles. Few technologies can be used to generate electricity burning directly to the biomass. Among these technologies, have the Stirling engine. It is possible to use this engine because the Stirling engines are external combustion engines, and it has not contact between the work gas and the flue gas. In this way, the Stirling engine needs a heat source, independent of the combustible type that will be used, including solar source. In this work will be present this technology, the different kinds of Stirling engines according to their configuration, moreover will be present the ST 05 G Stirling engine, which is a 500 W engine, acquired by University Federal of Itajuba. Also are present the tests results of this engine, and the installation to work with wood waste as combustible. (author)

  12. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  13. Evaluation of sulphonated polycarbonate membranes for fuel cells; Avaliacao de membranas de policarbonato sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Isabela M.M.; Gomes, Ana C.; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: isabelamuglia@gmail.com; Paranhos, Caio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Fuel cells based on ion conducting polymer membranes offer an alternative for the conventional energetic matrices. Among many advantages of this system, we can mention the reduction on the emission of pollutants, high efficiency and simplicity. This work presents the modification of polycarbonate by sulfonation reaction using acetyl sulfate, in order to increase the conductor ionic character of the membranes used as electrolytes for hydrogen fuel cells. The sulfonated polycarbonate membranes were obtained by casting and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water vapor transmission, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and viscosimetry. (author)

  14. Fuel cells cathode with multiple catalysis and electrocapillary convection; Catodo de celula a combustivel com catalise multipla e conveccao eletrocapilar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, Luis Antonio Waack; Nishimori, Miriam; Ramos, Fernando Manuel [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bambace@dem.inpe.br; Bastos Netto, Demetrio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses a mathematical model for the chemical reactions and liquid phase flow processes occurring in a fuel cell cathode through non homogeneous catalysis carried by gold and Prussian Blue. The gold is applied inside the porous walls of micro-tubes, which may be obtained through several methods. The wall porosity ranging from 7 to 30% ensures gas exchange between the interior of a micro-tube and its exterior where gas flow takes place. The Prussian Blue consists of a thin porous layer located between the selective membrane and the micro-tube system, with void fraction in the 70 to 80% range. A porous electricity conducting carbide flux collector is placed between the tube system and the bipolar plates. The system return tubes possess a diameter much larger than one of the micro-tubes. The electric potential differences generated by the ionic currents in the system and its asymmetrical shape are used to generate electrocapillary flows, which are related with the surface tension changes with local potential. The hydrogen peroxide concentration and its transport to the Prussian Blue layer, and the oxygen transport inside the reactive tubular system are analyzed in this work. (author)

  15. Electrochemical characterization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells; Caracterizacao eletroquimica de celulas a combustivel de membrana polimerica trocadora de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell in function of temperature and time of operation. Different polarization phenomena are considered in the 30 to 70 deg C temperature range, as well as the degradation of electrochemical behavior of the fuel cell analyzed up to 1260 hours of operation. The results show that there is a tendency for the experimental values approaching the theoretical as it increases the temperature of the membrane electrolyte. The electrochemical behavior of the PEMFC studied proved to be less stable at 70 deg C. On the other hand, at 30 deg C the fuel cell performance proved to be considerably lower than at other temperatures. Also, it was found that in certain current ranges occurs greater overlay in potential-current curves, and in some cases reversing between these curves depending on the electric current required for the data obtained at 60 and 70 deg C, indicating, perhaps, that at 70 deg C the characteristics of the electrolyte are slightly inferior to those at 70 deg C, corresponding to an electrolyte degradation. Additionally, for the system studied, we found that the rate of variation of the potential difference in function of the temperature is quite high at the beginning of the operation process and tends to stabilize in a level of around 2,3-2,5 {mu}V per minute for times greater than 330 hours of operation. (author)

  16. Experimental study of proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Estudo experimental de uma celula a combustivel de membrana polimerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Luis Evelio Garcia; Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: evelio@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Here we present a thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of the methane steam reforming for production of 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell. The equilibrium analysis is based on the method of element potentials to find the state of minimum Gibbs free energy for the system and provides the equilibrium concentration of the reforming products. The objective of this analysis is to obtain the range of reforming temperature, pressure and steam-methane molar ratio that results in maximum hydrogen production subjected to low carbon monoxide production and negligible coke formation. The thermal analysis provides the heat transfer rates associated with the individual processes of steam production, gas-phase superheating and reforming necessary to produce 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell and allows for the calculation of thermal efficiencies. Then, the chemical reaction pathways for hydrogen production in steam reforming are discussed and the available chemical, adsorption and equilibrium constants are analyzed in terms of thermodynamic consistency. This analysis provides the framework for the reactor sizing and for establishing the adequate operation conditions. (author)

  17. Sludge dewatering on filters aiming the utilization as fuel; Desaguamento de lodos em filtro visando aproveitamento como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoalim, Luis Gustavo; Neves, Jose Mangolini

    1993-12-31

    This work presents modern methodologies for sludge dewatering and alternatives for environmental disposal of the so obtained cakes. Among the possible alternatives, special emphasis is given to the characterization and study of the variables which determine the behaviour of dewatering operation of sludges form pulp and paper industries. Results are presents for bench scale tests and pilot plant tests 28 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Perovskites synthesis for solid oxide fuel cells; Sintese de perovsquitas para celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sibelle F.C.X.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Pimentel, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcus A. Freitas; Martinelli, Daniele M.H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: sibelle.cunha@gmail

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to study on the obtaining powders of lanthanum manganite oxides with partial substitution of La with strontium at 20% for the application as a cathode for solid oxide fuel cell, through a route of synthesis that are similar to the Pechini method, in which gelatin replaces the ethylene glycol as polymerization agent. The method highlights itself due to its simplicity, low cost and capability to obtain crystalline powders with the high purity and good stoichiometric control. The perovskite obtained were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X ray diffraction, electronic scanning microscopy and the superficial area by BET method. The deposition of the perovskite on electrolyte/anode system was done through the spin coating technique. The methodology used for the perovskite synthesis was very efficient, considering a monophasic material was obtained and with characteristics that were proper to the application as electrode to solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  19. Sludge dewatering on filters aiming the utilization as fuel; Desaguamento de lodos em filtro visando aproveitamento como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoalim, Luis Gustavo; Neves, Jose Mangolini

    1992-12-31

    This work presents modern methodologies for sludge dewatering and alternatives for environmental disposal of the so obtained cakes. Among the possible alternatives, special emphasis is given to the characterization and study of the variables which determine the behaviour of dewatering operation of sludges form pulp and paper industries. Results are presents for bench scale tests and pilot plant tests 28 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Globalization, differentiation and drinking cultures, an anthropological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wilson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et sa consommation ne renvoient pas simplement au domaine économique. L’alcool est devenu aujourd’hui une partie intégrale des relations sociales dans différentes cultures au point où son importance globale est souvent sous-estimée par ses plus ardents critiques. En dépit de ses conséquences directes sur la santé, sa consommation a pris une certaine ampleur dans le monde industriel développé. Certainement son rôle central dans la construction des identités individuelles explique sa position clé au sein des sociétés. Que nous dit le saké à propos du Japon ou le vin de Bourgogne sur la France? Que nous dit la consommation ou l’abstinence d’alcool sur les questions d’identité individuelle, d’ethnicité, de classe et de culture? Quelle place tient l’alcool dans la définition de soi et dans la notion de résistance? Répondre à ces questions et à d’autres est le but essentiel de cet article qui examine la consommation d’alcool à travers différentes cultures et ce que boire signifie pour ceux qui choisissent de consommer ou de s’abstenir. De l’Irlande à Hong-Kong, Mexico à l’Allemagne, l’alcool occupe un certain nombre de fonctions sociales, religieuses, politiques et familiales. Les cultures du boire définissent ces consommations dans le cadre plus large des pratiques sociales et montrent comment classes sociales, ethnicité et nationalisme peuvent s’exprimer à travers cette commodité. En partant d’approches de terrain, les contributeurs analysent l’interface entre culture et pouvoir dans les bars et pubs, la signification des images publicitaires, le rôle de ces boissons dans la vie quotidienne. Le résultat est la première publication comparative sur les questions de l’impact que la consommation d’alcool a sur l’identité nationale dans le monde aujourd’hui.Alcohol is not only big business, it has become an essential part of social relations in so many cultures that

  1. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite; Propriedades funcionais de nanocompositos extrusados de amido de mandioca, alcool polivinilico e montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  2. Nitroxydes chiraux à squelette imidazolidin-4-one comme catalyseurs d'oxydation énantiosélective d'alcools par O2

    OpenAIRE

    Carbo Lopez , Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of chiral nitroxides containing an imidazolidin-4-one squeletton as enantioselective catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. In this view, several nitroxides with different α substituents have been synthesized to investigate the influence of these groups. Several co-catalysts reported in the literature have been tested for the oxidation reactions that take place at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. These catalytic systems can be...

  3. Replacement of diesel oil by hydrous ethyl alcohol in direct burning: a comparison; Substituicao do oleo diesel por alcool etilico hidratado na queima direta: uma comparacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Edgar Paz; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails: edgarpaz@feg.unesp.br, joao@feg.unesp.br, carrocci@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a study of the substitution of diesel fuel by ethyl alcohol in direct burning. The investigation is concentrated in the physical-chemical properties of the fuels, the combustion thermodynamics, the atomization, and the pollutants formation. Results show that hydrated ethyl alcohol can be an attractive alternative for diesel fuel, mainly by the benefits in the combustion process and the pollutants formation. Nevertheless, care must be taken in the substitution to prevent losses by evaporation, fire risks and material damage by corrosion. (author)

  4. Vers la synthèse totale de la macrolactine A. Nouvelles substitutions d'alcools propargyliques catalysées par de l'or(III).

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy , Marie

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this thesis describes a synthetical approach of antimicrobial agent Macrolactin A. This approaoch is based on two original stratégies to build the conjugated systems: one is the isomerisation of a propagylic ketone and the other is a two reaction sequence, namely a Johnson-Claisen reaction followed by an alumina- promoted isomerisation. The stereogenic centres were built by catalytic asymmetric reactions. The second part of the manuscript describes a new nucleophilic substit...

  5. Modelling and numerical simulation of the gasoline containing alcohol spilling in the groundwaters; Modelagem e simulacao numerica do derramamento de gasolina acrescida de alcool em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: jonas@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: corseuil@ens.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a model and the respective two-dimensional numerical solution for the problem of pollutant spilling on the soil saturated region,in finite volumes, with first order biodegradation model. The model is adapted to the brazilian gasoline considering the ethanol influence on the biodegradation of the BTEX constituents and on the ethanol co-solvence in the gasoline phenomenon.The gasoline sorption effect is taken into consideration, when considering linear sorption. The numerically solved transport equation take into consideration the dispersion, advection, sorption and the biodegradation of the MTEX compounds and the ethanol, as well. The groundwater velocity field is numerically solved by using the Darcy equations, allowing the regions with different permeabilities to be considered.

  6. Economic study of a water pumping system for traveling gun machine; Estudo economico de uma adutora, para sistema autopropelido de irrigacao, operando com motor diesel e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lessandro Coll; Viola, Marcelo R.; Bilibios, Carolina; Oliveira, Henrique F.E. de; Lima Junior, Joaquim A. de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed at comparing the set-up and operation costs of a water pumping system using engines which run on two different fuels (diesel oil and alcohol) for application in traveling gun machines. The study was carried out by considering fuel prices in Minas Gerais State on 10/11/2008. The results showed that annual costs with diesel oil engines (R$ 67,460.64) were less than those for alcohol engines (R$ 82,608.12). Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to point out that the operation with alcohol engines was found to be viable only when this fuel price does not exceed R$ 1.40 per liter. (author)

  7. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the operation in sugar and alcohol industry: 2 - evaporation; Modelagem matematica e simulacao das operacoes da industria de acucar e alcool: 2 - evaporacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, A; Giudici, R; Nascimento, C A.O. do [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1987-12-31

    A mathematical model is presented for steady-state simulation of multiple-effects evaporators systems used for concentration of sugar solution. The model basis are the fundamental energy and mass balances equations, as well as empirical correlations for the problem being handled. The evaporation system simulation is performed with an executive program which allows different process configurations. For one typical case, some process parameters (volumetric rate and concentration of feed;exhaust steam temperature) influences on syrup concentration and solution temperature were studied. (author) 8 figs., 2 refs.

  8. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the system ethyl alcohol + ester; Equilibrio liquido-vapor para o sistema alcool etilico+ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto Neves Maia de; Nascimento, Yuri Corsino do; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work consists of the experimental determination of a series of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, for mixtures of ethyl alcohol + ester (ethyl acetate), prepared synthetically, that may be present in the production of biodiesel. The separation of the ethyl alcohol from esters by distillation is an important stage of this process, and therefore it demands accurate data for an appropriate modelling, and later optimization via simulators. FISCHER'S ebulliometer, with digital control (Model 602), was used for measurement of VLE data for the system ethyl alcohol + ester. It consists of a recirculation cell of the both vapor and liquid phases, providing complete data, i.e., pressure, temperature and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases that were obtained by gaseous chromatography (PTxy). This apparatus is coupled to a thermostatic bath with cooling (TE-184 TECNAL) that aims to condense the coming steams of the ebullition in order to return to the mixture camera. The VLE data obtained experimentally were submitted to the test of thermodynamic consistence of the deviations, where the equation of Gibbs-Duhem is used, through the model UNIQUAC. The parameters obtained from the experimental data can be applied in the simulators of processes with the purpose of optimizing the separation of the ethyl alcohol of Ester. (author)

  9. Padroes de consumo de alcool e fatores associados entre adultos usuarios de servico de atencao basica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares Jomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se estimar os padrões de consumo de álcool e identificar fatores associados entre usuários adultos de um serviço de atenção básica no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Desenvolvido através de inquérito domiciliar com amostra de 301 indivíduos que responderam a um instrumento de coleta que continha o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test e variáveis de caracterização sociodemográfica e de saúde. A regressão logística foi utilizada para verificar associação entre o padrão de consumo problemático de álcool e as variáveis independentes. Identificaram-se padrões de consumo problemático de álcool entre pessoas do sexo masculino, de cor da pele negra e/ou mestiça, não casadas, sem religião, tabagistas e entre pessoas sem doença crônica acompanhada pela unidade de saúde. Os serviços de saúde devem, portanto, estar preparados para identificar precocemente pessoas que fazem consumo problemático de álcool, a fim de prevenir consequências sociais e de saúde nas populações, espe cial mente nas atendidas pela atenção básica, que tem a promoção da saúde e a prevenção de agravos como práticas sanitárias prioritárias.

