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Sample records for development affects branching

  1. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    Full Text Available The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  2. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  3. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  4. Identifying the affected branches of vestibular nerve in vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Maw; Young, Yi-Ho

    2011-09-01

    The inner ear monitoring system is useful for identifying the affected branches of the vestibular nerve in cases of vestibular neuritis, providing insight about the interval for the relief of vertigo. This study conducted an inner ear monitoring system including audiometry, and caloric, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests in cases of vestibular neuritis for assessing the affected branches of the vestibular nerve. Twenty patients with vestibular neuritis underwent caloric, oVEMP, and cVEMP tests. Type I indicates that one of the three tests is abnormal; type II indicates that two test results are abnormal; and type III indicates that no test result is normal. All patients had normal hearing, bilaterally. Nineteen (95%) of 20 patients had abnormal caloric responses, 11 patients (55%) had abnormal oVEMPs, and 5 patients (25%) had abnormal cVEMPs. Restated, of all 20 patients, 8 patients were classified as type I, 9 were type II, and 3 were type III. The mean intervals between presentation and relief of vertigo were significantly different among the three types. One year after treatment, caloric, oVEMP, and cVEMP tests returned to normal responses in three (60%) of five patients.

  5. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  6. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  7. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candame de Gallo, Rita; Marrapodi, M.R.E.; Baez, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.) [es

  8. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  9. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  10. RUSSIAN HOUSING AND COMMUNAL ECONOMY BRANCH REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

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    K. A. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of socially oriented principles and market tools is main direction of Russian housing and communal economy branch reformation aimed at proving the population with decent housing conditions. At present, owners of dwelling facilities are bound to maintain and repair them at their own. If dwellings were privatized in houses that were to be overhauled, respective current and capital repairs work is to be carried out by the state in accordance with norms. Housing and communal economy branch reformation assistance Fund and Program are created in the country, the latter being organized on the co-financing principle (major part of means needed for the repairs is provided by Fund, lesser part – by regional and local governments, some 10% – by the owners. Coordinated activities of governmental, scientific and business organizations as well as dwelling owners are needed for further sustainable development of the branch.

  11. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  12. Factors affecting outcome of triceps motor branch transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury.

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    Lee, Joo-Yup; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2012-11-01

    Triceps motor branch transfer has been used in upper brachial plexus injury and is potentially effective for isolated axillary nerve injury in lieu of sural nerve grafting. We evaluated the functional outcome of this procedure and determined factors that influenced the outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed of 21 patients (mean age, 38 y; range, 16-79 y) who underwent triceps motor branch transfer for the treatment of isolated axillary nerve injury. Deltoid muscle strength was evaluated using the modified British Medical Research Council grading at the last follow-up (mean, 21 mo; range, 12-41 mo). The following variables were analyzed to determine whether they affected the outcome of the nerve transfer: the age and sex of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, body mass index (BMI), severity of trauma, and presence of rotator cuff lesions. The Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were performed for statistical analysis. The average Medical Research Council grade of deltoid muscle strength was 3.5 ± 1.1. Deltoid muscle strength correlated with the age of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, and BMI of the patient. Five patients failed to achieve more than M3 grade. Among them, 4 patients were older than 50 years and 1 was treated 14 months after injury. In the multiple linear regression model, the delay from injury to surgery, age of the patient, and BMI of the patient were the important factors, in that order, that affected the outcome of this procedure. Isolated axillary nerve injury can be treated successfully with triceps motor branch transfer. However, outstanding outcomes are not universal, with one fourth failing to achieve M3 strength. The outcome of this procedure is affected by the delay from injury to surgery and the age and BMI of the patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. N-cadherin regulates primary motor axon growth and branching during zebrafish embryonic development.

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    Brusés, Juan L

    2011-06-15

    N-cadherin is a classical type I cadherin that contributes to the formation of neural circuits by regulating growth cone migration and the formation of synaptic contacts. This study analyzed the role of N-cadherin in primary motor axons growth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. After exiting the spinal cord, primary motor axons migrate ventrally through a common pathway and form the first neuromuscular junction with the muscle pioneer cells located at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a choice point for cell-type-specific pathway selection. Analysis of N-cadherin mutants (cdh2(hi3644Tg) ) and embryos injected with N-cadherin antisense morpholinos showed primary motor axons extending aberrant axonal branches at the choice point in ∼40% of the somitic hemisegments and an ∼150% increase in the number of branches per axon length within the ventral myotome. Analysis of individual axons trajectories showed that the caudal (CaP) and rostral (RoP) motor neurons axons formed aberrant branches at the choice point that abnormally extended in the rostrocaudal axis and ventrally to the horizontal myoseptum. Expression of a dominant-interfering N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain in primary motor neurons caused some axons to stall abnormally at the horizontal myoseptum and to impair their migration into the ventral myotome. However, in N-cadherin-depleted embryos, the majority of primary motor axons innervated their appropriate myotomal territories, indicating that N-cadherin regulates motor axon growth and branching without severely affecting the mechanisms that control axonal target selection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Branch analysis in the context of evolutionary development of economic systems

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    Margarita Izraylevna Berkovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading of Russian economy claims special attention to long-term problems of its development in order to make it stable and purposeful. The necessity to improve social and economic parameters and comprehensive innovation development of territorial economic systems requires elaboration of sound policy and regions’ strategies in relation to regional branches that form their potential. The article proposes an approach to reform national economic sectors on the basis of their life cycle analysis and allocation of functional features of a single mesoeconomic system. The research is aimed at selecting key parameters of sectors’ development at the regional level. The evolutionary approach that serves as the basis for the methodology gives an opportunity to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on life cycle dynamics. The article singles out the following main groups of factors: resources, product, technology, market, banking sector, public policy. By analyzing life cycles of the Yaroslavl region’s chemical industries (synthetic rubber and carbon black production it is concluded that the only way to ensure sustainable development of branches lies in the continuous implementation of innovations, a process affected by cyclicity and determined by factors of exogenous and endogenous nature

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

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    Kelsey Chalmers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kelsey; Kita, Elizabeth M; Scott, Ethan K; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  17. Development Of Hyper branched UV Curable Resin From Palm Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohamad Lokman Latif; Rida Tajau; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2014-01-01

    The hyper branched polyurethane acrylate (HBPUA) was prepared by reacting hyper branched polyol polyester (HBP) from palm oil based with diisocyanate and hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer with the presence of 0.1-2 wt % dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. The reaction was confirmed by several analyses for example determination of hydroxyl value (OHV), acid value (AV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses. HBPUA required 0.36 J/ cm 2 energy when undergone curing with UV radiation. HBPUA / TMPTA films showed 4B-2H of pencil hardness, gel content of 60-80 %, contact angle θ between 65-74 degree and T g at -15 to -5 degree Celsius. The presence of TMPTA increased degree of cross-linking and pencil hardness. The characteristic of the polymeric material and the thermal stability of UV cured films of HBPUA formulations were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The thermal decomposition temperature started at 200 degree Celsius with T max at 450 to 455 degree Celsius. (author)

  18. Factors Affecting University Image Formation among Prospective Higher Education Students: The Case of International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now attempt to construct images of these institutions when deciding where to study. The aim of this…

  19. affective domain in developing environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN ETHIC FOR GEOGRAPHY: THE ROLE OF THE. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN IN DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL. AWARENESS. Margaret E. Marker. Geography is a subject with integral ethical and moral components. However, because of the subject's traditionally close association with scientific rationality this factor has not ...

  20. Msx2 Plays a central Role in Regulating Branching Morphogenesis During Mammary Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a transcriptional factor, Msx2, in regulating branching events in the development of the mouse mammary gland To define the function of Msx2 gene...

  1. Child Development and Behavior Branch (CDBB), NIHCD, Report to the NACHHD Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…

  2. Le Myanmar, un pays branché | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 sept. 2016 ... Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD researchers in Asia. An innovative IDRC initiative is improving evaluation capacities of researchers studying Information and Communication Technologies for Development. View moreMentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

  3. Issues of branch clusters development: from theory to practice

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    Bondarenko N. E.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with objective preconditions of forming stable bases of the cluster theory and its specific features, the attention is paid to historical aspects of dialectical development of the cluster theory. The authors highlighted the main tasks, accomplishment of which is necessary for achieving an effective cluster policy in the system of the national economy. The opportunity of using the advantages and potential opportunities of clusters in respect of the agricultural sphere of the national economy is grounded. The model of agro-industrial clusters is considered as one of the ways to increase competitive advantage of the agro-industrial complex, to achieve reproduction on an enlarged scale and to solve tasks of the national victualling. An algorithm of analyzing factors of forming clusters in the agricultural sector of russian economy is proposed.

  4. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  5. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba. Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches, very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in

  6. How Do CNT affect the branch and crosslink reactions in CNT-epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cividanes, L. S.; Franceschi, W.; Ferreira, F. V.; Menezes, B. R. C.; Sales, R. C. M.; Thim, G. P.

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-epoxy composites were prepared using carboxyl, amino and raw CNTs. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the effect of CNTs on the cure of epoxy resin is strongly dependent on the temperature and time. Raw and carboxyl CNTs accelerated the formation of branched chains (pre-cure at 80 °C), consuming the polymerization sites and leading to lower rates of crosslinking reaction (cure at 120 °C), resulting in lower storage modulus according to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were explained by the catalysts of pre-cure (carboxylic groups and metallic residue of CNTs) and by CNT agglomerates, which could slow the crosslinking due to the consumption of epoxy sites. However, neat epoxy and amino-CNTs nanocomposites showed lower pre-cure rates and higher cure rates, resulting in higher storage modulus. Amino CNTs were the only nanotubes that increased the storage modulus of neat epoxy, due to the good homogeneity and adhesion of their composites.

  7. Erk MAP kinase regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C E; Michael, L; Barnett, M W; Davies, J A

    2001-11-01

    Branching morphogenesis of epithelium is a common and important feature of organogenesis; it is, for example, responsible for development of renal collecting ducts, lung airways, milk ducts of mammary glands and seminal ducts of the prostate. In each case, epithelial development is controlled by a variety of mesenchyme-derived molecules, both soluble (e.g. growth factors) and insoluble (e.g. extracellular matrix). Little is known about how these varied influences are integrated to produce a coherent morphogenetic response, but integration is likely to be achieved at least partly by cytoplasmic signal transduction networks. Work in other systems (Drosophila tracheae, MDCK models) suggests that the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway might be important to epithelial branching. We have investigated the role of the MAP kinase pathway in one of the best characterised mammalian examples of branching morphogenesis, the ureteric bud of the metanephric kidney. We find that Erk MAP kinase is normally active in ureteric bud, and that inhibiting Erk activation with the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, PD98059, reversibly inhibits branching in a dose-dependent manner, while allowing tubule elongation to continue. When Erk activation is inhibited, ureteric bud tips show less cell proliferation than controls and they also produce fewer laminin-rich processes penetrating the mesenchyme and fail to show the strong concentration of apical actin filaments typical of controls; apoptosis and expression of Ret and Ros, are, however, normal. The activity of the Erk MAP kinase pathway is dependent on at least two known regulators of ureteric bud branching; the GDNF-Ret signalling system and sulphated glycosaminoglycans. MAP kinase is therefore essential for normal branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, and lies downstream of significant extracellular regulators of ureteric bud development.

  8. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Kitamura, Shinji; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-04-25

    The kidneys are exposed to hypoxic conditions during development. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), an important mediator of the response to hypoxia, is believed to have an important role in development. However, the relationship between HIF and branching morphogenesis has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we examined whether HIF regulates kidney development. We harvested kidneys from day 13 rat embryos (E13Ks) and cultured the organs under normoxic (20% O2/5% CO2) or hypoxic (5% O2/5% CO2) conditions. We evaluated the kidneys based on morphology and gene expression. E13Ks cultured under hypoxic conditions had significantly more ureteric bud (UB) branching than the E13Ks cultured under normoxic conditions. In addition, the mRNA levels of GDNF and GDNF receptor (GFR-α1), increased under hypoxic conditions in E13Ks. When we cultured E13Ks with the HIF-1α inhibitor digoxin or with siRNA targeting HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions, we did not observe increased UB branching. In addition, the expression of GDNF and GFR-α1 was inhibited under hypoxic conditions when the kidneys were treated with siRNA targeting HIF-1α. We also elucidated that hypoxia inhibited UB cell apoptosis and promoted the expression of FGF7 mRNA levels in metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells in vitro. These findings suggest that hypoxic condition has important roles in inducing branching morphogenesis during kidney development. Hypoxia might mediate branching morphogenesis via not only GDNF/Ret but also FGF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategy and planning for chemopreventive drug development: clinical development plans. Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee. National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, G J; Crowell, J A; Boone, C W; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Greenwald, P; Alberts, D S; Covey, J M; Doody, L A; Knapp, G G

    1994-01-01

    At the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, the Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee develop strategies for efficiently identifying, procuring, and advancing the most promising drugs into clinical trials. Scientific expertise is applied at each phase of development to critically review the testing methods and results, and to establish and apply criteria for evaluating the agents for further development. The Clinical Development Plan, prepared by the Chemoprevention Branch and the Agent Development Committee, is a summary of the status of the agent regarding evidence for safety and chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. It also contains the strategy for further development of the drug that addresses pharmacodynamics, drug effect measurements, intermediate biomarkers for monitoring efficacy, toxicity, supply and formulation, regulatory approval, and proposed clinical trials. Sixteen Clinical Development Plans are presented here: N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), aspirin, calcium, beta-carotene, 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), DHEA analog 8354, 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), ibuprofen, oltipraz, piroxicam, Proscar, sulindac, tamoxifen, vitamin D3 and analogs, and vitamin E. The objective of publishing these plans is to stimulate interest and thinking among the scientific community on the prospects for developing chemopreventive drugs.

  11. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs...... tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...

  12. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...... or that manipulation of serotoninergic activity functionally does not contribute to mechanisms of fatigue....

  13. TROP2 expressed in the trunk of the ureteric duct regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Tsukahara

    Full Text Available TROP2, a cell surface protein structurally related to EpCAM, is expressed in various carcinomas, though its function remains largely unknown. We examined the expression of TROP2 and EpCAM in fetal mouse tissues, and found distinct patterns in the ureteric bud of the fetal kidney, which forms a tree-like structure. The tip cells in the ureteric bud proliferate to form branches, whereas the trunk cells differentiate to form a polarized ductal structure. EpCAM was expressed throughout the ureteric bud, whereas TROP2 expression was strongest at the trunk but diminished towards the tips, indicating the distinct cell populations in the ureteric bud. The cells highly expressing TROP2 (TROP2(high were negative for Ki67, a proliferating cell marker, and TROP2 and collagen-I were co-localized to the basal membrane of the trunk cells. TROP2(high cells isolated from the fetal kidney failed to attach and spread on collagen-coated plates. Using MDCK cells, a well-established model for studying the branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, TROP2 was shown to inhibit cell spreading and motility on collagen-coated plates, and also branching in collagen-gel cultures, which mimic the ureteric bud's microenvironment. These results together suggest that TROP2 modulates the interaction between the cells and matrix and regulates the formation of the ureteric duct by suppressing branching from the trunk during kidney development.

  14. TROP2 expressed in the trunk of the ureteric duct regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Yuko; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    TROP2, a cell surface protein structurally related to EpCAM, is expressed in various carcinomas, though its function remains largely unknown. We examined the expression of TROP2 and EpCAM in fetal mouse tissues, and found distinct patterns in the ureteric bud of the fetal kidney, which forms a tree-like structure. The tip cells in the ureteric bud proliferate to form branches, whereas the trunk cells differentiate to form a polarized ductal structure. EpCAM was expressed throughout the ureteric bud, whereas TROP2 expression was strongest at the trunk but diminished towards the tips, indicating the distinct cell populations in the ureteric bud. The cells highly expressing TROP2 (TROP2(high)) were negative for Ki67, a proliferating cell marker, and TROP2 and collagen-I were co-localized to the basal membrane of the trunk cells. TROP2(high) cells isolated from the fetal kidney failed to attach and spread on collagen-coated plates. Using MDCK cells, a well-established model for studying the branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, TROP2 was shown to inhibit cell spreading and motility on collagen-coated plates, and also branching in collagen-gel cultures, which mimic the ureteric bud's microenvironment. These results together suggest that TROP2 modulates the interaction between the cells and matrix and regulates the formation of the ureteric duct by suppressing branching from the trunk during kidney development.

  15. Partial shading of lateral branches affects growth, and foliage nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies in the conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata growing in a warm monsoon climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingfa; Li, Junyu; Zhang, Yuanbin; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-06-01

    The degree to which branches are autonomous in their acclimation responses to alteration in light environment is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of shading of the sapling crown of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook on the whole-tree and mid-crown branch growth and current-year foliage structure and physiology. Four treatments providing 0, 50, 75 and 90% shading compared with full daylight (denoted as Treatment(0), Treatment(50%), Treatment(75%) and Treatment(90%), and Shaded(0), Shaded(50%), Shaded(75%) and Shaded(90%) for the shaded branches and Sunlit(0), Sunlit(50%), Sunlit(75%) and Sunlit(90%) for the opposite sunlit branches under natural light conditions, respectively), were applied over two consecutive growing seasons. Shading treatments decreased the growth of basal stem diameter, leaf dry mass per unit leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, the ratio of water-soluble to structural leaf nitrogen content, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency and instantaneous and long-term (estimated from carbon isotope composition) water-use efficiency in shaded branches. Differences between shaded and sunlit branches increased with increasing severity and duration of shading. A non-autonomous, partly compensatory behavior of non-shaded branches was observed for most traits, thus reflecting the dependence between the traits of sunlit branches and the severity of shading of the opposite crown half. The results collectively indicated that tree growth and branch and leaf acclimation responses of C. lanceolata are not only affected by the local light environment, but also by relative within-crown light conditions. We argue that such a non-autonomous branch response to changes in light conditions can improve whole-tree resource optimization. These results contribute to better understanding of tree growth and utilization of water and nitrogen under heterogeneous light conditions within tree canopies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  16. Rational branch and territorial structure of economy — the prerequisite of efficient development of regions

    OpenAIRE

    Sautieva T.

    2017-01-01

    In article questions of rational branch structure on the example of the South of Russia are considered. Special attention is paid to mechanical engineering as the largest industry where the noticeable influence of scientific and technical progress is looked through. Three factors defining placement of productive forces are defined and territorial bases of economic efficiency of regions are proved. In the conclusion, the author comes to a conclusion that development and increase in effectivene...

  17. Development of Test Method for Simple Shear and Prediction of Hardening Behavior Considering the Branchings Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bang, Sungsik; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo

    2013-01-01

    In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Branchings effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Branchings effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with Fea. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments

  18. Development of Test Method for Simple Shear and Prediction of Hardening Behavior Considering the Branchings Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bang, Sungsik; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Branchings effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Branchings effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with Fea. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments.

  19. Esrrg functions in early branch generation of the ureteric bud and is essential for normal development of the renal papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Rachel; Harewood, Louise; Pei, Liming; Fisher, Malcolm; Brownstein, David; Ross, Allyson; Alaynick, William A; Moss, Julie; Hastie, Nicholas D; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A; Evans, Ronald M; FitzPatrick, David R

    2011-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are common disorders of human development affecting the renal parechyma, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra; they show evidence of shared genetic aetiology, although the molecular basis of this remains unknown in the majority of cases. Breakpoint mapping of a de novo, apparently balanced, reciprocal translocation associated with bilateral renal agenesis has implicated the gene encoding the nuclear steroid hormone receptor ESRRG as a candidate gene for CAKUT. Here we show that the Esrrg protein is detected throughout early ureteric ducts as cytoplasmic/sub-membranous staining; with nuclear localization seen in developing nephrons. In 14.5-16.5 dpc (days post-conception) mouse embryos, Esrrg localizes to the subset of ductal tissue within the kidney, liver and lung. The renal ductal expression becomes localized to renal papilla by 18.5 dpc. Perturbation of function was performed in embryonic mouse kidney culture using pooled siRNA to induce knock-down and a specific small-molecule agonist to induce aberrant activation of Esrrg. Both resulted in severe abnormality of early branching events of the ureteric duct. Mouse embryos with a targeted inactivation of Esrrg on both alleles (Esrrg(-/-)) showed agenesis of the renal papilla but normal development of the cortex and remaining medulla. Taken together, these results suggest that Esrrg is required for early branching events of the ureteric duct that occur prior to the onset of nephrogenesis. These findings confirm ESRRG as a strong candidate gene for CAKUT.

  20. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura E; Greenwood, Julian R; Bencivenga, Stefano; Zhang, Peng; Cockram, James; Mellers, Gregory; Ramm, Kerrie; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M; Boden, Scott A

    2018-03-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as "paired spikelets." We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Julian R.; Bencivenga, Stefano; Cockram, James; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M.

    2018-01-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as “paired spikelets.” We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. PMID:29444813

  2. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  3. Factors affecting the compliance and sway properties of tree branches used by the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam van Casteren

    Full Text Available The tropical arboreal environment is a mechanically complex and varied habitat. Arboreal inhabitants must adapt to changes in the compliance and stability of supports when moving around trees. Because the orangutan is the largest habitual arboreal inhabitant, it is unusually susceptible to branch compliance and stability and therefore represents a unique animal model to help investigate how animals cope with the mechanical heterogeneity of the tropical canopy. The aim of this study was to investigate how changes in compliance and time of oscillation of branches are related to easily observable traits of arboreal supports. This should help predict how supports react mechanically to the weight and mass of a moving orangutan, and suggest how orangutans themselves predict branch properties. We measured the compliance and time of oscillation of branches from 11 tree species frequented by orangutans in the rainforest of Sumatra. Branches were pulled at several points along their length using a force balance at the end of a stiff rope, and the local diameter of the branch and the distance to its base and tip were measured. Compliance was negatively associated with both local diameter and length to the tip of the branch, and positively, if weakly, associated with length from the trunk. However, branch diameter not only predicted compliance best, but would also be easiest for an orangutan to observe. In contrast, oscillation times of branches were largely unaffected by local diameter, and only significantly increased at diameters below 2 cm. The results of this study validate previous field research, which related locomotory modes to local branch diameter, while suggesting how arboreal animals themselves sense their mechanical environment.

  4. The development of a diagnostic and monitoring system for vibrating pipe branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Suzuki, Shigeki; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with a diagnostic and monitoring system for assessing the integrity of pipe branches, during the operation of the nuclear power plant. This system have been developed under the concept of ''easy to use without any sophisticated analysis'' and ''portable''. The accuracy of the diagnosis is based on the model optimization subsystem, which automatically modifies the numerical vibration model so as to fit its natural frequency to the actual natural frequency. The information obtained by this system may be reflected to a maintenance program of the plant to assure more reliable operation of the plant. (orig.)

  5. Development of biodegradable hyper-branched tissue adhesives for the repair of meniscus tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochyńska, A I; Van Tienen, T G; Hannink, G; Buma, P; Grijpma, D W

    2016-03-01

    Meniscus tears are one of the most commonly occurring injuries of the knee joint. Current meniscus repair techniques are challenging and do not bring fully satisfactory results. Tissue adhesives are a promising alternative, since they are easy to apply and cause minimal tissue trauma. In this study, a series of amphiphilic copolymers based on polyethylene glycol, trimethylene carbonate and citric acid were synthesized and subsequently end-functionalized with hexamethylene diisocyanate to form reactive adhesive materials. The shear adhesive strength of the networks to bovine meniscus tissue measured in a lap-shear adhesion test ranged between 20 and 80 kPa, which was better than for fibrin glue (10 kPa). The elastic modulus of the networks depended on composition and was in the same range as that of human meniscus. Cell compatibility was assessed using Alamar Blue staining after incubation of the bovine meniscus cells with different concentrations of the glues for 7 days. Cell viability was not affected after adding up to 3mg of the adhesive/mL of medium. The proposed materials are suitable candidates to be used as resorbable tissue adhesives for meniscus repair. They have excellent mechanical and adhesive properties that can be adjusted by varying the composition of the copolymers. Meniscal tears often occur and current treatment strategies do not bring fully satisfactory results. Use of biodegradable tissue adhesives would be an interesting option, but currently available adhesives are not suited due to toxicity or poor mechanical properties. Here, we describe the development of novel biodegradable, hyper-branched, adhesive copolymers. These adhesives cure upon contact with water forming flexible networks. Their adhesion to bovine meniscus tissue was significantly better than that of clinically used fibrin glue. The tensile properties of the cured networks were in the same range of values of the human meniscus. When physiologically relevant amounts were added to

  6. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  7. Structure of FabH and factors affecting the distribution of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose H.; Goh, Ee-Been [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beller, Harry R. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D., E-mail: pdadams@lbl.gov [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus, the structure of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, which catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been determined. Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces iso- and anteiso-branched alkenes by the head-to-head condensation of fatty-acid thioesters [coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP)]; this activity is of interest for the production of advanced biofuels. In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in M. luteus, the structure of FabH (MlFabH) was determined. FabH, or β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis: the condensation of malonyl-ACP with an acyl-CoA. Analysis of the MlFabH structure provides insights into its substrate selectivity with regard to length and branching of the acyl-CoA. The most structurally divergent region of FabH is the L9 loop region located at the dimer interface, which is involved in the formation of the acyl-binding channel and thus limits the substrate-channel size. The residue Phe336, which is positioned near the catalytic triad, appears to play a major role in branched-substrate selectivity. In addition to structural studies of MlFabH, transcriptional studies of M. luteus were also performed, focusing on the increase in the ratio of anteiso:iso-branched alkenes that was observed during the transition from early to late stationary phase. Gene-expression microarray analysis identified two genes involved in leucine and isoleucine metabolism that may explain this transition.

  8. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanwoua, Julienne; Bairam, Emna; Delaire, Mickael; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modeling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  10. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  11. The development of iodine-123-labeled-methyl-branched fatty acids for myocardial SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kropp, J.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids represent unique metabolic probes for correlation of energy substrate metabolism with regional myocardial viability. Interest in the use of these agents results from differences which are often observed in various types of heart disease between regional myocardial fatty acid uptake patterns and flow tracer distribution. Although the physiological basis is not completely understood, differences between regional fatty acid and flow tracer distribution may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. The iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and was recently introduced as ''Cardiodine trademark'' in 1993 by Nihon Medi-Physics for commercial distribution in Japan. Iodine-123-BMPP is also being used in clinical studies on an institutional approval basis at several institutions in Europe and the US. This paper describes the development of the concept of fatty acid ''metabolic trapping'' of methyl-branched fatty acids and their use for single photon emission computerized tomographic cardiac imaging

  12. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kropp, J.; Goodman, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous interest in the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acids for myocardial imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability makers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). (author)

  13. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kropp, J.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Goodman, M.M. [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Franken, P. [Free Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Reske, S.N. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion Nuklearmedizin; Som, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Cardiology Dept.