  10. Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Member Home Early Development & Well-Being Brain Development A child’s brain undergoes an amazing period of development from birth ... neural connections each second. The development of the brain is influenced by many factors, including a child’s ...

  11. Employees development

    OpenAIRE

    Kilijánová, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Employees development is one of the main activities of human resources management. It is connected with other activites, such as training of employees, career development and performance management. In the recent days there is an increased importance put on employees development, although the current economic crisis still has some consequences, such as reduced development budget of many organizations. The thesis mentiones employees development in the first place in the context of management o...

  12. Multimobile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter-Reynolds, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    You've developed a killer app for one mobile device - now it's time to maximize your intellectual investment and develop for the full spectrum of mobile platforms and devices. With Multimobile Development, you'll learn how to quickly retool between the iPhone and Android platforms and broaden the interest and audience of your app, without working with burdensome and error-prone compatibility layers and toolkits. Multimobile Development takes you, the developer, through the same mobile software development project on both platforms, learning the differences between and the relative strengths an

  13. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways, ...

  14. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  15. Modularizing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...

  16. Developing Collaborative Product Development Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Tran, Yen

    2012-01-01

    innovation strategies’. Our analyses suggest that developing such collaboration capabilities benefits from the search for complementary practices, the combination of learning styles, and the development of weak and strong ties. Results also underscore the crucial importance of co-evolution of multi......Collaborative product development capabilities support a company’s product innovation activities. In the context of the fast fashion sector, this paper examines the development of the product development capabilities (PDC) that align product development capabilities in a dual innovation context......, one, slow paced, where the firm is well established and the other, fast paced, which represents a new competitive arena in which the company competes. To understand the process associated with collaborative capability development, we studied three Scandinavian fashion companies pursuing ‘dual...

  17. Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  18. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  19. Stamen development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the development of the stamen is investigated, using structural and histochemical observations, micromanipulation and in-vitro culture.

    Formation and exposure of pollen are the two main goals of the developing stamen. The main processes of the pollen formation were

  20. Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual persuasions and various ...

  1. Photocathode development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of photocathodes for use in streak image tubes is described. This is one task in the development of a high-resolution, high-speed x-ray streak camera system whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. There are three objectives in the photocathode development program: (1) the development of new x-ray photocathodes compatible with the requirements of streak tubes; (2) the development of the capability to process high-quality visible light photocathodes as well as x-ray photocathodes; and (3) the design and construction of a transfer photocathode system. Design and construction of all the major components of the transfer photocathode system were completed. Assembly should be completed in early FY 80

  2. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  3. Developing Friendships:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2005-01-01

    reparations and - to a lesser degree - ODA as repentance for war crimes. Officials and other invlved parties often coded their interventions of development projects in language of friendship, whereby they expressed a Japanese desire to change the image of Japan from enemy to friend. In the wake of WWII...... of these programs in development assistance initiatives reflected Japanese attempts to redefine themselves as friends rather than enemies in the minds of Asian neighbors. Other donors also used friendship vocabulary in relation to their development assistance and I will apply a comparative perspective in order...

  4. Organisational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the NHS Improvement national leadership and improvement strategy is to encourage leaders at all levels to develop leadership skills in their staff and themselves. It focuses on fostering compassionate, collaborative and inclusive leadership.

  5. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  6. Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exciting to watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children aged 1-3 includes several areas: Gross motor - walking, running, climbing Fine motor - feeding themselves, drawing Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, ...

  7. Untenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Guilhermina Lavoz

    1995-01-01

    The author analyses the energy - the role of law and environmental rights for sustainable development - from a critical point of view that is in accordance with internationally accepted jurisprudence. (author). 12 refs

  8. Toddler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a secure place. Keep toddlers away from the kitchen with a safety gate. Place them in a ... development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  9. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, J.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAndrew-Benavidas, E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation outlines the functions of the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Activities of the organization include professional development, recruiting, retention, public outreach, leadership, networking, workforce issues, mentoring and communications

  11. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral philosophies, including rights and ... of safe play and how to approach more advanced activities. Young people need to be very aware ...

  12. Toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, E R; Dworkin, P H

    1997-08-01

    The toddler years are ones of exciting and challenging changes in cognitive, affective, and physical growth. Physical growth is particularly remarkable for the child's increasing skills and ability to navigate the environment. Affective development is marked by the push for autonomy and independence and the highly visible nature of the child's temperament or behavioral style. The toddler also enters the wonderful years of imagination and pretend play. Perhaps most noteworthy is the child's dramatic increase in ability to communicate with others through speech and language, as evidence of the progression to symbolic thinking. The dynamic changes in children's development during the toddler years have important implications for child health supervision. Familiarity with toddler development will enable the pediatrician to monitor children's development effectively and to address common, stage-related behaviors with families during anticipatory guidance.

  13. Recent Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Lankford, A J

    Progress has proceeded rapidly on many parallel developments throughout the Trigger, Data Acquisition, and Detector Controls Project. As design has proceeded on the component TDAQ/DCS systems and subsystems, significant integration tests have been performed. Late last year and early this year, high level trigger and data acquisition developments were brought together in what we called the Phase 1 integrated prototype. During the same period, work was started on integrating the Detector Control System (DCS) with the Online Software that will be used to control, configure, and monitor ATLAS. In addition, integration tests between components of the Level 1 Trigger (LVL1) and Dataflow systems have been performed. The Phase 1 integrated prototype involved integrating the prototype level 2 trigger system (LVL2) developed by the LVL2 Pilot Project with the prototype data acquisition system and one of the Event Filter prototypes developed by the DAQ/EF -1 Prototype project. The integrated prototype included a VME Re...

  14. Process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuegerl, K

    1984-01-01

    The item 'process development' comprises the production of acetonic/butonal with C. acetobylicum and the yeasting of potato waste. The target is to increase productivity by taking the following measures - optimation of media, on-line process analysis, analysis of reaction, mathematic modelling and identification of parameters, process simulation, development of a state estimator with the help of the on-line process analysis and the model, optimization and adaptive control.

  15. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  16. Future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.; Hetherington, C.

    1997-01-01

    Issues regarding future development by oil and gas companies in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were discussed. It was suggested in the Berger report that Northern development should be under the control of the people whose lives and economy are being changed. Aboriginal people are now much more sophisticated politically, and have a better understanding of what is involved. Most of them would like the financial benefits from development, but the development would have to be on their terms. Most people involved with Arctic oil exploration feel that there is enough oil in the Arctic to warrant production. (Reserves in the Beaufort Sea are estimated at two billion barrels of good quality oil). If development were to continue, there exist two methods of transportation to move the oil to market. Gulf, Imperial Oil and Panarctic favour the use of pipelines, whereas Dome Petroleum Ltd. favours the use of ice-breaking tankers. In each case the favored option seems to depend upon the location of the company's leases, the capital and operating costs, and the potential environmental impacts. Undoubtedly, any future development will be guided by the scientific information and technical expertise of oil industry pioneers of the 1960s and the 1970s, and the wisdom gained from the experiences of the many participants whose views and insights are recorded in this book

  17. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  18. Divine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina

    2015-01-01

    position in the world system and support poverty alleviation efforts within a neoliberal development framework. Indian-American Muslims draw from their poor status in India to overturn economic inequities within India by shifting India's development rhetoric from identity to class. Collective religious......This article examines how Indian Americans’ religious organizations send not only financial remittances to India, but also social remittances that shape development ideologies. Comparing Indian-American Hindu and Muslim organizations, I find both groups draw from their socioeconomic experiences...... in India and use their position as elite immigrants in the United States to identify and empower their respective religious constituencies in India and overturn different social relations (not just religious practices). Hindu Americans draw from their majority status in India to overturn India's lower...

  19. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  20. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  1. Diverting Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2013-01-01

    developments in the two industries have diverted after 1970. All the large and medium-sized Danish shipyards have ceased, whereas several equipment suppliers have endured and some have built up strong positions within their respective fields. Focusing on corporate strategies in shipbuilding and marine...... equipment manufacturing, this article examines the diverting developments of the two industries and asks what has caused this divergence?......Over the last couple of decades, the shipbuilding and marine equipment industries in Denmark and elsewhere in Europe have been exposed to strong competition from new and rapidly expanding maritime nations in Asia. In the 1970s, Denmark had a stronghold in both industries, which have been closely...

  2. Interorganizational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Interorganizational development is the application of social science knowledge to the creation of planned, systematic and mutually beneficial cooperative relationships between otherwise autonomous organizations. This paper introduces the concept as a means of focusing attention on key action and research issues associated with interorganizational…

  3. Leadership Development

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Simona Hudea

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at rendering the main characteristics distinguishing leaders from common individuals, as well as from managers, while identifying the progressive steps and the key elements needed for leader development. Learning how to lead oneself is a prerequisite for leading others, but without continuous training, coaching or mentoring, and above all, without effective experience, individuals will never get to become real leaders.

  4. New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  5. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  6. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...

  7. Process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata G, G.

    1989-01-01

    Process development: The paper describes the organization and laboratory facilities of the group working on radioactive ore processing studies. Contains a review of the carried research and the plans for the next future. A list of the published reports is also presented

  8. Contraceptive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  9. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  10. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  11. Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This issue's column focuses on online tools and resources available for leadership development of academic, public services staff. The resources are not targeted solely to professional librarians, but rather to all levels of library staff engaged with the public. In addition to inspirational and coaching videos, reviewers recommend resource guides…

  12. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  13. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  14. Engendering Development

    OpenAIRE

    Monsod, Solita C.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the productive and reproductive roles Filipino women perform and assesses their contributions to human development. It also examines the reality of their marginalization from the country’s social, economic and political life. It then suggests on measures by which women can be empowered to achieve the goals of gender equality and equity.

  15. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  16. EOS developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin A.; Peters, Andreas J.; Adde, Geoffray M.; Duellmann, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    CERN has been developing and operating EOS as a disk storage solution successfully for over 6 years. The CERN deployment provides 135 PB and stores 1.2 billion replicas distributed over two computer centres. Deployment includes four LHC instances, a shared instance for smaller experiments and since last year an instance for individual user data as well. The user instance represents the backbone of the CERNBOX service for file sharing. New use cases like synchronisation and sharing, the planned migration to reduce AFS usage at CERN and the continuous growth has brought EOS to new challenges. Recent developments include the integration and evaluation of various technologies to do the transition from a single active in-memory namespace to a scale-out implementation distributed over many meta-data servers. The new architecture aims to separate the data from the application logic and user interface code, thus providing flexibility and scalability to the namespace component. Another important goal is to provide EOS as a CERN-wide mounted filesystem with strong authentication making it a single storage repository accessible via various services and front- ends (/eos initiative). This required new developments in the security infrastructure of the EOS FUSE implementation. Furthermore, there were a series of improvements targeting the end-user experience like tighter consistency and latency optimisations. In collaboration with Seagate as Openlab partner, EOS has a complete integration of OpenKinetic object drive cluster as a high-throughput, high-availability, low-cost storage solution. This contribution will discuss these three main development projects and present new performance metrics.

  17. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  18. Leadership Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona Hudea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at rendering the main characteristics distinguishing leaders from common individuals, as well as from managers, while identifying the progressive steps and the key elements needed for leader development. Learning how to lead oneself is a prerequisite for leading others, but without continuous training, coaching or mentoring, and above all, without effective experience, individuals will never get to become real leaders.

  19. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  20. Energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Jones, L.L.C.; Lovich, R. L.; Halama, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of the desert southwest are currently developed or being evaluated for construction of utility-scale renewable energy projects. These projects include numerous solar and wind energy facilities some of which will be massive. Unfortunately, peer-reviewed scientific publications are not yet available to evaluate the potential effects of solar-based utility-scale renewable energy development (USRED) on any species of wildlife, including amphibians and reptiles (herpetofauna). Scientific publications on the effects of wind-based USRED and operation (USREDO) are focused almost exclusively on flying wildlife including birds and bats. To the best of our knowledge the only publications on the effects of wind-based USREDO on herpetofauna are three publications on desert tortoise ecology at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California. Those studies suggested that not all effects of USREDO were detrimental in the short-term. However, additional research is required to determine if wind energy operation is compatible with conservation of this long-lived species over longer periods of time.

  1. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  2. Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade we have gained much knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in initiation and termination of biofilm formation. In many bacteria, these processes appear to occur in response to specific environmental cues and result in, respectively, induction or terminat......During the past decade we have gained much knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in initiation and termination of biofilm formation. In many bacteria, these processes appear to occur in response to specific environmental cues and result in, respectively, induction...... or termination of biofilm matrix production via the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP. In between initiation and termination of biofilm formation we have defined specific biofilm stages, but the currently available evidence suggests that these transitions are mainly governed by adaptive responses......, and not by specific genetic programs. It appears that biofilm formation can occur through multiple pathways and that the spatial structure of the biofilms is species dependent as well as dependent on environmental conditions. Bacterial subpopulations, e.g., motile and nonmotile subpopulations, can develop...

  3. Implementation of a photovoltaic/electrolyzer/fuel cell autonomous system; Implementacao de um sistema autonomo fotovoltaico/eletrolisador/celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ennio Peres da; Apolinario, Fernando Rezende; Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio], Emails: lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br, rezende@ifi.unicamp.br; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: rubem_souza@yahoo.com.br; Pinto, Adailton de Souza [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], Email: adailton@eln.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a project whose main objective is to analyze the technical feasibility of using a system based on the production of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) for storing the energy generated for photovoltaic systems. The work involves the design, physical implementation and the performance evaluation of a system for hydrogen electrolytic generation with solar-photovoltaic energy, the treatment os gas, its storage and it use in fuel cell systems. This work will be performed in cooperation between researchers from the Laboratorio de Hidrogenio (LH2) of the UNICAMP and of the Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM) of the UFAM, and is financing by ELETRONORTE.

  4. Modelling and essay or the polarization curve of a polymeric membrane fuel cell; Modelagem e ensaio da curva de polarizacao de uma celula a combustivel de membrana polimerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Xavier, Bruno Domont; Gatti, George Cassani; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Minguita [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: silvioa@gmail.com; brunodomont@gmail.com; gatti_ufrj@yahoo.com.br; rminguita@yahoo.com.br; Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologias Especiais]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the essays performed with a polymeric membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at the test laboratories of the ELETROBRAS Electric Energy Research Center (CEPEL/ELETROBRAS) manufactured by the Eletrocell, which allows to study the influence of some functional parameters (voltage, current, mass and pressure fluxes)

  5. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; elisange@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  6. Fuel cell: Brazil is focusing the energy of the millennium; Celula a combustivel: Brasil se prepara para a energia do milenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombana, Clarice [Eletricidade Moderna (EM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-10-15

    The fuel cell is characterized as an important way of distributed energy generation, in this direction it can contribute for solution of demand control problems in relation to critical charging periods or energy rationing. Besides other benefits, can be highlighted the silent operation, utilization of residual heat and high quality of produced energy. Attentive to this tendency, COPEL and LACTEC have united efforts in order to diffuse this technology in Brazil.

  7. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  8. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction; Analise da influencia do combustivel na obtencao de HAp via reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  9. Characterization and improvement gas diffusion layer of low temperature fuel cell; Caracterizacao e aprimoramento da camada difusora de celulas a combustivel de funcionamento a baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.Z.; Dantas, R.; Oliveira, I.S. de; Azevedo, C.M.N.; Pires, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Quimica; Canalli, V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2006-07-01

    In low temperature fuel cells the main part is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The gas diffusion layer is a component of the MEA, being a composite material constituted by carbon powder and polytetrafluoroethylene, used to increases hydrofobicity, fundamental characteristic in water transport into system. In this work methods were adapted with the aim to a better characterization of the diffusion layer by the measuring the following parameter: contact angle and hysteresis; morphology, thickness and porosity. From these characterization results optimized MEAS will be produced to better fuel cell performance. (author)

  10. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities; Um estudo sobre o efeito domino em instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-07-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  11. Impacts of the turbogenerator reactive operation in the nuclear fuel burnup; Impactos da operacao reativa do turbogerador na queima do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helio Ricardo V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The parameterization of the losses in a turbogenerator in function of an operation with the electrical system reactive allowed to model in a simple and exact way the equations that define and they quantify the additional of nuclear potency that it should be generated by a reactor, in order to maintain the commitment with the national system operator, that is, the electric active power contracted. starting from this additional of nuclear power it was modeled the additional burn up of the fuel elements, as well as the numbers of effective days to full power wasted. it was promoted a safety analysis and some limitations due to the reactive operation of the electrical system. inside of this context it was made a financial evaluation in which we ask some questions to companies and government organs in order to define what losses are acceptable and also the reason why we don't use other technician resources such as: increase of the electrical mesh, electrical power injection in strategic points, capacitor banks and increase of the number the electrical plants. (author)

  12. Preparation of PVDF and PTFE membranes for fuel cell use; Preparacao de membranas de PVDF e PTFE enxertadas e sulfonadas para uso em celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: angeral@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Grafting of styrene onto polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied using styrene/toluene solutions. First, PTFE and PVDF films were prepared and the process was conducted by radiation induced graft polymerization of styrene, by a Co{sup 60} source. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene at 1:1 (v/v) concentration and then submitted to gamma radiation at 20 kGy doses. After irradiation, the samples were evaluated at the period of 21 days at room temperature in order to observe the grafting degree. Chemical changes in the PVDF and PTFE films after styrene grafting were monitored and the results were evaluated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) after sulfonation of 1, 2 and 24 hours were also determined. (author)

  13. Study of PtNi/C catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell; Estudo do catalisador PtNi/C para celula a combustivel de etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Silva, E.L. da; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: eticiaprm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, PtNi binary catalyst and pure platin catalyst were synthesized by the impregnation-reduction method, using Vulcan XC72R as support, for direct ethanol fuel cells. The composition and structure of the catalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, the electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and morphology of the catalysts was studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Ni to Pt led to the contraction of the crystal lattice, increased the catalytic activity compared to pure Pt and initiated the electrooxidation of ethanol at lower potential. (author)

  14. Hybrid membranes PVA/silicon for use in fuel cells; Membranas hibridas de PVA/silica para aplicacao em celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Liz C.V. de; Almeida, Raquel D. de; Gomes, Ailton de S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lizcontino@ima.ufrj.br; Ramos Filho, Florencio G. de [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrids organic-inorganic membranes PVA-silica have been prepared using sol-gel process in situ with the objective of study the influence of inorganic particles incorporation on the water uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity of PVA membranes. The silica was constituted of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with or without the mixture with the tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS). The hybrids membranes were oxidated to convert the -SH groups in -SO{sub 3}H groups, becoming them proton conducting. The hybrids membranes not oxidated showed lesser water uptake and pervaporated material, probably, due to the formation of crosslink that restricted the swell of the PVA membrane. The protonic conductivity of the hybrid membranes after the oxidation was up to 26 times bigger than of the membrane not oxidated. (author)

  15. Biomass gasification and fuel cells: system with PEM fuel cell; Gaseificacao de biomassa e celula a combustivel: sistema com celula tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, Alexandre; Lobkov, Dmitri D.; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Rodrigues, Jean Robert Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: asordi@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: lobkov@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: jrobert@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin], e-mail: Lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the operation flow diagram of an electricity generation system based on the biomass integrated gasification fuel cell of the type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). The integration between the gasification and a fuel cell of this type consists of the gas methane (CH4) reforming contained in the synthesis gas, the conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO), and the cleaning of the gaseous flow through a PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate the efficiency of the system with and without methane gas reforming. The performance was also analyzed for different gasification gas compositions, for larger molar fractions of hydrogen and methane. The system electrical efficiency was 29% respective to the lower heating value of the gasification gas. The larger the molar fraction of hydrogen at the shift reactor exit, the better the PSA exergetic performance. Comparative analysis with small gas turbines exhibited the superiority of the PEMFC system. (author)

  16. Wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell energy for communication stations; Energia eolica, fotovoltaica e de celula a combustivel para estacoes de comunicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Iolanda; Pereira, Jose; Alcobia, Hernani [Net Plan Telecomunicacoes e Energia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pereirinha, Paulo [Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto para Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a hybrid system that provides power to a remote and autonomously telecommunications station by means of electrical solar generators, wind and hydrogen fuel cell. In the absence of sufficient sun and wind, a bank of batteries and hydrogen produced on-site guarantee the power supply. The station can still be remote monitored and managed.

  17. Influence of heavy crude oil refining about the mains characteristics of jet fuel; Influencia do refino de petroleos pesados sobre as principais caracteristicas do combustivel de aviacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Om, Neyda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavado, Alberto; Reyes, Yordanka [Centro de Pesquisas do Petroleo, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Salazar, Rodolfo [Centro de Eletromagnetismo Aplicado, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Dominguez, Zulema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The aviation technology in the world, is to use gas turbines engines feted for fuel type Jet A1. The main exigency of quality for this products is concentrated in extreme security and secure answer during the functioning. The conductivity and thermal stability to oxidation are the principals characteristics to assure these quality exigencies. The use of additives is the methods most used for establish the quality for international specification. The incorporation of heavy crude oils in mixtures to produce fuels has caused a diminution of the quality of the derivatives produced. High viscosity, density and high sulfur content in the heavy crude oils affect some of properties of the jet fuel, influencing in its composition, increasing the mercaptanes and total sulfur content, getting a jet fuel unstable, with low conductivity and highly corrosive. So, for obtain the quality required internationally is necessary use additives. This paper study how the heavy crude oils affect the conductivity and the thermal stability of the jets fuels type Jet A1. Also analyze of the use of dissipater electrostatic and antioxidants additives, to improve these properties in the jet fuel. (author)

  18. Fluid dynamic simulation of the fluidized bed using propane-air fuel; Simulacao dinamica de um combustor de leito fluidizado utilizando como combustivel o ar-propanado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, L.P.; Lucena, S.; Silva, D.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: limajun@br.inter.net

    2004-07-01

    This paper has for purpose to present the modeling and simulation of the homogeneous combustion of the mixture of propane-air in a combustor of fluidized bed with inert particles, basing on a stationary model with phases in series, being taken into account the thermal changes and mass changes among the phases and it changes thermal with the wall for radiation. Computational methods are used for such simulation and CFX 4.4 as dynamic flowing computation software (CFD), kindred of more proximity with the real aspects. Being studied like this dynamic and kinetic flowing parameters of the involved components. (author)

  19. Polyester synthesis for application in PEMFC type fuel cells; Sintese de poliester para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.P.; Souza, D.R. de; Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: raigenis@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell), along the SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell), is the most important technology, among the various types of fuels cell. The PEMFC shows a large versatility of applications, both for stationary and mobile use. However the PEMFC presents high manufacture cost, directly impacting in the cost of the produced energy. This work contemplates the previews sulfonation of phtalic acid and its subsequent polymerization with glycerol, using as catalytic tin dibutyl-dilaurate. The obtained material has been characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, MEV, DRX and XRF. The gotten results indicated that phtalic acid was sulfonated and the increase of the sulfonation degree significantly increased the crystallinity of the sulfonated ftalico acid. Furthermore, the polymer produced from the sulfonated monomer presented adequate thermal resistance and a high content of conducting groups, necessary conditions for application as electrolyte in PEMFC. All these characteristics, particularly the low cost of the reagents and the ease of production process, make the sulfonated polyester membrane a promising candidate as fuel cell electrolyte. (author)

  20. Combustion oil production by direct liquefaction of the black liquor; Obtencao de oleo combustivel atraves da liquefacao direta de lixivia negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, J A.R.; Schuchardt, U [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    A large number of publications about the liquefaction of carbonaceous materials with carbon monoxide in water have appeared. As carbon monoxide reacts with water to form formate. We have decided to use this compound for the direct liquefaction of black liquor, obtained from the pulp and paper industry. The reactions were performed in a stainless steel autoclave of 1 litre using a ratio of water/black liquor/sodium formate of 69/29,5/1,5 %. The reaction conditions were varied between 200 and 300 deg C and 110 to 130 bar of inert gas. We obtained heavy oils of an average molecular weight around 500 in 90 to 100 % yield on a dry and ash-free basis. The calorific value of this oil was estimated in 38000 kJ/kg. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Conductor polymeric membranes with potential for application in PEM type fuel cells; Membranas polimericas condutoras com potencialidades para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, Michel de Meireles; Sodre, Livia Farias; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work two series of membranes were prepared; they were based on hybrid organic-inorganic or composite materials and presented potentiality for application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC. The polymeric phase was constituted of poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, crosslinked with tetra ethoxysilane, TEOS, with a 70%/30% ratio. Phosphotungstic acid (PWA) or the sodium monododecylsulphate (MDS), as proton conductors, were added to the inorganic network, close to the gel point; the mixtures were transferred to a cast. The films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membranes showed good properties, as flexibility, thermal and mechanical stability with potentiality to be used as conducting membranes in technological applications. (author)

  2. Hydrogen purification for fuel cell by copper promoted gold catalysts; Purificacao de hidrogenio para pilha a combustivel utilizando catalisadores de ouro promovidos com cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozer, Thiago S.; Vieira, Carlos T.P.; Passos, Fabio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Dziuba, Dominika A. [Hochschule Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Copper promoted gold catalysts were studied for hydrogen purification through selective CO oxidation. The Cu acted as a selectivity promoter favoring the CO conversion and decreasing the H{sub 2} consumption. The deposition-precipitation method, used to prepare the samples generated small and well dispersed gold particles, as the UV-vis DRS spectra did not show the 'plasmon' band, which indicates that the samples are active for SELOX. The activity tests showed high CO conversion, the bimetallic 2,5%Au-0,5%Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed the best behavior in the tested condition, 95% of CO conversion and 75% of selectivity at 50 deg C. Increasing the O{sub 2} content in the feedstream the CO conversion also increased, although the selectivity decreased. (author)

  3. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors; Avaliacao de alternativas de combustivel tipo placa para reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa

    2005-07-01

    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO{sub 2} in stainless steel, of UO{sub 2} in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  4. Hydrogen purification for fuel cells using gold catalysts promoted with copper; Purificacao de hidrogenio para celulas a combustivel utilizando catalisadores de ouro promovidos com cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozer, Thiago Simonato; Passos, Fabio Barboza [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Petroleo. Lab. de Reatores, Cinetica e Catalise (RECAT)]. E-mail: mozer@vm.uff.br

    2008-07-01

    The selective CO oxidation in the presence of H2 was investigated on Au catalysts promoted with different amounts of Cu. Au catalysts were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and exhibited a satisfactory activity at 50 deg C with adequate selectivity. The addition of Cu to Au/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts caused an increase in the selectivity to CO oxidation due to an interaction between Au and Cu on the surface of the catalysts. However, this beneficial effect was limited to an optimal content of Cu. Through the temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) techniques, the formation of small bimetallic Au-Cu particles was verified. The best result was obtained with 2.5% Au-0.5% Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, the CO conversion was higher than 95% and the selectivity was around 70% at 50 deg C. The catalysts showed stable catalytic activity during 24 hours time -on-stream. In the presence of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, a small decrease in the CO conversion was observed in the stability test, probably due to the deactivation caused by the CO{sub 2} presence. (author)

  5. Bilayer electrolyte-anode for solid oxide fuel cell; Obtencao de bicamadas eletrolito-anodo para pilhas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crochemore, G.B.; Marcomini, R.F.; Souza, D.P.F. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (GEMM/UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais], Email: dulcina@ufscar.br; Rabelo, A.A. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell is a high efficient device hence it plays a very important role in the hydrogen economy. However, the cell operation temperature must be lower than 800 deg C, what is attainable for thin Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. The tape casting process is the most used technique because it allows a very fine tuning of the tape thickness. In this work it were investigated the processing conditions for obtaining electrolyte-anode (YSZ/ YSZ-NiO) bilayers with no lamination after the sintering process. (author)