    1993-06-01

    Continued Interest in the use of iodine-1 23-labeled fatty acids for myocardial Imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-I 23-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability markers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 1 5-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  14. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kropp, J.; Biersack, H.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Goodman, M.M. (University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Franken, P. (Free Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Medicine Dept.); Reske, S.N. (Ulm Univ. (Germany

    1993-01-01

    Continued Interest in the use of iodine-1 23-labeled fatty acids for myocardial Imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-I 23-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability markers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 1 5-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  15. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  16. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  17. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life span (LLS after fire compared with published data for evergreens in cerrado areas without fire. On the other hand, Kielmeyera variabilis, a deciduous species, showed intense branching and produced two orders of shoots in one growing season. Fires promote rapid leaf and shoot growth in evergreens owing to reserve accumulations that allow survivorship after disturbances. However, the leaves produced by evergreens after fire had high SLAs and were discarded before the next rainy season (short LLS. This leaf cohort was produced with less carbon per leaf, and the decreased LLS prevented herbivory and water loss during the dry season. Fire is an important factor of cerrado environments, influencing leaf production and shoot architecture in cerrado trees.

  18. Dynamics of target recognition by interstitial axon branching along developing cortical axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastmeyer, M; O'Leary, D D

    1996-02-15

    Corticospinal axons innervate their midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal targets by extending collateral branches interstitially along their length. To establish that the axon shaft rather than the axonal growth cone is responsible for target recognition in this system, and to characterize the dynamics of interstitial branch formation, we have studied this process in an in vivo-like setting using slice cultures from neonatal mice containing the entire pathway of corticospinal axons. Corticospinal axons labeled with the dye 1,1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (or Dil) were imaged using time-lapse video microscopy of their pathway overlying the basilar pons, their major hindbrain target. The axon shaft millimeters behind the growth cone exhibits several dynamic behaviors, including the de novo formation of varicosities and filopodia-like extensions, and a behavior that we term "pulsation," which is characterized by a variable thickening and thining of short segments of the axon. An individual axon can have multiple sites of branching activity, with many of the branches being transient. These dynamic behaviors occur along the portion of the axon shaft overlying the basilar pons, but not just caudal to it. Once the collaterals extend into the pontine neuropil, they branch further in the neuropil, while the parent axon becomes quiescent. Thus, the branching activity is spatially restricted to specific portions of the axon, as well as temporally restricted to a relatively brief time window. These findings provide definitive evidence that collateral branches form de novo along corticospinal axons and establish that the process of target recognition in this system is a property of the axon shaft rather than the leading growth cone.

  19. Early life factors that affect allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.

  20. Development of C-Methyl Branched Purine Ribonucleoside Analogs: Chemistry, Biological Activity and Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Grifantini, Mario; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we first highlighted on C-methyl-branched nucleosides and nucleotides approved as anti-hepatitis C infection (HCV) drugs, their mechanism of action and recent progress in the development of new clinical candidates. Then, we report on our attempt to develop several C-methyl nucleosides/tides potentially useful for treatment of various diseases such cancer, pain, epilepsy and glaucoma. Design, synthesis and pharmacological screening of 1'-C-, 2'-C-, 3'-C-methyladenosine or other purine/pyrimidine nucleosides allowed us to discover some promising new molecules. 3'-C-Methyladenosine showed antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines. We have investigated the mechanism of action of 3;-C-methyladenosine that proved to be an effective inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Moreover, we will also summarize the chemical and biological properties of some of the recent N6-substituted and 5', N6-disubstituted 2'-C-methyladenosine derivatives that were synthetized in our laboratory and evaluated as A1 adenosine receptor agonists. 2-Chloro-2'- C-methyl-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (2'-Me-CCPA), 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N6-(±)-(endo-norborn- 2-yl)adenosine (5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA) and 2'-C-methyl-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N6-(±)-(endonorborn- 2-yl)adenosine (2'-Me-5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA) displayed high hA1AR affinity and selectivity. 2'-Me-CCPA and 5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA showed significant analgesic properties.

  1. Progress in research and regulatory development by the Materials Engineering Branch, RES Engineering Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpan, C.Z. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Much activity has been underway In NRC this past year on definition of aging Issues for nuclear power plants that will be applicable to the regulatory considerations of applications for license renewals following the Initial 40-year operating period. The Materials Engineering Branch has been reviewing its program to assure that aging Issues are prominent, and to identify regulatory documents that will have to be validated or revised to provide a proper basis for license renewal safety evaluation. A report on the branch plan for aging and needs for extended life review is under preparation and should be available early in 1988

  2. A QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ANALYSING 3-D BRANCHING IN EMBRYONIC KIDNEYS: DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fricout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal human adult kidney contains between 300,000 and 1 million nephrons (the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons develop at the tips of the branching ureteric duct, and therefore ureteric duct branching morphogenesis is critical for normal kidney development. Current methods for analysing ureteric branching are mostly qualitative and those quantitative methods that do exist do not account for the 3- dimensional (3D shape of the ureteric "tree". We have developed a method for measuring the total length of the ureteric tree in 3D. This method is described and preliminary data are presented. The algorithm allows for performing a semi-automatic segmentation of a set of grey level confocal images and an automatic skeletonisation of the resulting binary object. Measurements of length are automatically obtained, and numbers of branch points are manually counted. The final representation can be reconstructed by means of 3D volume rendering software, providing a fully rotating 3D perspective of the skeletonised tree, making it possible to identify and accurately measure branch lengths. Preliminary data shows the total length estimates obtained with the technique to be highly reproducible. Repeat estimates of total tree length vary by just 1-2%. We will now use this technique to further define the growth of the ureteric tree in vitro, under both normal culture conditions, and in the presence of various levels of specific molecules suspected of regulating ureteric growth. The data obtained will provide fundamental information on the development of renal architecture, as well as the regulation of nephron number.

  3. N-Glycan Branching Affects the Subcellular Distribution of and Inhibition of Matriptase by HAI-2/Placental Bikunin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jung J Lai

    Full Text Available The gene product of SPINT 2, that encodes a transmembrane, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor independently designated as HAI-2 or placenta bikunin (PB, is involved in regulation of sodium absorption in human gastrointestinal track. Here, we show that SPINT 2 is expressed as two species of different size (30-40- versus 25-kDa due to different N-glycans on Asn-57. The N-glycan on 25-kDa HAI-2 appears to be of the oligomannose type and that on 30-40-kDa HAI-2 to be of complex type with extensive terminal N-acetylglucosamine branching. The two different types of N-glycan differentially mask two epitopes on HAI-2 polypeptide, recognized by two different HAI-2 mAbs. The 30-40-kDa form may be mature HAI-2, and is primarily localized in vesicles/granules. The 25-kDa form is likely immature HAI-2, that remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the perinuclear regions of mammary epithelial cells. The two different N-glycans could, therefore, represent different maturation stages of N-glycosylation with the 25-kDa likely a precursor of the 30-40-kDa HAI-2, with the ratio of their levels roughly similar among a variety of cells. In breast cancer cells, a significant amount of the 30-40-kDa HAI-2 can translocate to and inhibit matriptase on the cell surface, followed by shedding of the matriptase-HAI-2 complex. The 25-kDa HAI-2 appears to have also exited the ER/Golgi, being localized at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane of breast cancer cells. While the 25-kDa HAI-2 was also detected at the extracellular face of plasma membrane at very low levels it appears to have no role in matriptase inhibition probably due to its paucity on the cell surface. Our study reveals that N-glycan branching regulates HAI-2 through different subcellular distribution and subsequently access to different target proteases.

  4. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Whitlock, B A; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Dombrovska, O

    2001-09-01

    Five groups of basal angiosperms, Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya (ANITA), were identified in several recent studies as representing a series of the earliest-diverging lineages of the angiosperm phylogeny. All of these studies except one employed a multigene analysis approach and used gymnosperms as the outgroup to determine the ingroup topology. The high level of divergence between gymnosperms and angiosperms, however, has long been implicated in the difficulty of reconstructing relationships at the base of angiosperm phylogeny using DNA sequences, for fear of long-branch attraction (LBA). In this study, we replaced the gymnosperm sequences from the five-gene matrix (mitochondrial atp1 and matR, plastid atpB and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA) used in our earlier study with four categories of divergent sequences--random sequences with equal base frequencies or equally AT- and GC-rich contents, homopolymers and heteropolymers, misaligned gymnosperm sequences, and aligned lycopod and bryophyte sequences--to evaluate whether the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup to angiosperms in our earlier study that identified the ANITA rooting. All 24 analyses performed rooted the angiosperm phylogeny at either Acorus or Alisma (or Alisma-Triglochin-Potamogeton in one case due to use of a slightly different alignment) and placed the monocots as a basal grade, producing genuine LBA results. These analyses demonstrate that the identification of ANITA as the basalmost extant angiosperms was based on historical signals preserved in the gymnosperm sequences and that the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup with which to root the angiosperm phylogeny in the multigene sequence analysis. This strategy of evaluating the appropriateness of an outgroup using artificial sequences and a series of outgroups with increments of divergence levels can be applied to investigations of phylogenetic patterns at the bases of other major clades, such as land

  5. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Namazi; Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad Univer...

  6. History and prospects of development of power engineering branches of the SKODA enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesak, V.; Drahy, J.; Filip, R.

    1989-01-01

    The history is reviewed and the prospects are outlined of three branches of SKODA concern power engineering: steam turbines, electric power, nuclear reactors. The products of the concern are intended not only for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants but also for export. Some specifications are given of products such as steam turbines, turbine alternators and other electrical machines, and WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. (J.B.). 9 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref

  7. Legislative, executive branch, regulatory and judicial developments in the USA affecting trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    International commerce in uranium continues to be dominated by a complex network of trade barriers and nuclear non-proliferation controls. Nowhere are these barriers and controls more complex than in the United States, or more subject to frequent change. Many in the uranium and utility industries had hoped that the major uranium trade related uncertainties in the United States would be resolved during the summer of 1988. As of mid July 1988, this hope had faded as a much-heralded legislative compromise crumbled and the US Supreme Court's long awaited decision in the Western Nuclear case resolved some issues but opened new avenues of judicial inquiry. This paper distills the main unresolved trade issues and assesses the major ways in which they could be resolved. Pending legislation is reviewed at the outset, followed by a discussion of implications of the USA-Canada Free Trade Agreement and its implementing legislation. The uncertainties remaining after the Supreme Court's decision in the Western Nuclear case are next evaluated. Finally, this paper surveys pending proposals for US governmental controls over some types of national origin and obligation transfers, sometimes referred to as 'flag swaps'. (author)

  8. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  9. PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF THE KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE BRANCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yakovlevich Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of enterprise development high-tech industries, analyzes the factors that complicate the processes of knowledge-intensive production management. It provided a number of problems that make it difficult to increase the economic efficiency of high-tech industry. To solve the above problems need to increase the investment program and the economic attractiveness of high-tech industries that is to be developed, modern management system, carried out the reform of the knowledge-based industry to provide high levels of efficiency of new organizational structures in the current economic conditions compared to the existing, outdated forms. The purpose / goal. The aim of this study is to analyze the causes that affect the development potential of knowledge-based industries and enterprises identify problems that impede improving the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry. Purpose: To identify the problems that are most difficult to improve the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry; consider the high-tech industry; examine the reasons for the reform of the knowledge-based industry; explore the level of innovation activity of organizations of high-tech industries. Methodology. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study are the works, monographs, research papers, studies of Soviet authors on the development of knowledge-intensive industries, materials of State Statistics. We used scientific methods of research, such as the comparative method of analysis, synthesis, analysis and synthesis. Results. Given the concept of the domestic high-tech complex (NEC, defined the environment in which businesses operate NEC. The features of these companies, where there is the presence of a strong innovation potential. The requirements for knowledge-intensive production as the backbone of a new stage of the development lifecycle. A number of problems hampering the development and transformation of enterprise

  10. Modeling branching in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant.

  11. Selection of appropriate medial branch of the optic tract by fibres of ventral retinal origin during development and in regeneration: an autoradiographic study in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straznicky, C.; Gaze, R.M.; Horder, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of the branches of the optic tract has been studied with the use of [ 3 H] -proline autoradiography, during development and during regeneration of the optic nerve in Xenopus with one compound ventral (VV) eye made by the embryonic fusion of two ventral eye fragments. The formation of the optic pathway was abnormal in that the lateral branch failed to develop, suggesting that fibres from a VV retina selectively entered the tectum via the medial branch during development. Three months after section of the optic nerve of a VV eye, regenerated fibres were present both in the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta. On the ipsilateral side regenerated fibres entered the tectum via the medial branch only. Retinal fibres entered the contralateral tectum through both branches in some animals and through the medial branch only in others. It is concluded that mechanical factors alone are insufficient to explain the phenomenon of selection of the appropriate medial branch fibres of ventral retinal origin either during development or in regeneration. Some form of fibre-substrate interaction seems to be necessary; and this ability of fibres from a VV eye to take the path appropriate for ventral retina argues strongly that the VV eye is not a regulated system in terms of cell specificities. 8author)

  12. Development of tip-splitting and side-branching patterns in elastic fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, João V.; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A.

    2016-03-01

    Elastic fingering supplements the already interesting features of the traditional viscous fingering phenomena in Hele-Shaw cells with the consideration that the two-fluid separating boundary behaves like an elastic membrane. Sophisticated numerical simulations have shown that under maximum viscosity contrast the resulting patterned shapes can exhibit either finger tip-splitting or side-branching events. In this work, we employ a perturbative mode-coupling scheme to get important insights into the onset of these pattern formation processes. This is done at lowest nonlinear order and by considering the interplay of just three specific Fourier modes: a fundamental mode n and its harmonics 2 n and 3 n . Our approach further allows the construction of a morphology diagram for the system in a wide range of the parameter space without requiring expensive numerical simulations. The emerging interfacial patterns are conveniently described in terms of only two dimensionless controlling quantities: the rigidity fraction C and a parameter Γ that measures the relative strength between elastic and viscous effects. Visualization of the rigidity field for the various pattern-forming structures supports the idea of an elastic weakening mechanism that facilitates finger growth in regions of reduced interfacial bending rigidity.

  13. How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Horowitz; H. Brian Moehring

    2014-01-01

    Initially, economic development increases resistance because migration of people to urban areas in developing countries increases incomes, crowding and the use of antibiotics. Also, developing countries often don't require prescriptions or distribute high quality antibiotics. In developed countries, antibiotic resistance often falls or there is a decline in the rate of growth of resistance because infections decline with improvements in water quality, sanitation, housing and nutrition. Howeve...

  14. Regulatory challenges affecting ICT development in Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    in the region in terms of network readiness (64th place out of 139 economies) and global competitiveness (79th place out of 140 economies) in 2016. The significance of ICT policies is broadly understood at the highest political level in Ukraine, however their implementation has always posed a challenge....... And the chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.1 is the introduction; section 2.2 presents an overview of policies and regulations influencing ICTs in Ukraine; section 2.3 presents a snapshot of the national ICT sector which is dominated by the mobile market and the Broadband Access Technology market; Section...... 2.4 provides an insight into the various ICT regulations, how it affected the markets and the challenges in implementing these policies; section 2.5 highlights the role , successes and challenges of implementing regulations aimed at implementing e-government; and section 2.7 concludes this chapter...

  15. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  16. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA. The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO, Jersey (JE, and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM, 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  17. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  18. [Does childhood obesity affect sexual development?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, I V; Sergeyev, E; Dittrich, K; Gesing, J; Neef, M; Adler, M; Geserick, M; Pfäffle, R W; Körner, A; Kiess, W

    2013-04-01

    The process of pubertal development is only partly understood and is influenced by many different factors. During the twentieth century there was a general trend toward earlier pubertal development. Fat mass is thought to be a major inducer of puberty. Owing to the rising epidemic of childhood obesity, the relationship between body composition in children and the rate and timing of puberty needs to be investigated. Some studies suggest that central obesity is associated with an earlier onset of pubertal development. Rapid weight gain in early life is linked to advanced puberty in both sexes. A clear correlation exists between increasing body mass index (BMI) and earlier pubertal development in girls. In boys the data are controversial: The majority of studies propose that there is an earlier puberty and voice break in obese boys, but some studies show the opposite. There are several factors and mechanisms that seem to link obesity and puberty, for example, leptin, adipocytokines, and gut peptides. Important players include genetic variation and environmental factors (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals). This article presents the latest studies and evidence on this topic, underlining the inconsistencies in the data and, therefore, the need for further research in this area.

  19. Development of a swine model of left bundle branch block for experimental studies of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Montserrat; Solanes, Núria; Fernandez-Armenta, Juan; Silva, Etelvino; Doltra, Adelina; Duchateau, Nicolas; Barcelo, Aina; Gabrielli, Luigi; Bijnens, Bart; Berruezo, Antonio; Brugada, Josep; Sitges, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Animal models that mimic human electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony often associated with chronic heart failure would provide an essential tool to investigate factors influencing response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. A standardized closed-chest porcine model of left bundle branch block (LBBB) was developed using 16 pigs. Radiofrequency applications were performed to induce LBBB, which was confirmed by QRS widening, a surface electrocardiogram pattern concordant with LBBB, and a prolonged activation time from endocardial. Echocardiography confirmed abnormal motion of the septum, which was not present at the baseline echocardiogram. High susceptibility of pigs to ventricular fibrillation during the endocardial ablation was overcome by applying high-rate pacing during radiofrequency applications. This is the first study to devise a closed-chest porcine model of LBBB that closely reproduces abnormalities found in patients with electrical and mechanical cardiac dyssynchrony, and provides a useful tool to investigate the basic mechanisms underlying cardiac resynchronization therapy benefits in heart failure.

  20. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  1. The circumplex model of affect: an integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2005-01-01

    The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system.

  2. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, João Paulo; Albino, Ana Lúcia S.; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA) was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life s...

  3. US Army Research Laboratory Lightweight and Specialty Metals Branch Research and Development (FY14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element, fourth among common metals , in the Earth’s crust . Apart from some high-value applications in, e.g., the...LSMB’s vision is to be the leading metals research and development facility for the US Army, which is achieved by attracting and retaining world-class...Functionally-Graded Materials Specialty Metals Processing and Synthesis 1. Rare Earth Metals 2. Extractive Metallurgy 3. Process Technology and Modeling

  4. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  5. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging

  6. Disruptions in valine degradation affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Andrew B; Morton, Kyla J; Rhee, Rachel J; Simo, Szabolcs; Clayton, Jack A; Perrett, Morgan E; Binkley, Christiana G; Jensen, Erika L; Oakes, Dana L; Rouhier, Matthew F; Rouhier, Kerry A

    2017-06-01

    We have functionally characterized the role of two putative mitochondrial enzymes in valine degradation using insertional mutants. Prior to this study, the relationship between branched-chain amino acid degradation (named for leucine, valine and isoleucine) and seed development was limited to leucine catabolism. Using a reverse genetics approach, we show that disruptions in the mitochondrial valine degradation pathway affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. A null mutant of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (CHY4, At4g31810) resulted in an embryo lethal phenotype, while a null mutant of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSD, At2g14170) resulted in seeds with wrinkled coats, decreased storage reserves, elevated valine and leucine, and reduced germination rates. These data highlight the unique contributions CHY4 and MMSD make to the overall growth and viability of plants. It also increases our knowledge of the role branched-chain amino acid catabolism plays in seed development and amino acid homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Affective design identification on the development of batik convection product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastawa, H.; Purwaningsih, R.

    2017-11-01

    The affective design is increasingly applied to product development in order to meet the desires and preferences of customers. Batik is a traditional Indonesian culture containing historical and cultural values. The development of batik design is one of the efforts to strengthen the identity and superiority of Indonesia’s creative industries as well as to preserve batik as the cultural heritage of the nation. Batik product designs offered by the manufacturers do not necessarily correspond with the wishes of consumers, especially the affective values involved. Therefore it is necessary to identify consumer perceptions of convection- based batik product in the form of clothing and fabrics, especially the affective value as the consideration for the designer or manufacturer to develop design alternatives to batik convection products. This research aims to obtain information on consumer affective value, to identify the affective value perception differences among X and Y Generation and to classify affective value in the corresponding cluster of the batik products convection. This study uses Kansei engineering to determine the perception of affective design in the form of Kansei word. Cluster Analysis was used to form clusters that classify affective value of the same class. The results showed that there were 16 pairs of Kansei word which was worth as an affective consumer desire, the 3 indicators that had significant differences among X and Y Generation and 4 clusters with different characteristics.

  8. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of Apple (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne eFanwoua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modelling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  9. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects

  10. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  11. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  12. Bisexual branching diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytnik, Leonid; Adler, Robert J.

    1993-12-01

    The limiting behavior of large systems of two types of Brownian particles undergoing bisexual branching is studied. Particles of each type generate individuals of both types, and the respective branching law is asymptotically critical for the two dimensional system, while being subcritical for each individual population. The main result of the paper is that the limiting behavior of suitably scaled sums and differences of the two populations is given by a pair of measure and distribution valued processes which, together, determine the limit behaviors of the individual populations. Proofs are based on the martingale problem approach to general state space processes. The fact that the limit involves both measure and distribution valued processes requires the development of some new methodologies of independent interest.

  13. Factors affecting the development of collaborative improvement with strategic suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus; Boer, Harm; Corso, Mariano; Gertsen, Frank; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Middel, H.G.A.; Steendahl Nielsen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The research presented in this paper was aimed at increasing the current understanding of the process of developing collaborative improvement in Extended Manufacturing Enterprises (EME). Theory suggests a number of factors to affect that process, including shared sense of direction (i.e. vision),

  14. How does technological regime affect performance of technology development projects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Hooshangi, Soheil; Zhao, Y. Lisa; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how technological regime affects the performance of technology development projects (i.e., project quality, sales, and profit). Technological regime is defined as the set of attributes of a technological environment where the innovative activities of firms take place.

  15. Major constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...

  16. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  17. Investigation on Factors Affecting to the Career Development

    OpenAIRE

    永久, 理恵; 井田, 政則

    2013-01-01

    The factors affecting to the career development were examined in light of the problem with young workers of their job quitting and hopping at early stage. The investigation was carried out with questionnaire given to 277 business persons working in several Japanese companies. We examined how the four major factors consisting of career development, i.e.“organizational socialization”,“ psychological variables of career self-reliance”,“ behavioral variables of career self-reliance”and“ meaning o...

  18. Maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy affects vascularized islet development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiao-Yun; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Cho, Candy Hsin-Hua; Lin, Kuo-I; Tosh, David; Wu, Ruei-Ren; Mao, Wan-Yu; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is known to affect 20 million pregnant women worldwide. However, the prenatal effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency on pancreas development have not been clearly determined. The present study examined how maternal vitamin A deficiency affects fetal islet development. Vitamin A-deficient mice were generated by feeding female mice with a chemically defined diet lacking vitamin A prior to mating as well as during pregnancy. We found that maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy affected fetal pancreas development. Although the exocrine differentiation appeared normal, development of islet tissue was impaired. In the pancreas of neonatal mice, only a few endocrine cell clusters were formed, and these cell clusters lacked capillary endothelial cells. To further determine how vitamin A metabolites, such as retinoic acid, regulate vascularized islet development, ex vivo culture of embryonic pancreas either in the presence of 4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB; an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase), all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) or retinoic acid receptor agonist (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid (TTNPB) was carried out. We found that the addition of DEAB blocked vascularization and suppressed β-cell differentiation. Conversely, atRA or TTNPB promoted β-cell differentiation accompanied by enhanced expression of vascular basement component, laminin. We further demonstrated that atRA regulated vascularization via upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) secretion in embryonic pancreas and treatment with VEGF-A was able to partially rescue vascularization and β-cell differentiation in DEAB-treated embryonic pancreas cultures. The findings explain why maternal vitamin A deficiency affects fetal islet development and support an essential role of retinoid signaling in regulating vascularized islet development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  20. [Mentalisation and affect regulation--how the infantile self develops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The text comprises the different elements of the psychoanalytic mentalization theory of Peter Fonagy et al. and tries to explain them. Part of this theory are above all the affect mirroring as well as the affect reciprocity theory and the two modes of the "as if" character and the psychic equivalence (playing with reality). You can find clear examples for each of these theoretical components. Moreover there are many correlations to other authors and their respective development theories: that is to Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. The text is based above all on Martin Dornes' approaches on this topic (2004, 2006).

  1. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  2. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...... and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF POLYURETHANES BRANCHED STRUCTURE CONTAINING ISOCYANURATE FRAGMENTS IN MACROCHAINS. STUDY THEIR STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lukashevich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based polyoxypropylene glycol, TDI, isocyanurate HDT-90 and a chain extender – adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH at different molar ratio of isocyanurate of TDI and polymeric materials synthesized new branched structure. The physico and mechanical properties of the material depending on the ratio of the isocyanate components. The introduction into the structure of polyurethane (PU isocyanurate heterocyclic moieties of the matrix increases the tensile strength and decrease in elongation at break. The effect of the isocyanurate in the physical and mechanical properties of the new PU material, the dependence on the ratio of the starting components.

  4. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth fa...

  5. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  6. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  7. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  8. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  9. Post-exercise branched chain amino acid supplementation does not affect recovery markers following three consecutive high intensity resistance training bouts compared to carbohydrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; McCloskey, Anna E; Holland, A Maleah; Shake, Joshua J; Mobley, C Brooks; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Weimar, Wendi H; Oliver, Gretchen D; Young, Kaelin C; Moon, Jordan R; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid supplementation has been shown to potentially reduced exercise-induced muscle soreness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if branched chain amino acid and carbohydrate (BCAACHO) versus carbohydrate-only sports drink (CHO) supplementation attenuated markers of muscle damage while preserving performance markers following 3 days of intense weight training. Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 30) performed preliminary testing (T1) whereby they: 1) donated a baseline blood draw, 2) performed knee extensor dynamometry to obtain peak quadriceps isometric and isokinetic torque as well as electromyography (EMG) activity at 60°/s and 120°/s, and 3) performed a one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat. The following week participants performed 10 sets x 5 repetitions at 80 % of their 1RM barbell back squat for 3 consecutive days and 48 h following the third lifting bout participants returned for (T2) testing whereby they repeated the T1 battery. Immediately following and 24 h after the three lifting bouts, participants were randomly assigned to consume one of two commercial products in 600 mL of tap water: 1) BCAAs and CHO (3 g/d L-leucine, 1 g/d L-isoleucine and 2 g/d L-valine with 2 g of CHO; n = 15), or 2) 42 g of CHO only (n = 15). Additionally, venous blood was drawn 24 h following the first and second lifting bouts and 48 h following the third bout to assess serum myoglobin concentrations, and a visual analog scale was utilized prior, during, and after the 3-d protocol to measure subjective perceptions of muscular soreness. There were similar decrements in 1RM squat strength and isokinetic peak torque measures in the BCAA-CHO and CHO groups. Serum myoglobin concentrations (p = 0.027) and perceived muscle soreness (p training.

  10. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  13. Factors affecting adipose tissue development in chickens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Kim, Woo Kyun; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce. The purpose of this review is to describe factors regulating adipogenesis in chickens, with an emphasis on dietary factors and the broiler. Results from many studies have demonstrated effects of dietary nutrient composition on adipose tissue development and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and β, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins orchestrate a series of cellular events that lead to an increase in activity of fatty acid transport proteins and enzymes that are responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development may provide a practical strategy to affect body composition of the commercial broiler while providing insights on diets that maximize conversion into muscle rather than fat and affect depot-dependent deposition of lipids. Because of the propensity to overeat and become obese, the broiler chicken also represents an attractive biomedical model for eating disorders and obesity in humans. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  15. Child psychiatry branch of the National Institute of Mental Health longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Schmitt, Eric; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiological features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (ie, changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed to static measures) have proven to have greater power in discriminating healthy from clinical groups and in predicting cognitive/behavioral measures, such as IQ. Here we summarize results from an ongoing longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study that has been conducted at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health since 1989. Developmental trajectories of structural MRI brain measures from healthy youth are compared and contrasted with trajectories in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia. Across ages 5-25 years, in both healthy and clinical populations, white matter volumes increase and gray matter volumes follow an inverted U trajectory, with peak size occurring at different times in different regions. At a group level, differences related to psychopathology are seen for gray and white matter volumes, rates of change, and for interconnectedness among disparate brain regions.

  16. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  17. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  18. Performance strategies affect mammary gland development in prepubertal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, R L; Sguizzato, A L; Daniels, K M; Duarte, M S; Lopes, M M; Guimarães, S E F; Weller, M M D C A; Marcondes, M I

    2017-10-01

    In Brazil, the majority of dairy cattle are Holstein × Gyr (H×G). It is unknown whether excessive energy intake negatively affects their mammary development to the same extent as in purebred Holsteins. We hypothesized that mammary development of H×G heifers can be affected by dietary energy supply. We evaluated the effect of different average daily gains (ADG) achieved by feeding different amounts of a standard diet during the growing period on biometric measurements, development of mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP), and blood hormones. At the outset of this 84-d experiment, H×G heifers (n = 18) weighed 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and were 3 to 4 mo of age. Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 ADG programs using a completely randomized design. Treatments were high gain (HG; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain 1 kg/d; low gain (LG; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain 0.5 kg/d; and maintenance (MA; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain a minimal amount of weight per day. Heifers were fed varying amounts of a single TMR to support desired BW gains. Over the 84 d, periodic biometric and blood hormone measurements were obtained. On d 84, all heifers were slaughtered and carcass and mammary samples were collected. At the end, HG heifers weighed the most (181 ± 7.5 kg), followed by LG (146 ± 7.5 kg) and MA (107 ± 7.5 kg) heifers. The ADG were near expected values and averaged 0.907, 0.500, and 0.105 ± 0.03 kg/d for HG, LG, and MA, respectively. In addition, body lengths, heart girths, and withers heights were affected by dietary treatment, with MA heifers generally being the smallest and HG heifers generally being the largest. Body condition scores differed by treatment and were highest in HG and lowest in MA heifers; in vivo subcutaneous fat thickness measurement and direct analysis of carcass composition supported this. The HG heifers had the heaviest MFP, followed by LG and then MA heifers. Amount of PAR was highest in LG heifers and was the

  19. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  20. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  1. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  2. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  3. Gender differences in factors affecting health care administration career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A; Borkowski, S C

    1995-01-01

    At first glance, a woman's prospects for a career in health administration seem encouraging. More than half of the recent graduates of health administration master's programs are female, and initially post-master's salaries are comparable with those of male graduates. Unfortunately, opportunities for promotion and financial benefits seem to decrease for women and expand for men as their respective careers progress. This study found that, with the same educational background, men earned an average of $51,491 annually, compared to $50,839 for women, in health care administration. We examined gender differences in organizational and individual factors that have been modeled as influences on career development. These factors include financial and nonfinancial benefits, access to training programs, success factors, demographics, and motivating factors underlying education, employment, and career choices. Some evidence of gender differences in the organizational and individual factors affecting career development is provided. Academic and professional strategies addressing these differences are suggested for consideration by both professional and university administrators.

  4. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  5. Facial affect recognition in autism, ADHD and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Steve; Engström, Ann-Charlotte; Bölte, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been associated with facial affect recognition (FAR) alterations. This study examined accuracy and response times for general and specific FAR in whole face and eye-region stimuli. FAR was assessed in matched samples of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 35), ADHD (n = 32), and typical development (TD) (n = 32) aged 8.6-15.9 years (M = 11.6; SD = 2.0). Compared to TD, the ASD group performed less accurate and showed longer response times for general and specific FAR, mostly driven by problems in neutral and happy face identification. The ADHD group responded faster than the ASD group for global FAR. No differences between ADHD and TD were found. Attentional distractibility had a significant effect on FAR performance in ASD and ADHD. Findings confirm FAR alterations in ASD, but not ADHD, and endorse effects of attentional distractibility on FAR in ASD and ADHD. FAR and attention function training is clinically meaningful in ASD. Future studies should include control for visual attention and facial configuration skills, use naturalistic FAR material and also investigate implicit FAR.

  6. Dynamics of Learner Affective Development in Early FLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006) have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL). Current research into affective learner factors…

  7. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  8. Development of the method to measure vibrational stress of small-bore piping with contactless displacement sensor. Accuracy confirmation by vibrational experiment using branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibrational stress of piping is measured to prevent its fatigue failures. Easier handling and more efficient performance is desirable for the measurement of vibrational stress. The authors have proposed a method to measure vibrational stress using optical contactless displacement sensors, and have developed a device based on the method. In addition, they downsized the device and improved the method to allow its use for measurements even in narrow spaces in the plants. In this study, vibrational experiment using branch pipes and the device was conducted to confirm the measurement accuracy of the improved method. It was found that the improved method have sufficient accuracy for screening to evaluate the vibrational stress. It was also found that this measurement method was thought to be susceptible to the vibration of main pipe. So a technique was proposed to improve the accuracy of the measurement in this paper. (author)

  9. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  10. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  11. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Branched Broomrape Phelipanche ramosa L. (Pomel and Evidence for Host-Associated Genetic Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Le Corre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa is a parasitic plant that infects numerous crops worldwide. In Western Europe it recently expanded to a new host crop, oilseed rape, in which it can cause severe yield losses. We developed 13 microsatellite markers for P. ramosa using next-generation 454 sequencing data. The polymorphism at each locus was assessed in a sample of 96 individuals collected in France within 6 fields cultivated with tobacco, hemp or oilseed rape. Two loci were monomorphic. At the other 11 loci, the number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 3 to 6 and from 0.31 to 0.60, respectively. Genetic diversity within each cultivated field was very low. The host crop from which individuals were collected was the key factor structuring genetic variation. Individuals collected on oilseed rape were strongly differentiated from individuals collected on hemp or tobacco, which suggests that P. ramosa infecting oilseed rape forms a genetically diverged race. The microsatellites we developed will be useful for population genetics studies and for elucidating host-associated genetic divergence in P. ramosa.

  13. Development and Validation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  15. Early-life environmental variation affects intestinal microbiota and immune development in new-born piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.L.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Smidt, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timin Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these

  16. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  18. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  19. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds government revenue and exchange rate reduce stock market development. A policy mix identified was that, the outcomes of government expenditure and government borrowing interest rate exert no influence on stock market development. For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in ...

  20. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  1. UX concepts, how they affected our development flow.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The talk aims at showing the development of Locations before and after this moment, and how the way of thinking at the application changed for taking in account the improvements in the user experience of the application.

  2. miR156/SPL10 Modulates Lateral Root Development, Branching and Leaf Morphology in Arabidopsis by Silencing AGAMOUS-LIKE 79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The developmental functions of miR156-SPL regulatory network have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, but the downstream genes regulated by each SPL have not been well characterized. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing-based transcriptome analysis was performed on roots of wild type (WT and miR156 overexpression (miR156OE plants. One of the SPL genes, SPL10, which represses lateral root growth in Arabidopsis, was significantly downregulated in miR156OE plants. A transcription factor, AGAMOUS-like MADS box protein 79 (AGL79, was also significantly downregulated in the miR156OE plants, but was upregulated in the SPL10 overexpression (SPL10OE Arabidopsis plants. In addition, SPL10 was found to bind to the core consensus SPL binding sequences in AGL79 gene. Moreover, analyses of complementation lines revealed a linear relationship between SPL10 and AGL79 in regulating Arabidopsis plant development. In addition, it was observed that plant phenotypes are AGL79 dose-dependent, with higher expression causing narrow leaf shape, less number of leaves and early flowering time, whereas relatively lower AGL79 overexpression produce plants with more rosette leaves and more lateral branches. Our findings revealed direct binding of SPL10 to AGL79 promoter, which further suggests a role for miR156/SPL10 module in plant lateral root growth by directly regulating AGL79.

  3. CSPGs inhibit axon branching by impairing mitochondria-dependent regulation of actin dynamics and axonal translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, Rajiv; Ketschek, Andrea; Grandi, Leah; Gallo, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. It is reported that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching. The effects of CSPGs on actin cytoskeletal dynamics are specific to axon segments populated by mitochondria. In contrast, CSPGs do not affect the microtubule content of axons, or the localization of microtubules into axonal filopodia, a required step in the mechanism of branch formation. It is also reported that CSPGs decrease the mitochondria-dependent axonal translation of cortactin, an actin associated protein involved in branching. Finally, the inhibitory effects of CSPGs on axon branching, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the axonal translation of cortactin are reversed by culturing neurons with acetyl-l-carnitine, which promotes mitochondrial respiration. Collectively these data indicate that CSPGs impair mitochondrial function in axons, an effect which contributes to the inhibition of axon branching. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 419-437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Factors affecting the development of in vitro fertilization in camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasorras VL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In any program of in vitro embryo production, the ultimate goal is to develop high quality embryos being able to get a normal pregnancy and finally resulting in the birth of a healthy offspring, goal not reach yet in camelids. The application of assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro fertilization and subsequent in vitro embryo culture, can extend the knowledge of early embryonic development and make possible the increase of the population of genetically superior animals.

  5. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  6. [Inequity in health affects the development in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Unfair and avoidable differences in exercising the right to health coexist with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since 1948. Some causes of the persistent inequality inferred after Alma-Ata are insufficient funding, development of national health systems without adequate prioritization, and since the 80s with economic consensus to introduce the health market model. Health in Peru is still an area of little progress, ostensible inequality and limited participation in development. Policies in the 20th century are still insufficient; and missing opportunities like increasing the value of exports over a decade ago is a recurring issue. For a health reform to be successful in terms of equality and development, it is necessary to agree on a state policy, establish a modern and equitable social security funding system and eradicate the inconsistencies in the national health system.

  7. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  8. Does bank ownership affect relationship lending: A developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to explore how the type of bank ownership - local private banks, government-owned banks (public banks and foreign banks - can affect relationship lending to small and medium enterprises (SMEs by using a unique data set from Bangladeshi banking sector. We found that private banks differ from government-owned and foreign banks in terms of relationship lending and credit facilities to SMEs. More specifically, our results suggest that unlike government and foreign banks, private banks do consider soft information from relationship lending while setting up the loan spread to SMEs. We can also confirm that exclusive banking relationship or repeated banking with private banks can soften credit conditions (loan maturity and covenants. Moreover, we found empirical evidence that banking relationship is important for private banks in terms of SME credit risk evaluation. Finally, as according to our expectation, the results confirm that regardless of prior relationship, private banks are more depended on collateral-based lending to SMEs than government-owned or foreign banks.

  9. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  10. Factors affecting the success of development projects : A behavioral perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aga, Deribe Assefa

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation sought to examine behavioral-related critical success factors in the context of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector development projects in Ethiopia. The dissertation applied both a cross-sectional survey design and an experimental design in separate settings, and it is

  11. Factors Affecting the Professional Development of Elementary English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    The poor classroom practices of English teachers at elementary level in Indonesia have been attributed to the inadequacy of pre-service education. Yet, whether in-service professional development (PD) also plays a role is unknown. This study investigated the perspectives of 23 teachers, 14 teacher educators and 3 school principals regarding the…

  12. Plant community development is affected by nutrients and soil biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant community development depends to a great extent on the availability of soil nutrients, but recent studies underline the role of symbiotic, herbivorous and pathogenic soil biota. We tested for interactions between these biotic and abiotic factors by studying the effects of additional

  13. Do Economic Policy Decisions affect Stock Market Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in response to changes in macroeconomic policies among others, the study recommends good macroeconomic management. Keywords: Stock Market Development, Macroeconomic policy, Government spending, ADRL,. Ghana, West Africa. JEL Classification: G2 ...

  14. Teaching Reading as Concept Development: Emphasis on Affective Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George H.

    The purposes of this monograph are to reveal how the language arts teacher at any level of instruction might go about the teaching of reading as concept development and to suggest that this method of teaching reading be made part of the preparation of both the reading teacher and the English teacher. The monograph is composed of two parts. Part 1,…

  15. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  16. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  17. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL TOURISM IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in the world. Nowadays, over 50countries have been identified medical tourism as a national industry. AlthoughAsian countries where India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia popular medicaltourism destination, medical tourism in Turkey has not reached the desiredlevel and and could not get enough share of the medical tourism market. The aimof this study is to determine the factors influencing the development ofmedical tourism in Turkey. This research was...

  19. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  20. Conference Reports: New developments affecting natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Papers presented at a conference examining and reviewing recent trends in natural gas sales contracts are contained in this volume. Conference participants heard 14 presentations, with topics including pricing provisions in gas contracts, security of supply, cross-border issues, legislative reform of electronic data interchange, digital signatures, new developments in managing contracts in a competitive environment, the changing role of natural gas aggregators, drafting 'force majeure' clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts and the consequences and remedies for breach of natural gas contracts. The volume also includes biographical notes, and current addresses of the speakers

  1. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  2. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    . Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...... influence development of allergies later in childhood.   The work has recently (July 2015) been accepted for publication in BMC Microbiology...

  3. Legislative framework affecting First Nations and resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, M.

    1998-01-01

    In its Delgamuukw decision (released December 1997), the Supreme Court of Canada has given a clear direction to the Crown and First Nations to negotiate rather than litigate outstanding claims within the province of British Columbia. This paper describes the practical implications which the Delgamuukw decision will have for resource development on lands located within the traditional territories of Aboriginal people, reviews constitutional and jurisdictional issues, and discusses issues such as reserve lands in British Columbia, including the nature of reserve interest, tax considerations, the surrender of reserve lands, and provincial regulation on reserve lands

  4. Does bilingual experience affect early visual perceptual development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Christina; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Tsang, Tawny; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Visual attention and perception develop rapidly during the first few months after birth, and these behaviors are critical components in the development of language and cognitive abilities. Here we ask how early bilingual experiences might lead to differences in visual attention and perception. Experiments 1–3 investigated the looking behavior of monolingual and bilingual infants when presented with social (Experiment 1), mixed (Experiment 2), or non-social (Experiment 3) stimuli. In each of these experiments, infants' dwell times (DT) and number of fixations to areas of interest (AOIs) were analyzed, giving a sense of where the infants looked. To examine how the infants looked at the stimuli in a more global sense, Experiment 4 combined and analyzed the saccade data collected in Experiments 1–3. There were no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual infants' DTs, AOI fixations, or saccade characteristics (specifically, frequency, and amplitude) in any of the experiments. These results suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants process their visual environments similarly, supporting the idea that the substantial cognitive differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in early childhood are more related to active vocabulary production than perception of the environment. PMID:25566116

  5. Grhl1 deficiency affects inner ear development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Yang, Fan; Wen, Danping; Xia, Wenjun; Hao, Lili; Hu, JiongJiong; Zong, Jie; Shen, Xiaofang; Ma, Jing; Jiang, Nan; Sun, Shaoyang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Xu; Ma, Zhaoxin; Ma, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Many genes that have been found to contribute to deafness are currently being studied. Some 87 non-syndromic hereditary deafness genes have been confirmed. Proteins associated with cochlear development have also been confirmed. Some of these proteins have important relationships with gap junctions (GJ) and tight junctions (TJ). However, the desmosome junction has received little attention due to controversy over whether it could be detected in the inner ear. GRHL1 is a conserved transcriptional regulator, and it is key to vertebrate desmosome formation. GRHL2 has been confirmed as a deafness gene at the DFNA28 locus. These two homologous proteins have similar sequences and functions. Here, a grhl1 down-regulated zebrafish model exhibited inner ear developmental malformations, including missing otoliths, disordered and abnormal numbers of hair cells in the inner ear and lateral line, and sound insensitivity. The mutant zebrafish swam in circles. Hair cell apoptosis was evident. Under electron microscopy, desmosomes in the otic sensory epithelium were found to be damaged. These defects were partially rescued by treatment with either GRHL1 or its target gene, DSG1. Collectively, these data are the first to indicate that grhl1 is important to the developing inner ear epithelia in zebrafish and that it acts via desmosome junction regulation.

  6. Organizational development in Ethiopia: Factors affecting organizations’ implementation of feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Falconer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations (NGOs receiving organizational development assistance funded and facilitated by a third party frequently receive recommendations designed to improve their overall functioning. Research suggests that tailored in-person communication of recommendations results in increased implementation of recommendations. This study assessed whether the method and frequency of communication from an outside organization influenced Ethiopian NGOs’ ability to implement organizational development recommendations. A secondary study goal was to identify additional factors that facilitated or inhibited implementation of recommendations. Twenty two NGOs were surveyed about the amount, type, and timing of communication; their perception of the value of communication in implementing recommendations; barriers to implementation; and strategies used to overcome barriers to implementation. The frequency and level of personalization of communication was not consistently associated with organizational implementation of recommendations. Receiving communication was significantly associated with an organization’s motivation (mean = 4.5 ± 0.6, understanding (mean = 4.2 ± 0.6, and ability (mean = 3.9 ± 0.6 to implement recommendations (p value = 0.02. Respondents reported that external factors, including funding; staff time, expertise, and training; information systems; leadership; and government regulations on nonprofit administrative spending, strongly influenced their ability to implement recommendations.

  7. Organizational development in Ethiopia: Factors affecting organizations’ implementation of feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Falconer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations (NGOs receiving organizational development assistance funded and facilitated by a third party frequently receive recommendations designed to improve their overall functioning. Research suggests that tailored in-person communication of recommendations results in increased implementation of recommendations. This study assessed whether the method and frequency of communication from an outside organization influenced Ethiopian NGOs’ ability to implement organizational development recommendations. A secondary study goal was to identify additional factors that facilitated or inhibited implementation of recommendations. Twenty two NGOs were surveyed about the amount, type, and timing of communication; their perception of the value of communication in implementing recommendations; barriers to implementation; and strategies used to overcome barriers to implementation. The frequency and level of personalization of communication was not consistently associated with organizational implementation of recommendations. Receiving communication was significantly associated with an organization’s motivation (mean = 4.5 ± 0.6, understanding (mean = 4.2 ± 0.6, and ability (mean = 3.9 ± 0.6 to implement recommendations (p value = 0.02. Respondents reported that external factors, including funding; staff time, expertise, and training; information systems; leadership; and government regulations on nonprofit administrative spending, strongly influenced their ability to implement recommendations.

  8. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  9. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-09-19

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  10. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice...... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....

  11. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Normann Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/− mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  12. How Ketamine Affects Livers of Pregnant Mice and Developing Mice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Man Cheung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that ketamine abuse can induce liver damage in adult addicts, but the effects of ketamine abuse in pregnant mothers on their offspring have received less attention. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5-day ketamine injections (30 mg/kg to pregnant Institute for Cancer Research (ICR mice during early gestation or mid-gestation on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities of the mothers and the offspring. We also looked into whether administering ketamine treatment to the mothers had any effects on the extent of fibrosis, cell proliferation and cell death in the livers of the newborns. No significant biochemical differences were found between treatment and control groups in the mothers. In the offspring, ketamine treatment mildly suppressed the gradual increase of hepatic AST activity in neonates during liver maturation. Measurements of hepatic ALP activity and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH immunoreactivity revealed that ketamine treatment may lead to increased cell death. Proliferation of liver cells of the newborns was also retarded as shown by reduced proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA immunoreactivity in the ketamine groups. No obvious fibrosis was evident. Thus, we demonstrated that ketamine administration to pregnant mice suppressed hepatic development and also induced liver cell death of the offspring.

  13. How Ketamine Affects Livers of Pregnant Mice and Developing Mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Man; Chow, Tony Chin Hung; Yew, David Tai Wai

    2017-05-19

    It is well known that ketamine abuse can induce liver damage in adult addicts, but the effects of ketamine abuse in pregnant mothers on their offspring have received less attention. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5-day ketamine injections (30 mg/kg) to pregnant Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice during early gestation or mid-gestation on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the mothers and the offspring. We also looked into whether administering ketamine treatment to the mothers had any effects on the extent of fibrosis, cell proliferation and cell death in the livers of the newborns. No significant biochemical differences were found between treatment and control groups in the mothers. In the offspring, ketamine treatment mildly suppressed the gradual increase of hepatic AST activity in neonates during liver maturation. Measurements of hepatic ALP activity and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) immunoreactivity revealed that ketamine treatment may lead to increased cell death. Proliferation of liver cells of the newborns was also retarded as shown by reduced proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity in the ketamine groups. No obvious fibrosis was evident. Thus, we demonstrated that ketamine administration to pregnant mice suppressed hepatic development and also induced liver cell death of the offspring.

  14. Microstrip gas detectors development for the CMS tracker and branching fractions measurement of hadronic B decays with the BaBar experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghiche, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two detectors, designed for the search of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to operate late 2007 at CERN. Micro Strip Gas Counters (MSGC) have been extensively studied to qualify as part of the CMS tracker. When exposed to highly ionizing particles and to high rates of incident particles, MSGCs have shown a good behavior allowing them to cope with the LHC environment. Similar micro pattern gaseous detectors such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and Micro Mesh gas detectors (MicroMegas) are developed to be used in high energy physics. BaBar, the detector for the Slac PEP-II asymmetric e + e - B Factory operating at the Y(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. First observation of CP violation has been realized in 2001. Since then an impressive amount of B decays measurements has been performed. Among those, we present here the branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to Dπ - , D * π - , and D ** π - with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million Y(4S) → BB-bar pairs. In order to do this, one of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the 'recoil' one decays into a reconstructed charged pion and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. The same sample is used to reconstruct charmed mesons (D, Ds) and baryons (Λ c ) in the 'recoil side' allowing the measurement of the charm number in the B decays. (author)

  15. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  16. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  17. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a single...... state in each iteration to expanding a set of states. We prove that it is generally sound and optimal for two A* implementations and show how a new BDD technique called branching partitioning can be used to efficiently expand sets of states. The framework is general. It applies to any heuristic function...... framework. The algorithms outperform the ordinary A* algorithm in almost all domains. In addition, they can improve the complexity of A* exponentially and often dominate both A* and blind BDD-based search by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, they have substantially better performance than BDDA...

  18. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  19. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland

  20. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  1. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Sikron, Noga; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Ghan, Ryan; Plaschkes, Inbar; Batushansky, Albert; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Mattivi, Fulvio; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2014-07-26

    Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3'5'H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3'5'H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between the central and specialized

  2. Human Resource Management and Performance in the Service Sector: The Case of Bank Branches

    OpenAIRE

    Ann P. Bartel

    2000-01-01

    This paper utilizes a unique dataset collected through site visits to extend the analysis of the relationship between the human resource management environment and establishment performance to the service sector, specifically the branch operations of a large bank. Case studies of several branches were used to understand how and why the human resource management environment is likely to affect branch level performance. The branch interviews were instrumental in properly specifying a branch-lev...

  3. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Lores, Susana; Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Blasco, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  4. QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, 1968 REACTOR FUELS AND MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR FUELS AND MATERIALS BRANCH OF USAEC DIVISION OF REACTOR DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J. J.; de Halas, D. R.; Nightingale, R. E.; Worlton, D. C.

    1968-06-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: nuclear graphite; fuel development for gas-cooled reactors; HTGR graphite studies; nuclear ceramics; fast-reactor nitrides research; non-destructive testing; metallic fuels; basic swelling studies; ATR gas and water loop operation and maintenance; reactor fuels and materials; fast reactor dosimetry and damage analysis; and irradiation damage to reactor metals.

  5. Individual Differences in Self-Efficacy Development: The Effects of Goal Orientation and Affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Megan W.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of the individual differences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive…

  6. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  7. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  8. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  9. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆.