  6. Estimate of fuel burnup spatial a multipurpose reactor in computer simulation; Estimativa da queima espacial do combustivel de um reator multiproposito por simulacao computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nadia Rodrigues dos, E-mail: nadia.santos@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br, E-mail: zrlima@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In previous research, which aimed, through computer simulation, estimate the spatial fuel burnup for the research reactor benchmark, material test research - International Atomic Energy Agency (MTR/IAEA), it was found that the use of the code in FORTRAN language, based on the diffusion theory of neutrons and WIMSD-5B, which makes cell calculation, bespoke be valid to estimate the spatial burnup other nuclear research reactors. That said, this paper aims to present the results of computer simulation to estimate the space fuel burnup of a typical multipurpose reactor, plate type and dispersion. the results were considered satisfactory, being in line with those presented in the literature. for future work is suggested simulations with other core configurations. are also suggested comparisons of WIMSD-5B results with programs often employed in burnup calculations and also test different methods of interpolation values obtained by FORTRAN. Another proposal is to estimate the burning fuel, taking into account the thermohydraulics parameters and the appearance of xenon. (author)

  7. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties; Avaliacao do PVDF envelhecido em etanol combustivel: difusao, cristalinidade e propriedades termicas dinamico-mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F., E-mail: agmar@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  8. Balance of greenhouse gases emission in the life cycle of ethanol fuel; Balanco de emissao de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cinthia Rubio Urbano da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    The environmental focus of the use of biofuels is the reduction of green houses gases emissions through automobile exhaust; furthermore, the European Union has discussed the necessity of the requirement these reduction between 30 to 50% compared with the gasoline cycle. Inside this context, this paper joins and compares recent studies about green house gases emission balance of environmental life cycle of ethanol fuel derived form corn, wheat and sugar cane with the goal of recognize the reduction these emissions from the use of ethanol in function of the different alternatives of production. Results show that production of ethanol from sugar cane results higher reduction of green house gases emission compared with the gasoline. Ethanol from corn and ethanol from wheat meet, in the current conditions of Canadian production and use, the least requirement of 30% of saved emission. (author)

  9. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  10. Incidence des politiques en matière de publicité, de taxes et d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence des politiques en matière de publicité, de taxes et d'établissement des prix sur la consommation d'alcool (Argentine, Bolivie, Chili, Pérou). La consommation d'alcool ... Corruption in Latin America. This project will study private sector efforts to promote better compliance with anticorruption laws in Latin America.

  11. Leading and Managing Continuing Professional Development: Developing People, Developing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Peter; Bubb, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This book has been written for those who lead and manage continuing professional development (CPD). Continuing professional development co-coordinators hold a key role and one that needs to be developed further in many schools. This book is intended to help people think more deeply about the professional development and training of staff--all…

  12. Rural Community Development: Bedrock for National Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper advocates that community development is the bedrock for national development. For any meaningful development to take place, whether national or global development must have its building blocks or firm-root in rural development. However, the rural communities are characterized by isolation from ideas and ...

  13. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  14. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... towards environmental management in Nigeria which is a fast developing economy. The basic ... almost every developing country in which it is grown ..... perspective of Development in Formal and Integrated Management of.

  15. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  16. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  17. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  18. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  19. Fuel cell: new electrocatalysts for SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) anodes and regulation between cell performance and catalytic activity; Celula a combustivel: novos eletrocatalisadores para anodos de SOFC (Celulas a Combustivel de Oxido Solido) e correlacao entre desempenho da celula e atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Aguiar, Aurinete B.; Brandao, Soraia T. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Frank, Maria Helena Troise; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Electro-catalysts were prepared using new routes. Chemical Ultrasound Deposition (CUD) method: aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid was ultrasound vaporized and deposited on heated Ytria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). Resin impregnation (IPR) method: nickel oxide and YSZ were mixed, added to phenolic resins, precipitated in acidic water and milled. Wet impregnation method (IMP) was used for comparison: YSZ and an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid were mixed, followed by evaporation, drying and calcination. The catalysts were evaluated for methane steam reforming in a quartz reactor. The reactions were conducted for one hour with no significant catalytic activity loss. In reactions with 100 mg of catalyst and a mixture consisting of methane and steam (3:1), IPR catalyst showed activity higher and better stability than those by IMP. On other tests, the reform was conducted with 100 mg of catalyst and methane to steam of 10. The IPR catalyst activity was so high that the reaction approached equilibrium conditions. Anode/electrolyte/cathode units (A/E/C) were prepared with the above catalysts as follows: the anode was a catalyst porous layer; the electrolyte an YSZ dense layer; and the cathode an LSM porous layer; graphite powder formed the material porosity. The two first layers, in powder form, were put in a stainless steel cast, pressed to 4000 bars and sinterized. The cathode layer was subsequently added using tape-casting techniques followed by sintering. A/E/C units showed 40% linear contraction and porosity higher than 20%. For fuel cell tests, A/E/C was mounted in alumina plates with platinum current collectors. Unitary SOF cells were loaded with hydrogen diluted in nitrogen showing opened circuit voltage from circa 700 mV, for the CUD anode, to 350 mV, for the IPR anode. The unitary SOFC was loaded with methane for 15 minutes or longer, with no noticeable voltage loss. At 1300 K the SOFC made with IPR or IMP catalysts showed opened current voltages close to 500 mV, while CUD SOFC measured less approximately 300 mV. In conclusion, the SOFC opened current voltage might be related to the reforming activity of the electro-catalyst used as the anode. (author)

  20. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols; Effets isotopiques du deuterium attaches a des mecanismes unimoleculaires et concertes. Cas des deutero-1-chloro-2 alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, C

    1962-07-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [French] Apres une analyse bibliographique des causes probables d'effets isotopiques et leur comparaison, avec les simplifications qu'apporte le modele athermique, on a entrepris l'etude de la discussion isotopique du deuterium dans des molecules organiques en termes d'influences structurelles, cherchant a degager le role important de la longueur de la liaison C-D plus courte que C-H, et du rayon de Van der Waals de l'atome de D plus petit que celui de H. On a effectue des mesures cinetiques sur quelques reactions invoquant les mecanismes envisages: ionisations unimoleculaires et concentrees d'halogenes. Les modeles structuraux choisis sont: chloro 2 - cyclohexanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; chloro 2 - cyclopentanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; phenyl 1 - chloro 1 - propanol 2 threo H 2 et D 2. (auteur)

  1. Effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) films; Efeito do teor de silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jessica R.M.B. da; Santos, Barbara F.F. dos; Leite, Itamara F., E-mail: jraquell@homail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of PVA films. The PVA/layered silicate (AN) films were prepared by intercalation solution, using 1 to 2% of bentonite with respect to the PVA total weight. Then the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results of the FTIR revealed interaction between the functional groups of the PVA and the layered silicate. The XRD analysis showed that nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology were obtained. The results of TG showed that the nanocomposite PVA/2%AN showed higher thermal stability compared to PVA/1%AN. The DSC results showed that the addition of AN to the PVA did not affect crystallization rate, as well as promoted a reduction in glass transition temperature and melting of the PVA. (author)

  2. Influence of the temperature on the synthesis of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly (vinil alcohol); Influencia da temperatura na sintese de pontos quanticos de sulfeto de cadmio estabilizados por poli (alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) have been the subject of recent research by presenting quantum properties. This property has stimulated the study of these particles in biological applications such as bookmarks, which creates the necessity of using different synthesis routes resulting in biocompatible systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the properties of QDs cadmium sulfide, aqueous route using poly (vinyl alcohol), a biocompatible polymer, such as stabilizing agent. The characterization of particles produced was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for obtaining the absorption and emission, respectively and Transmission microscopy (TEM) for analysis of the diameter of the nanocrystals. (author)

  3. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization;Sintese e caracterizacao de particulas derivadas de poli(alcool vinilico) (PVA) para embolizacao e quimioembolizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M., E-mail: nery@ibilce.unesp.b [Braile Biomedica Industria e Comercio Representacoes S.A., Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  5. Occupational health II: the work process and the occupational risks in the patio of an alcohol distillery; Saude do trabalhador II: o processo de trabalho e as cargas laboriais no patio de uma destilaria de alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo Pinheiro, Sandra de; Ruffino Netto, Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Social

    1994-10-01

    This work is part of a study performed with workers of an alcohol distillery in the region of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil. It describes the work process in the patio of an alcohol distillery, and shows the occupational risks existing in the area 11 refs.

  6. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols; Effets isotopiques du deuterium attaches a des mecanismes unimoleculaires et concertes. Cas des deutero-1-chloro-2 alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, C

    1962-07-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [French] Apres une analyse bibliographique des causes probables d'effets isotopiques et leur comparaison, avec les simplifications qu'apporte le modele athermique, on a entrepris l'etude de la discussion isotopique du deuterium dans des molecules organiques en termes d'influences structurelles, cherchant a degager le role important de la longueur de la liaison C-D plus courte que C-H, et du rayon de Van der Waals de l'atome de D plus petit que celui de H. On a effectue des mesures cinetiques sur quelques reactions invoquant les mecanismes envisages: ionisations unimoleculaires et concentrees d'halogenes. Les modeles structuraux choisis sont: chloro 2 - cyclohexanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; chloro 2 - cyclopentanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; phenyl 1 - chloro 1 - propanol 2 threo H 2 et D 2. (auteur)

  7. Effect of chitosan content on morphology and thermal properties of poly (vinyl alcohol) / chitosan blends; Eefeito do teor de quitosana na morfologia e propriedades termicas das blendas de poli (alcool vinilico) / quitosana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Barbara Fernanda F. dos; Silva, Jessica Raquel M.B. da; Leite, Itamara Farias, E-mail: itamaraf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work consists in the preparation and characterization of blends consisting of biodegradable polymers, chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), to evaluate the effect of different chitosan content in morphology and thermal properties of PVA blends/CS, prepared by the solution method. Therefore, the blends were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed a good degree of interaction between the polymers of the blend constituents, suggesting certain degree of miscibility in the mixture. It was observed by XRD, that as the chitosan content in the mixture decreases PVA/CS, there is a slight increase in crystallinity. In comparative analysis, is observed that the composition PVA1/CS1 was the composition that showed improvement in thermal stability. (author)

  8. Open Data for Development | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Open Data for Development (OD4D) program brings together a network of ... other open data initiatives to ensure they benefit people in developing countries. ... that benefits everyone, empowering women and achieving gender equality, ...

  9. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  10. Development | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development demystifies the theory of gender ... and development theory, introduces competing theoretical frameworks, and ... Unfortunately, however, the research environment in the Middle East and ...

  11. Preceptor development. Use a staff development specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, S; Hoeppner, M

    1994-01-01

    Preceptor orientation is a well identified need. Less often identified is the critical role the staff development specialist plays in the ongoing support and development of preceptors. In this article, the authors explain activities of coaching, facilitating, mentoring, and consulting. These role components are essential in the ongoing development of preceptors. This support also may help retain preceptors.

  12. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  13. Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Development Application Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This summary is part of the application for approval of the development of the Terra Nova Field off the coast of Newfoundland, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada, on behalf of, and with the cooperation of its co-proponents. The full application consists of five parts, comprising the development plan itself, the Canada-Newfoundland benefits plan detailing commitments with regards to contracts and employment, the environmental impact statement concerning the impact of development on the physical and biological environment, and a statement of socio-economic impacts, characterizing existing and projected impacts of the development on the fisheries, industry, employment, demography, social and public infrastructures and facilities, and socio-cultural issues

  14. Wordpress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who want to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Prior knowledge of basic web development and design is assumed.

  15. Practical web development

    CERN Document Server

    Wellens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book is perfect for beginners who want to get started and learn the web development basics, but also offers experienced developers a web development roadmap that will help them to extend their capabilities.

  16. International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development. Learn moreArtificial intelligence and human development ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs. Aminata Camara ... Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education.

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  18. Development | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two years ago, the International Development Research Centre created CIME, a development communication program that reflects the interrelations between Communication at the grassroots level, the exchange of Information, two-way Media, and nonformal Education. This book presents the conceptual framework that led ...

  19. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development implies development which ensures maximization of human well being for today's generation which does not lead to declines in future well being. Attaining this path requires eliminating those negative externalities that are responsible for natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.

  20. Sustainable development goals and inclusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Vegelin, C.

    Achieving sustainable development has been hampered by trade-offs in favour of economic growth over social well-being and ecological viability, which may also affect the sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the member states of the United Nations. In contrast, the concept of inclusive

  1. Dialogue on leadership development

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, C Manohar; Srinivasan, Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Sharing our considerable experience as teachers who have designed and conducted leadership development programmes, we discuss the challenges in the field of leadership development. We distinguish between leader development and leadership development; differentiate leadership theories from leadership development theories; discuss the goals of leadership development programmes and their implications for the design of such programmes – the knowing, being and doing gap and how the goal, cognitive...

  2. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  3. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  4. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  5. Dialogue on leadership development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manohar Reddy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharing our considerable experience as teachers who have designed and conducted leadership development programmes, we discuss the challenges in the field of leadership development. We distinguish between leader development and leadership development; differentiate leadership theories from leadership development theories; discuss the goals of leadership development programmes and their implications for the design of such programmes – the knowing, being and doing gap and how the goal, cognitive understanding vs. deeper internalization vs. transformation would impact the design; the need to synthesize Western and Indian approaches to leadership development; and the importance of designing coherent leadership development programmes which combine multiple methods and approaches.

  6. Sencha Architect app development

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach for using Sencha Architect to develop applications in Ext JS and Sencha Touch.Sencha Architect App Development is for Ext JS and Sencha Touch developers that are looking to improve their productivity by using Sencha Architect for app development. Basic knowledge of Ext JS and Sencha Touch is required.

  7. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  8. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  9. Information and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  10. Web Developer | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Duties or Responsibilities Web Development Leads all technical web ... design, and maintain the corporate website and any other internet properties IDRC ... and testing site for use by members of the website and social media team.