  10. Consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada não afeta o desempenho de endurance Branched-chain amino acids ingestion does not affect endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carlos Uchida

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A suplementação com aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (BCAA é uma das manipulações dietéticas mais populares entre atletas engajados em atividades de endurance. Entretanto, o papel ergogênico destes aminoácidos ainda não está totalmente estabelecido. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do consumo de BCAA sobre o exercício de endurance realizado até a exaustão. A fim de provocar redução do estoque de glicogênio muscular e, por conseguinte, maximizar a utilização dos BCAA, os sujeitos (n=17 foram submetidos a uma sessão prévia de exercício (corrida realizada a 75% do VO2max por 40 min seguida por 2 tiros a 90% do VO2max por 10 min cada um. Subseqüentemente, após o consumo aleatório de BCAA (77 mg.kg-1 ou placebo, seguindo modelo duplo cego cruzado, os participantes executaram um teste para determinação da capacidade de endurance (corrida a 90% do Limiar anaeróbio até a exaustão. Ambos os experimentos, BCAA e placebo, foram separados por uma semana. Com relação ao tempo até a exaustão e a distância percorrida, nenhuma diferença foi detectada entre as condições experimentais. (Placebo: 50,1±8,9 vs BCAA: 52,4±4,5 min, respectivamente (Placebo: 8,8±1,3 vs BCAA: 9,1±0,6 km, respectivamente. Além disto, também não foi evidenciada diferença na concentração plasmática de glicose, de lactato e de amônia entre ambas condições experimentais. Em conclusão, a suplementação de BCAA não afetou o desempenho de endurance em um teste de corrida até a exaustão.Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation is one of the most popular dietary manipulations used by endurance athletes. However, the ergogenic role of these amino acids in endurance exercise is not well established yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of BCAA supplementation upon endurance exercise performed until exhaustion. In order to induce glycogen supply reduction, and thus maximize BCAA

  11. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  12. METHODS AND TOOLS TO DEVELOP INNOVATIVE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DECISIONS BASED ON THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE STATISTICAL BRANCH OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Zhukovskya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvement of the statistical branch-based application of electronic document management and network information technology. As a software solutions proposed use of new software solutions of the State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan «eStat 2.0», allowing not only to optimize the statistical sector employees, but also serves as a link between all the economic entities of the national economy.

  13. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  14. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  15. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  16. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries: 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P; Dahab, M; Tanabe, M; Murphy, A; Ettema, L; Guy, S; Roberts, B

    2016-09-01

    To provide information on trends on official development assistance (ODA) disbursement patterns for reproductive health activities in 18 conflict-affected countries. Secondary data analysis. 18 conflict-affected countries and 36 non-conflict-affected countries. The Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database was analyzed for ODA disbursement for direct and indirect reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries (2002-2011). A comparative analysis was also made with 36 non-conflict-affected counties in the same 'least-developed' income category. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between conflict status and reproductive health ODA and between reproductive needs and ODA disbursements. Patterns of ODA disbursements (constant U.S. dollars) for reproductive health activities. The average annual ODA disbursed for reproductive health to 18 conflict-affected countries from 2002 to 2011 was US$ 1.93 per person per year. There was an increase of 298% in ODA for reproductive health activities to the conflict-affected countries between 2002 and 2011; 56% of this increase was due to increases in HIV/AIDS funding. The average annual per capita reproductive health ODA disbursed to least-developed non-conflict-affected countries was 57% higher than to least-developed conflict-affected countries. Regression analyses confirmed disparities in ODA to and between conflict-affected countries. Despite increases in ODA for reproductive health for conflict-affected countries (albeit largely for HIV/AIDS activities), considerable disparities remains. Study tracking 10 years of aid for reproductive aid shows major disparities for conflict-affected countries. © 2016 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  18. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  19. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  20. High-throughput identification of small molecules that affect human embryonic vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazão, Helena; Rosa, Susana; Barata, Tânia; Costa, Ricardo; Pitrez, Patrícia R.; Honório, Inês; De Vries, Margreet R.; Papatsenko, Dimitri; Benedito, Rui; Saris, Daniel; Khademhosseini, Ali; Quax, Paul H.A.; Pereira, Carlos F.; Mercader, Nadia; Fernandes, Hugo; Ferreira, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Birth defects, which are in part caused by exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs, affect 1 in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. The current standard to screen drugs that affect embryonic development is based on prenatal animal testing; however, this approach

  1. BranchAnalysis2D/3D automates morphometry analyses of branching structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aditya; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesús; Bourgeois, Justin R; Nalwalk, Julia W; Pumiglia, Kevin M; Sheen, Volney L; Ferland, Russell J

    2018-01-15

    Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia. Our BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm allows for rapid quantification of the length and thickness of branching morphologies, independent of user tracing, in both 2D and 3D data sets. We validated the performance of BranchAnalysis2D/3D against pre-existing software packages using trained human observers and images from brain and retina. We found that the BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm outputs results similar to available software (i.e., Metamorph, AngioTool, Neurolucida), while allowing faster analysis times and unbiased quantification. BranchAnalysis2D/3D allows inexperienced observers to output results like a trained observer but more efficiently, thereby increasing the consistency, speed, and reliability of morphometric analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Branching and self-organization in marine modular colonial organisms: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Armando; Lasker, Howard R; Nepomuceno, Erivelton G; Sánchez, J Dario; Woldenberg, Michael J

    2004-03-01

    Despite the universality of branching patterns in marine modular colonial organisms, there is neither a clear explanation about the growth of their branching forms nor an understanding of how these organisms conserve their shape during development. This study develops a model of branching and colony growth using parameters and variables related to actual modular structures (e.g., branches) in Caribbean gorgonian corals (Cnidaria). Gorgonians exhibiting treelike networks branch subapically, creating hierarchical mother-daughter relationships among branches. We modeled both the intrinsic subapical branching along with an ecological-physiological limit to growth or maximum number of mother branches (k). Shape is preserved by maintaining a constant ratio (c) between the total number of branches and the mother branches. The size frequency distribution of mother branches follows a scaling power law suggesting self-organized criticality. Differences in branching among species with the same k values are determined by r (branching rate) and c. Species with rr/2 or c>r>0). Ecological/physiological constraints limit growth without altering colony form or the interaction between r and c. The model described the branching dynamics giving the form to colonies and how colony growth declines over time without altering the branching pattern. This model provides a theoretical basis to study branching as a simple function of the number of branches independently of ordering- and bifurcation-based schemes.

  3. Dendritic Branch Intersections Are Structurally Regulated Targets for Efficient Axonal Wiring and Synaptic Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchas, Monika; Baranes, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic clustering on dendritic branches enhances plasticity, input integration and neuronal firing. However, the mechanisms guiding axons to cluster synapses at appropriate sites along dendritic branches are poorly understood. We searched for such a mechanism by investigating the structural overlap between dendritic branches and axons in a simplified model of neuronal networks - the hippocampal cell culture. Using newly developed software, we converted images of meshes of overlapping axonal and dendrites into topological maps of intersections, enabling quantitative study of overlapping neuritic geometry at the resolution of single dendritic branch-to-branch and axon-to-branch crossings. Among dendro-dendritic crossing configurations, it was revealed that the orientations through which dendritic branches cross is a regulated attribute. While crossing angle distribution among branches thinner than 1 µm appeared to be random, dendritic branches 1 µm or wider showed a preference for crossing each other at angle ranges of either 50°–70° or 80°–90°. It was then found that the dendro-dendritic crossings themselves, as well as their selective angles, both affected the path of axonal growth. Axons displayed 4 fold stronger tendency to traverse within 2 µm of dendro-dendritic intersections than at farther distances, probably to minimize wiring length. Moreover, almost 70% of the 50°–70° dendro-denritic crossings were traversed by axons from the obtuse angle’s zone, whereas only 15% traversed through the acute angle’s zone. By contrast, axons showed no orientation restriction when traversing 80°–90° crossings. When such traverse behavior was repeated by many axons, they converged in the vicinity of dendro-dendritic intersections, thereby clustering their synaptic connections. Thus, the vicinity of dendritic branch-to-branch crossings appears to be a regulated structure used by axons as a target for efficient wiring and as a preferred site for synaptic

  4. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemical intolerance (CI) is characterised by negative health effects attributed to a heightened responsiveness to common airborne chemicals. This longitudinal study explored the hypothesised role of negative affect in the development and persistence of CI in a general population...

  5. Development of upper respiratory tract microbiota in infancy is affected by mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.A.T.M.; Levin, E.; van Houten, M.A.; Hasrat, R.; Kalkman, G.; Biesbroek, G.; de Steenhuijsen Piters, W.A.A.; de Groot, P.-K.C.M.; Pernet, P.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Bogaert, D.

    2016-01-01

    Birth by Caesarian section is associated with short- and long-term respiratory morbidity. We hypothesized that mode of delivery affects the development of the respiratory microbiota, thereby altering its capacity to provide colonization resistance and consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and

  6. Mechanics of mesenchymal contribution to clefting force in branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaohai; Li, Zhilin; Lubkin, Sharon R

    2008-10-01

    Branching morphogenesis is ubiquitous and may involve several different mechanisms. Glandular morphogenesis is affected by growth, cell rearrangements, changes in the basal lamina, changes in the stromal ECM, changes in cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions, mesenchymal contractility, and possibly other mechanisms. We have developed a 3D model of the mechanics of clefting, focusing in this paper solely on the potential role of mesenchyme-generated traction forces. The tissue mechanics are assumed to be those of fluids, and the hypothesized traction forces are modeled as advected by the deformations which they generate. We find that mesenchymal traction forces are sufficient to generate a cleft of the correct size and morphology, in the correct time frame. We find that viscosity of the tissues affects the time course of morphogenesis, and also affects the resulting form of the organ. Morphology is also strongly dependent on the initial distribution of contractility. We suggest an in vitro method of examining the role of mesenchyme in branching morphogenesis.

  7. Reducing the Cost of Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    technique that branch. We will examine some alternative pipeline Scomputers use to reach higher single- processo structures, determine why they impact...fast compare can be done during the ID phase of on the MIPS de : .i..’ough the use of compare-and- the instruction as soon as the register operands are...squashing is Compare Needed 2 3 never done when branches are taken. Table 6 shows the breakdown of comparisons used in Squashing control : the branch

  8. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous Age-Related Neurite Branching in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Rodgers, Kasey E.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of morphological changes that occur in the nervous system during normal aging could provide insight into cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of C. elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. Unexpectedly, we observed that neurons in aging animals frequently displayed ectopic branches, and that the prevalence of these branches increased with time. Within age-matched populations, the branching of mechnosensory neurons correlated with decreased response to light touch and decreased mobility. The incidence of branching was influenced by two pathways that can affect the rate of aging, the Jun kinase pathway and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Loss of Jun kinase signaling, which slightly shortens lifespan, dramatically increased and accelerated the frequency of neurite branching. Conversely, inhibition of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathway, which extends lifespan, delayed and suppressed branching, and this delay required DAF-16/FOXO activity. Both JNK-1 and DAF-16 appeared to act within neurons in a cell-autonomous manner to influence branching, and, through their tissue-specific expression, it was possible to disconnect the rate at which branching occurred from the overall rate of aging of the animal. Old age has generally been associated with the decline and deterioration of different tissues, except in the case of tumor cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that aging can potentiate another form of growth, the growth of neurite branches, in normal animals. PMID:21697377

  10. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  11. ACPSEM (NZ Branch) annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 annual meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine was held at the Christchurch School of Medicine over 26-27 November 1998, and attracted a record number of around 45 registrations. The meeting serves a number of purposes but one of the primary ones is to bring together scientists in medicine from around the country to compare notes on practices and advances, particularly in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology physics. Following the meeting format established over recent years, separate workshops were devoted to radiotherapy physics and developments in the regional centres represented, and to practical issues relating to medical physics in diagnostic radiology. The workshops were held in parallel with presentations of scientific papers covering a wide range of topics, but with about half relating to engineering applications in medicine. (author)

  12. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2015

  13. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernandez-Lores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labour market. In this study, we develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee's affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Studies 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB scale was developed and tested for its structure, reliability and convergent validity. Study 3 examines additional reliability and discriminant validity. Study 4 provides evidence of external validity. Study 5 examines the scale's nomological validity showing that a positive experience with the employer brand is important in making the employee develop affective commitment towards it. The limitations of the scale and the boundary conditions of its applicability are also discussed.

  14. Bootstrap method of interior-branch test for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, T

    1996-04-01

    Statistical properties of the bootstrap test of interior branch lengths of phylogenetic trees have been studied and compared with those of the standard interior-branch test in computer simulations. Examination of the properties of the tests under the null hypothesis showed that both tests for an interior branch of a predetermined topology are quite reliable when the distribution of the branch length estimate approaches a normal distribution. Unlike the standard interior-branch test, the bootstrap test appears to retain this property even when the substitution rate varies among sites. In this case, the distribution of the branch length estimate deviates from a normal distribution, and the standard interior-branch test gives conservative confidence probability values. A simple correction method was developed for both interior-branch tests to be applied for testing the reliability of tree topologies estimated from sequence data. This correction for the standard interior-branch test appears to be as effective as that obtained in our previous study, though it is much simpler. The bootstrap and standard interior-branch tests for estimated topologies become conservative as the number of sequence groups in a star-like tree increases.

  15. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  16. Introducing an Educational Tool for Learning Branch & Bound Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofriesilero Zumaytis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to our informal survey, Branch & Bound strategy is considerably difficult to learn compared to other strategies. This strategy consists of several complex algorithmic steps such as Reduced Cost Matrix (RCM calculation and Breadth First Search. Thus, to help students understanding this strategy, AP-BB, an educational tool for learning Branch & Bound is developed. This tool includes four modules which are Brute Force solving visualization, Branch & Bound solving visualization, RCM calculator, and case-based performance comparison. These modules are expected to enhance student’s understanding about Branch & Bound strategy and its characteristics. Furthermore, our work incorporates TSP as its case study and Brute Force strategy as a baseline to provide a concrete impact of Branch & Bound strategy. According to our qualitative evaluation, AP-BB and all of its features fulfil student necessities for learning Branch & Bound strategy.

  17. Embodied Brains, Social Minds, Cultural Meaning: Integrating Neuroscientific and Educational Research on Social-Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Social-affective neuroscience is revealing that human brain development is inherently social--our very nature is organized by nurture. To explore the implications for human development and education, we present a series of interdisciplinary studies documenting individual and cultural variability in the neurobiological correlates of emotional…

  18. Managing International Branch Campuses: Lessons Learnt from Eight Years on a Branch Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher; Thabet, Rawy Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: International branch campuses (IBCs) are complex entities and while much has been written about their expansion and development, the literature is largely from an external perspective. There have been few longitudinal studies examining the development of an IBC over time. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of one IBC…

  19. Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in developing organ systems at different developmental times

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Naoko; Sokunbi, Gbolabo; Moorman, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the affect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a β-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart, notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons. We exposed transgenic zebrafish to simulated-microgravity for different durations at a variety of developmental times in an attemp...

  20. Knowledge internalization and product development in family firms : When relational and affective factors matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Salvato, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the forces that support and inhibit product development (PD) in family firms is central to explaining their long-term success and survival. Our study reveals that social capital and relational conflict among family members do not affect PD directly, as existing theory suggests, but only through the internalization of knowledge among family members. In contrast, family members’ affective commitment to the family firm is so powerful that it has both a mediated and a direct effect ...

  1. On the increased risk of developing late-onset epilepsy for patients with major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    for the control groups. However, the increased risk seemed to be due to the effect of comorbid alcohol or drug abuse and not to the effect of the affective illness itself. LIMITATIONS: The results only apply to hospitalised patients. Diagnoses are not validated for research purposes. CONCLUSION: Patients...... with a diagnosis of affective disorder have an increased risk of developing epilepsy in later life. In patients with affective disorder, comorbid alcoholism/drug abuse seriously increased the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of epilepsy....

  2. Branch Width and Height Influence the Incorporation of Branches into Foraging Trails and Travel Speed in Leafcutter Ants Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B M; Chaves-Campos, J

    2016-06-01

    Fallen branches are often incorporated into Atta cephalotes (L.) foraging trails to optimize leaf tissue transport rates and economize trail maintenance. Recent studies in lowlands show laden A. cephalotes travel faster across fallen branches than on ground, but more slowly ascending or descending a branch. The latter is likely because (1) it is difficult to travel up or downhill and (2) bottlenecks occur when branches are narrower than preceding trail. Hence, both branch height and width should determine whether branches decrease net travel times, but no study has evaluated it yet. Laden A. cephalotes were timed in relation to branch width and height across segments preceding, accessing, across, and departing a fallen branch in the highlands of Costa Rica. Ants traveled faster on branches than on cleared segments of trunk-trail, but accelerated when ascending or descending the branch-likely because of the absence of bottlenecks during the day in the highlands. Branch size did not affect ant speed in observed branches; the majority of which (22/24) varied from 11 to 120 mm in both height and width (average 66 mm in both cases). To determine whether ants exclude branches outside this range, ants were offered the choice between branches within this range and branches that were taller/wider than 120 mm. Ants strongly preferred the former. Our results indicate that A. cephalotes can adjust their speed to compensate for the difficulty of traveling on branch slopes. More generally, branch size should be considered when studying ant foraging efficiency.

  3. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-06-09

    Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  4. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4% was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  5. Heterospecific exposure affects the development of secondary sexual traits in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrold, Andrea; Leitner, Stefan; Laucht, Silke; Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    In many animal species, social signals can affect the reproductive physiology and behaviour of conspecifics. In a few species that exhibit vocal learning, exposure to conspecific and sometimes heterospecific sounds can also influence their vocal development. Here we show that heterospecific exposure can affect the development of secondary sexual traits of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In a first experiment, we trained young males with a passive playback of domesticated canary (Serinus canaria) song. Song playback enhanced the sexual development of the birds: they started to sing during the presentation of a video clip of a female earlier during development and exhibited secondary sexual plumage ornaments faster than males of the control group kept in silence. Two out of five birds exhibited clear evidence of imitation of canary song. In a second experiment, we raised young male finches with young male canaries in pairs until adulthood. Again, the live contact with a heterospecific companion affected the development of plumage ornaments in finches. We also observed some evidences of vocal convergence, both for calls and song. Moreover, young males of both species could recognize the call of their heterospecific companion when adults. These results suggest that heterospecific exposure can affect both the sexual and the vocal development of the zebra finch and can have long lasting effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Branched organs: mechanics of morphogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkin, Sharon R

    2008-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is ubiquitous and important in creating bulk transport systems. Branched ducts can be generated by several different mechanisms including growth, cell rearrangements, contractility, adhesion changes, and other mechanisms. We have developed several models of the mechanics of cleft formation, which we review. We discuss the implications of several candidate mechanisms and review what has been found in models and in experiments.

  7. Construction Of Bank Branches: Critical Issues For Successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to highlight some of the more critical lessons learnt through the author's experience as part of the development of over 40 bank branches, and proposes an approach that may lead to successful branch delivery. It does this using the framework of the project management body of knowledge, PMBoK.

  8. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  9. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  10. On parallel Branch and Bound frameworks for Global Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Juan F.R.; Salmerón, José M.G.; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Asenjo, Rafael; Casado, Leocadio G.

    2017-01-01

    Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms are known to exhibit an irregularity of the search tree. Therefore, developing a parallel approach for this kind of algorithms is a challenge. The efficiency of a B&B algorithm depends on the chosen Branching, Bounding, Selection, Rejection, and Termination

  11. International scientific cooperation during the 1930s. Bruno Rossi and the development of the status of cosmic rays into a branch of physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-07-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian physicists established strong relationships with scientists from other European countries and the United States. The career of Bruno Rossi, a leading personality in the study of cosmic rays and an Italian pioneer of this field of research, provides a prominent example of this kind of international cooperation. Physics underwent major changes during these turbulent years, and the traditional internationalism of physics assumed a more institutionalized character. Against this backdrop, Rossi's early work was crucial in transforming the study of cosmic rays into a branch of modern physics. His friendly relationships with eminent scientists--notably Enrico Fermi, Walther Bothe, Werner Heisenberg, Hans Bethe, and Homi Bhabha--were instrumental both for the exchange of knowledge about experimental practices and theoretical discussions, and for attracting the attention of physicists such as Arthur Compton, Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Pierre Auger and Patrick Blackett to the problem of cosmic rays. Relying on material from different archives in Europe and the United States, this case study aims to provide a glimpse of the intersection between national and international dimensions during the 1930s, at a time when the study of cosmic rays was still very much in its infancy, strongly interlaced with nuclear physics, and full of uncertain, contradictory, and puzzling results. Nevertheless, as a source of high-energy particles it became a proving ground for testing the validity of the laws of quantum electrodynamics, and made a fundamental contribution to the origins of particle physics.

  12. Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Hu Ruifa

    2002-01-01

    The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

  13. Increased Risk of Developing Affective Disorder in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Links between thyroid function and depression have been noted in many contexts. We assessed whether hospitalization with hypothyroidism was a risk factor for developing affective disorder. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using historical data from Danish registers....... The observational period was 1977-1999. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admittance with the resulting index discharge diagnoses hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, or nontoxic goiter. A later hospitalization with a resulting discharge diagnosis of affective disorder was used...... with an increased risk of hospitalization with affective disorder when compared to the control diseases. The risk of hospitalization with affective disorder was greatest in the first year after index hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Patients hospitalized with hypothyroidism have a greater risk of readmission...

  14. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...

  16. High-throughput identification of small molecules that affect human embryonic vascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazão, Helena; Rosa, Susana; Barata, Tânia; Costa, Ricardo; Pitrez, Patrícia R.; Honório, Inês; de Vries, Margreet R.; Papatsenko, Dimitri; Benedito, Rui; Saris, Daniel; Khademhosseini, Ali; Quax, Paul H. A.; Pereira, Carlos F.; Mercader, Nadia; Ferreira, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Birth defects, which are in part caused by exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs, affect 1 in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. The current standard to screen drugs that affect embryonic development is based on prenatal animal testing; however, this approach yields low-throughput and limited mechanistic information regarding the biological pathways and potential adverse consequences in humans. To develop a screening platform for molecules that affect human embryonic development based on endothelial cells (ECs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells, we differentiated human pluripotent stem cells into embryonic ECs and induced their maturation under arterial flow conditions. These cells were then used to screen compounds that specifically affect embryonic vasculature. Using this platform, we have identified two compounds that have higher inhibitory effect in embryonic than postnatal ECs. One of them was fluphenazine (an antipsychotic), which inhibits calmodulin kinase II. The other compound was pyrrolopyrimidine (an antiinflammatory agent), which inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), decreases EC viability, induces an inflammatory response, and disrupts preformed vascular networks. The vascular effect of the pyrrolopyrimidine was further validated in prenatal vs. adult mouse ECs and in embryonic and adult zebrafish. We developed a platform based on human pluripotent stem cell-derived ECs for drug screening, which may open new avenues of research for the study and modulation of embryonic vasculature. PMID:28348206

  17. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  18. Past, present and future morphological development of a tsunami-affected coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilianda, Ella

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated a thorough geomorphology of Banda Aceh, a coast on the north tip of Sumatra Island, Indonesia which was severely affected by the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 26 December 2004. The response and development of the Banda Aceh coast before and after the tsunami was thus

  19. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  20. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  1. Does Intellectual Disability Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Patients with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the severity of intellectual disability is a factor that affects the development of dental cavities in patients with cerebral palsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 165 individuals who were selected from a physical rehabilitation center, a special public school and a regular public school. Of…

  2. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  3. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  4. Factors Affecting the Development of ICT Competencies of Teachers in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vitanova, Vasilka; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana; Iliev, Dean; Pachemska, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    A research was conducted in order to ensure valid and reliable assessment of the extent of ICT knowledge and skills of teachers in primary schools, to identify the factors in terms of teachers affecting the development of ICT competences, and to identify strategies to improve the development of effectiveness in the future. The research surveyed 220 teachers from 10 primary schools of Macedonia. The Technique SEM was used to determine the relative strength of influence of factors on ICT compet...

  5. Factors Affecting The Use and Development of Solar Energy in Iran's Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53

  6. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  7. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  8. Long chain branching of PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  9. Efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade da figueira Effect of the number of productive branches on the leaf area development and fig tree yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade de figos verdes do cultivar Roxo de Valinhos. O experimento utilizando plantas de seis anos de idade, foi conduzido de novembro de 2002 a abril de 2003 na Pesagro-RJ, em Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (21º19'23" de latitude sul, 41º19'40" de longitude oeste, altitude de 20 a 30 m e clima tipo Aw Köppen. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas conduzidas com 16; 20; 24; 28 e 32 ramos. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso e cinco repetições. O IAF aumentou linearmente em função do número de ramos produtivos, enquanto a produtividade mostrou um modelo de resposta quadrática aos tratamentos, provavelmente, limitada pelo sombreamento no interior do dossel que reduz a formação de gemas frutíferas. A maior produtividade observada de figos verdes foi obtida quando as plantas foram conduzidas com 24 ramos, sendo que, neste tratamento, a área foliar média de cada planta foi de 6,2 m².The objective of the present work was to study the effect of number of productive branches on the leaf area development and green fig tree yield of Roxo de Valinhos cultivar. The experiment using six year-old plants was carried out between November/2002 and April/2003 at Pesagro-RJ, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (21º19'23" South latitude, 41º19'40", West longitude, altitude of 20 a 30 m and Aw Koppen climate. The treatments consisted of plants conducted with 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 productive branches in a randomized block design with five replicates. The LAI incresead linearly in function of productive branches, whereas the yield showed a quadratic response pattern to the treatments, probably, limited by shading in canopy that decrease the fruit bud formation. The highest green fig yield was observed in the treatment which had plants conducted with twenty four branches, where the mean leaf area was 6,2 m².

  10. Factors Affecting The Career Development Of Employees In Secretariat Office Of City Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Rande

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although the primary responsibility for career planning lies in the individual but organizational career planning should be completely in line with individual career planning if an organization wants to retain the best employees. Assumptions and the perspective delivers the researchers to examine the influence of aspects of individual and organizational aspects of the career development of employees within the organization of government. The population in this study were employees of the Regional Secretariat of Samarinda by sampling using Proportional Sampling. This research uses a quantitative approach to the explanation that the format is done through surveys. The results showed that the main factors affecting the career development of staff at the Regional Secretariat Samarinda is a factor of career counseling performance appraisal and career mapping which affects the employees career development is partially respectively or simultaneously together .

  11. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  12. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  13. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  14. Evaluation of an Improved Branch-Site Likelihood Method for Detecting Positive Selection at the Molecular Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Nielsen, Rasmus; Yang, Ziheng

    2005-01-01

    been developed to test positive selection that acts on given branches (branch methods) or on a subset of sites (site methods). Recently, Yang, Z., and R. Nielsen (2002. Codon-substitution models for detecting molecular adaptation at individual sites along specific lineages. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19......Detecting positive Darwinian selection at the DNA sequence level has been a subject of considerable interest. However, positive selection is difficult to detect because it often operates episodically on a few amino acid sites, and the signal may be masked by negative selection. Several methods have......:908-917) developed likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) based on branch-site models to detect positive selection that affects a small number of sites along prespecified lineages. However, computer simulations suggested that the tests were sensitive to the model assumptions and were unable to distinguish between relaxation...

  15. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià

    - and after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition...

  16. Branch sees red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfeld, C.P.

    1982-08-01

    The fuel trade market has changed. Decreasing sales have driven the competitive power into a ruinous phase and strangled the profits. Now the question is how to survive. The author knows the problems and troubles of the fuel trade. He has developed a survival strategy for interested people.

  17. Affective strategies, attitudes, and a model of speaking performance development for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijirahayu, S.; Dorand, P.

    2018-01-01

    Learning English as a Foreign language (EFL) as one of the challenges especially for students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering to develop their communication skill as a professional could be one of the chances for them to face a more global era. Yet, there are important factors that may influence the progress of the speaking performance and attitude is one of them. Therefore, a survey involving two main psychological variables in language learning namely attitude and affective strategies and the third variable is speaking performance was conducted and a model of affective strategies in language learning developing through the application of Content Language Integrated Learning and multimedia instruction was introduced. This study involved 71 sophomore students and two classes of university students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The researchers used both survey and action research method with quantitative as well as qualitative in approach.

  18. How does blastomere removal affect embryonic development? : A time-lapse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    Introduction: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered to couples whose potential offspring are at risk of an inherited single gene disease or structural chromosomal disorder. PGD requires embryonic DNA for establishing the diagnosis, which can be obtained by performing blastomere biopsy...... of the 6-10 cell embryo. It has been argued that blastomere removal does not affect embryonic development, but few studies have focussed on safety of the procedure. Recently, time-lapse studies on mice have suggested that blastomere removal affects embryonic development. The present study was conducted...... at the same time-point as the control group, but had a significantly smaller size (p=0,000) and a thicker zona pellucida (p=0,000) when hatching. In the control group expansion of the blastocyst caused continous thinning of zona pellucida until the blastocyst hatched. In the biopsed group no expansion or zona...

  19. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  20. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  1. Selected Factors Affecting the Development of Auditing Services Market in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Rydzak

    2010-01-01

    This article presents three factors affecting the development of auditing services market and its oligopoly. The binding provisions of law concerning discretionary powers of auditing companies’ proprietary rights, to some extent, petrify the current auditing market structure. By means of numerous capital access deterrents they make it impossible to compete with the most influential entities on the market. Bearing in mind the vital influence of statutory auditors on companies’ functioning, and...

  2. Inferring the gene network underlying the branching of tomato inflorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astola

    Full Text Available The architecture of tomato inflorescence strongly affects flower production and subsequent crop yield. To understand the genetic activities involved, insight into the underlying network of genes that initiate and control the sympodial growth in the tomato is essential. In this paper, we show how the structure of this network can be derived from available data of the expressions of the involved genes. Our approach starts from employing biological expert knowledge to select the most probable gene candidates behind branching behavior. To find how these genes interact, we develop a stepwise procedure for computational inference of the network structure. Our data consists of expression levels from primary shoot meristems, measured at different developmental stages on three different genotypes of tomato. With the network inferred by our algorithm, we can explain the dynamics corresponding to all three genotypes simultaneously, despite their apparent dissimilarities. We also correctly predict the chronological order of expression peaks for the main hubs in the network. Based on the inferred network, using optimal experimental design criteria, we are able to suggest an informative set of experiments for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying branching behavior.

  3. Development of Heat-Affected Zone Hardness Limits for In-Service Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    Welding onto in-service pipelines is frequently required to facilitate a repair or to install a branch connection using the "hot tapping" technique. Welds made in-service cool at an accelerated rate as the result of the ability of the flowing content...

  4. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  5. ARTIE: an Integrated Environment for the development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Eduardo Imbernón Cuadrado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social- support behaviours in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a signicant contribution to learning efciency.With the aim of contributing to the rising eld of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment. We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,... in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to

  6. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  7. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske N de Haas

    Full Text Available Severe feather pecking (SFP in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  8. Kemikaliesubstitution i grafisk branche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study...... total 15 substances) were found in the Danish printing industry....

  9. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata (Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirman

    2000-08-23

    Acropora palmata, a branching coral abundant on shallow reef environments throughout the Caribbean, is susceptible to physical disturbance caused by storms. Accordingly, the survivorship and propagation of this species are tied to its capability to recover after fragmentation. Fragments of A. palmata comprised 40% of ramets within populations that had experienced recent storms. While the survivorship of A. palmata fragments was not directly related to the size of fragments, removal of fragments from areas where they settled was influenced by size. Survivorship of fragments was also affected by type of substratum; the greatest mortality (58% loss within the first month) was observed on sand, whereas fragments placed on top of live colonies of A. palmata fused to the underlying tissue and did not experience any losses. Fragments created by Hurricane Andrew on a Florida reef in August 1992 began developing new growth (proto-branches) 7 months after the storm. The number of proto-branches on fragments was dependent on size, but growth was not affected by the size of fragments. Growth-rates of proto-branches increased exponentially with time (1.7 cm year(-1) for 1993-1994, 2.7 cm year(-1) for 1994-1995, 4.2 cm year(-1) for 1995-1996, and 6.5 cm year(-1) for 1996-1997), taking over 4 years for proto-branches to achieve rates comparable to those of adult colonies on the same reef (6.9 cm year(-1)). In addition to the initial mortality and reduced growth-rates, fragmentation resulted in a loss of reproductive potential. Neither colonies that experienced severe fragmentation nor fragments contained gametes until 4 years after the initial damage. Although A. palmata may survive periodic fragmentation, the long-term effects of this process will depend ultimately on the balance between the benefits and costs of this process.

  10. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  11. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  12. Conceptualizing Student Affect for Science and Technology at the Middle School Level: Development and Implementation of a Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Wulff, Eric P.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the development of the Measure of Affect in Science and Technology (MAST), and study its usefulness for measuring science affect in middle school students via both classical and Rasch measurement perspectives. We then proceed to utilize the measurement structure of the MAST to understand how middle school students at varying levels of affect express their interest and attitudes toward science and technology and gender differences in how students express their affect. We found that affect in science and technology comprises a main dimension, science interest, and four peripheral dimensions: interest in careers in science and technology, attitudes toward science, and interest in attending science class. Of these, careers in science and technology carry the highest affective demand. While males showed higher levels of personal and situational interest in science, a greater interest in careers in science and technology was the biggest contributor to males' higher affect toward science and technology. We argue that whether the MAST is used as a measure of a single construct or multiple subconstructs depends upon specific research or evaluation goals; however, both uses of the MAST yield measures which produce valid inferences for student affect.

  13. Nutritional deficits during early development affect hippocampal structure and spatial memory later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja

    2005-10-01

    Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.

  14. Assessing a Suitable Contribution of the French Armor Branch to the Doctrinal Development of Violence: Mastering Operations in the Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millet, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    .... This study analyzes the current state of the French Army doctrinal development of armor employment in the violence-mastering mode in the urban environment and compare it to the lessons learned...

  15. Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in developing organ systems at different developmental times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorman Stephen J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the affect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a β-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart, notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons. We exposed transgenic zebrafish to simulated-microgravity for different durations at a variety of developmental times in an attempt to determine periods of susceptibility for the different developing organ systems. Results The developing heart had a period of maximum susceptibility between 32 and 56 hours after fertilization when there was an approximately 30% increase in gene expression. The notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons all showed periods of susceptibility occurring between 24 and 72 hours after fertilization. In addition, the notochord showed a second period of susceptibility between 8 and 32 hours after fertilization. Interestingly, all organs appeared to be recovering by 80 hours after fertilization despite continued exposure to simulated-microgravity. Conclusion These results support the idea that exposure to microgravity can cause changes in gene expression in a variety of developing organ systems in live embryos and that there are periods of maximum susceptibility to the effects.

  16. Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in developing organ systems at different developmental times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Naoko; Sokunbi, Gbolabo; Moorman, Stephen J

    2005-05-31

    Little is known about the affect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a beta-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart, notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons. We exposed transgenic zebrafish to simulated-microgravity for different durations at a variety of developmental times in an attempt to determine periods of susceptibility for the different developing organ systems. The developing heart had a period of maximum susceptibility between 32 and 56 hours after fertilization when there was an approximately 30% increase in gene expression. The notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons all showed periods of susceptibility occurring between 24 and 72 hours after fertilization. In addition, the notochord showed a second period of susceptibility between 8 and 32 hours after fertilization. Interestingly, all organs appeared to be recovering by 80 hours after fertilization despite continued exposure to simulated-microgravity. These results support the idea that exposure to microgravity can cause changes in gene expression in a variety of developing organ systems in live embryos and that there are periods of maximum susceptibility to the effects.

  17. Developing Automatic Form and Design System Using Integrated Grey Relational Analysis and Affective Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern highly competitive marketplace and global market environment, product quality improvements that abridge development time and reduce the production costs are effective methods for promoting the business competitiveness of a product in shorter lifecycles. Since the design process is the best time to control such parameters, systematically designing the processes to develop a product that more closely fits the demand requirements for the market is a key factor for developing a successful product. In this paper, a combined affective engineering method and grey relational analysis are used to develop a product design process. First, design image scale technology is used to acquire the best the design criteria factors, and then affective engineering methods are used to set the relationships between customer needs and production factors. Finally, grey relational analysis is used to select the optimal design strategy. Using this systematic design method, a higher quality product can be expanded upon in a shorter lead-time for improving business competition.

  18. Exogenous growth factors do not affect the development of individually cultured murine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Jason R; Greene-Ermisch, Alison F; Schoolcraft, William B; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2017-12-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple growth factors on the development of individually cultured murine embryos. Embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using in vitro (IVM) or in vivo (IVO) matured oocytes from three strains of mice (CF1, Swiss Webster, B6D2F1) were cultured individually (10 μl) in the absence (control) or presence of growth factors (paf, epidermal growth factor [EGF], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). Blastocyst formation, hatching, and blastocyst cell numbers (trophectoderm, inner cell mass, and total) were evaluated on days 4 and 5 of culture. Post-hatching development of CF1 IVO embryos was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The presence of growth factors did not improve the proportion of embryos forming blastocysts or initiating hatching for any of the types of embryos tested. The only significant (P embryos that formed blastocysts by day 5 in CF1 IVM embryos. The presence of growth factors also did not affect blastocyst cell numbers. For CF1 IVO embryos, the presence of growth factors during culture did not affect the proportion of embryos that attached to fibronectin-coated dishes, the size of the resulting outgrowths, or in vivo development following transfer. Combinations of paf, EGF, GM-CSF, and IGF-1 did not improve development of murine embryos cultured individually in a sequential medium containing a defined protein source.

  19. Effects of perinatal stress and drug abuse on maternal behavior and sensorimotor development of affected progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubová, A; Ševčíková, M; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Pometlová, M; Šlamberová, R

    2017-12-30

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychostimulant with significant potential for abuse. Previous rat studies have demonstrated that MA use during pregnancy impairs maternal behavior and induced delayed development of affected pups. The offspring of drug-addictive mothers were often neglected and exposed to neonatal stressors. The present study therefore examines the effect of perinatal stressors combined with exposure to prenatal MA on the development of pups and maternal behavior. Dams were divided into three groups according to drug treatment during pregnancy: controls (C); saline (SA, s.c., 1 ml/kg); MA (s.c., 5 mg/ml/kg). Litters were divided into four groups according to postnatal stressors: controls (N); maternal separation (S); maternal cold-water stress (W); maternal separation plus cold-water stress (SW). The pup-retrieval test showed differences among postnatally stressed mothers and non-stressed controls. The righting reflex on a surface revealed delayed development of pups prenatally exposed to MA/SA and postnatal stress. Negative geotaxis and Rotarod results confirmed that the MA group was the most affected. Overall, our data suggests that a combination of perinatal stress and prenatal MA can have a detrimental effect on maternal behavior as well as on the sensorimotor development of pups. However, MA exposure during pregnancy seems to be the decisive factor for impairment.

  20. Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacFarlane, D.W.; Kuyah, S.; Mulia, R.; Dietz, J.; Muthuri, C.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of

  1. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  2. Integrative Review of Factors That Affect the Use of Postpartum Care Services in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Yenupini Joyce; Smith, Barbara

    2018-03-07

    To identify factors that affect the use of postpartum care services in developing countries. PubMed, CINAHL, Global Health, EMBASE, and grey literature were searched for relevant articles in 2015 and 2016 with no publication date limit imposed. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria and were assessed for quality with the use of a checklist developed by Fowkes and Fulton (1991) and a checklist developed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2017). The integrative review framework of Whittemore and Knafl (2005) guided the conduct of the review. Results were synthesized based on the three delays model of Thaddeus and Maine (1994). Factors that negatively affected women's decisions to seek postpartum care (Phase I delays) included lack of women's autonomy, lack of exposure to mass media, no pregnancy/birth/postpartum complications, lack of awareness of postpartum care, negative provider attitude, lower levels of women's and husbands' education, women's and husbands' farming occupations, increasing number of children, and lower level of household income. Perceived easy access to a health care facility was associated with lesser odds of using postpartum care (Phase II delay). Hospitals, public health care facilities, and long queuing at a health care facility were associated with decreased postpartum care use (Phase III delays). The most common determinants of how women used postpartum care were complications and the education levels and occupations of the women and their husbands. Further research is needed to identify health facility and accessibility factors that affect postpartum care use to develop effective interventions to improve the use of postpartum care. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  4. The role of pre-existing Precambrian lithospheric structures in the development of Rukwa Rift basin in the Western Branch of East African Rift System, SW Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna, Obeid; Stephenson, Randell; Cornwell, David

    2017-04-01

    Continental rifts are inter-connected groups of half-grabens bordered by steep escarpments formed by border fault displacement. They often follow the pre-existing zones of weakness and/or tectonic boundaries diverging around the craton. In some areas it has been observed that border fault segmentation and rift basin asymmetry shows little or no correlation with basement structures, raising the possibility that continental rift development may in some cases at least be linked to deeper-seated lithospheric structures. The influence of pre-existing/inherited lithospheric structure remains a question for study in unravelling the evolution of continental rifts. The Rukwa Rift Basin is a northwest trending half-graben developed along the trend of the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian belt in southwest Tanzania. This belt is a linear, NW-SE trending orogenic belt in western Tanzania. It is part of a larger Paleoproterozoic orogenic belt, developed around the west and south-western margin of the Archaean Tanzanian craton. This belt is characterised by a consistent NW-trending fabric and by the presence of large shear zones that persist along the whole of the belt. As such, it offers the opportunity to examine the role of pre-existing Precambrian structures on the development of the Rukwa Rift. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and aeromagnetic data are used in this study. The results suggest that the orientation and geometry of Rukwa Rift basin has been influenced by the structural grains of the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian belt. Pre-existing structures within the Paleoproterozoic terrains facilitated the strain localisation within border faults that exploited the existence of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity. The southern border fault of the rift has been influenced by the NW-trending Mugese shear zone (MSZ). This shear zone has prominent NW-trending pre-existing structures in the form of transcurrent shear fabric and zones of

  5. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  6. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  7. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  9. Strategies for labelling branched polypeptides with a poly(l-lysine) backbone with radioiodines ({sup 123}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I) and radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 51}Cr) for biodistribution studies and radiopharmaceutical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.; Mezo, G.; Hudecz, F. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1995-02-01

    Methods have been developed for radiolabelling synthetic branched polypeptides, these being based on a poly(L-lysine) backbone with short side chains of three DL-alanine residues and one other amino acid at the end of the branches (MW{sup -} 45-100 kDa). Labelling has been carried out with gamma emitting radionuclides suitable for use in biodistribution studies or for gamma scintigraphy. Labelling with {sup 125} I was achieved by reaction of the polypeptides` terminal amino groups with pre-iodinated Bolton and Hunter Reagent. Alternatively, polypeptides were reacted with non-labelled Bolton and Hunter reagent, which could subsequently be iodinated with {sup 123} I, {sup 125} I or {sup 131} I by oxidative incorporation from [{sup 123} I]NaI, [{sup 125} I]NaI or [{sup 131} I]NAI. For labelling with radiometals, the polypeptides` terminal amino groups were reacted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) anhydride, and the conjugated DTPA subsequently labelled with {sup 111} In or {sup 51} Cr by chelation. An amphoteric polypeptide, having terminal glutamic acid residues on its side chains (EAK), and a polycationic polypeptide, with terminal D-lysine (D-KAK) were labelled. In addition EAK previously conjugated to the cis-aconityl derivative of daunomycin (EAK-cAD) was similarly labelled. Gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, which was possible with labelled EAK and its cAD conjugate. Biodistribution studies in mice showed prolonged blood survival of the radionuclide of {sup 125} I, {sup 111} In or {sup 51} Cr labelled EAK and EAK-cAD. There were, however, differences in organ levels of the radionuclides. Generally kidney, spleen and liver levels of radiometals were higher than those of radioiodine, while levels in the gastrointestinal tract were higher with radioiodine. D-KAK labelled with any of the three radionuclides was cleared rapidly from the blood, high levels of all tracers being found in spleen, liver, kidney and lung. (Author).

  10. Strategies for labelling branched polypeptides with a poly(l-lysine) backbone with radioiodines (123I, 125I, 131I) and radiometals (111In, 51Cr) for biodistribution studies and radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J.; Mezo, G.; Hudecz, F.

    1995-01-01

    Methods have been developed for radiolabelling synthetic branched polypeptides, these being based on a poly(L-lysine) backbone with short side chains of three DL-alanine residues and one other amino acid at the end of the branches (MW - 45-100 kDa). Labelling has been carried out with gamma emitting radionuclides suitable for use in biodistribution studies or for gamma scintigraphy. Labelling with 125 I was achieved by reaction of the polypeptides' terminal amino groups with pre-iodinated Bolton and Hunter Reagent (N-Succinimidyl 3-(4-hydroxy-5-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)propionate). Alternatively, polypeptides were reacted with non-labelled Bolton and Hunter reagent, which could subsequently be iodinated with 123 I, 125 I or 131 I by oxidative incorporation from [ 123 I)NaI, [ 125 I)NaI or [ 131 I]NAI. For labelling with radiometals, the polypeptides' terminal amino groups were reacted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) anhydride, and the conjugated DTPA subsequently labelled with 111 In or 51 Cr by chelation. An amphoteric polypeptide, having terminal glutamic acid residues on its side chains (EAK), and a polycationic polypeptide, with terminal D-lysine (D-KAK) were labelled in these ways. In addition EAK previously conjugated to the cis-aconityl derivative of daunomycin (EAK-cAD) was similarly labelled. Gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, which was possible with labelled EAK and its cAD conjugate. Biodistribution studies in mice showed prolonged blood survival of the radionuclide of 125 I, 111 In or 51 Cr labelled EAK and EAK-cAD. There were, however, differences in organ levels of the radionuclides. Generally kidney, spleen and liver levels of radiometals were higher than those of radioiodine, while levels in the gastrointestinal tract were higher with radioiodine. D-KAK labelled with any of the three radionuclides was cleared rapidly from the blood, high levels of all tracers being found in spleen, liver, kidney and lung. (Author)

  11. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Elevated temperature affects development, survivorship, and settlement of the elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Carly J; Szmant, Alina M

    2009-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures during the late summer have the potential to negatively affect the development and survivorship of the larvae of reef corals that are reproductive during that time of year. Acropora palmata, a major Caribbean hermatype, reproduces annually during August and September. A. palmata populations have severely declined over the past three decades, and recovery will require high recruitment rates. Such recruitment will be limited if larval supply is reduced by elevated temperatures. The effects of elevated temperatures on development, survival, and larval settlement of A. palmata were investigated by culturing newly fertilized eggs at temperatures ranging from 27.5 to 31.5 degrees C. Development was accelerated and the percentage of developmental abnormalities increased at higher temperatures. Embryo mortality peaked during gastrulation, indicating that this complex developmental process is particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. Larvae cultured at 30 and 31.5 degrees C experienced as much as an 8-fold decrease in survivorship compared to those at 28 degrees C. Additionally, settlement was 62% at 28 degrees C compared to 37% at 31.5 degrees C. These results indicate that embryos and larvae of A. palmata will be negatively affected as sea surface temperatures continue to warm, likely reducing recruitment and the recovery potential of A. palmata on Caribbean reefs.

  13. Manipulation of postnatal testosterone levels affects phallic and clitoral development in infant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R; Nevison, C M; Fraser, H M; Dixson, A F

    1999-04-01

    Male primates exhibit marked elevation of circulating testosterone levels during the early postnatal period. The aim of this project was to test whether experimental manipulation of circulating testosterone levels in male and female infant rhesus monkeys affected development of the external genitalia during the first six months of life. Four groups of infants were studied. Seven control male infants exhibited high circulating testosterone levels during the first three months of life. Seven males were treated with a GnRH agonist (avorelin) from the first week of life onwards, which suppressed the postnatal testosterone surge. Ten control females exhibited low circulating testosterone levels during the early postnatal period. Administration of testosterone to 10 females resulted in high circulating levels in these infants. Fortnightly blood samples and genital measurements were taken from all infants during the first six months of life. Growth of the penis of avorelin-treated males was significantly retarded when compared to control males. Average length of the penis at six months of age was significantly (p = 0.012) smaller for avorelin-treated males (25.2 +/- 2.8 mm) than for control males (37.3 +/- 3.0 mm). Avorelin-treated males attained only around 50% detachment of the prepuce from the glans of the penis, while control males averaged 90% detachment. Treatment of females with testosterone resulted in significant growth of the clitoris in comparison to control females. The growth rates of the penis of control males and clitorides of testosterone-treated females were similar and greatest during the first two months of life. Gain in body weight was not affected by either hormonal manipulation. It is concluded that manipulation of circulating testosterone levels during the early postnatal period affects penile and clitoral development of infant rhesus monkeys. This postnatal period may therefore represent an important stage in penile development in primates.

  14. Increased risk of developing stroke for patients with major affective disorder--a registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V

    2004-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated depressive disorder as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. In a hospital discharge register with nation-wide coverage of all hospitals in Denmark we used linkage between the somatic and psychiatric registries to study comorbidity between affective disorders...... and cerebrovascular diseases in hospitalised patients. The main finding of this study was that patients with depression severe enough to be hospitalised, seem to be at an increased risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. The hazard ratio of getting a diagnosis of stroke after initially having been discharged...... and especially the risk of stroke should be considered....

  15. Development programmes in rural communities affected by industrial sites. The case of nuclear plants in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuncal, A.

    2000-01-01

    A socioeconomic analysis performed for rural communities affected by industrial sites, namely for the case of nuclear power plants in Spain a common proposal for all the European countries is made. Existence of a common European program that could cover the following aspects: Creation of a Committee to enhance the participation in decision making process on different aspects, information policies, security, transport, waste management, investments, economic development; Contract between local authorities, State and companies responsibilities and financing; Legal framework of political organization; common socio-economic program including environment, employment, companies activities, responsibilities, taxes

  16. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  17. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  18. International trends affecting the development of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, L.

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterised by significant changes in the energy policy-making framework of most countries. Globalisation of the world economy, deregulation of electricity markets, privatisation of the electricity sector, increasing concerns about the need to protect the environment and awareness of sustainable development goals are among the major trends affecting policy making and decisions in the energy sector. All those factors have impacts on nuclear energy programmes and may affect SMR development in particular. The paper investigates how those factors may change national energy policies and impact on nuclear energy programmes, with special emphasis on the potential role of SMRs in energy supply mixes. It elaborates on recent trends to increasing reliance on market mechanisms in the energy and electricity sectors and on the role of governments in implementing an integrated approach to policy making, within a sustainable development framework incorporating economic, social and environmental dimensions. Against this backdrop, the paper examines the potential markets for SMRs, taking into account their possible uses beyond electricity generation, such as potable water production, cogeneration, process or domestic heat supply and eventually hydrogen production. It reviews key issues to be addressed in order to facilitate the deployment of SMRs in different countries. Those include technology progress and transfer, capacity building in developing countries, adaptation to market requirements, economic competitiveness and social acceptance. The paper concludes with remarks regarding the importance of international co-operation, especially in the field of research and development on advanced reactor and fuel cycle concepts. In this connection, the role of intergovernmental organisations as facilitators and catalysts of national efforts is highlighted. (author)

  19. Overexpression of a novel chrysanthemum SUPERMAN-like gene in tobacco affects lateral bud outgrowth and flower organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Lin; Xu, Ke-Dong; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liang-Jun; Xi, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Spotila, James R.; Avery, Harold W.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities

  2. Development of the internet based psychoeducation for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Ociskova, Marie; Sedlackova, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Despite pharmacological treatment of bipolar affective disorder has many advantages; only drug treatment remains insufficiently beneficial to many patients. The combination of pharmacotherapy and internet psychoeducation seems to be the effective way how to improve remission. Internet-based therapy programs offer an exclusive chance for large underserved parts of the population to make evidence-based treatment without the need of full-time therapist. Our goal was to create a psychoeducational program for patients suffering from bipolar disorder that can be used in Czech Republic. There were identified studies through Web of Science, PUBMED, and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews were used in development of comprehensive internet psychoeducational program for patients with bipolar disorder. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", and "internet psychoeducation". The search was performed with no language or time restrictions. The internet psychoeducational program was developed in accordance to the data from the literature review. The aim of the Internet psychoeducational program of the Department of Psychiatry University Hospital in Olomouc is to familiarize patients with the fundamental nature of bipolar affective disorder, the character and principles of pharmacotherapy, the recognition of the warning signs of relapse, inappropriate and stressful stereotypes in communication within families, and finally the practice of social skills. Information from studies can help to prepare comprehensive psychoeducational program for bipolar patients.

  3. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  4. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  5. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet; Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. Thi...