  11. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  12. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  13. Project development symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers were presented on the following: project evaluation; case studies - minerals; finance; applied finance; legal; manpower/industrial relations; and new technologies. Those papers on the coal industry were: mine planning for coal project development; the planning and management of a lignite exploration contract in Thailand; development of the West Cliff extended project; Ulan: a resource development; Saxonvale mine development a case study in project planning and project management; the role of marketing in the development of a new coal project; technical support for coal marketing; infrastructure development for the Ulan project; underground mine project developments; the bucketwheel excavator at Goonyella - a case study; tax aspects of mining development projects; cost of capital mining development projects; and trends in development project finance. 16 papers were abstracted separately.

  14. Cuban energy development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdellans Escobar, Ilse; Perez Martin, David; Lopez Lopez, Ileana; Ricardo Mora, Henry; Gomez De la Torre, Yoandys

    2005-01-01

    In this paper from energy demand scenario calculated for the country until 2025, energy supply options were assessed. Three energy development scenarios considering economic and social development projections and different energy options were evaluated: a reference scenario which includes the nowadays energy development projections; a second scenario basing the development on intensive use of domestic fossil fuels; and a third scenario, where the development is based on the maximum use of domestic renewable energy potential. The results are analyzed and recommendations are formulated

  15. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  16. L’exposition prolongée des consommateurs à un nouveau produit permet-elle d’accroître son adoption ?

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Josselin; Aurier, Philippe; D'hauteville, François

    2010-01-01

    Cette recherche évalue l’effet de la consommation à domicile d’un nouveau produit (le vin à teneur réduite en alcool) sur son acceptabilité à long terme par les consommateurs, et suppose que l’exposition au produit et l’information non-sensorielle influenceront leurs évaluations hédoniques. Deux groupes de consommateurs ont alors été exposés soit à un vin normal, soit à un vin à teneur réduite en alcool, en condition aveugle le premier mois puis avec l’indication de leurs teneurs en alcool le...

  17. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  18. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  20. Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareerat Rakwichitkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher professional development are the teachers’ learning process throughout their career stages to ensure that teachers have knowledge, skills and needed competencies for teaching among rapid changes in social, economic and technology which have the impact on learning and teaching. This article deals with the topics of the framework for teaching, teacher career stages and teacher professional development. The research findings related to teacher professional development, teacher professional development activities, suggestions for planning the professional development. Those research findings can be applied and implemented by the school principals, educational supervisors and other professional developers.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  2. Economic Development and Development of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Černetič

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Černetič deals with certain dilemmas and problems related to employee training within companies, and discusses the complexity of the relationship between technological development and education, developmental gap between the developed and underdevdoped economies, and the goals of social development in Slovenia. Cernetič stresses that training programmes should above all provide flexibility of employment; the competitive edge of an entire state actually depends on effective use of human resources. Slovenia cannot exert any substantial influence on the global economy, it can only follow the main market trends. Knowledge is therefore of great importance, as the wealth of smaller nations is primarily based on the education level of their inhabitants.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  7. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  8. Odoo development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who need to quickly become productive with Odoo. You are expected to have experience developing business applications, as well as an understanding of MVC application design and knowledge of the Python programming language.

  9. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  10. Next Generation Software Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Zohar

    2005-01-01

    Under this grant we have studied the development of a scientifically sound basis for software development that builds on widely used pragmatic methods but is firmly grounded in well-established formal...

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  12. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  13. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    in XP. In general, we find XP well-suited for mobile systems development projects. However, based on our experiences and an analytical comparison we propose the following modifications to XP: Make an essential design to avoid the worst time waste during refactoring. For faster development, reuse code......Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...

  14. Localisation for industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhugwandin, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on localisation for industrial development, and is presented by Ashley Bhugwandin at The 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria...

  15. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  16. Gammasphere software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere)

  17. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  18. Development | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Dnipro River is Europe's second longest river and flows through the heartland of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. For many centuries, it has played a vital role in the historical, cultural, religious and economic development of this vast region. Indeed, it is true to say that nobody can understand this vast region of the world ...

  19. Development | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land is an important source of security against poverty across the developing world, but, in many places, unequal rights to land put women at a disadvantage, ... Upgrading is a key concept for value chain analysis and refers to the acquisition of technological capabilities and market linkages that enable firms to improve their ...

  20. Development | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book describes and analyzes the 3-year-long “L-20” project, whose objective ... in the environment for research and development (R&D) around the world. ... the “capability approach” of economist and Nobel Prize laureate Amartya Sen.

  1. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  2. The China Development Bank and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Levanchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author presents an empirical study of sustainable banking in China and examines the flagship China DevelopmentBank (CDB. The CDB is directly supervised by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China and is one ofthe largest state-owned financial institutions in the country. Its overseas lending is growing rapidly; it increasingly acts as aglobal player, influenced by a variety of international actors. Using the mercantilist framework, the author investigates how the CDB’s social policies diverge from those set by the Chinese authorities. The analysis discusses CDB’s policy variations that are not in line with government interests or prescribed directly by governmental bodies. It concludes that the bank has been active in developing and establishing its own corporate strategy for implementing the concept of sustainable development to promote a balanced development of the economy, society and the environment. That strategy contains the norms and rules set by Chinese regulatory agencies with regard to social and environmental areas, as well as important elements ofthe international practice of corporate responsibility and sustainable funding. The CDB is most likely driven by its desire tobe considered internationally a good corporate citizen and often acts independently from governmental guidance, which insome sense undermines mercantilist perceptions.

  3. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  4. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  5. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  6. World Development Report 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report, seventh in a series of annual publications, examines the relationship between population change and development, showing why continuing rapid population growth in developing countries is likely to mean a lower quality of life for millions of people. The first part of the report concludes that the economies of developing countries can…

  7. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Participatory Development Communication

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Training Needs in Participatory Development Communication .... to the development of society (communications in the service of development), ... There are also some definitions that give a more restrictive meaning to the way ...... Although proponents of participation appreciate that there is more good than bad in the ...

  9. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  10. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  11. Interpreting sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  12. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  13. Institutionalizing Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, William F.

    Three years ago, Golden West College (GWC) decided to make a major commitment to staff development as a means of revitalizing the college. This commitment was evidenced through the creation of the position of Dean of Educational Development, who is responsible solely for serving faculty needs; the Educational Development Center, which houses the…

  14. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  15. Competence development in UAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Jørgen; Brodersen, Anne Mygind

    As a University of Applied Science (UAS) University College Lillebaelt in Denmark is addressing education, knowledge production and professional development in perspective of life-long and life-wide learning. It is our basic assumption that that internal competence development ? individually...... and organizationally - among UAS educators should be based on same learning concepts as used in professional development to avoid parallelism. Do for yourself, what you preach for others. Second, competence development of faculty is a central element in transformation of our institutions from schools of higher...... education to universities of applied science (UAS). Competence development strategies should thus include objectives for the institutions ability to contribute to knowledge production....

  16. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  17. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  18. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for development

    OpenAIRE

    The World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. World Development Report 2008 seeks t...

  19. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  20. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  2. Energy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  3. Energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gururaja, J.

    1980-03-15

    The developing countries will require higher per capita energy for improving the quality of life. This paper examines the goals and strategies for development vis-a-vis those of the developed countries. Crucial issues in India are listed. The role of technology in the utilization of energy is discussed. Difficulties in choosing the technology are pointed out. The problem of integrating several alternative energy sources in villages is mentioned. Environmental issues are considered. (DLC)

  4. Centrifuge design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.T.; Holmes, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL has been enriching uranium on an industrial scale using the centrifuge process for over a decade. Together with its Urenco partners, a joint development programme has been and is being vigorously pursued to reduce specific costs, increase output and maintain competitiveness throughout the 1990s. The paper summarises the development of the centrifuge from its earliest concepts through to the centrifuges of today which are jointly designed by the Urenco partners. The potential for further development is also examined. (author)

  5. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  6. CANDU project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, K R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced CANDU reactor design strategy follows an evolutionary approach, taking manageable steps in the development of power plants from today`s available designs, and in parallel carrying out longer-term studies to develop future-generation reactor concepts. The major emphasis is on safety, on on reducing cost and schedule. New features are developed and thoroughly proof-tested before introduction into designs, in order to maximize owner confidence. (author). 4 figs.

  7. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  8. Finance and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Published by Palgrave Macmillan This chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth....

  9. CANDU project development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced CANDU reactor design strategy follows an evolutionary approach, taking manageable steps in the development of power plants from today's available designs, and in parallel carrying out longer-term studies to develop future-generation reactor concepts. The major emphasis is on safety, on on reducing cost and schedule. New features are developed and thoroughly proof-tested before introduction into designs, in order to maximize owner confidence. (author). 4 figs

  10. Tax havens and development

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Government Commission on Capital Flight from Poor Countries

    2009-01-01

    Tax havens harm both industrialised and developing countries, but the damaging impacts are largest in developing countries. This is partly because these countries are poor and thereby have more need to protect their national tax base, and partly because they generally have weaker institutions and thereby fewer opportunities for enforcing the laws and regulations they adopt. Tax treaties between tax havens and developing countries often contribute to a significant reduction in the tax base of...

  11. Patterns of strategy development

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Andy; Johnson, Gerry

    1996-01-01

    This paper builds on a multidimensional framework of strategy development to more clearly understand the processes by which strategy develops within organisations. It reports on a survey based research project which employs senior executives’ perceptions of the strategy development process in their organisations to examine how context specific configurations of dimensions explaining such processes can advance our understanding of strategic management. Six configurations are ide...

  12. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  13. Environment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    As part of its contribution to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the IAEA produced a booklet entitled ''Nuclear Power, Nuclear Techniques and Sustainable Development''. The second half of this dealt with the relevance of the IAEA's work to ''Agenda 21'', an agenda of environmental conservation and sustainable development for the twenty-first century. This article briefly summarizes the text

  14. Node web development

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, David

    2013-01-01

    Presented in a simple, step-by-step format, this book is an introduction to web development with Node.This book is for anybody looking for an alternative to the ""P"" languages (Perl, PHP, Python), or anyone looking for a new paradigm of server-side application development.The reader should have at least a rudimentary understanding of JavaScript and web application development.

  15. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Dingsoyr, Torgeir; Moe, Nils Brede

    2010-01-01

    Agile software development has become an umbrella term for a number of changes in how software developers plan and coordinate their work, how they communicate with customers and external stakeholders, and how software development is organized in small, medium, and large companies, from the telecom and healthcare sectors to games and interactive media. Still, after a decade of research, agile software development is the source of continued debate due to its multifaceted nature and insufficient synthesis of research results. Dingsoyr, Dyba, and Moe now present a comprehensive snapshot of the kno

  16. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  17. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  18. Hydroelectricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1995-01-01

    From 1975 to 1992, hydroelectricity helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec by 20%. For Hydro-Quebec, energy conservation and hydroelectric development are basic complementary tools for sustainable development. Recent studies show that developing only 50% of economically exploitable hydroelectric potential (30% of the gross theoretical potential) of different regions worldwide would considerably reduce greenhouse gas and SO 2 emissions. However, hydroelectric systems produce environmental and social impacts locally that require mitigative measures. To fulfill its mandate in a sustainable development context, Hydro-Quebec has adopted methods such as integrated resource planning, the assessment of externalities, multi criteria decision tools and public participations

  19. Shopify application development

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is an easy-to follow manual that will guide you through the entire process of application development with Shopify, beginning with the installation and configuration of your local development environment for your app to the deployment of the app to Heroku. If you are a web developer or a designer who wants to extend Shopify stores by building apps, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of programming concepts and some familiarity with Shopify is all that is required to get started with Shopify app development.

  20. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  1. Creativity and Strategy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This paper focus on how creative thinking, processes and methods can support the strategy development and planning process in organisations. First, several fundamental concepts related to both strategy development and planning are stipulated. In addition, the concept of living organisation...... will be discussed as well as the interaction between strategy and creativity. Then, methodological ideas to support the strategy making process are presented enhancing the use of creative methods and tools. Finally, a case study related to the development of a strategy for organisational development using...... creativity tools is discussed....

  2. Visualforce development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, Keir

    2013-01-01

    Visualforce Development Cookbook is written in such a way that even complex concepts are explained in an easy-to-understand manner. Following a Cookbook structure, the book covers some essential technical scenarios and includes over 75 recipes focusing on real-world development problems. This book is packed with illustrations and also contains lots of code samples for the better understanding of the reader.""Visualforce Development Cookbook"" is aimed at developers who have already grasped the basics of Visualforce. Awareness of the standard component library and the purpose of controllers is

  3. Physics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emre, B.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a relationship with between physics and sustainable development? The answer of this question is yes since in the past to the health and welfare of people and nations physics has made tremendous contributions. Think of the contributions that physics has made to the world economy in areas such as electronics, materials, and computer technology, also to health x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine. However, many of these contributions have benefited people in the developed world more than those in the developing world. Moreover current physics curricula do not have vision of to offer the student a full perspective of sustainable development

  4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.

  5. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Energy, technology, development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J [Ministerio da Educacao, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1992-02-01

    Energy and technology are essential ingredients of development, it is only through their use that it became possible to sustain a population of almost 5 billion on Earth. The challenges to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries in the face of strong population increases can only be successfully met with the use of advanced technology, leapfrogging the path followed in the past by today's industrialized countries. It is shown in the paper that energy consumption can be decoupled from economic development. Such possibility will contribute significantly in achieving sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  8. Six Sigma software development

    CERN Document Server

    Tayntor, Christine B

    2002-01-01

    Since Six Sigma has had marked success in improving quality in other settings, and since the quality of software remains poor, it seems a natural evolution to apply the concepts and tools of Six Sigma to system development and the IT department. Until now however, there were no books available that applied these concepts to the system development process. Six Sigma Software Development fills this void and illustrates how Six Sigma concepts can be applied to all aspects of the evolving system development process. It includes the traditional waterfall model and in the support of legacy systems,

  9. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  10. Emigration for Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2013-01-01

    is necessary if resources from emigration are to become seeds for development. By analysing the case of Romania, one of the largest labour sending countries in Eastern Europe, it argues that its laissez-faire approach is likely not enough to capitalize on emigrants' resources for development. International......This article explores the proposition that the developmental potential of emigration depends on the context of the sending countries. It builds on the insights from the institutional approach to development and adapts them to the migration-development nexus. It argues that government involvement...... Migration...