  7. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  8. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaish, Lee; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2009-01-01

    The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I) upright position; (II) horizontal position, intact tip; and (III) horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs). We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured). This study revealed that colony astogeny in S

  9. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  10. Factors Affecting Resilience and Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones, Jacqueline; Meek, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Job stress and cumulative exposure to traumatic events experienced by critical care nurses can lead to psychological distress and the development of burnout syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder. Resilience can mitigate symptoms associated with these conditions. To identify factors that affect resilience and to determine if the factors have direct or indirect effects on resilience in development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Data from 744 respondents to a survey mailed to 3500 critical care nurses who were members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses were analyzed. Mplus was used to analyze a mediation model. Nurses who worked in any type of intensive care unit other than the medical unit and had high scores for resilience were 18% to 50% less likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder than were nurses with low scores. Nurses with a graduate degree in nursing were 18% more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were nurses with a bachelor's degree. Because of their effects on resilience, working in a medical intensive care unit and having a graduate degree may influence the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Future research is needed to better understand the impact of resilience on health care organizations, development of preventive therapies and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for critical care nurses, and the most appropriate mechanism to disseminate and implement strategies to address posttraumatic stress disorder. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  12. The Development of Assistive Systems to Support Older People: Issues that Affect Success in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an aging population in Europe, the development of Ambient Assisted Living technologies (AAL is increasingly the target of research financing. These technologies promise to enable older people to remain in their own homes longer, something many people report wanting and which may also reduce the costs of care. To date however there are few systems on the market. Other studies have tried to understand this by looking at user acceptance. However, by looking only at the user acceptance, we may miss important aspects to explain why systems went wrong in the first place, since decisions made during the development may affect the success later. To address this, we report on a study in which we applied qualitative methods, including workshops and an interactive poster, to consult with people who have experience in the development of these technologies. We present the common issues reported across various AAL development projects done in Europe that the participants thought were important to the success or failure of projects. We also describe some ideas from participants for addressing some of these problems. The results demonstrate the importance of issues related to financing with grants for projects but also the need for improved user-centered practice.

  13. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 affects the inflorescence meristem and stamen development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ross; Schocken, John; Kaldis, Athanasios; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Hark, Amy T; McCain, Elizabeth R

    2009-11-01

    A central question in biology is to understand how gene expression is precisely regulated to give rise to a variety of forms during the process of development. Epigenetic effects such as DNA methylation or histone modification have been increasingly shown to play a critical role in regulation of genome function. GCN5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that participates in regulating developmental gene expression in several metazoan species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with T-DNA insertions in GCN5 (also known as HAG1) display a variety of pleiotropic effects including dwarfism, loss of apical dominance, and floral defects affecting fertility. We sought to determine when during early development floral abnormalities first arise. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that gcn5-1/hag1-1 and gcn5-5/hag1-5 mutants display overproliferation of young buds and development of abnormal structures around the inflorescence meristem. gcn5 mutants also display defects in stamen number and arrangement at later stages. This analysis provides temporal and spatial information to aid in the identification of GCN5 target genes in the developing flower. Preliminary studies of putative targets using reverse transcriptase PCR suggest that the floral meristem identity gene LEAFY is among factors upregulated in gcn5-1 mutants.

  14. Development of Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiota in Infancy is Affected by Mode of Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid A.T.M. Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth by Caesarian section is associated with short- and long-term respiratory morbidity. We hypothesized that mode of delivery affects the development of the respiratory microbiota, thereby altering its capacity to provide colonization resistance and consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the impact of mode of delivery on the nasopharyngeal microbiota development from birth until six months of age in a healthy, unselected birth cohort of 102 children (n = 761 samples. Here, we show that the respiratory microbiota develops within one day from a variable mixed bacterial community towards a Streptococcus viridans-predominated profile, regardless of mode of delivery. Within the first week, rapid niche differentiation had occurred; initially with in most infants Staphylococcus aureus predominance, followed by differentiation towards Corynebacterium pseudodiphteriticum/propinquum, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Moraxella catarrhalis/nonliquefaciens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and/or Haemophilus influenzae dominated communities. Infants born by Caesarian section showed a delay in overall development of respiratory microbiota profiles with specifically reduced colonization with health-associated commensals like Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, thereby possibly influencing respiratory health later in life.

  15. Overexpression of Robo2 causes defects in the recruitment of metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud branching morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jiayao; Li, Qinggang; Xie, Yuansheng; Zhang, Xueguang; Cui, Shaoyuan; Shi, Suozhu; Chen, Xiangmei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overexpression of Robo2 caused reduced UB branching and glomerular number. ► Fewer MM cells surrounding the UB after overexpression of Robo2 in vitro. ► No abnormal Epithelial Morphology of UB or apoptosis of mm cells in the kidney. ► Overexpression of Robo2 affected MM cells migration and caused UB deficit. ► The reduced glomerular number can also be caused by fewer MM cells. -- Abstract: Roundabout 2 (Robo2) is a member of the membrane protein receptor family. The chemorepulsive effect of Slit2–Robo2 signaling plays vital roles in nervous system development and neuron migration. Slit2–Robo2 signaling is also important for maintaining the normal morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary collecting system, especially for the branching of the ureteric bud (UB) at the proper site. Slit2 or Robo2 mouse mutants exhibit multilobular kidneys, multiple ureters, and dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and collecting duct system, which lead to vesicoureteral reflux. To understand the effect of Robo2 on kidney development, we used microinjection and electroporation to overexpress GFP-Robo2 in an in vitro embryonic kidney model. Our results show reduced UB branching and decreased glomerular number after in vitro Robo2 overexpression in the embryonic kidneys. We found fewer metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells surrounding the UB but no abnormal morphology in the branching epithelial UB. Meanwhile, no significant change in MM proliferation or apoptosis was observed. These findings indicate that Robo2 is involved in the development of embryonic kidneys and that the normal expression of Robo2 can help maintain proper UB branching and glomerular morphogenesis. Overexpression of Robo2 leads to reduced UB branching caused by fewer surrounding MM cells, but MM cell apoptosis is not involved in this effect. Our study demonstrates that overexpression of Robo2 by microinjection in embryonic kidneys is an effective approach to study the function of Robo2.

  16. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  18. Hypoxic level and duration differentially affect embryonic organ system development of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Burggren, W W

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia inhibits avian embryonic development, as well as increases embryonic mortality. However, the key organ systems affected by hypoxia, and their critical windows for development, are poorly understood. Consequently, chicken embryos were continuously exposed to 3 levels of oxygen (21, 15, or 13% O(2)) throughout d 0 to 10, d 11 to 18, or d 0 to 18 of incubation, followed by morphometric and blood physiological measurements. Hypoxia occurring early during incubation (d 0 to 10) had larger effects on embryonic mortality and organ growth than hypoxia occurring at later stages (d 10 to 18). Growth of the heart and chorioallantoic membrane was stimulated by chronic hypoxia, whereas the lung, brain, eye, liver, stomach, beak, and toes showed no disruption. Sustained hypoxia from the beginning of incubation decreased blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell concentration of embryos at d 10, but the values among hypoxic and normoxic groups were not significantly different at d 18. Blood partial pressure of O(2) and partial pressure of CO(2) were dependent upon incubation O(2) level at a given day of development. These results indicated that either modest hypoxia (15% O(2)) throughout development, or hypoxia at any level during the late stages (d 11 to 18), increased the heart and chorioallantoic membrane weight, which partly compensated for the detrimental effects of hypoxia on embryonic development. We conclude that the first half of embryonic development contained the critical windows for the detrimental effects of hypoxia, and the second half contained the critical windows for the compensatory response of hypoxia in key organs.

  19. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qian; Pag?s, Lo?c; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system?s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the f...

  20. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  1. Manganese overload affects p38 MAPK phosphorylation and metalloproteinase activity during sea urchin embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsino, A; Roccheri, M C; Matranga, V

    2014-02-01

    In the marine environment, manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. In earlier reports we found that the exposure of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos to manganese produced phenotypes with no skeleton. In addition, manganese interfered with calcium uptake, perturbed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, affected the expression of skeletogenic genes, and caused an increase of the hsc70 and hsc60 protein levels. Here, we extended our studies focusing on the temporal activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the proteolytic activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that manganese affects the stage-dependent dynamics of p38 MAPK activation and inhibits the total gelatin-auto-cleaving activity of MMPs, with the exclusion of the 90-85 kDa and 68-58 kDa MMPs, whose levels remain high all throughout development. Our findings correlate, for the first time to our knowledge, an altered activation pattern of the p38 MAPK with an aberrant MMP proteolytic activity in the sea urchin embryo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium affects muscle type development and axon growth in zebrafish embryonic somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2003-05-01

    We have previously reported that exposure to cadmium during zebrafish embryonic development caused morphological malformations of organs and ectopic expression of genes involved in regulating developmental process. One of the most common developmental defects observed was altered axial curvature resulting from defects in the myotomes of the somites. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity in zebrafish somitogenesis. We showed that the critical period of exposure was the gastrulation period, which actually preceded the formation of the first morphologically distinct somites. The somites thus formed lost the typical chevron V-shape and are packed disorderly. The myogenic lineage commitment of the axial mesodermal cells was not affected, as the myogenic regulatory transcription factors were expressed normally. There were, however, losses of fast and slow muscle fibers in the myotomes. The innervation of the muscle blocks by spinal motoneurons is an important process of the somitogenesis. Both primary and secondary motoneurons appear to form normally while the axon growth is affected in cadmium-treated embryos. The notochord, which is essential in the patterning of the somites and the central nervous system, showed abnormal morphological features and failed to extend to the tail region. Taken together, it appears that cadmium exposure led to abnormal somite patterning of the muscle fibers and defects in axonogenesis.

  3. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  4. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Pierre; Coste, Karen; Pouchin, Pierre; Azaïs, Jean-Marc; Blanchon, Loïc; Gallot, Denis; Sapin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme-epithelium coupled growth and lung

  5. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  6. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Older Parent - Child Relationships in Six Developed Nations: Comparisons at the Intersection of Affection and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Merril; Gans, Daphna; Lowenstein, Ariela; Giarrusso, Roseann; Bengtson, Vern L

    2010-08-01

    Intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence paradigms suggest that emotional relationships between generations consist of both positive and negative sentiments. We applied latent class analysis to measures of affection and conflict in 2,698 older parent - child relationships in 6 developed nations: England, Germany, Israel, Norway, Spain, and the United States (Southern California). The best fitting model consisted of 4 latent classes distributed differently across nations but with a cross-nationally invariant measurement structure. After controlling for demographics, health, coresidence, contact, and support, the following classes were overrepresented in corresponding nations: amicable (England), detached (Germany and Spain), disharmonious (United States), ambivalent (Israel). We discuss policy and cultural differences across societies that may explain why the prevalence of particular emotional types varied by nation.

  8. Isolation of mutations affecting the development of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, G; McKown, R; Marin, A L; Teutonico, R

    1996-08-01

    We screened for mutations deleterious to the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Columbia. Tolerance was assayed by the vigor and regrowth of intact plants after cold acclimation and freezing. From a chemically mutagenized population, we obtained 13 lines of mutants with highly penetrant phenotypes. In 5 of these, freezing sensitivity was attributable to chilling injury sustained during cold acclimation, but in the remaining 8 lines, the absence of injury prior to freezing suggested that they were affected specifically in the development of freezing tolerance. In backcrosses, freezing sensitivity from each line segregated as a single nuclear mutation. Complementation tests indicated that the 8 lines contained mutations in 7 different genes. The mutants' freezing sensitivity was also detectable in the leakage of electrolytes from frozen leaves. However, 1 mutant line that displayed a strong phenotype at the whole-plant level showed a relatively weak phenotype by the electrolyte leakage assay.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN CHINA AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of factors determining the transition to organic farming and provide some recommendations for government’s policy relating to organic farming. Material and research method. An analysis was based on questionnaire survey on the willingness of organic farming by small farmers in the province of Jiangsu. Binary logistic regression model was used in the research. Concluding remarks. Five factors affecting organic agricultural production were discovered: farmers’ age, risk preferences, labour costs, expected benefi ts and the environment. On this ground, the authors suggest, that Chinese government should adopt policies assisting farmers in the transition to organic farming for the sustainable development of China’s organic agriculture. Cooperation of farmers’ cooperatives and research institutions to improve organic farming techniques should also be promoted.

  10. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  11. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production.

  12. Research review: maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition - mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Osterholm, Erin A

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy - an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress - significantly affect children's future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (a) the associations between pregnant women's inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients - protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline - as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children's neurocognitive development; and (b) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for 'disentangling' the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories - and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL) may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7-12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21) and normal-hearing controls (N = 23) performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as "touched the small green circle and the large blue square" and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39), evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language.

  14. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eSchmithorst

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using fMRI, we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7-12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21 and normal-hearing controls (N = 23 performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as touched the small green circle and the large blue square and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39, evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language.

  15. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  17. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Trost, Wiebke J.

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

  18. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  19. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  20. Branching enzyme assay: selective quantitation of the alpha 1,6-linked glucosyl residues involved in the branching points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisman, C R; Tolmasky, D S; Raffo, S

    1985-06-01

    Methods previously described for glycogen or amylopectin branching enzymatic activity are insufficiently sensitive and not quantitative. A new, more sensitive, specific, and quantitative one was developed. It is based upon the quantitation of the glucose residues joined by alpha 1,6 bonds introduced by varying amounts of branching enzyme. The procedure involved the synthesis of a polysaccharide from Glc-1-P and phosphorylase in the presence of the sample to be tested. The branched polysaccharide was then purified and the glucoses involved in the branching points were quantitated after degradation with phosphorylase and debranching enzymes. This method appeared to be useful, not only in enzymatic activity determinations but also in the study of the structure of alpha-D-glucans when combined with those of total polysaccharide quantitation, such as iodine and phenol-sulfuric acid.

  1. Effects of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development on dendritic length, branching, and spine density in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James P; Suggs, Lisa E; Lusk, Alexandra V; Parker, Matthew O; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Reductions in measures of dendritic morphology in the agranular insular cortex have been identified as consequences of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in the rat. Motivated by the strong connectivity between this region of frontal cortex and the striatum and a growing body of data linking specific components of the mesocortical/limbic system to effects of ethanol and ethanol self-administration, the current study investigated the effects of moderate fetal ethanol exposure on the dendritic morphology of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in several regions of the striatum. Throughout gestation, pregnant rat dams either consumed a saccharin solution (control) or achieved average daily blood ethanol concentrations of 84 mg% via voluntary consumption of a 5% ethanol solution. The brains of adult male offspring were extracted and processed for Golgi-Cox staining. MSNs from the dorsomedial striatum, dorsolateral striatum and the nucleus accumbens core and shell were sampled for analysis. Relative to saccharin controls, robust reductions in dendritic length and branching, but not spine density, were observed in the shell of the nucleus accumbens in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats. No significant prenatal ethanol effects were found in the other regions of the striatum. These findings suggest that exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in utero can have profound effects on brain regions related to reward processing and provide possible clues relevant to understanding increased self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals exposed to ethanol during brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Asic3(-/- female mice with hearing deficit affects social development of pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.

  3. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Murine NTDs were successfully induced by means of hydroxyurea (HU). • The impairment of dNTP was induced via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. • dNTP deficiency induced by HU caused defective DNA synthesis and repair. • Abnormal apoptosis and proliferation induced by HU affected neural tube development. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis

  4. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  5. Genetic deletion of the EGFR ligand epigen does not affect mouse embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Schäfer, Matthias; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

    2013-02-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor with manifold functions during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. EGFR activation, the formation of homodimers or heterodimers (with the related ERBB2-4 receptors) and downstream signaling is initiated by the binding of a family of structurally related growth factors, the EGFR ligands. Genetic deletion experiments clarified the biological function of all family members except for the last characterized ligand, epigen. We employed gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mice lacking epigen expression. Loss of epigen did not affect mouse development, fertility, or organ physiology. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of betacellulin and EGF in a few organs of epigen-deficient mice, suggesting a functional compensation by these ligands. In conclusion, we completed the genetic analysis of EGFR ligands and show that epigen has non-essential functions or functions that can be compensated by other EGFR ligands during growth and tissue homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  7. A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryonic development in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Kühnlein, R; Henrich, T; Mücke, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    2000-10-01

    In a pilot screen, we assayed the efficiency of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) as a chemical mutagen to induce mutations that lead to early embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes in the Japanese medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. ENU acts as a very efficient mutagen inducing mutations at high rates in germ cells. Three repeated treatments of male fish in 3 mM ENU for 1 h results in locus specific mutation rates of 1.1-1.95 x10(-3). Mutagenized males were outcrossed to wild type females and the F1 offspring was used to establish F2 families. F2 siblings were intercrossed and the F3 progeny was scored 24, 48 and 72 h after fertilization for morphological alterations affecting eye development. The presented mutant phenotypes were identified using morphological criteria and occur during early developmental stages of medaka. They are stably inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The high efficiency of ENU to induce mutations in this pilot screen indicates that chemical mutagenesis and screening for morphologically visible phenotypes in medaka fish allows the genetic analysis of specific aspects of vertebrate development complementing the screens performed in other vertebrate model systems.

  8. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  10. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts

  11. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  12. Development of a phosphorus index for pastures fertilized with poultry litter--factors affecting phosphorus runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaune, Paul B; Moore, Philip A; Carman, Dennis K; Sharpley, Andrew N; Haggard, Brian E; Daniel, Tommy C

    2004-01-01

    Currently, several state and federal agencies are proposing upper limits on soil test phosphorus (P), above which animal manures cannot be applied, based on the assumption that high P concentrations in runoff are due to high soil test P. Recent studies show that other factors are more indicative of P concentrations in runoff from areas where manure is being applied. The original P index was developed as an alternative P management tool incorporating factors affecting both the source and transport of P. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of multiple variables on P concentrations in runoff water and to construct a P source component of a P index for pastures that incorporates these effects. The evaluated variables were: (i) soil test P, (ii) soluble P in poultry litter, (iii) P in poultry diets, (iv) fertilizer type, and (v) poultry litter application rate. Field studies with simulated rainfall showed that P runoff was affected by the amount of soluble P applied in the fertilizer source. Before manure applications, soil test P was directly related to soluble P concentrations in runoff water. However, soil test P had little effect on P runoff after animal manure was applied. Unlike most other P indices, weighting factors of the P source components in the P index for pastures are based on results from runoff studies conducted under various management scenarios. As a result, weighting factors for the P source potential variables are well justified. A modification of the P index using scientific data should strengthen the ability of the P index concept to evaluate locations and management alternatives for P losses.

  13. 30 CFR 285.504 - How are my payments affected if I develop my lease in phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are my payments affected if I develop my lease in phases? 285.504 Section 285.504 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... SHELF Payments and Financial Assurance Requirements Payments § 285.504 How are my payments affected if I...

  14. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  15. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  16. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  17. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita population dynamics in Central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila W Franz

    Full Text Available When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  18. Evolution of nutrient export under urban development in areas affected by shallow watertable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Olga V; Barr, Anthony D; Donn, Michael J

    2013-01-15

    Surface water quality in catchments undergoing urbanisation may be affected by the release of pre-existing (or legacy) solutes, such as nutrients, as well as new sources associated with urban land use. This paper examines both for a number of urbanisation scenarios and adopting the modelling capability developed for the analysis of urbanisation effects on catchment water balance. The flat relief of the study catchment and its sandy soils, in combination with a Mediterranean-type climate, lead to large rates of diffuse gross recharge and diffuse (evaporative) discharge with low overall runoff from the catchment (water regime, leading to a reduction in groundwater residence time and 'flushing' of legacy solutes towards the surface water network. Concurrently, urban development introduces new sources of solutes. It was found that the modelled concentrations of legacy solutes in the urban drains are greater than the water quality standards in the region; though, legacy solute concentrations reduce by 50% within the first 2-3 years and become less than 5% within 10 years for all urban scenarios. The full effect of new urban landscape on water quality was estimated to be longer than 5 years. Urban density and groundwater abstraction for irrigation of public open space and domestic garden have an effect on the surface water quality, as they influence the rate of legacy solute replacement and accumulation of the solute associated with the new urban forms. It was shown that water quality control measures in new urban developments should be directed to legacy nutrients during the first 2-3 years but measures reducing nutrient leachate from soil, such as soil amendments, should be considered for long-term solutions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  20. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  1. Selected Factors Affecting the Development of Auditing Services Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rydzak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three factors affecting the development of auditing services market and its oligopoly. The binding provisions of law concerning discretionary powers of auditing companies’ proprietary rights, to some extent, petrify the current auditing market structure. By means of numerous capital access deterrents they make it impossible to compete with the most influential entities on the market. Bearing in mind the vital influence of statutory auditors on companies’ functioning, and allowing the companies access to capital, it is advisable to abolish all binding restrictions and simultaneously strengthen the internal control mechanisms facilitating high quality of financial review and statutory auditors’ independence. The auditing services market is, most of all, subject to price competition. The binding requisition of statutory auditors’ (including auditing companies salary disclosure intensifies mutual chain of audit pricing dependence and restricts competition. Properly utilized rotation principle, by strengthening the competence, might positively influence functioning of the auditing services market. It increases an opportunity of collaborating with new entities, while enforcing constant improvement of qualifications required to perform financial reviews. Hence its wider use should be postulated.

  2. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  3. Sowing time affecting the development of common bean cultivars in Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The demonstration of yield potential of crops depends on genetic factors, favorable conditions of envi ronment, and management. The sowing time can significantly affect the common bean grain yield. The aim of this research was to study the behavior of Brazilian cultivars and sowing times on the yield components and grain yield of common bean grown in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique. The field trial was performed for two growing seasons, using the experimental as a randomized block in factorial 5 × 3 × 2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of five common bean cultivars (BRS Pontal, BRS Agreste, Perola, and BRS Requinte, developed by Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, and a local variety, Encarnada with three sowing dates (beginning of the rainy season, and 15 and 30 days after, during two growing seasons. The Brazilian cultivar of common beans BRS Pontal was the most productive in all sowing times, followed by BRS Agreste, which was not the most productive only in the second sowing time of 2013/2014 growing season. The cultivar Encarnada, from Mozambique, was the less productive cultivar in all sowing times and in all growing seasons. The best sowing time for common bean cultivars is in the beginning of the rainy season. The use of technologies such as use of seeds of new cultivars, proper sowing time, fertilization, and control of weeds allow significant increase of common bean grain yield in Lichinga, Mozambique.

  4. Factors affecting unsafe behavior in construction projects: development and validation of a new questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Khosravi, Yahya; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Behzadan, Amir H

    2018-02-05

    Occupational safety in general, and construction safety in particular, is a complex phenomenon. This study was designed to develop a new valid measure to evaluate factors affecting unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A new questionnaire was generated from qualitative research according to the principles of grounded theory. Key measurement properties (face validity, content validity, construct validity, reliability and discriminative validity) were examined using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the discriminating power and the optimal cutoff score. Construct validity revealed an interpretable 12-factor structure which explained 61.87% of variance. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and stability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.93) were found for the new instrument. The area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity were 0.80, 0.80 and 0.75, respectively. The new instrument also discriminated safety performance among the construction sites with different workers' accident histories (F = 6.40, p construction industry.

  5. Development of IPRO-ZONE to Determine Component Failure Modes Affected by a Fire Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to select internal initiating events and to determine component failure modes for fire occurrence event of each fire compartment. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on the several factors. These factors are whether components and their relating equipment and cables are located at fire initiation and propagation compartments or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components and their relating equipment, designed failure modes of component, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Up to the present, a PSA analyst has been manually determining component failure modes based on criteria mentioned above. This task is one of the difficult works required for fire PSA expertise. In addition, since it requires much information, a fire PSA analyst may have difficulty in maintaining consistency for determining the component failure modes and documentation for them. After determining the component failure modes, internal PSA basic events corresponding to the component failure modes are selected and fire events are modeled for the selected basic events if required. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to determine component failure modes affected by a fire, to select the internal PSA basic events, and to generate fire events to be modeled. In this paper, we introduce the overview of the IPRO-ZONE and approaches for determining component failure modes implemented in the IPRO-ZONE

  6. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  7. Maternal allergic disease history affects childhood allergy development through impairment of neonatal regulatory T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shan-Shan; Gao, Rong; Yan, Bing-di; Ren, Jin; Wu, Fei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Li-Fang; Xiao, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-20

    Maternal allergic disease history and impaired regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical risk factors for allergy development in children. However, the mechanisms that underlie these risk factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether maternal allergies affect the Tregs of offspring and lead to allergy development in childhood. A total of 332 mothers of healthy newborns (234 from no allergic mothers, 98 from allergic mothers) were recruited to this study. Detailed questionnaires were administered yearly to determine the allergy status of the mothers and the newborns from birth to 3 years of age. Cord blood samples obtained at the time of birth were analysed for Treg counts, as well Treg activity, based on their response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli such as lipid A (LPA) and peptidoglycans (PPG). Surface markers, associated genes, suppressive capacity, and cytokine levels of Tregs were also measured. Possible correlations between Treg activity and maternal or neonate allergies were assessed. In addition, environmental microbial content and other known risk factors for allergies were measured. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) from offspring with allergic mothers showed fewer CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, lower expression levels of associated genes, and reduced cytokine production of interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon-γ (P allergies was impaired, especially IL-13 production by Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells (P = 0.026). Children who developed allergies in the first 3 years of life had lower numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells and reduced FOXP3 expression and IL-10 production as newborns (P allergy development in the children (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.46, 95 % CI = 1.05-5.79); while declining Treg numbers, IL-10 production, and FOXP3 expression in neonates (PPG and LPA stimulated) were identified as independent risk factors for allergic diseases in offspring at 3 years of age after adjusting for

  8. Development of a triple GEM readout module for a time projection chamber and measurement accuracies of hadronic Higgs branching fractions in ννH at a 350 GeV ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The presented thesis addresses the development and evaluation of one of the detector concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC is a planned, future electron-positron linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 500 GeV in its first construction stage. The ILC is designed to perform precision measurements of the Standard Model, especially a model-independent reconstruction of the electroweak symmetry breaking sector. In 2012, the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC was an important first step and facilitates precision measurements of the Higgs boson coupling constants at the ILC. Challenging design goals have been defined for the ILC detectors in order to reach the desired measurement precisions. One of the two ILC detector concepts is the International Large Detector (ILD). A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the central tracking detector. In contrast to modern silicon tracking detectors, a TPC provides a large number of space points, and thus continuous sampling of the track parameters. Therefore, TPCs offer great pattern recognition capabilities including the identification of particle decays within the sensitive volume. The design momentum resolution of the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t )∼10 -4 GeV -1 which can be translated into a transverse spatial resolution of σ rφ ≤100 μm over the complete drift distance of 2.35 m. In the first part of the thesis, the development of a readout module for the TPC is presented which fulfills the performance requirements of the ILD TPC. The developed readout module is based on a stack of three ''Gas Electron Multiplier'' (GEM) foils and a pad readout. Thin ceramic grids are used as the support structure and spacers between the GEMs. The readout module was tested in a prototype TPC with a maximal drift distance of around 60 cm at the DESY II test beam. An additional guard ring at the upper edge of the module was introduced to minimize field distortions at the

  9. Unilateral nasal obstruction affects motor representation development within the face primary motor cortex in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasunori; Kato, Chiho; Uchima Koecklin, Karin Harumi; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control ( n = 36) and experimental ( n = 36) groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction after cauterization of the external nostril at 8 days of age. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed when the rats were 5, 7, 9, and 11 wk old in control and experimental groups ( n = 9 per group per time point). Repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA was used for intergroup and intragroup statistical comparisons. In the control and experimental groups, the total number of positive ICMS sites for the genioglossus and anterior digastric muscles was significantly higher at 5, 7, and 9 wk, but there was no significant difference between 9 and 11 wk of age. Moreover, the total number of positive ICMS sites was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control at each age. It is possible that nasal obstruction induced the initial changes in orofacial motor behavior in response to the altered respiratory pattern, which eventually contributed to face-M1 neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral nasal obstruction in rats during growth periods induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and altered development of the motor representation within the face primary cortex. Unilateral nasal obstruction occurring during growth periods may greatly affect not only respiratory function but also craniofacial function in rats. Nasal obstruction should be treated

  10. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  11. Branching pattern in natural drainage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, M.; Singh, A.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The formation and growth of river channels and their network evolution are governed by the erosional and depositional processes operating on the landscape due to movement of water. The branching structure of drainage network is an important feature related to the network topology and contain valuable information about the forming mechanisms of the landscape. We studied the branching patterns in natural drainage networks, extracted from 1 m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of 120 catchments with minimal human impacts across the United States. We showed that the junction angles have two distinct modes an the observed modes are physically explained as the optimal angles that result in minimum energy dissipation and are linked to the exponent characterizing slope-area curve. Our findings suggest that the flow regimes, debris-flow dominated or fluvial, have distinct characteristic angles which are functions of the scaling exponent of the slope-area curve. These findings enable us to understand the geomorphological signature of hydrological processes on drainage networks and develop more refined landscape evolution models.

  12. Growth and development of moringa (Moringa oleifera L. stem cuttings as affected by diameter magnitude, growth media, and indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddeen Rufai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledged status of Moringa oleifera L. in sub-Saharan Africa, especially western Africa, has of recent accorded it the significance of being a good source of income to a large segment of many of its populace. Intensification of research into the realization of its full economic potential will be of utmost value to impoverished societies globally. One way to achieve this is the full exploration of all possible means that will facilitate its successful growth, propagation, and domestication. Even though it can be successfully raised through seeds, the high level outcrossing (64.3% observed is a hindrance to realization of true to type trees. Vegetative propagation can be employed as an option to tackle the noted limitation, ease the cultivation process, and achieve the required realization of its economic potential. Our trial was carried out to study the influence of two growth media and three levels of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA on root and shoot development in cuttings taken from a coppiced moringa tree existent in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Semi-hardwood cuttings of moringa, of between 20 and 30 mm diameter, cut into 25 cm length, were obtained, rinsed with a fungicide, then dipped, through their basal portion, inside varying levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA for between 7 and 10 seconds. The treated cuttings were then transplanted into a polyethylene bags (23 cm × 36 cm, containing two growth media - a munchong series soil (M and a combination of a munchong series soil thoroughly mixed with biochar (MB in a 3:1 ratio sequence. The trial was conducted inside a shade house where the humidity of the experimental area was manipulated through a regular daily manual hand sprinkling. Plant height, percentage of primary branch produced, leaf area, and dry matter (DM were found to be significantly (P<0.05 influenced by variation in stem diameter magnitude, while the diameter of the primary branch and spad

  13. Select nutrients in the uterine lumen of sheep and pigs affect conceptus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jinyoung; Ka, Hakhyun; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao; Song, Gwonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition signal from ruminant conceptuses. IFNT also acts with P4 to induce expression of genes for transport of nutrients, such as glucose (Gluc) and arginine (Arg) into the uterine lumen to activate mechanistic mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) cell signaling that stimulates proliferation, migration, gene transcription and mRNA translation by conceptus trophectoderm (Tr). In ewes, Arg and Gluc increase significantly in the uterine lumen between Days 10 and 15 of pregnancy due to increased expression of transporters for Gluc (SLC2A1 and SLC5A1) and Arg (SLC7A2B) by uterine epithelia. Arg and Gluc stimulate proliferation, migration and mRNA translation by Tr. Arg increases expression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and IFNT mRNAs while Arg and Gluc increase ornithine decarboxylase, nitric oxide synthase 2, and GCH1 mRNAs and proteins by Tr cells. GCH1 is required for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor for all NOS isoforms. Arg is metabolized to nitric oxide and polyamines that increase proliferation and migration of Tr cells. In pigs, Gluc, Arg, leucine (Leu) and glutamine (Gln) increase in the uterine lumen between Days 12 and 15 of pregnancy due to enhanced expression of transporters for Gluc and amino acids. Transporters for Gluc in porcine uterine LE (SLC2A1) and conceptus trophectoderm (SLC2A2) are abundant. Transporters for glutamate and neutral (SLC1A1, SLC1A4) and cationic (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A7, SLC7A9) amino acids are expressed in uterine LE and SLC7A3 mRNA is expressed in conceptus Tr. Arg and Leu increase MTOR cell signaling and proliferation of pig Tr, as do Gluc and fructose. Azaserine, an inhibitor of hexosamine biosynthesis, inhibits effects of Gluc and fructose. Thus, select nutrients in the uterine lumen affect gene transcription and mRNA translation to affect conceptus development.

  14. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  15. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  16. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  17. Triazole linkages and backbone branches in nucleic acids for biological and extra-biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Eduardo

    well-defined architectures based solely on DNA. While backbone branched DNAs are useful for nanotechnological applications, backbone branches in RNA occur in nature and are involved in the distinct but related processes of splicing, debranching and RNAi. Therefore we have developed protocols for the synthesis of backbone branched nucleic acids in the solid-phase using photoprotecting groups. Using the synthesized backbone branched RNAs we have uncovered a specific substrate requirement of debranching enzyme which distinguishes it from other homologous proteins with alternative functions. Finally, through the marriage of click chemistry and backbone branches, we have produced useful progeny in the synthesis of lariat RNAs. We investigated the potential of these lariats as therapeutic agents by synthesizing siRNA sequences as lariats. We showed that these lariats are efficiently debranched by debranching enzyme and are able to induce an RNAi response in vivo. Altogether, the development of click chemistry and backbone branched nucleic acids represents a significant advantage in the ability to modify nucleic acid structure and affect its function. I envision that these methods can become generally useful to probe nucleic acid systems, useful nanomaterials and functional effectors in nucleic acid based therapies.

  18. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caitlin A.; Yan, Jing; Howell, Audrey S.; Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1. PMID:26633194

  19. Oxygen-dependent changes in lung development do not affect epithelial infection with influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, William; Yee, Min; Misra, Ravi S; Gelein, Robert; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen, which contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with IAV [IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2] as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality. Since neonatal hyperoxia alters lung structure, we used a novel fluorescence-expressing reporter strain of H1N1 IAV [A/Puerto Rico/8/34 mCherry (PR8-mCherry)] to evaluate whether it also altered early infection of the respiratory epithelium. Like Hong Kong/X31, neonatal hyperoxia increased morbidity and mortality of adult mice infected with PR8-mCherry. Whole lung imaging and histology suggested a modest increase in mCherry expression in adult mice exposed to neonatal hyperoxia compared with room air-exposed animals. However, this did not reflect an increase in airway or alveolar epithelial infection when mCherry-positive cells were identified and quantified by flow cytometry. Instead, a modest increase in the number of CD45-positive macrophages expressing mCherry was detected. While neonatal hyperoxia does not alter early epithelial infection with IAV, it may increase the activity of macrophages toward infected cells, thereby enhancing early epithelial injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Factors affecting the selection of a reversible or an irreversible contraceptive method in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, S; Yalcin, O T; Hassa, H; Erbay, B; Dalan, N

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the factors that may affect the selection of a reversible or an irreversible contraceptive method. In an urban area of a developing country, demographic characteristics, educational and income levels, and previously used contraceptive methods were retrospectively reviewed for 3 years from the files of women who had chosen reversible or irreversible contraceptive methods. Student's t test and the chi2 test were used to analyze the data obtained from the two groups of women. Out of a total of 8078 women, 595 (7.4%) selected surgical sterilization, while 7483 (92.6%) preferred reversible methods such as intrauterine devices (38.1%), combined oral contraceptives (13.9%), condoms (40%) and Norplant (0.6%). Compared to those who preferred reversible methods, the women with surgical sterilization had a higher mean age (33.9 +/- 4.2 years versus 29.6 +/- 3.9 years), mean gravidity (3.8 +/- 0.9 versus 2.3 +/- 1.2) and mean number of living children (2.6 +/- 0.8 versus 2.1 +/- 1.1) (p < 0.01). These women had also higher rates of high-school education (37.3% versus 30.1%) and previous modern contraceptive use (78.1% versus 71.2%) (p < 0.01). None of the women with surgical sterilization, but 1770 (33.0%) of those who chose reversible methods, had fewer than two living children. These data suggest that irreversible contraceptive methods tend to be chosen by older women with higher educational levels, who have decided that their family is complete and who have at least two children.

  1. Microvascular dysfunction affects the development and prognosis of sudden idiopathic hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, H E; Filiz Acıpayam, A Ş; Acıpayam, H; Çakıl Erdoğan, B; Alakhras, W M E; Kıral, M N; Keskin, M; Kayhan, F T

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether systemic microvascular function affects the development and prognosis of sudden idiopathic hearing loss (SHL). A prospective case-control study. Fifty patients diagnosed with SHL at our hospital between September 2015 and May 2016 were included as the SHL group, and 50 healthy volunteers who came to the hospital for medical screening were included in the control group. Thirty-one patients from the SHL group who responded to treatment and 19 patients who did not respond to treatment were identified according to the Siegel criteria and were grouped. Patients with comorbid disorders were excluded from the study. To determine microvascular function, the videocapillaroscopic examination was conducted from the nailfold, measuring the capillary density (CD) and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) values and statistical analysis was performed between the groups. While CD was an average of 83.1 ± 6 in the SHL group, it was measured as 96.2 ± 10 in the control group. The CD value was significantly lower in the SHL group than the control group (P 0.05) between the group that responded to treatment (83.4 ± 5.5) and the group that did not respond to treatment (82.7 ± 6.9). The PORH value was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the group that did not respond to treatment (75.2 ± 7.9) than the group that did (83.8 ± 5.6). To our best knowledge, our study is the first study in the literature. Although the role of specific mechanisms in SHL is not entirely understood, the capillaroscopic examination can show the importance of microvascular function in SHL. CD and PORH values were found to be low in SHL patients, and a low PORH value was found to be a factor of poor prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  3. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  4. Highly Branched poly(5-amino-1-pentanol-co-1,4-butanediol diacrylate for High Performance Gene Transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zeng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The top-performing linear poly(β-amino ester (LPAE, poly(5-amino-1-pentanol-co-1,4-butanediol diacrylate (C32, has demonstrated gene transfection efficiency comparable to viral-mediated gene delivery. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of highly branched poly(5-amino-1-pentanol-co-1,4-butanediol diacrylate (HC32 and explore how the branching structure influences the performance of C32 in gene transfection. HC32 were synthesized by an “A2 + B3 + C2” Michal addition strategy. Gaussia luciferase (Gluciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP coding plasmid DNA were used as reporter genes and the gene transfection efficiency was evaluated in human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa and human recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa keratinocyte (RDEBK cells. We found that the optimal branching structure led to a much higher gene transfection efficiency in comparison to its linear counterpart and commercial reagents, while preserving high cell viability in both cell types. The branching strategy affected DNA binding, proton buffering capacity and degradation of polymers as well as size, zeta potential, stability, and DNA release rate of polyplexes significantly. Polymer degradation and DNA release rate played pivotal parts in achieving the high gene transfection efficiency of HC32-103 polymers, providing new insights for the development of poly(β-amino esters-based gene delivery vectors.

  5. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP i cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Grandio, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose M.; Tarancon, Carlos; Immink, Richard G.H.; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally themost important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out

  6. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  7. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  8. Maximum likelihood inference of small trees in the presence of long branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sarah L; Goldman, Nick

    2014-09-01

    The statistical basis of maximum likelihood (ML), its robustness, and the fact that it appears to suffer less from biases lead to it being one of the most popular methods for tree reconstruction. Despite its popularity, very few analytical solutions for ML exist, so biases suffered by ML are not well understood. One possible bias is long branch attraction (LBA), a regularly cited term generally used to describe a propensity for long branches to be joined together in estimated trees. Although initially mentioned in connection with inconsistency of parsimony, LBA has been claimed to affect all major phylogenetic reconstruction methods, including ML. Despite the widespread use of this term in the literature, exactly what LBA is and what may be causing it is poorly understood, even for simple evolutionary models and small model trees. Studies looking at LBA have focused on the effect of two long branches on tree reconstruction. However, to understand the effect of two long branches it is also important to understand the effect of just one long branch. If ML struggles to reconstruct one long branch, then this may have an impact on LBA. In this study, we look at the effect of one long branch on three-taxon tree reconstruction. We show that, counterintuitively, long branches are preferentially placed at the tips of the tree. This can be understood through the use of analytical solutions to the ML equation and distance matrix methods. We go on to look at the placement of two long branches on four-taxon trees, showing that there is no attraction between long branches, but that for extreme branch lengths long branches are joined together disproportionally often. These results illustrate that even small model trees are still interesting to help understand how ML phylogenetic reconstruction works, and that LBA is a complicated phenomenon that deserves further study. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  9. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA....... This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV...

  10. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  11. Algorithms for Quantum Branching Programs Based on Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we develop a method for constructing quantum algorithms for computing Boolean functions by quantum ordered read-once branching programs (quantum OBDDs. Our method is based on fingerprinting technique and representation of Boolean functions by their characteristic polynomials. We use circuit notation for branching programs for desired algorithms presentation. For several known functions our approach provides optimal QOBDDs. Namely we consider such functions as Equality, Palindrome, and Permutation Matrix Test. We also propose a generalization of our method and apply it to the Boolean variant of the Hidden Subgroup Problem.

  12. Acoustic length correction of closed cylindrical side-branched tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Z. L.

    2005-05-01

    A numerical approach based on the three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is developed to determine the acoustic length correction of closed cylindrical side-branched tube mounted perpendicular to a cylindrical main pipe. The effects of Helmholtz number and finite length of side-branched tube on the acoustic length correction are examined, and a curve-fitting expression is provided for the acoustically long side-branched tube. For a pipe-mounted concentric Helmholtz resonator, the transmission loss and resonance frequency are predicted by using the 3-D BEM and the corrected 1-D analytical approach to assess the accuracy and applicability of the latter, as well as to illustrate the importance of acoustic length correction for an accurate prediction of resonance frequency of the pipe-mounted resonator.

  13. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  14. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  15. Neutrophil Interactions Stimulate Evasive Hyphal Branching by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ellett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA, primarily caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly affecting immunocompromised and neutropenic patients that is difficult to treat and results in high mortality. Investigations of neutrophil-hypha interaction in vitro and in animal models of IA are limited by lack of temporal and spatial control over interactions. This study presents a new approach for studying neutrophil-hypha interaction at single cell resolution over time, which revealed an evasive fungal behavior triggered by interaction with neutrophils: Interacting hyphae performed de novo tip formation to generate new hyphal branches, allowing the fungi to avoid the interaction point and continue invasive growth. Induction of this mechanism was independent of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, but could be phenocopied by iron chelation and mechanical or physiological stalling of hyphal tip extension. The consequence of branch induction upon interaction outcome depends on the number and activity of neutrophils available: In the presence of sufficient neutrophils branching makes hyphae more vulnerable to destruction, while in the presence of limited neutrophils the interaction increases the number of hyphal tips, potentially making the infection more aggressive. This has direct implications for infections in neutrophil-deficient patients and opens new avenues for treatments targeting fungal branching.

  16. Uniqueness of Stationary Measures for Branching Processes and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Harris [3] using classical methods of functional iteration developed by Fatou [4]. It had already been pointed out by Fatou that if the coefficients are...E. HARRIS, 7’he Theory of Branching Processes, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1963. [4] P. FATOU , "Sur les 6quations fonctionelles," Bull. Soc. Math

  17. The Branching Point in Erythro-Myeloid Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, Leïla; Duffy, Ken R; Kok, Lianne; de Boer, Rob J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074214152; Schumacher, Ton N

    2015-01-01

    Development of mature blood cell progenies from hematopoietic stem cells involves the transition through lineage-restricted progenitors. The first branching point along this developmental process is thought to separate the erythro-myeloid and lymphoid lineage fate by yielding two intermediate

  18. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  19. PMWS Development in Pigs from Affected Farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a worldwide spread condition that affects pigs in nursery and/or fattening units, and is considered to have a severe economic impact on swine production. The main clinical sign of PMWS is wasting, but can also include pallor of the skin, icteru...

  20. The "Lord of the Rings": Affective Approaches to Teaching Literature. DRICE (Development & Research in Confluent Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aaron

    This paper was intended to be read to a class or group of people who will in turn respond to the directions given in the paper. It is an attempt to merge the affective and cognitive experiences of literature in order to provide a more meaningful experience while studying J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy, "The Lord of the Rings." The directions…

  1. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under

  2. LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects bone accrual and eye development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Slee, R.B.; Fukai, N.; Rawadi, G.; Roman-Roman, S.; Reginato, A.M.; Wang, H.; Cundy, T.; Glorieux, F.H.; Lev, D.; Zacharin, M.; Oexle, K.; Marcelino, J.; Suwairi, W.; Heeger, S.; Sabatakos, G.; Apte, S.; Adkins, W.; Allgrove, J.; Arslan-Kirchner, M.; Batch, J.A.; Beighton, P.; Black, G.C.M.; Boles, R.G.; Boon, L.; Borrone, C.; Brunner, H.G.; Carle, G.F.; Dallapicola, B.; Paepe, A. de; Floege, B.; Halfhide, M.L.; Hall, B.D.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Hirose, T.; Jans, A.; Juppner, H.; Kim, C.; Keppler-Noreuil, K.; Kohlschuetter, A.; Lacombe, D.; Lambert, M.; Lemyre, E.; Letteboer, T.; Peltonen, L.; Ramesar, R.S.; Romanengo, M.; Somer, H.; Steichen-Gersdorf, E.; Steinmann, B.; Sullivan, B.; Superti-Furga, A.; Swoboda, W.; Boogaard, M.J. van den; Hul, W. van; Vikkula, M.; Votruba, M.; Zabel, B.; Garcia, T.; Baron, R.; Olsen, B.R.; Warman, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    In humans, low peak bone mass is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis. We report that LRP5, encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, affects bone mass accrual during growth. Mutations in LRP5 cause the autosomal recessive disorder osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome

  3. LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects bone accrual and eye development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Slee, R. B.; Fukai, N.; Rawadi, G.; Roman-Roman, S.; Reginato, A. M.; Wang, H.; Cundy, T.; Glorieux, F. H.; Lev, D.; Zacharin, M.; Oexle, K.; Marcelino, J.; Suwairi, W.; Heeger, S.; Sabatakos, G.; Apte, S.; Adkins, W. N.; Allgrove, J.; Arslan-Kirchner, M.; Batch, J. A.; Beighton, P.; Black, G. C.; Boles, R. G.; Boon, L. M.; Borrone, C.; Brunner, H. G.; Carle, G. F.; Dallapiccola, B.; de Paepe, A.; Floege, B.; Halfhide, M. L.; Hall, B.; Hennekam, R. C.; Hirose, T.; Jans, A.; Jüppner, H.; Kim, C. A.; Keppler-Noreuil, K.; Kohlschuetter, A.; Lacombe, D.; Lambert, M.; Lemyre, E.; Letteboer, T.; Peltonen, L.; Ramesar, R. S.; Romanengo, M.; Somer, H.; Steichen-Gersdorf, E.; Steinmann, B.; Sullivan, B.; Superti-Furga, A.; Swoboda, W.; van den Boogaard, M. J.; van Hul, W.; Vikkula, M.; Votruba, M.; Zabel, B.; Garcia, T.; Baron, R.; Olsen, B. R.; Warman, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    In humans, low peak bone mass is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis. We report that LRP5, encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, affects bone mass accrual during growth. Mutations in LRP5 cause the autosomal recessive disorder osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome

  4. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Elske N. de; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  5. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  6. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  7. Using Rasch Measurement for the Development and Use of Affective Assessments in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    With the demand for quality quantitative instruments in the field of science education rising, additional measures of currently unassessed affective variables need to be constructed. In this study, we discuss the survey creation and evaluation process of the STEM Awareness Community Survey (SACS) through an application of Liu's (Liu, X.,…

  8. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Elske N. de; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  9. Architecture, Assembly, and Emerging Applications of Branched Functional Polyelectrolytes and Poly(ionic liquid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weinan; Ledin, Petr A; Shevchenko, Valery V; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2015-06-17

    Branched polyelectrolytes with cylindrical brush, dendritic, hyperbranched, grafted, and star architectures bearing ionizable functional groups possess complex and unique assembly behavior in solution at surfaces and interfaces as compared to their linear counterparts. This review summarizes the recent developments in the introduction of various architectures and understanding of the assembly behavior of branched polyelectrolytes with a focus on functional polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s with responsive properties. The branched polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s interact electrostatically with small molecules, linear polyelectrolytes, or other branched polyelectrolytes to form assemblies of hybrid nanoparticles, multilayer thin films, responsive microcapsules, and ion-conductive membranes. The branched structures lead to unconventional assemblies and complex hierarchical structures with responsive properties as summarized in this review. Finally, we discuss prospectives for emerging applications of branched polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s for energy harvesting and storage, controlled delivery, chemical microreactors, adaptive surfaces, and ion-exchange membranes.

  10. [Effect of 5-azacitidine on flower stalk branching in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletskaia, E I; Iudanova, S S; Maletskiĭ, S I

    2006-01-01

    An influence of epimutagen 5-azacitidine on a flower stalk morphogenesis in sugar beet was studied. After the epimutagene treatment the great number of the first- and the third-order branch formation was observed. A higher level of branching completely modified the flower stalk architectonics (generations A0Az0 and A1Az1). A number of the second-order branches in the control and the experimental plants were not distinguished. A new epiphenotype with higher level of branching (generation A0Az0) inherited in daughter generation A1Az1. A flower stalk architectonics was modified because the third-order branches developed in the bract axil instead of flower primordium. A great number of lateral shoot modified a metamer organization of the flower stalk. The metamers on the third-order branches were single-flowered.

  11. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  12. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  13. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula

  14. Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-09-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

  15. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  16. The MADS-box gene SlMBP11 regulates plant architecture and affects reproductive development in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhu; Chen, Guoping; Naeem, Muhammad; Yu, Xiaohu; Tang, Boyan; Li, Anzhou; Hu, Zongli

    2017-05-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves. Moreover, overexpression lines also exhibited reproductive phenotypes, such as those having a shorter style and split ovary, leading to polycarpous fruits, while the wild type showed normal floral organization. In addition, delayed perianth senescence was observed in transgenic tomatoes. These phenotypes were further confirmed by analyzing the morphological, anatomical and molecular features of lines exhibiting overexpression. These results suggest that SlMBP11 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture and reproductive development in tomato plants. These findings add a new class of transcription factors to the group of genes controlling axillary bud growth and illuminate a previously uncharacterized function of MADS-box genes in tomato plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Stewart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  18. CISN Earthquake Early Warning: ShakeAlert Hybrid Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H.; Lim, I.; Allen, R. M.; Böse, M.; Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team

    2010-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is developing an integrated, statewide earthquake early warning (EEW) system for California. In summer 2009 the CISN completed a three-year proof-of-concept study, analyzing three EEW algorithms for viability in California: (1) Onsite, run by the California Institute of Technology, (2) Virtual Seismologist, run by the Swiss Seismological Service, and (3) ElarmS, run by the University of California at Berkeley. The study successfully detected earthquakes and accurately predicted the resulting ground shaking. As of December 2010 the CISN EEW team is halfway through a second three-year project to build an end-to-end prototype early warning system capable of delivering warning to a small group of test users. This new system is called CISN ShakeAlert. An area of ongoing research is the Hybrid Branch: a new, integrated algorithm to calculate event magnitude and location in realtime. The Hybrid Branch takes advantage of the best aspects of each of the original test algorithms. The Hybrid Branch will be able to rapidly recognize and assess an event using only a single station’s P-wave data, as OnSite does, but it will also combine data from multiple stations in a network-based approach, as Virtual Seismologist and ElarmS do. This will give the Hybrid Branch the speed of a single-station EEW method with the reliability of a multi-station method. One of the challenges of the Hybrid Branch is how to progress from a single station description of a given event to a multi-station view of the same event. The authors use a Bayesian approach to combine event information and adapt to changing data availability. Output from the Hybrid Branch will be sent to the ShakeAlert Decision Module, which consolidates event information from a variety of sources and generates earthquake alerts.

  19. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  20. Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 yr after inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid

    2011-01-01

    Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...

  1. Why so fast? : An investigation of the cognitive and affective processes underlying successful and failing development of reading fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    The studies in this thesis aimed to improve our understanding of cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the development of reading fluency, both in Dutch typical and dyslexic readers. In typical readers we investigated the timing of orthography-phonology integration. Time course analyses of

  2. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  3. Educational Videos: A Didactic Tool for Strengthening English Vocabulary through the Development of Affective Learning in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis Nova, Jonnathan; Onatra Chavarro, Clara Isabel; Zubieta Córdoba, Any Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The following paper seeks to develop a proposal, observing to what extent educational videos and affective learning can strengthen vocabulary in an EFL setting. This action research study was done with fifth grade students belonging to a public school, who showed a low degree of motivation in the English class, making it difficult to acquire the…

  4. Developing a function impairment measure for children affected by political violence: a mixed methods approach in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Susanty, D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Practitioners in political violence-affected settings would benefit from rating scales that assess child function impairment in a reliable and valid manner when designing and evaluating interventions. We developed a procedure to construct child function impairment rating scales using

  5. Increased risk of developing dementia in patients with major affective disorders compared to patients with other medical illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg

    2003-01-01

    with osteoarthritis or diabetes. Differences in age and gender and the effect of alcohol- or drug-abuse did not explain these associations. CONCLUSION: Patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorder seem to have an increased risk of developing dementia compared to patients with other illnesses. LIMITATION...