  11. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  12. Population, environment and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994.

  13. EMI Registry Development Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, S.; Szigeti, G.; Field, L.

    2012-01-01

    This documents describes the overall development plan of the EMI Registry product, the plan focuses on the realisation of the EMI Registry specification as defined in the document. It is understood that during the course of the development phase the specification will likely evolve and the changes will be fed into the specification document.

  14. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  15. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  16. Develop your presentation skills

    CERN Document Server

    Theobald, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Going beyond handling nerves and presenting PowerPoint slides, the third edition of "Develop Your Presentation Skills "offers practical advice on developing a captivating presentation, constructing compelling content, and boosting self-confidence. The book includes three new chapters on delivering a "stripped down"presentation, using new media to engage with the audience, and handling being asked to present on short notice."

  17. Trends in organization development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allegro, J.T.; Steensma, H.O.; Allegro, J.T.; Steensma, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    Organisation Development (OD) is an extraordinarly complex phenomenon of human society in which in the last few years there have been some interesting developments. Without making any claim to completeness the following topics would seem to have been a focus of interest in recent research on the

  18. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Improvisation for Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Nordgren, Mollie

    2017-04-01

    Leaders are required to demonstrate agility, creativity, and innovation. Professional development educators can help leaders to develop the skills to listen carefully, be present in the moment, and contribute to any conversation by using improvisation. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(4):151-153. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Strategic port development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for strategic development of a port’s collaboration with its hinterland. The framework is based on literature relevant to port development and undertakes market perspective by considering import/export data relevant for the region of interest. The series of steps...

  1. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  2. concrete5 for developers

    CERN Document Server

    Uzayr, Sufyan bin

    2014-01-01

    Whether you have had some previous experience with concrete5 or are entirely new to it, this book will help you understand all that you need to know in order to get started with concrete5 development. A background in PHP is required; some knowledge of HTML/CSS is needed in order to fully grasp the concepts underlying concrete5 theme development.

  3. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  4. Character Development in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Glenn R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development of high school students. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.…

  5. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  6. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  7. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  8. Accelerated product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Seth, J.N.; Malhotra, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated product development is a competitive strategy that seeks to reduce the development cycle time of new products. However, there has been little theoretical advancement and empirical model testing in the identification of the conditions under which cycle time reduction is appropriate, the

  9. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  10. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  11. Beijing Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing Badaling Development Area The Development Area is planned to cover an area of 6.56 km2.Currently,more than 300 enterprises have located in the area.Their investments add up to about RMB 1 billion.Major business trades include machine building,mineral ore processing,medicine,electronic parts,foodstuff processing,and warehousing transportation.

  12. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  13. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  14. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  15. Medical device development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin

    2009-01-01

    The development of a successful medical product requires not only engineering design efforts, but also clinical, regulatory, marketing and business expertise. This paper reviews items related to the process of designing medical devices. It discusses the steps required to take a medical product idea from concept, through development, verification and validation, regulatory approvals and market release.

  16. Financing Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Funder, Mikkel; Engberg-Pedersen, Lars

    . But what are in fact the interests and modes of operation of such actors in the context of development financing, and to what extent do they align with the aims of the SDGs? And how do national governments of developing countries themselves perceive and approach these new sources of financing?...

  17. Culture and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDiscourses on culture and development vary according to their conceptions of culture and of development and according to their standpoint. The ‘culture and development’ problematic has typically: (1) arisen from a conception of ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous set of mental

  18. Strategic port development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    While large global ports are recognised as playing a central role in many supply chains as logistic gateways, smaller regional ports have been more stagnant and have not reached the same level of development as the larger ports. The research literature in relation to port development is also...

  19. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  20. New Services Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ciganek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic changes in traditional technologies and rising of new technologies call for development of new services. If service providers want to stay on information technologies market, they must keep track with this trend and adjust their services to customer requirements or develop new services. New applications will mainly depend on communication bandwidth and end users ability to handle it. If network providers will be able to ensure necessary bandwidth, there will be nothing that can stop service providers and developers in new service development. People know about growing necessity of new service and ask for them, but they hardly understand that the most important thing for service providers is merchantability and economic return of resources they gave to the developmentand implementation. By the lack of flexible development environment that is able to develop, test and provide final service for operation, new service development is not easy. There are different new service design procedures for various technological and user areas. This is the reason why this paper provides brief description of new service development procedure from technological and administrative point of view.

  1. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  2. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  3. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  4. Globalization, consumption, development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference on 'Globalization, development and the making of consumers: what are collective identities for?' which was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13-16 March 1997. The papers are concerned with the challenge to the development

  5. Microsoft Azure development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Freato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    If you are an architect, this book will help you make the correct decisions about which Azure building blocks to use. If you are a developer, this book will help you understand how to use them appropriately, and if you are a .NET developer, this book is a pure delight.

  6. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  7. ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT: MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Shenderivska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s purpose is to provide recommendations for the effective managing the companies’ development taking into account the sectoral key elements’ transformation. Methodology. The enterprise profits’ econometric simulation is conducted to determine the most significant factors influencing their development. According to the model testing result, their multicollinearity was revealed. To get rid of the multicollinearity phenomenon from the profit models, isolated regressors are excluded, namely, return on assets, material returns, return on equity. To obtain qualitative models with a small error of model parameters estimation and, accordingly, high reliability of the conclusion about the interrelation between the factors of the model and the resulting feature, factors in the income model that are not closely interconnected, that is, not multicollinear, are included. Determination coefficients R2 and F-criterion were calculated for model quality checking. The modern printing enterprises of Ukraine key elements, connected with integration into the global information space, are analysed. Results. The interrelation between a company’s development and earning capacity is identified in the study. The profit importance as the main source for enterprise financing is substantiated. Factors that have the greatest impact on the enterprises’ development are labour productivity, financial autonomy, working capital turnover, and the character of their influence is most adequately reflected by the power model. Peculiarities of the enterprises’ activity include increased competition at the inter-branch level, poorly developed industrial relations, and the own sources of financing activities shortage. Practical implications. Based on information on the most significant developmental impact factors, directions for perspective enterprises development for their competitiveness increase are proposed: diversification based on the activity expansion

  8. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  9. Development concept plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The following management objectives for New River Gorge National River relate to the Kaymoor site to: Preserve coal mining, railroad, and other historic resources that best illustrate park significance; Develop a system of land- and water-based recreation opportunities that allow visitors to experience the park's resources to the extent that natural, cultural, and scenic values are not imparied; and Work with the community to the extent possible to help it maximize economic benefits related to park development without impairing key resources. The Development Concept Plant outlining a plan of development for Kaymoor is a part of a larger emphasis by the National Park Service to identify and develop significant coal-related historic and cultural resources in southern West Virginia in cooperation with the West Virginia State Historic Preservation Office

  10. Urban Quality Development & Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of Urban Quality Development & Management, and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other......: Urban quality development and management is dependent on human resource development, institutionalised networks and confident exchange of knowledge, and must identify and incorporate multiple environmental, social, economic and cultural aspects. The authors find that at the core of innovative societies......, an interlinkage exists between practice (business, civil society, governance) and theory (research, education). The case illustrates how a new curriculum takes time to develop and implement and how it relies on confidence and trust between partners, in this case cities and universities, before being able to plant...

  11. Environment: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is gradually being incorporated into the activities of Hydro-Quebec as part of that utility's environmental policy. In its proposed development plan, Hydro-Quebec's principal strategic environmental orientations comprise making environmental concerns an integral part of the planning process, managing impacts associated with the construction of generating and transmission facilities, and evaluating the utility's environmental performance. The approaches used, tools to be developed, and information required in each of these orientations are described. Issues considered include the strategic choices available for meeting electricity requirements, including renewable energy sources; the evaluation of environmental externalities; the use of environmental impact assessment studies and environmental monitoring; relationships with native peoples and mitigation of the social impacts of northern hydroelectric development; protection and management of natural and human habitats; the utility's contribution to regional development; management of wastes and rights-of-way; and environmental auditing. 1 tab

  12. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  13. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  14. The development of colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Don Kerst, Gersh Budker, and Bruno Touschek were the individuals, and the motivating force, which brought about the development of colliders, while the laboratories at which it happened were Stanford, MURA, the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, Orsay, Frascati, CERN, and Novosibirsk. These laboratories supported, during many years, this rather speculative activity. Of course, many hundreds of physicists contributed to the development of colliders but the men who started it, set it in the right direction, and forcefully made it happen, were Don, Gersh, and Bruno. Don was instrumental in the development of proton-proton colliders, while Bruno and Gersh spearheaded the development of electron-positron colliders. In this brief review of the history, I will sketch the development of the concepts, the experiments, and the technological developments which made possible the development of colliders. It may look as if the emphasis is on theoretical concepts, but that is really not the case, for in this field -- the physics of beams -- the theory and experiment go hand in hand; theoretical understanding and advances are almost always motivated by the need to explain experimental results or the desire to construct better experimental devices

  15. A new development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1992-01-01

    The successful report of the UN Commission on Environment and Development and the Earth Summit demonstrate the strong potential of making future concerted strides toward sustainable development. The process pointed out how social injustice prevents economic and political development and emphasize the need to eradicate extreme poverty, poor health, illiteracy, unwanted high fertility, and the oppression of women. The middle classes must also be aided and the burden on the environment reduced in the attempt to achieve sustainable development. Human-centered development is the basis of sustainable development and is capable of reducing poverty and population pressures. Agenda 21 details links between population, environment, development, and international responsibility. While honoring the rights of individuals to freely choose among reproductive options, international policymakers should agree to keep overall population growth within or slightly below the medium projection of 6.2 billion by the end of the century, 10 billion by mid-century, and eventually 11 billion. By the end of the century, it is also hoped that the number of couples using family planning will increase by 50%, marriage age will increase, teen pregnancy and maternal and infant mortality will be reduced, and resources devoted to population programs will double.

  16. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  17. Transdisciplinary product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Savšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How can transdisciplinary approach increase the product development process in future industry? Purpose: The aim of the research is to develop a model of an effective product development in the automotive industry based on the transdisciplinary approach. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework of transdisciplinarity. The framework comprises the concurrent engineering and experts from different disciplines. The framework was represented by a mathematical model which based on stochastic dynamic programming. Results: We developed a theoretical frameworkand a practical case of transdisciplinary product development in the automotive industry. We presented a mathematical model and information environment which supports such a model. Organization: The findings of the research will provide higher productivity, lower operating costs, change in personnel structure, higher added value, lower sales costs, lower administration costs, reduction in growth of expenses, and lower costs of work equipment. Society: The research impact on higher customer’s satisfaction, increased flexibility of operations, better quality of information, improved control of sources, less waste materials and less pollution, improved planning process, more favourable consideration of employees , improved portfolio management, and better corporate presentation of company. Originality: Transdisciplinary framework combines methods of concurrent engineering and interdisciplinary approach in a process of product development. The development of such a framework is a complete novelty and represents an original approach to product development, which will be particularly suitable for the smart factories of the future. Transdisciplinary framework was transformed in to a mathematical model based on stochastic dynamic programming. Model is supported by the existing information warehouse and represents a potential for

  18. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Stober, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Software Development is moving towards a more agile and more flexible approach. It turns out that the traditional 'waterfall' model is not supportive in an environment where technical, financial and strategic constraints are changing almost every day. But what is agility? What are today's major approaches? And especially: What is the impact of agile development principles on the development teams, on project management and on software architects? How can large enterprises become more agile and improve their business processes, which have been existing since many, many years? What are the limit

  19. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Bang, Lisbet Fogh

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the development of piezoelectric accelerometers using Finite Element (FE) approach. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between simulated results and measured results of Type...... 8325 are below 6%. It is proved that the specifications of the accelerometer can be effectively predicted using the FE method, especially when modifications of the accelerometer are required. The development process of piezoelectric accelerometers in Brüel & Kjær is becoming more efficient...

  20. Piezoelectric accelerometeres development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the development of piezoelectric accelerometers using Finite Element (FE) approach. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between simulated results and measured results of Type...... 8325 are below 6%. It is proved that the specifications of the accelerometer can be effectively predicted using the FE method, especially when modifications of the accelerometer are required. The development process of piezoelectric accelerometers in Brüel & Kjær is becoming more efficient....

  1. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  2. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  3. Beginning Nokia Apps Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rischpater, Ray

    2010-01-01

    While media buzz regularly circulates around iPhone and Android, Nokia still leads the pack in terms of world market share. Symbian, for instance, remains the most widely used mobile operating system. With Nokia's open development platform, the opportunities available for mobile developers to target this vastly popular operating system are abundant and clear. * Use Qt to target both platforms: Symbian, the most widely used mobile operating system in the world, as well as MeeGo, the Intel/Nokia platform for mobile devices. * Develop HTML5 applications for both Symbian and MeeGo platforms that w

  4. Materials development for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mishan, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Materials development has become much more important in the field of TESOL in the last twenty years: modules on materials development are now commonplace on MA TESOL courses around the world. The overall aim of the book is to introduce readers to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues in materials development to enable them to make informed and principled choices in the selection, evaluation, adaptation and production of materials. The book aims to show how these choices need to be informed by an awareness of culture, context and purpose.

  5. Textile technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  6. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  7. Tracking Your Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hennum, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This book provides you with the means to set development goals and to track your progress on achieving them. It can help you efficiently gather and make sense of information about your progress and avoid common pitfalls that can block your development. Tracking your development can be captures in a few steps: articulating your goal, creating an action plan, gathering information about your behavior, indentifying barriers and support, and revising your action plan. Taking these steps will greatly increase the likelihood of achieving your goals.

  8. Development without a metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    to the universal advice replete in some types of place-based development guidelines and literature. The paper consequently formulates propositions about beneficial practices for the development of non-metropolitan territories. The essence of these is that non-metropolitan regions can benefit from initiatives...... focusing on the management capabilities of a broad set of regional companies rather than pursuing industry-specific ‘smart’ specialisation strategies. These initiatives can include alternative models for learning and knowledge development based on shared challenges rather than industrial relatedness...

  9. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  10. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  11. Neutral beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staten, H.S.

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer

  12. Developing Bigraphical Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer

    In this dissertation, we study bigraphical languages—languages based on the theory for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems developed by Milner and coworkers. We begin by examining algebraic theory for binding bigraphs. We give a term language for binding bigraphs and develop a complete......, a prototype tool for experimenting with bigraphical reactive systems. In a second line of work, we study bigraphical reactive systems as a vehicle for developing a language to model biochemical reactions at the level of cells and proteins. We discuss and isolate B,R-calculi, a family of bigraphical reactive...

  13. Industrialized Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    The production of application software is rapidly being industrialized. Computer manufacturers and software houses produce a rapidly growing number of generic software applications and systems, and more and more user companies choose to build their computer-based information systems...... with such generic products, instead of custom made software. We discuss how the move away from traditional in-house development and the increasing use of generic software is likely to transform IS development in the near future. We conclude that these developments will make new demands on the information systems...

  14. Inequality, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, M S

    1976-12-01

    Dicussion explores the nature of the relationship between the distribution of income and the process of development on the basis of cross country data on income inequality. The results presented are based on a sample of 60 countries, including 40 developing countries, 14 developed countries, and 6 socialist countries. The approach adopted is essentially exploratory. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate cross country relationships between the income shares of different percentile groups and selected variables reflecting aspects of the development process which are likely to influence income inequality. The estimated equations are then used as a basis for broad generalizations about the relationship between income distribution and development. There was strong support for the proposition that relative inequaltiy increases substantially in the early stages of development, with a reversal of this tendency in the later stages. The propositions held whether the sample was restricted to developing countries or expanded to include developed and socialist countries. The process was most prolonged for the poorest group. There were a number of processes occurring "pari passu" with development which were correlated with income inequality and which can plausibly be interpreted as causal. These were intersectoral shifts in the structure of production, expansion in education attainment and skill level of the labor force; and reduction in the growth of population. The operation of these processes appeared to explain some of the improvement in income distribution observed in the later stages of development, but they did not serve to explain the marked deterioration observed in the earlier stages. The cross section results failed to support the stronger hypothesis that the deterioration in relative inequality reflected a prolonged absolute impoverishment of large sections of the population in the course of development. The cross country pattern showed average

  15. JBoss AS 7 development

    CERN Document Server

    Marchioni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This book will kick-start your productivity and help you to master JBoss AS development. The author's experience with JBoss enables him to share insights on JBoss AS development in a clear and friendly way. By the end of the book, you will have the confidence to apply all the newest programming techniques to your JBoss applications.If you are a Java architect or developer who wants to get the most out of the latest release of the JBoss application server, then this book is for you. You are not expected to have accumulated experience on the application server though you must know the basic conc

  16. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  17. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  18. Peace, Conflict and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    elaferriere

    in Palestinian communities has a dual strategy: it contains both a ... It will consolidate the theory ... and equitable and sustainable development; to build domestic ownership of peace processes; to open spaces for discussion and dialogue;.

  19. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    ... to light gases then steam reform the light gases into hydrogen rich stream. This report documents the efforts in developing a fuel processor capable of providing hydrogen to a 3kW fuel cell stack...

  20. Food and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue, but also food is perhaps the most important development issue, if not global issue, of our time, ... Other boxes include the pet food market, genetically modified (GM) crops, land grabs, the financialisation of food,. African bean sauces ...

  1. Catalyzing RE Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Walker, Andy; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; DiOrio, Nick; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-09-01

    This poster details how screenings done with REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - are helping to catalyze the development of hundreds of megawatts of renewable energy.

  2. User interface development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrawal, Bharat

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.

  3. Splunk developer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Splunk user and want to enter the wonderful world of Splunk application development, then this book is for you. Some experience with Splunk, writing searches, and designing basic dashboards is expected.

  4. Partnerships for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This paper...

  5. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  6. Logistics innovation development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Blazevic, Vera; Jasmand, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the role of boundary-spanning employees in deepening and broadening customer knowledge while developing logistics service innovations. Findings The results show that boundary-spanning employees’ engage sequentially in deepening and broadening customer knowledge throughout the logistics innovation...... development process. In particular it shows that deepening customer knowledge tends to occur in one-to-one interactions. When boundary-spanning employees engage in broadening customer knowledge, they develop a rich understanding of current customer. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) In general......Purpose This paper aims to investigate the microfoundations—boundary-spanning employees activities and behaviors—of deepening and broadening customer knowledge during logistics innovation development. Design/methodology/approach A multiple case study approach (six case studies) was adopted...

  7. Game development with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    If you wish to create and publish fun iOS games using Swift, then this book is for you. You should be familiar with basic programming concepts. However, no prior game development or Apple ecosystem experience is required.

  8. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  9. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  10. Development of ADRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    All nuclear power plant modifications must be designed in a way that keeps the radiation dose to radiation workers and the public As Low As is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This is not only a good design practice, it is required by the NRC in accord with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations). As a result, millions of dollars are spent each year developing, analyzing, and justifying the ALARA design of plant modifications. Providing the necessary design reviews is a major challenge to the industry. In response, Sargent and Lundy has developed ADRA (the ALARA Design Review Assistant), a microcomputer-based system that aids in developing, reviewing, and documenting good ALARA designs. ADRA is now in an early operational stage, undergoing testing at Sargent and Lundy. This paper reviews the findings and results of the ADRA development effort

  11. Doing Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2014-01-01

    Systems development of wind turbine control is competitive with respect to innovation, time and cost. So how can learning possibly occur under such circumstances? Dewey’s pragmatist approach to learning is adopted, emphasising reciprocity between the systems developer’s individual experience...... and the sociotechnical practice. The framework involves the concepts of sociotechnical practice, anchoring of indeterminate situation, and strip of doings towards determinate situation. An ethnographic study was made of four cases of systems development and learning do occur in the cases, enabled by converging anchoring...... of the indeterminate situation and the systems developers different experience. However, an extreme case reveals initiated learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality of the artefacts and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system...

  12. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  13. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  14. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  15. (ICTs) for Social Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    mention here. ICT has exponentially increased the speed of business for commercial interactions and is primarily responsible for rendering global ..... witnessing in today's business environment but the rapid developments in. ICT have given ...

  16. Personal professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rao, S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...

  17. Developing Friendship and Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham H.

    1991-01-01

    Presents previously unpublished paper written by Abraham Maslow in April 1968 in which Maslow speculates on the issue that society had become pathologically individualistic and needed to develop better means of facilitating close relationships among people. (Author/ABL)

  18. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  20. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  1. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....... for the intended beneficiaries have been reported as causes. Participatory approaches to development have been proposed to address these causes. Participatory Design (PD) seems like a perfect fit. However, at the Participatory Design Conferences, research that addresses PD in low and middle income countries...

  2. Education for Sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESD (education for sustainable development) planning and implementation, and regular ... between the environment and socio-economic issues of poverty and ..... capacity to make informed decisions (T7) and a sense of responsibility (T9), ...

  3. Poverty and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay there is argued that the notions ofpoverty, development, quality of life and, in general, all the concepts, variables and indicators used in the explanations and theories on this type, are different points of view from the observers' interests,of the same and only social phenomenon. Therefore,there are multiple works on poverty and development. However, an approximation from the perspective of complexity must bear in mind that the development may refer to the social structure as a whole, and to the actions that modify context of the system, just when it has been ordered through the science in order to explain the reality. Therefore,there is a clase relation between poverty and development. These are different ways to see the same phenomenon, which allow us to think about the life quality from a global sense.

  4. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  5. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  6. Developments in Serials: 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  7. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  8. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    academic freedom and autonomy of the University from the perspective of the management of the University and not necessarily from the academics' perspective. .... various social, economic and political ills afflicting developing countries.

  9. TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and sustainable development are the subject of many initiatives and public or private debates in Romania. The main problem to which these initiatives try to find an answer is mostly related to the income generation for the local communities by using rationally and efficiently the local potential, in agreement with the economic, social, natural, and cultural factors. Consequently, some measures should be taken, and the tourist sector as a whole needs all the methods of sustainable development: new technologies, change of social behaviour, change of environmental legislation, methods of environmental management, better planning and development of control procedures. In this article, we presented a model of tourism development which should be applied in all the regions of great tourist attraction, and we realised a synthesis of the socio-economic advantages of sustainable tourism.

  10. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Holiday Season School Bus Safety Second-Hand Smoke Self-Esteem Self-Esteem, Debunking the Myths, Podcast Sex Development, Disorders of, ... Sibling Rivalry Sibling Rivalry Podcast Siblings, Advice for Young, Podcast Siblings of Kids with Special Needs Siblings ...

  11. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  13. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITIES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and patterns in the socio-economic development in the study area.The pattern ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning ... perspective of network density of paved road ... available and a number of cooperative .... The case of Akwa Ibom.

  14. Developments in fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1981-11-01

    This lecture concerns the developments in this century - and particularly during its third and fourth quarters - in respect of what we consider to be the elementary particles and the elementary forces between them

  15. Developing Leadership Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  16. Energy and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter introduces the thematic dossier of International Development Policy on the intimate relationship between energy and development. The authors discuss the centrality of fossil fuels in the economic growth of the Western world since the nineteenth century and the key role of oil in the twentieth century and question the future of this development model in the face of geological and climatic constraints. They examine the gaps and misunderstandings that separate social sciences and natural sciences as well as recent attempts to establish interdisciplinary dialogue around ecological economics and industrial ecology. The authors then analyse what is at stake for developing countries, inequalities in access to energy resources, the failure of the global governance system to deal with mounting tensions associated with the depletion of oil and the environmental consequences of an ever increasing consumption of non-renewable resources.

  17. Economic Creativity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC. The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007 for Economic Creativity Development (ECD. This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian meaning Dy-namism and Restlessness. According to this theory, ECD relates to connections between emotion and thought. The ECD includes pro-moting individual readiness, utilization of eco-nomic resources, attitude towards economic af-fairs development, enhancing the utilization of economic experiences, conducting economic ac-tivity education, development of economic thinking and development of emotion of thought.

  18. Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... With Preschoolers Encouraging Your Child's Sense of Humor Games for Preschoolers Games for Toddlers Gifted Education Group ...

  19. Implementing WIPO's Development Agenda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... does not (or does no longer) reflect the real purpose of the Development Agenda. .... I appreciate their sacrifices during the time I spent writing, editing, and ... during the many days I was travelling for project-related meetings and events.

  20. Developable hyperspaces are metrizable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'Ubica Holá

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Developability of hyperspace topologies (locally finite, (bounded Vietoris, Fell, respectively on the nonempty closed sets is characterized. Submetrizability and having a Gδ-diagonal in the hyperspace setting is also discussed.

  1. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  2. Probabilistic Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  3. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  4. Telerobotic controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaguro, W. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Rhoades, Don

    1987-01-01

    To meet NASA's space station's needs and growth, a modular and generic approach to robotic control which provides near-term implementation with low development cost and capability for growth into more autonomous systems was developed. The method uses a vision based robotic controller and compliant hand integrated with the Remote Manipulator System arm on the Orbiter. A description of the hardware and its system integration is presented.

  5. New development of hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Rongjun

    2007-01-01

    The new developments of hydrometallurgical technology are systematically summarized. The new technologies and new processes about leaching (pressurized leaching, active leaching, bacterial leaching, in-situ leaching), solvent extraction, ion exchange, electrolysis and membrane separation are expounded, respectively. The recent development status for preparating powder materials by wet method are especially introduced. The new direction for research and application of hydrometallurgy is also presented. (authors)

  6. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) recently organized a workshop to develop an analytical framework for population research and development planning. The workshop goal was to enable study directors to review and discuss research methodology and guidelines for a series of country studies to be undertaken as part of a large project devoted to integrating population and development. The overall project objective is to provide individual national entities with current and scientifically sound descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of significant population and development trends and their interrelationships along with assessments of the implications of such trends and relationships for the formulation and improvement of public policy. 1 reason for the limited progress in the integration of population and development planning is the lack of useful and applicable scientific information for responsible planners as well as a lack of analytical frameworks. If the results of the research are to be made useful for decisionmaking purposes, processing of the information is required. The need exists for current critical analysis and synthesis of available information at the country level on significant population and development trends and their interrelationships and an assessment of their implications for the formulation and improvement of public policy and programs. In regard to an analytical framework, much work has been done in the areas of population development interrelationships and their modelling. Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand are the countries which have been selected for investigation for the ESCAP project. The comparative analysis that is to be conducted will facilitate understanding of current population development research activities and the future needs of these countries.

  7. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-01-01

    The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in...

  8. Develop your leadership skills

    CERN Document Server

    Adair, John

    2016-01-01

    "Develop Your Leadership Skills "is John Adair s most accessible title on leadership. Full of exercises and checklists, it can help boost confidence levels and guide and inspire anyone on their journey to becoming a leader of excellence. Acknowledged as a world expert, John Adair offers stimulating insights into recognizing and developing individual leadership qualities, acquiring personal authority, and mastering core leadership functions such as planning, communicating and motivating. The new edition includes summary points for each chapter.

  9. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  10. Space Network Devices Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center through a contract with Spectrum Astro, Inc., has been developing space network hardware as an enabling technology using open systems interconnect (OSI) standards for space-based communications applications. The OSI standard is a well-recognized layered reference model that specifies how data should be sent node to node in a communications network. Because of this research and technology development, a space-qualifiable Ethernet-based network interface card (similar to the type found in a networked personal computer) and the associated four-port hub were designed and developed to flight specifications. During this research and development, there also have been many lessons learned for determining approaches for migrating existing spacecraft architectures to an OSI-network-based platform. Industry has recognized the benefits of targeting hardware developed around OSI standards such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or similar protocols for use in future generations of space communication systems. Some of these tangible benefits include overall reductions in mission schedule and cost and in system complexity. This development also brings us a step closer to the realization of a principal investigator on a terrestrial Internet site being able to interact with space platform assets in near real time. To develop this hardware, Spectrum Astro first conducted a technology analysis of alternatives study. For this analysis, they looked at the features of three protocol specifications: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Spacewire (IEEE 1355). A thorough analysis was performed on the basis of criteria such as current protocol performance and suitability for future space applications. Spectrum Astro also projected future influences such as cost, hardware and software availability, throughput performance, and integration procedures for current and transitive space architectures. After a thorough analysis

  11. Development of TOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsugiishi, Shigemi

    The off-line patent and utility model information management system at Teijin Ltd. had been developed and operated since 1980. To achieve efficient business management through office automation and to get ready for easy access to electronic document delivery so-called Paperless project being developed by Japan Patent Office, the system was reviewed and new online system was constructed in 1985. The paper describes its details.