  6. Do brood sex ratio, nestling development and sex affect fledging timing and order? An experimental study on great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, Reinder; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    The process of nest leaving (fledging) in hole-breeding passerines is largely unexplored, although it is potentially an important facet of reproduction. We used the great tit, Parus major, to investigate whether fledging timing and order were affected by nestling development and sex, as well as the

  7. Effects of apical meristem loss on sylleptic branching and growth of hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Joseph D. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Plant Sciences Department

    2007-07-15

    The effects of apical meristem loss on the growth and development of hybrid poplar trees was investigated. This was done by clipping back either the apical meristem alone (dividing cells), or the apical meristem plus a small amount of additional stem tissue (expanding cells, <1 cm), at various times during the first growing season. Two clones (NM6-nonsylleptic habit, and DN34-slightly sylleptic habit) were tested at close spacing (0.6 m) in the nursery. Clipping generally increased the number of sylleptic branches formed. Clipping 69 days after planting resulted in the largest number of sylleptic branches while clipping 4 weeks later gave no increase in syllepsis. Clipping temporarily reduced height growth of both clones but total height at the end of the first growing season was not affected by any treatment. There were some slight differences in growth during the second growing season; despite these differences, total stem biomass and total tree biomass after 2 years were not affected by temporary loss of the apical meristem in the first growing season. Results suggest that death or removal of hybrid poplar apical meristems by tip borers or ungulates has no long-term effects on aboveground growth as measured by height or biomass. (author)

  8. Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism as Alternative Tourism and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEKEN, Hüseyin; DALGIN, Taner; ÇAKIR, Neşe

    2012-01-01

    New tourism trends in the world are developing in the direction of history, health, trekking, cultural and rural tourism depending on the demand. The importance of rural tourism is increasing day by day both in developed and developing countries as being alternative to or complimentary to existing tourism types. There is a great effort in the world to reinforce economies of rural areas by using touristic supply sources for rural tourism purposes. The achievements in the rural tourism applicat...

  9. Social environmental factors in Japan affecting the development of proper eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, H; Benkert, K; Takeuchi, H; Hagiwara, N; Sasaki, K; Kanemoto, H

    1999-11-01

    This article summarizes issues related to myofunctional disorders/dysphagia and focuses upon social and economic changes within Japanese culture affecting eating habits and behaviors in children. The authors suggest that unfavorable environmental factors negatively impact upon the acquisition of mastication and swallowing behaviors. The article includes discussion of prior research. Studies indicate that decreased observation of early childhood eating habits, dietary changes with regard to higher consumption of fast food and changes within the family, i.e. busy work schedules, decrease in family mealtimes, combine to incur negative change with regard to orofacial function.

  10. One-dimensional calculation of flow branching using the method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.W.; Gido, R.G.

    1978-05-01

    In one-dimensional flow systems, the flow often branches, such as at a tee or manifold. The study develops a formulation for calculating the flow through branch points with one-dimensional method of characteristics equations. The resultant equations were verified by comparison with experimental measurements

  11. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary...

  12. Factors affecting the career development of male nurses: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2010-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test a theory of the relations of emotional labour and professional empowerment to nursing career development. Nurses are required to show high emotional labour, but this can bring about excessive pressure and emotional exhaustion. Male nurses usually perceive societal expectations in line with a more traditionally masculine role. Greater professional empowerment might assist them in attaining promotion and career success. The study had a cross-sectional correlational design. Data were collected in 2007 using a mailed questionnaire. We used a database published by the National Union of Nurses' Associations, Republic of China, to find medical care institutions at which male nurses were working. A convenience sample of male nurses (308) working at clinical nursing centres completed the mailed questionnaires. Emotional labour was not statistically significantly related to nursing career development, but was statistically significantly related to professional empowerment. Professional empowerment was statistically significantly related to nursing career development. Professional empowerment a mediating factor in the influence of emotional labour on nursing career development. We found that 75% of the variance in nursing career development could be explained by emotional labour and professional empowerment. The expected result, that emotional labour has a direct effect on nursing career development, was not supported by the analyses. Emotional labour has only an indirect effect on nursing career development. Professional empowerment was directly linked to nursing career development. Male nurses who perceived higher professional empowerment had better career development.

  13. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  14. Control and Kinetics of Branch Root Formation in Cultured Root Segments of Haplopappus ravenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, L M; Rodaway, S J; Hollen, L B; Croker, S G

    1972-07-01

    Branch root formation required only the presence of minerals, sucrose as a carbon source, and an auxin. The number of primordia formed was a function of auxin concentration. With naphthaleneacetic acid at 0.1 mg/l, up to 60 or more branches were formed per centimeter of Haplopappus ravenii root segment. Under our conditions, pea root segments formed only five or six branches per centimeter, but tomato and radish, like H. ravenii, formed large numbers of branches. Cytokinin inhibited branch formation, while gibberellic acid was without effect. Vitamins were not required for branch formation, although they enhanced elongation. Up to 5 days were required for the maximum number of stable branch primordia to form under the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid. If naphthaleneacetic acid was withdrawn earlier, fewer branch primordia developed. The requirement for a lengthy exposure to naphthaleneacetic acid, the kinetics of the response, and the ease with which naphthaleneacetic acid could be rinsed out of the tissue with consequent cessation of branch root formation, were similar to other hormone-regulated developmental systems. Anatomical and cytological studies were made of segments exposed for various times to auxin. The segments were mostly diarch, and branches formed obliquely to protoxylem poles. While primarily only pericycle-endodermis cells divided, both these and cortex cells responded in the first 24 hours exposure to naphthaleneacetic acid with enlarged nuclei and nucleoli, and a few cortical cells divided. Maximum nucleus and nucleolus size was reached approximately 9 hours after exposure to naphthaleneacetic acid. Branches rarely elongated more than 5 cm before their meristems died. The H. ravenii culture is maintained only by the frequent formation of new naphthaleneacetic acid-induced branches.

  15. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  16. The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry

  17. The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Zanden, van J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry

  18. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  19. Is Littoral Habitat Affected by Residential Development and Land Use in Watersheds of Wisconsin Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Jennings; Edward E. Emmons; Gene R. Hatzenbeler; Clayton Edwards; Michael A. Bozek

    2003-01-01

    We measured differences in nearshore littoral zone habitat among lakes with different amounts of residential development and different patterns of watershed land use. Sampling stations were located at randomly selected sites within the nearshore littoral zone of limnologically similar lakes. An index of development density (based on counts of residential structures)...

  20. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnos...

  1. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: A PERSPECTIVE FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Pandit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationally projects exhibit time and cost overrun. It is observed that problems during design development contribute significantly to delays. In India, projects undertaken by government were largely planned and designed by departmental planners and engineers. However, after globalization, projects have increased in number resulting in design outsourcing, but with attendant challenges. The paper is aimed at identifying and analysing factors in the design development phase that can have impact on project success. 30 factors related to design development were identified through two separate brainstorming sessions. A questionnaire was then administered to determine importance ranking of these factors. Relative importance index (RII was used to prioritise these factors. Top ten factors in design development identified using RII include structural design parameters, soil investigations, design quality control, topographic survey, and architectural design parameters. The results can help firms improve their design development practices by prioritising activities that could have more impact on project performance.

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-10-14

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the "wedding flower". However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  5. Measurement of D-meson branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Colino, N.; Ladron de Guevara, P.

    1986-01-01

    Charm data from 360 GeV/c π - p interactions are used to give results on D-meson branching ratios. The analysis is based on 114 charm events containing 183 observed charm particle decays. We present topological branching ratios and decay multiplicities, as well as the following inclusive branching ratios of D-mesons: B(Dsup(+-)->Ksup(-+) + anything) = 0.16+-0.08, B(D 0 ->Ksup(+-) + anything) = 0.44+-0.11, B(Dsup(+-)->esup(+-) + 2,4 charged hadrons) = 0.07+-0.07, B(D 0 ->esup(+-) + anything) = 0.17+-0.07. (orig./HSI)

  6. Serum NGF, BDNF and IL-6 levels in postpartum mothers as predictors of infant development: the influence of affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Coelho, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Quevedo, Luciana Ávila; Schwanz, Cristina Carvalhal; Wiener, Carolina David; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Giovenardi, Márcia; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are associated with increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, although little is known about the neurobiological mediators involved. The mechanisms by which early environmental influences may mediate vulnerability in the development of offspring await further investigation. The present study correlated the NGF, BDNF, IL-6 and cortisol levels of mothers with postpartum affective disorders (PPAD) with infant development. A longitudinal study was performed with 152 pregnant women and their infants. Between 60 and 120 days after delivery, women were interviewed and provided biological samples for biochemical analysis, and the infants were examined for neurobiological-motor development. Overall, the mothers' history of affective disorders, PPAD and anxiety disorder were associated with infant motor development. Using an adjusted linear regression analysis, PPAD (p = 0.049), maternal anxiety disorder (p = 0.043), NGF level (p = 0.034) and infant cortisol level (p = 0.013) were associated with infant motor development. Using a factorial analysis of primary components, two components were retained. The psychological factor was characterized by a positive loading of a history of affective disorder, PPAD and anxiety disorder. For the biological factor, infant cortisol adhered negatively with infant motor development, but NGF was positively associated. The psychological factor had a negative association, but the biological factor had a positive association with infant motor development. There are few studies that have focused on the relationship of biomarkers and infant neurodevelopment. Our study points that psychological and biological factors are associated with infant motor development, however the causal relationship between these factors is still to be defined.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTEINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC REVIVAL OF MINING AREAS AFFECTED BY RESTRUCTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Pleşea

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of an area or region, as a process of change, of economic and jobs development, entails, in the context of what it summarizes through the dualism: ecosystem-ecoeficiency, community concern over the current and future situation of its natural resources, energy, materials and information. With the responsible approach for the sustainable development of mining areas, the exploitation and the efficient use of coal as the main source of fossil fuel for energy production, involves the operation of a sustainable economy to meet the current needs of the society, respectively the orientation of the development technologies and the institutions of increasingly responsible for implementation, which actions must be convergent and replace the fact that mining must use resources with care such as mining as a whole, should not endanger the natural support systems of life. The paper presents, in an uniform and coherent whole, the specific principles and criteria of strategic and integrated management of sustainable development, based on what are the detailed objectives and priorities of economic development of mining regions, as well as highlights of the strategic management of sustainable development at the local, regional and national levels.

  8. Factors Affecting Development of Rural Areas in the Czech Republic: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a topic that is frequently discussed, but there is no consensus on how to measure it. Various criteria exist such as economic, social, cultural or environmental, which can be used to assess rural development. Therefore the main question addressed in this paper is to identify what factors and indicators are suitable for scrutinizing development of rural areas under the conditions of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, articles focused on Czech rural regions were analysed. Fourteen most frequently used indicators were identified based on the comprehensive analysis of the selected Czech studies.

  9. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two...... different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team...

  10. Incubation Environment Affects Immune System Development in a Turtle with Environmental Sex Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Steven; Greives, Timothy J; Ewert, Michael A; Demas, Gregory E; Beecher, Nancy; Nelson, Craig E

    2008-09-01

    The developmental environment can have lasting effects on posthatching phenotype in oviparous animals. Innate immune response is one important component of fitness in vertebrates because it provides a generalized defense against infection. In addition, because male vertebrates are at a higher risk of infection than females, males may benefit more from increased innate immunity than females. We determined the effects of incubation temperature on the innate immune response of hatchling map turtles (Graptemys) by incubating eggs at a range of male and female producing-temperatures and assessing plasma complement activity in the resulting hatchlings. We found a significant effect of incubation environment on circulating complement in hatchling Graptemys ouachitensis, with male-producing temperatures yielding the highest innate immune response. Most important, these results demonstrate that immune response is affected by developmental environment in a species with environmental sex determination, potentially resulting in sex differences in the ability to fend off pathogens.

  11. Evidence implicating BRD1 with brain development and susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Bjarkam, Carsten; Kiær-Larsen, Stine

    Introduction: Linkage studies suggest that chromosome 22q12-13 may contain one or more shared susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPD). In a Faeroese sample we previously reported association between microsatellite markers located at 22q13.31-qtel and both...... disorders. Methods: The present study reports an association analysis across 5 genes (including 14 single nucleotide and two microsatellite polymorphisms) in this interval using a case-control sample of 162 BPD, 103 SZ patients and 200 controls. Results: The bromodomain-containing 1 gene (BRD1), which...... encodes a putative regulator of transcription showed association with both disorders with minimal p-values of 0.0046 and 0.00001 for single marker and overall haplotype analysis, respectively. A specific BRD1 2-marker “risk” haplotype showed a frequency of ~10% in the combined case group versus ~1...

  12. Forensic Implications of Blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae: Diptera) Development Rates Affected by Ketum Extract

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Rashid; A. S. Siti; F. R. Siti; A. R. Reena; H. S. S. Sharifah; F. Z. Nurul; W. A. Nazni

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of ketum extract on development of Chrysomya rufifacies and to analyze the presence of mitragynine in the larvae samples. 110 newly emerged first instar larvae of C. rufifacies were introduced on ketum extract-mixed cow liver at doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60g. Blowfly development rate was determined with 12 hour intervals and mitragynine in larvae was extracted and quantitated. C. rufifacies in control group took about 192 hours to complete their...

  13. A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the ...

  14. How youths' profiles of extracurricular and leisure activity affect their social development

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerwein, Markus; Theis, Desiree; Fischer, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on adolescents' social behaviour and academic performance; however, the reciprocal influence of extracurricular activities and leisure on the development of adolescents' academic performance and social behaviour is unclear. In our study, we investigate the effect of school based and out-of-school leisure activities on adolescent's social and scholastic development. We also explore how students' gender, s...

  15. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovation in (epigenetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the United States, there are only twenty-three Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved companion diagnostics on the market for eleven unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for thirty-six hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and thirty-four non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  16. How Law and Law Enforcement Affect Labour Markets In Developing Countries: An Empirical Evidence From India

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkal, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation examines and investigates the impact of labour market and nonlabour market institutions on the Indian labour market. In general, some of its most important findings are of interest for other developing countries as well. It engages with the critical debate on the potential adverse effects of protective labour laws. Many scholars have looked sceptically on those effects as a bottleneck to labour market flexibility and economic development. To address the raised co...

  17. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  18. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  19. Crack analysis in main steam branch connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churier-Bossennec, H.; Faidy, C.; Ignaccolo, S.; Proix, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Welded pipe connections in main steam line may contain defaults in the weld region. These flaws are modelized as cracks in order to analyse their stability. Their shapes and positions are strongly variable; parametric computations are then very useful. An other need is to look for the critical crack, i.e. the minimum length and the worst position of the crack which lead to instability. Simplified methods had been developed, in order to analyse easily and quickly cracks stability. These ones are based on stress intensity factors, determined from stresses values in branch connections without defaults. 3D finite element computations are then needed, for any loading, to provide stresses used in the analyse. These results are stored in a database. An user friend software, named MSPIQ, has been developed: it is based on these data. The user gives the cracks dimensions and positions, and MSPIQ provides elastic Stress Intensity Factors, Kj (with plastic correction) for any physical loading of the line. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  20. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  1. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  2. Understanding the psychological impact of unconventional gas developments in affected communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Lyons, Kevin D.; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Grimstad, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of unconventional gas developments has created widespread community concerns in many parts of the world. This study adds to the literature on the psychological impact of related developments by drawing upon Conservation of Resources (COR) theory and the concept of place attachment. In providing a holistic framework, it examines community residents’ appraisals of and emotional responses to impacts of an unconventional gas development, and establishes heterogeneity in these appraisals and responses among residents. The findings show that perceived negative impact on resources that encompass personal and communal resources due to the development contributes to negative emotions that can lead to deteriorated psychological well-being. Conversely, perceived positive impact on resources is conducive to positive emotions that in turn can foster residents’ psychological well-being. The findings further reveal that perceived impact on place attachment partially mediates the relationship between perceived impact on resources and negative emotions. Importantly, these effects differ in strength for residents characterized by different ages, lengths of residence, and distances of their properties from the development. Implications for how this framework can be applied to minimize unwanted impacts and be incorporated into social license that goes beyond the current model of community consultation are discussed. - Highlights: • The psychological impact of a gas project in a rural community is examined. • A sense of perceived loss to personal and communal resources is revealed. • Loss to resources leads to negative emotions mediated by loss to place attachment. • Heterogeneity in perceived impacts and emotional responses is evident.

  3. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  4. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  5. Systematization of the Chernobyl affected enterprises and the choice of the forms of their economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, A.N.; Stribuk, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of systematisation of agricultural enterprises with usage of multifactor expert-statistical analysis is offered. Multifactorial classification of 181 facilities of eleven polluted areas of the Gomel region and one area of the Brest region, injured with Chernobyl accident is carried out. The mechanism of the multifactorial statistical analysis of economic activities of the agricultural enterprises which will allow to allocate six groups of classes of facilities is offered, each of which needs development of separate strategy of development in view of specificity of classes of facilities. Directly the business - plan for development of a concrete facilities should be made on the basis of the appropriate strategic circuit and features of ability to live of this facilities. In the long term ordering of facilities by the technique offered above may be used for introduction the approach in state planning and regulation of activity of agrarian and industrial complex

  6. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Method with an Affective Interface for Promoting Employees' Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Hidenori; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    For the sustainable society, organization management not based on the mass production and mass consumption but having the flexibility to meet to various social needs precisely is required. For realizing such management, the emploees' work morale is required. Recently, however, the emploees' work morale is tend to decrease. Therefore, in this study, the authors developed the model of the method for promoting and keeping employees' work morale effectively and efficiently. Especially the authors thought “work morale” of “attitude to the work”. Based on this idea, it could be considered that the theory of the persuasion psychology and various persuasion techniques. Therefore, the model of the method applying the character agent was developed based on the forced compliance which is one of persuasion techniques based on the theory of the cognitive dissonance. By the evaluation experiment using human subjects, it was confirmed that developed method could improve workers' work morle effectively.

  8. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  10. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  11. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  12. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitar Tyanev; Stefka Popova

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009) concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump...

  13. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  14. Pseudobulbar affect in multiple sclerosis: toward the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ariel

    2006-06-15

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), a condition involving involuntary and uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, occurs frequently in patients with a variety of neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia including Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Although PBA results in considerable distress for patients and caretakers, it is underrecognized and undertreated. Agents used to treat psychiatric disorders--particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--are useful in alleviating PBA, but act on diffuse neural networks rather than targeting those involved in emotional motor expression. As a result of their nonspecific activity, these agents are associated with a range of unwanted effects that preclude many patients from using them. Dextromethorphan, a common cough suppressant, specifically targets sigma(1) receptors concentrated in the brainstem and cerebellum, thus providing the possibility of targeting regions implicated in emotional expression. When administered in a fixed combination with quinidine, dextromethorphan is effective in treating PBA in patients with ALS, and preliminary results suggest that this therapy also is effective in treating MS-related PBA.

  15. Observation and branching fraction measurement of B+ → ψ(2S) φ K+ at √s = 8 TeV in CMS & Hadron Shower development studies using Geant4 simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00339072; Onel, Yasar

    2016-12-17

    Heavy quark decays provide an opportunity to test the Standard Model (SM). Recently, promising experiments with b quark, as well as the analysis of the huge data sets produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator, have led to an increased study and more sensitive measurements of relative b quark decays. In this thesis, a preliminary study is presented of the first time observation of the B+ → ψ(2S)φK+ with a statistical significance above 5 standard deviations using proton- proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV collected with CMS detector at LHC. The branching fraction of B+ → ψ(2S)φK+ is measured relative to B+ → ψ(2S)K+, whose absolute branching fraction (BF) is known. The B(B+ → ψ(2S)φK+) is determined to be (4.0 ± 0.4(stat) ± 0.6(syst) ± 0.1(BR)) × 10−6, where the third uncertainty is from the imprecision in the normalization channel.

  16. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  17. The adolescent brain : unraveling the neural mechanisms of cognitive and affective development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is often characterized as a period of increased risk taking and impulsive behavior. Researchers have constructed brain-based models to explain the higher prevalence of risk taking during adolescence. It has been hypothesized that brain regions for cognitive control develop relatively

  18. Does output market development affect irrigation water institutions? Insights from a case study in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of changing external conditions on irrigation water institutions in northern China. To this end, we perform a case study analysis of the impact of output market development on irrigation water transactions, using survey data collected among 315

  19. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  20. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  1. Factors Affecting the Design and Development of a Personal Learning Environment: Research on Super-Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Helene; Kop, Rita

    2011-01-01

    After speculation in literature about the nature of Personal Learning Environments, research in the design and development of PLEs is now in progress. This paper reports on the first phase of the authors' research on PLE, the identification process of what potential users would consider important components, applications, and tools in a PLE. The…

  2. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  3. Interaction Mindsets, Interactional Behaviors, and L2 Development: An Affective-Social-Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    This classroom-based study explored links among second language (L2) learners' interaction mindsets, interactional behaviors, and L2 development in the context of peer interaction. While peer interaction research has revealed that certain interactional behaviors (e.g., receiving corrective feedback and engaging in collaborative interaction) assist…

  4. A new generation: How refugee trauma affects parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369406060

    2013-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of

  5. Maternal obesity affects gene expression and cellular development in fetal brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Ewa K; Oommen, Saji; Vasu, Vihas T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-05-01

    Female rat neonates reared on a high carbohydrate (HC) milk formula developed chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity (HC phenotype). Furthermore, we have shown that fetal development in the HC intrauterine environment (maternal obesity complicated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and increased levels of proinflammatory markers) resulted in increased levels of serum insulin and leptin in term HC fetuses and the spontaneous transfer of the HC phenotype to the adult offspring. The objectives of this study are to identify changes in global gene expression pattern and cellular development in term HC fetal brains in response to growth in the adverse intrauterine environment of the obese HC female rat. GeneChip analysis was performed on total RNA obtained from fetal brains for global gene expression studies and immunohistochemical analysis was performed on fetal brain slices for investigation of cellular development in term HC fetal brains. Gene expression profiling identified changes in several clusters of genes that could contribute to the transfer of the maternal phenotype (chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity) to the HC offspring. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated diminished proliferation and neuronal maturation of stem-like cells lining the third ventricle, hypothalamic region, and the cerebral cortex in HC fetal brains. These results suggest that maternal obesity during pregnancy could alter the developmental program of specific fetal brain cell-networks. These defects could underlie pathologies such as metabolic syndrome and possibly some neurological disorders in the offspring at a later age.

  6. Factors Affecting Language and Literacy Development in Australian Aboriginal Children: Considering Dialect, Culture and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.

    2018-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…

  7. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  9. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  10. Conformations and solution properties of star-branched polyelectrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Ballauff, M.; Muller, A.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of star-like polyelectrolytes (PEs) exhibit distinctive features that originate from the topological complexity of branched macromolecules. In a salt-free solution of branched PEs, mobile counterions preferentially localize in the intramolecular volume of branched macroions.

  11. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects...... persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  13. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Psychological disorders and ecological factors affect the development of executive functions: Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafika ZEBDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The links between deficits in executive functions (EF (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities..., and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders has been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults’ population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic of these EF/psychological disorders relations. We suggest two axis on which to focus in future research: (i relations between EF and anxiety traits through development; and (ii the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  15. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  16. Long-bone properties and development are affected by caponisation and breed in Polish fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Kwiecień, M; Muszyński, S; Dobrowolski, P; Kasperek, K; Blicharski, T; Jeżewska-Witkowska, G; Grela, E R

    2017-06-01

    1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of caponisation on bone development of males of two native breeds in Poland. 2. The weight, length and cross-sectional area of tibiae and femora were measured, densitometric measurements and tests of strength were determined and dimensions were calculated. 3. Breed and caponisation did not influence bone weight and length. Higher mechanical strength of the femur was found in entire males, mainly in the Polbar breed. Tibial strength was reduced in capons of the Green Partridge breed. Maximum elastic strength was greater in the Polbar, irrespective of caponisation. Bone cross-sectional area was influenced by breed, while caponisation reduced femoral bone mineral density in both breeds. 4. Caponisation thus increased growth rate but had adverse effects on bone development. 5. Caponisation had fewer negative effects in the Polbar than in the Greenleg Partridge.

  17. Factors Affecting The Career Development Of Employees In Secretariat Office Of City Samarinda

    OpenAIRE

    Santi Rande; Yunus Rahawarin; A. Jamaluddin; Tehubijuluw Zacharias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the primary responsibility for career planning lies in the individual but organizational career planning should be completely in line with individual career planning if an organization wants to retain the best employees. Assumptions and the perspective delivers the researchers to examine the influence of aspects of individual and organizational aspects of the career development of employees within the organization of government. The population in this study were employees of...

  18. Threats of natural character, factors affecting sustainable development of territories and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guskova N.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is characterized by globalization of socio-economic processes, economic growth, and excessive consumption of natural resources that leads to imbalance in socio-economic systems. Significant threats to the sustainable development of territories are natural and anthropogenic disasters, the extent and severity of which significantly increased in recent decades. They do great damage to economy and environment, often accompanied by loss of human lives. Russia with its broad territory, significant difference in climate conditions, is exposed to the wide range of natural hazards and disasters. The most dangerous are earthquakes, floods, forest fires. About 20 % of the Russian Federation is situated in zones of high risk, which are inhabited by more than 20 million people. Area of flooding as a result of floods can reach over 400 km2. Annually in the forests appear from 100 to 300 thousand of fires on the total area of 1.5 - 2.5 million hectares. The impact of natural disasters on the sustainable development of territory is considered in the article as an example of one of the Russian regions - the Republic of Mordovia. It was analyzed the dynamics of emergencies for the period of 2000 - 2012 years, paid attention to natural emergencies (forest fires and floods. Despite the fact that occurrence of emergency and catastrophic situations of natural character happens spontaneously, size of damage they do largely determined by timeliness and accuracy of the prediction and adoption of adequate preventive measures. In this regard, the article provides recommendations to reduce threats of natural character for the sustainable development of the Republic of Mordovia. They cover a range of activities on monitoring of natural phenomena, protection of the population from emergency situations to minimize potential damage, training of population in the face of natural disasters, development of economic policy in the region and training of personnel in the

  19. Endosulfan affects health variables in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces alterations in larvae development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.; Handy, R. D.; Sloman, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.16 or 0.48 mu g/L of the insecticide, endosulfan, for 28 days. Haematology, whole body ions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, organ histology and reproduction were assessed in adults. The resulting....... rerio, and effects on the development of their offspring. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  20. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.