  12. Review: 1991 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO's annual summary of the previous year's (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay

  13. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  14. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's July 1992 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items mentioned include: (1) the merger of Entergy and Gulf States Utilities, (2) restart of the Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, (3) development of the 7th and 8th nuclear units in Taiwan, (4) purchase of interest in Rio Algom, Ltd, and (5) acquisition of the Italian firm AGIP by a Canadian company

  15. Developing geometrical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron; Hirst, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises a report (Brown, Jones & Taylor, 2003) to the UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the work of one geometry group. The group was charged with developing and reporting on teaching ideas that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The group was encouraged to explore what is possible both within and beyond the current requirements of the UK National Curriculum and the Key Stage 3 strategy, and to consider the whole atta...

  16. UV curable materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  17. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-14

    area. Today, it is theincreasingly larger mountains of radioactive waste. Disneyland of nuclear technology. That is where the industrious Teko stands ...Africa is ready to launch her own space century, the world is likely to split into two major blocs: program, when financial resources permit. The...enrichment development of developing communities. Given our technology; shaft sinking and deep level mining exper- limited financial resources

  18. Gammasphere software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information

  19. Clean Energy for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfowitz, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, in the development community, the interaction of energy, environment, and poverty have emerged as a central challenge. Lack of consistent electricity in developing countries is a severe obstacle to doing business. It is also affecting school attendance, particularly among girls. Inefficient energy sources can also pose health problems—as many as 1.6 million deaths per year due to indoor smoke. Rich and poor countries alike need to apply energy-effi...

  20. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  1. Global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This overview presents the mid stages of my doctoral research-based on ethnographic work conducted in IT companies in India and in Denmark-on collaborative work within global software development (GSD). In the following I briefly introduce how this research seeks to spark a debate in CSCW...... by challenging contemporary ideals about software development outsourcing through the exploration of the multiplicities and asymmetric dynamics inherent in the collaborative work of GSD....

  2. Mammalian development in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.

    2003-01-01

    Life on Earth, and thus the reproductive and ontogenetic processes of all extant species and their ancestors, evolved under the constant influence of the Earth's l g gravitational field. These considerations raise important questions about the ability of mammals to reproduce and develop in space. In this chapter, I review the current state of our knowledge of spaceflight effects on developing mammals. Recent studies are revealing the first insights into how the space environment affects critical phases of mammalian reproduction and development, viz., those events surrounding fertilization, embryogenesis, pregnancy, birth, postnatal maturation and parental care. This review emphasizes fetal and early postnatal life, the developmental epochs for which the greatest amounts of mammalian spaceflight data have been amassed. The maternal-offspring system, the coordinated aggregate of mother and young comprising mammalian development, is of primary importance during these early, formative developmental phases. The existing research supports the view that biologically meaningful interactions between mothers and offspring are changed in the weightlessness of space. These changes may, in turn, cloud interpretations of spaceflight effects on developing offspring. Whereas studies of mid-pregnant rats in space have been extraordinarily successful, studies of young rat litters launched at 9 days of postnatal age or earlier, have been encumbered with problems related to the design of in-flight caging and compromised maternal-offspring interactions. Possibilities for mammalian birth in space, an event that has not yet transpired, are considered. In the aggregate, the results indicate a strong need for new studies of mammalian reproduction and development in space. Habitat development and systematic ground-based testing are important prerequisites to future research with young postnatal rodents in space. Together, the findings support the view that the environment within which young

  3. Development without Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ferreira de Abreu Castro; Guilherme B. R. Lambais

    2014-01-01

    The conservation projects managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Brazil are underpinned by a strong element of inclusive local development, consisting of innovative initiatives regarding the sustainable use of biodiversity. There are many examples of projects in Mangrove, Caatinga and Cerrado areas, which conciliate the production of goods and environmental services with the generation of jobs, income and an increase in life quality. It is always an enormous challenge t...

  4. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V

    1992-01-01

    A unified approach to development is recommended: one in which the social, economic, and political components are accounted for within a multidimensional process of reorganization and reorientation of structures and attitudes, customs, and beliefs. During the 1970s, development was construed as improvement in employment within a growing economy and elimination of poverty and inequality--a redistribution of growth. Development should increase and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods, increase levels of living, and expand economic and social choices and free people from dependence on other people and servitude to ignorance and poverty. Six basic issues linking population growth and development were identified; the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables were explained. The aims of educational development and educational progress as affected by urbanization were discussed. It is inappropriate to isolate economic, social, and demographic concerns as separate entities and as separate from the development process. The population problem of rapid population growth is intertwined with the problem of unmet human needs; problematic are illiteracy, extreme deprivation, insufficient income to purchase essential health services and basic nutrition, and inadequate diets. Improvements have not kept pace with needs. The theories of Malthus are no longer germane, and demographic transition theory is not as effective in achieving or explaining the reduction of birth rates. An approach which attacks poverty and low quality of life would be directed to core motivations. The hidden momentum of population growth and the impact of literacy and age and sex composition are discussed as features of improvement in quality of life and of fertility reduction. Economic and social development are dependent on human resources, not on capital or material resources. The institutional mechanism for developing human potential is the educational system

  5. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  6. Sustainable development. Uncertain futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Ch.; Sciama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The last 30 years show that the human being did not dominate the Nature. After an introduction on the historical relations between the human and the environment, the authors present the different research ways (irrigation with recovery, renewable energies, new agriculture,...). They show that science is not always the enemy of the sustainable development. The third part presents the constraints that the society puts on the way of the sustainable development, which explain the limitations of the progress. (A.L.B.)

  7. Project fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.W.

    1981-05-01

    The activities continued on lab-scale production of uranium-plutonium carbide fuel for the fast reactor using gelation methods, irradiation testing and performance evaluation. Whereas in earlier years a balance was maintained between research and development or with emphasis on research, 1980 was marked by a concentrated equipment development effort for an increased throughput with improved process control and product reproducability and installation of new equipment for large pin fabrication. (Auth.)

  8. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  9. Development of multipurpose VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Aochi, Tetsuo; Hara, Masao

    1983-01-01

    In order to introduce atomic energy, which has been utilized mostly for electric power generation, into non-electric power field which amounts to 60 - 70% of energy demand in Japan, the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor has been advanced in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Including the progress and trend of the development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors in foreign countries, the features, necessity, the state of research and development and the way of thinking about heat utilization system regarding the reactors of this type are summarized. Since the Dragon Project of OECD in 1959, the course of the development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors is described. In Japan, the utilization of nuclear thermal energy for iron-making process was investigated to resolve environmental problems and to get rid of coal. It was decided to construct an experimental reactor, aiming at the start of operation around 1990. The features of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the utilization mode of nuclear thermal energy, the design of an experimental reactor, the research and development related to the experimental reactor and the heat utilization system for the experimental reactor, the trend of development in FRG, USA and USSR are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  12. DESIGN VERSUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edu Grieco Mazzini Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design or product development? The questioning in relation to the employment of such terminology dates back to possible misconceptions regarding interpretation and approach them. Therefore, it can be stated that there are differences between these two terms? In this context, we highlight two views concerning the origin of the design. The first character creative and based on pre-industrial revolution, based on projective and methodologies directed towards the practice of designing products. And second, where design is understood as an industrial process: the development of new products includes, besides a creative procedure are developed, and symbolic formal solutions for products, but also a technical procedure based on the definition of the requirements concerning the product engineering. Is this the most widely accepted interpretation? theoretical studies were conducted from interpretations of the concept of the design proposed by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design – ICSDI (2012, and for the characterization of the process of product development, we sought to develop an analogy between these two terminologies and can be proved that the use of one of terminology will not cause deviations of interpretation, since both deal with the life cycle of the product. The main results obtained until now the definition of design proposed by the ICSID where it is characterized as a creative activity focused on the complete life cycle of products is the more approaches of the concept of product development.

  13. Nuclear Manpower Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I. A.; Lee, K. B.; Shin, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    The industry-university-research collaborative education is aiming at developing national nuclear human resources to satisfy with the increasing needs from the industry. For this efforts are being made to develop curricula customized to respective industry needs by improving existing ones. As the demand for training programs for the university students and domestic nuclear personnel was increasing owing to revitalization of nuclear industry, Nuclear Training Center (NTC) improved previous education programs to meet the needs. NTC has operated 2 education programs on research reactor experiments for the university students, and 18 programs on nuclear technology related experiment courses in 2010. Furthermore, the NTC developed new education programs related to 'standardized research reactor system design'. Also the request from universities for internship programs was increased by about three times in 2010 compared to those of the previous year, and this required to develop relevant curricula. In 2005, NTC developed KAERI-ACE, as a unique competency-based staff education system of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Based on the system, the NTC has performed 'systematic education'. In 2008, NTC was awarded Best HRD(Human Resource Development) in Public sector for the first time as a government-supported research institute. In 2009, the system was improved to become KAERI-ACE 2.0, based on which, in 2010, NTC improved and diversified education programs including various cyber training programs

  14. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Le tableau qui suit présente les sujets clés et les questions transversales sur lesquels les propositions de recherche doivent porter. Ce que PMNT finance. Réduction de l'usage nocif de l'alcool. Analyses situationnelles du niveau de mise en œuvre des mesures de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool (contrôle exercé sur.

  15. Energy for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Considerations about 'post-Kyoto' targets and other ways to achieve the objectives of the Protocol are critical. Scientific evidence presented by the IPCC in its third assessment in 2002 clearly indicates the need not only to implement the Protocol, but also to agree on further emission reductions in the medium term in order to keep changes in the world's climate at a manageable level. UNEP's Energy Programme addresses the environmental consequences of energy production and use, such as global climate change and local air pollution. UNEP assists decision makers in government and the private sector to make better, more informed energy choices, which fully integrate environmental and social costs. Since UNEP is not an implementing organization, its role as facilitator is core. The majority of UNEP's energy activities link to mitigation - the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - but these are generally accompanied by broader objectives related to energy and sustainable development. This includes climate change mitigation, but not as the sole objective since many of UNEP's partners in developing countries have more immediate development objectives. UNEP's main programmes are: The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project, that provides solar and wind resource data and geographic information assessment tools to public and private sector executives who are involved in energy market development; A new Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded programme aiming at promoting industrial energy efficiency through a cleaner production/environmental management system framework. A parallel programme, Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme (EMPRESS), supports energy efficiency efforts in Eastern and Central Europe; The Mediterranean Renewable Energy Programme promotes the financing of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean basin; The Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) seeks to develop new sustainable energy enterprises

  16. Energy for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Klaus [United Nations Environment Programme (Kenya)

    2003-09-01

    Considerations about 'post-Kyoto' targets and other ways to achieve the objectives of the Protocol are critical. Scientific evidence presented by the IPCC in its third assessment in 2002 clearly indicates the need not only to implement the Protocol, but also to agree on further emission reductions in the medium term in order to keep changes in the world's climate at a manageable level. UNEP's Energy Programme addresses the environmental consequences of energy production and use, such as global climate change and local air pollution. UNEP assists decision makers in government and the private sector to make better, more informed energy choices, which fully integrate environmental and social costs. Since UNEP is not an implementing organization, its role as facilitator is core. The majority of UNEP's energy activities link to mitigation - the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - but these are generally accompanied by broader objectives related to energy and sustainable development. This includes climate change mitigation, but not as the sole objective since many of UNEP's partners in developing countries have more immediate development objectives. UNEP's main programmes are: The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project, that provides solar and wind resource data and geographic information assessment tools to public and private sector executives who are involved in energy market development; A new Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded programme aiming at promoting industrial energy efficiency through a cleaner production/environmental management system framework. A parallel programme, Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme (EMPRESS), supports energy efficiency efforts in Eastern and Central Europe; The Mediterranean Renewable Energy Programme promotes the financing of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean basin; The Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) seeks to develop new

  17. Technology development for safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project are to establish the safeguards technology of the nuclear proliferation resistance to the facilities which handle with high radioactivity nuclear materials like the spent fuel, to provide the foundation of the technical independency for the establishment of the effective management of domestic spent fuels, and to construct the base of the early introduction of the key technology relating to the back-end nuclear fuel cycle through the development of the safeguards technology of the DFDF of the nuclear non-proliferation. The essential safeguards technologies of the facility such as the measurement and account of nuclear materials and the C/S technology were carried out in this stage (2002-2004). The principal results of this research are the development of error reduction technology of the NDA equipment and a new NDA system for the holdup measurement of process materials, the development of the intelligent surveillance system based on the COM, the evaluation of the safeguardability of the Pyroprocessing facility which is the core process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the derivation of the research and development items which are necessary to satisfy the safeguards criteria of IAEA, and the presentation of the direction of the technology development relating to the future safeguards of Korea. This project is the representative research project in the field of the Korea's safeguards. The safeguards technology and equipment developed while accomplishing this project can be applied to other nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as DFDF and will be contributed to increase the international confidence in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle facility of Korea and its nuclear transparency.

  18. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments Editorial developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  19. Robotics Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) is a ''needs-driven'' effort. A lengthy series of presentations and discussions at DOE sites considered critical to DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programs resulted in a clear understanding of needed robotics applications toward resolving definitive problems at the sites. A detailed analysis of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR), Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA), Mixed Waste Operations (MWO), and Decontamination ampersand Dismantlement (D ampersand D). The RTDP Group realized that much of the technology development was common (Cross Cutting-CC) to each of these robotics application areas, for example, computer control and sensor interface protocols. Further, the OTD approach to the Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) process urged an additional organizational break-out between short-term (1--3 years) and long-term (3--5 years) efforts (Advanced Technology-AT). The RDTP is thus organized around these application areas -- TWR, CAA, MWO, D ampersand D and CC ampersand AT -- with the first four developing short-term applied robotics. An RTDP Five-Year Plan was developed for organizing the Program to meet the needs in these application areas

  20. SRL online Analytical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R ampersand D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R ampersand D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control ampersand Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications