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Sample records for developing ultrastable structures

  1. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 {mu}rad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Design of ultra-stable insulin analogues for the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of insulin analogues illustrates the application of structure-based protein design to clinical medicine. Such design has traditionally been based on structures of wild-type insulin hexamers in an effort to optimize the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic properties of the hormone. Rapid-acting insulin analogues (in chronological order of their clinical introduction, Humalog ® [Eli Lilly & Co.], Novolog ® [Novo-Nordisk], and Apidra ® [Sanofi-Aventis] exploit the targeted destabilization of subunit interfaces to facilitate capillary absorption. Conversely, long-acting insulin analogues exploit the stability of the insulin hexamer and its higher-order self-assembly within the subcutaneous depot to enhance basal glycemic control. Current products either operate through isoelectric precipitation (insulin glargine, the active component of Lantus ® ; Sanofi-Aventis or employ an albumin-binding acyl tether (insulin detemir, the active component of Levemir ® ; Novo-Nordisk. Such molecular engineering has often encountered a trade-off between PK goals and product stability. Given the global dimensions of the diabetes pandemic and complexity of an associated cold chain of insulin distribution, we envisage that concurrent engineering of ultra-stable protein analogue formulations would benefit the developing world, especially for patients exposed to high temperatures with inconsistent access to refrigeration. We review the principal mechanisms of insulin degradation above room temperature and novel molecular approaches toward the design of ultra-stable rapid-acting and basal formulations.

  3. Ultra-stable clock laser system development towards space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerad, Dariusz; Häfner, Sebastian; Vogt, Stefan; Venon, Bertrand; Holleville, David; Bize, Sébastien; Kulosa, André; Bode, Sebastian; Singh, Yeshpal; Bongs, Kai; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Lodewyck, Jérôme; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The increasing performance of optical lattice clocks has made them attractive for scientific applications in space and thus has pushed the development of their components including the interrogation lasers of the clock transitions towards being suitable for space, which amongst others requires making them more power efficient, radiation hardened, smaller, lighter as well as more mechanically stable. Here we present the development towards a space-compatible interrogation laser system for a strontium lattice clock constructed within the Space Optical Clock (SOC2) project where we have concentrated on mechanical rigidity and size. The laser reaches a fractional frequency instability of 7.9 × 10-16 at 300 ms averaging time. The laser system uses a single extended cavity diode laser that gives enough power for interrogating the atoms, frequency comparison by a frequency comb and diagnostics. It includes fibre link stabilisation to the atomic package and to the comb. The optics module containing the laser has dimensions 60 × 45 × 8 cm3 and the ultra-stable reference cavity used for frequency stabilisation with its vacuum system takes 30 × 30 × 30 cm3. The acceleration sensitivities in three orthogonal directions of the cavity are 3.6 × 10-10/g, 5.8 × 10-10/g and 3.1 × 10-10/g, where g ≈ 9.8 m/s2 is the standard gravitational acceleration.

  4. Design of an active ultrastable single-chain insulin analog: synthesis, structure, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qing-xin; Nakagawa, Satoe H; Jia, Wenhua; Huang, Kun; Phillips, Nelson B; Hu, Shi-quan; Weiss, Michael A

    2008-05-23

    Single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs provide insight into the inter-relation of hormone structure, function, and dynamics. Although compatible with wild-type structure, short connecting segments (design, structure, and function of a single-chain insulin analog (SCI-57) containing a 6-residue linker (GGGPRR). Native receptor-binding affinity (130 +/- 8% relative to the wild type) is achieved as hindrance by the linker is offset by favorable substitutions in the insulin moiety. The thermodynamic stability of SCI-57 is markedly increased (DeltaDeltaG(u) = 0.7 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol relative to the corresponding two-chain analog and 1.9 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol relative to wild-type insulin). Analysis of inter-residue nuclear Overhauser effects demonstrates that a native-like fold is maintained in solution. Surprisingly, the glycine-rich connecting segment folds against the insulin moiety: its central Pro contacts Val(A3) at the edge of the hydrophobic core, whereas the final Arg extends the A1-A8 alpha-helix. Comparison between SCI-57 and its parent two-chain analog reveals striking enhancement of multiple native-like nuclear Overhauser effects within the tethered protein. These contacts are consistent with wild-type crystal structures but are ordinarily attenuated in NMR spectra of two-chain analogs, presumably due to conformational fluctuations. Linker-specific damping of fluctuations provides evidence for the intrinsic flexibility of an insulin monomer. In addition to their biophysical interest, ultrastable SCIs may enhance the safety and efficacy of insulin replacement therapy in the developing world.

  5. Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.

  6. Space-Qualified Ultrastable Laser Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development and space-qualification of a 1.06 micron ultrastable fiber laser source that fully satisfies the requirements of this SBIR opportunity...

  7. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes at ISOLTRAP and the development of an ultra-stable voltage source for the PENTATRAP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Atomic masses and hence binding energies of nuclides are of great importance for studies of nuclear structure since they reflect all effective interactions in a nucleus. Within this thesis the masses of seven nuclides, namely {sup 194}Au, {sup 194}Hg, {sup 190,193,198}Tl and {sup 202,208}Pb, were determined at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The thallium region in the chart of isotopes is of special interest due to the occurrence of nuclear structure effects like low-lying isomers, level inversion, shape coexistence and deformations. These effects are investigated by applying finite-difference mass formulas, such as the two-neutron separation energies or the so-called empirical pairing gaps. The second topic addressed within the present thesis is an ultra-stable voltage source, called StaReP (Stable Reference for Penning Trap Experiments), which was developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik. It is one of the key components of the high-precision mass spectrometer PENTATRAP, containing a tower of five Penning traps. A 25-channel voltage source with a relative stability of few 10{sup -8} over a period of 10 minutes in the range of 0 to -100V is mandatory for PENTATRAP aiming for mass measurements with relative mass uncertainties of ≤ 10{sup -11}. Mass values with such a high precision allow for stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electric fields, testing Einstein's mass-energy relation E = mc{sup 2} as well as measurements of decay energies (Q-values) with applications in neutrino physics.

  8. Geometrical assembly of ultrastable protein templates for nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Dominic J.; Giger, Lars; Kim, Steve S.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2016-06-01

    The fabrication of nanoscale devices requires architectural templates on which to position functional molecules in complex arrangements. Protein scaffolds are particularly promising templates for nanomaterials due to inherent molecular recognition and self-assembly capabilities combined with genetically encoded functionalities. However, difficulties in engineering protein quaternary structure into stable and well-ordered shapes have hampered progress. Here we report the development of an ultrastable biomolecular construction kit for the assembly of filamentous proteins into geometrically defined templates of controllable size and symmetry. The strategy combines redesign of protein-protein interaction specificity with the creation of tunable connector proteins that govern the assembly and projection angles of the filaments. The functionality of these nanoarchitectures is illustrated by incorporation of nanoparticles at specific locations and orientations to create hybrid materials such as conductive nanowires. These new structural components facilitate the manufacturing of nanomaterials with diverse shapes and functional properties over a wide range of processing conditions.

  9. Ultra-stable Molecule-Surface Architectures at Metal Oxides: Structure, Bonding, and Electron-transfer Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Robert John

    2013-12-07

    Research funded by this project focused on the development of improved strategies for functionalization of metal oxides to enhance charge-transfer processes relevant to solar energy conversion. Initial studies included Fe2O3, WO3, TiO2, SnO2, and ZnO as model oxide systems; these systems were chosen due to differences in metal oxidation state and chemical bonding types in these oxides. Later studies focused largely on SnO2 and ZnO, as these materials show particularly promising surface chemistry, have high electron mobility, and can be readily grown in both spherical nanoparticles and as elongated nanorods. New molecules were synthesized that allowed the direct chemical assembly of novel nanoparticle ?dyadic? structures in which two different oxide materials are chemically joined, leading to an interface that enhances the separation of of charge upon illumination. We demonstrated that such junctions enhance photocatalytic efficiency using model organic compounds. A separate effort focused on novel approaches to linking dye molecules to SnO2 and ZnO as a way to enhance solar conversion efficiency. A novel type of surface binding through

  10. Study on Modification of Ultra-Stable Zeolite Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weilin; Zhou Lingping; Shen Shimin; Li Zheng; Zhu Yuxia; Tian Huiping; Long Jun

    2007-01-01

    The ultra-stable zeolite DASY-0.0 was prepared by hydrothermal method in commercial scale.Its structure was further modified via the treatment for cleaning of pores(CP).The zeolite samples before and after CP treating were analyzed and characterized by XRF,XRD,NMR,IR,BET and DTA.The results showed that,in comparison with the conventional ultra-stable zeolite DASY-0.0 prepared by the hydrothermal process,the CP-modified zeolite SOY0 exhibited a higher relative crystallinity.a larger surface area and pore volume,a higher thermal stability and contained less amorphous non-framework Al.

  11. Design of an Active Ultrastable Single-chain Insulin Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qing-xin; Nakagawa, Satoe H.; Jia, Wenhua; Huang, Kun; Phillips, Nelson B.; Hu, Shi-quan; Weiss, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs provide insight into the inter-relation of hormone structure, function, and dynamics. Although compatible with wild-type structure, short connecting segments (design, structure, and function of a single-chain insulin analog (SCI-57) containing a 6-residue linker (GGGPRR). Native receptor-binding affinity (130 ± 8% relative to the wild type) is achieved as hindrance by the linker is offset by favorable substitutions in the insulin moiety. The thermodynamic stability of SCI-57 is markedly increased (ΔΔGu = 0.7 ± 0.1 kcal/mol relative to the corresponding two-chain analog and 1.9 ± 0.1 kcal/mol relative to wild-type insulin). Analysis of inter-residue nuclear Overhauser effects demonstrates that a native-like fold is maintained in solution. Surprisingly, the glycine-rich connecting segment folds against the insulin moiety: its central Pro contacts ValA3 at the edge of the hydrophobic core, whereas the final Arg extends the A1-A8 α-helix. Comparison between SCI-57 and its parent two-chain analog reveals striking enhancement of multiple native-like nuclear Overhauser effects within the tethered protein. These contacts are consistent with wild-type crystal structures but are ordinarily attenuated in NMR spectra of two-chain analogs, presumably due to conformational fluctuations. Linker-specific damping of fluctuations provides evidence for the intrinsic flexibility of an insulin monomer. In addition to their biophysical interest, ultrastable SCIs may enhance the safety and efficacy of insulin replacement therapy in the developing world. PMID:18332129

  12. An ultrastable Michelson interferometer for high-resolution spectroscopy in the XUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, C; Liontos, I; Cavalieri, S; Bellini, M; Venturi, G; Eramo, R

    2015-02-23

    We developed an ultra-stable and accurately-controllable Michelson interferometer to be used in a deeply unbalanced arm configuration for split-pulse XUV Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order laser harmonics. The implemented active and passive stabilization systems allow one to reach instabilities in the nanometer range over meters of relative optical path differences. Producing precisely delayed pairs of pump pulses will generate XUV harmonic pulses that may significantly improve the achievable spectral resolution and the precision of absolute frequency measurements in the XUV.

  13. Nanodiamonds and silicon quantum dots: ultrastable and biocompatible luminescent nanoprobes for long-term bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalti, M; Cantelli, A; Battistelli, G

    2015-07-21

    Fluorescence bioimaging is a powerful, versatile, method for investigating, both in vivo and in vitro, the complex structures and functions of living organisms in real time and space, also using super-resolution techniques. Being poorly invasive, fluorescence bioimaging is suitable for long-term observation of biological processes. Long-term detection is partially prevented by photobleaching of organic fluorescent probes. Semiconductor quantum dots, in contrast, are ultrastable, fluorescent contrast agents detectable even at the single nanoparticle level. Emission color of quantum dots is size dependent and nanoprobes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) region are ideal for low back-ground in vivo imaging. Biocompatibility of nanoparticles, containing toxic elements, is debated. Recent safety concerns enforced the search for alternative ultrastable luminescent nanoprobes. Most recent results demonstrated that optimized silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) show almost no photobleaching in a physiological environment. Moreover in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies demonstrated their unique biocompatibility. Si QDs and FNDs are hence ideal diagnostic tools and promising non-toxic vectors for the delivery of therapeutic cargos. Most relevant examples of applications of Si QDs and FNDs to long-term bioimaging are discussed in this review comparing the toxicity and the stability of different nanoprobes.

  14. Recent progress in the performances of ultrastable quartz resonators and oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzenstein Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressed compensated (SC cut led recently to the best frequency stability ever obtained with a quartz oscillator, 2.5 × 10−14 for the flicker frequency modulation (FFM floor. This result is confirmed in this paper with a 3.2 × 10−14 ± 1.1 × 10−14. The quartz resonator is integrated in a 5 MHz enhanced aging box double oven controlled oscillator. After reminding a bit of history, this paper describes how the first significant development in terms of ultra-stable quartz state-of-the-art oscillators was performed in the last 20 years, how the resonators were chosen, and main information about the development of adequate electronics and how to mechanically and thermally stabilized such an ultra-stable oscillator. We also present how to characterize the expected performances, and hot topics in quartz based oscillators.

  15. Bubble-Sheet-Like Interface Design with an Ultrastable Solid Electrolyte Layer for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Panpan; Wang, Meng; Li, Na; Zhu, Haili; Ding, Xuan; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a bubble-sheet-like hollow interface design on Al foil anode to improve the cycling stability and rate performance of aluminum anode based dual-ion battery is reported, in which, a carbon-coated hollow aluminum anode is used as both anode materials and current collector. This anode structure can guide the alloying position inside the hollow nanospheres, and also confine the alloy sizes within the hollow nanospheres, resulting in significantly restricted volumetric expansion and ultrastable solid electrolyte interface (SEI). As a result, the battery demonstrates an excellent long-term cycling stability within 1500 cycles with ≈99% capacity retention at 2 C. Moreover, this cell displays an energy density of 169 Wh kg(-1) even at high power density of 2113 W kg(-1) (10 C, charge and discharge within 6 min), which is much higher than most of conventional lithium ion batteries. The interfacial engineering strategy shown in this work to stabilize SEI layer and control the alloy forming position could be generalized to promote the research development of metal anodes based battery systems.

  16. Overcoming the crystallization and designability issues in the ultrastable zirconium phosphonate framework system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Yang, Zaixing; Gui, Daxiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiangxiang; Dai, Xing; Liu, Shengtang; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Sheng, Daopeng; Wang, Yanlong; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhou, Ruhong; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. Herein, we overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis. These compounds are built by previously unknown isolated zirconium phosphonate clusters and exhibit combined high porosity and ultrastability even in fuming acids. SZ-2 possesses the largest void volume recorded in zirconium phosphonates and SZ-3 represents the most porous crystalline zirconium phosphonate and the only porous MOF material reported to survive in aqua regia. SZ-2 and SZ-3 can effectively remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range, and we have elucidated the removal mechanism.

  17. Active disturbance rejection control of temperature for ultrastable optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Calonico, Davide; Calosso, Claudio; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the stabilization of the temperature of two ultra-stable Fabry-Perot cavities. The cavities are 10 cm long and entirely made of ultralow- expansion glass. The control is based on a linear extended state observer that estimates and compensates the disturbance in the system in real time. The resulting control is inherently robust and easy to tune. A digital implementation of ADRC gives a temperature instability of 200 μK at one day of integration time.

  18. Long-distance remote characterization of ultrastable lasers via commercial telecommunication fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Pape, Andre; Friebe, Jan; Riedmann, Matthias; Wübbena, Temmo; Rasel, Ernst-Maria; Predehl, Katharina; Lipphardt, Burghard; Schnatz, Harald; Grosche, Gesine

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a fully optical, remote characterization of independent ultrastable lasers separated by a geographical distance of more than 50 km via a 73 km long phase-stabilized fiber in a commercial telecommunication network. The phase-coherent comparison shows a fractional frequency instability between the independent ultrastable laser systems of s_y = 4E-15 for averaging times > 2 s; the remote analog transfer beat note shows a linewidth of 1 Hz. This demonstrates the potential of long-distance remote comparisons of ultrastable optical frequencies using commercial telecommunication fiber networks.

  19. Ultra-Stable Segmented Telescope Sensing and Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matthew; Knight, Scott; Redding, David

    2017-01-01

    The LUVOIR team is conducting two full architecture studies Architecture A 15 meter telescope that folds up in an 8.4m SLS Block 2 shroud is nearly complete. Architecture B 9.2 meter that uses an existing fairing size will begin study this Fall. This talk will summarize the ultra-stable architecture of the 15m segmented telescope including the basic requirements, the basic rationale for the architecture, the technologies employed, and the expected performance. This work builds on several dynamics and thermal studies performed for ATLAST segmented telescope configurations. The most important new element was an approach to actively control segments for segment to segment motions which will be discussed later.

  20. A modern Michelson-Morley experiment using ultrastable optical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Achim

    2005-05-01

    This talk will describe a modern version of the classic Michelson-Morley experiment testing the isotropy of light propagation and thus the foundations of Special Relativity. The latest experimental setup employs of an assembly of orthogonal ultrastable optical resonators mounted inside a liquid Helium cryostat, which itself is actively rotated using a high performance air-supported turntable. The cavity resonance frequencies are continuously monitored using monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and analyzed for periodic modulations indicating violations of Lorentz-invariance. Compared to pervious experiments using cryogenic optical resonators (COREs), but relying solely on Earth's rotation, this new version is expected to lead to orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to Lorentz-Invariance violation. We present the initial results of this experimental effort at the δc(θ)/c ˜ 10-16 level for an direction dependent variation of the speed of light and discuss the potential for future improvements.

  1. Ultra-stable, low phase noise dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators for military and commercial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizan, Muhammad; Higgins, Thomas; Sturzebecher, Dana

    1993-01-01

    EPSD has designed, fabricated and tested, ultra-stable, low phase noise microwave dielectric resonator oscillators (DRO's) at S, X, Ku, and K-bands, for potential application to high dynamic range and low radar cross section target detection radar systems. The phase noise and the temperature stability surpass commercially available DROs. Low phase noise signals are critical for CW Doppler radars, at both very close-in and large offset frequencies from the carrier. The oscillators were built without any temperature compensation techniques and exhibited a temperature stability of 25 parts per million (ppm) over an extended temperature range. The oscillators are lightweight, small and low cost compared to BAW & SAW oscillators, and can impact commercial systems such as telecommunications, built-in-test equipment, cellular phone and satellite communications systems. The key to obtaining this performance was a high Q factor resonant structure (RS) and careful circuit design techniques. The high Q RS consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) supported by a low loss spacer inside a metal cavity. The S and the X-band resonant structures demonstrated loaded Q values of 20,300 and 12,700, respectively.

  2. Ultrastable Natural Ester-Based Nanofluids for High Voltage Insulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppas, Georgios D; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Charalampakos, Vasilis P; Pyrgioti, Eleftheria C; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Gonos, Ioannis F

    2016-09-28

    Nanofluids for high voltage insulation systems have emerged as a potential substitute for liquid dielectrics in industrial applications. Nevertheless, the sedimentation of nanoparticles has been so far a serious barrier for their wide and effective exploitation. The present work reports on the development and in-depth characterization of colloidally ultrastable natural ester oil insulation systems containing iron oxide nanocrystals which lift the problem of sedimentation and phase separation. Compared to state-of-the-art systems, the final product is endowed with increased dielectric strength, faster thermal response, lower dielectric losses (decreased dissipation factor: tan δ), and very high endurance during discharge stressing. The developed nanofluid was studied and compared with a similar system containing commercial iron oxide nanoparticles, the latter demonstrating extensive sedimentation. Herein, the dielectric properties of the nanofluids are analyzed at various concentrations by means of breakdown voltage and dissipation factor measurements. The characterization techniques unequivocally demonstrate the high performance reliability of the reported nanofluid, which constitutes a significant breakthrough in the field of high voltage insulation technologies.

  3. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  4. An Ultra-Stable Referenced Interrogation System in the Deep Ultraviolet for a Mercury Optical Lattice Clock

    CERN Document Server

    Dawkins, S T; Petersen, M; Millo, J; Magalhães, D V; Mandache, C; Coq, Y Le; Bize, S

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an ultra-stable source in the deep ultraviolet, suitable to fulfill the interrogation requirements of a future fully-operational lattice clock based on neutral mercury. At the core of the system is a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity which is highly impervious to temperature and vibrational perturbations. The mirror substrate is made of fused silica in order to exploit the comparatively low thermal noise limits associated with this material. By stabilizing the frequency of a 1062.6 nm Yb-doped fiber laser to the cavity, and including an additional link to LNE-SYRTE's fountain primary frequency standards via an optical frequency comb, we produce a signal which is both stable at the 1E-15 level in fractional terms and referenced to primary frequency standards. The signal is subsequently amplified and frequency-doubled twice to produce several milliwatts of interrogation signal at 265.6 nm in the deep ultraviolet.

  5. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

    2012-07-01

    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology

  6. Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Olivier; Chanteau, Bruno; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Georgio

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical link of 540 km for ultrastable frequency distribution over the Internet fiber network. The stable frequency optical signal is processed enabling uninterrupted propagation on both directions. The robustness and the performance of the link are enhanced by a cost effective fully automated optoelectronic station. This device is able to coherently regenerate the return optical signal with a heterodyne optical phase locking of a low noise laser diode. Moreover the incoming signal polarization variation are tracked and processed in order to maintain beat note amplitudes within the operation range. Stable fibered optical interferometer enables optical detection of the link round trip phase signal. The phase-noise compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability in 10 Hz bandwidth of 5\\times10-15 at one second measurement time and 2\\times10-19 at 30 000 s. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultrastable optical frequency distribution and comparison network.

  7. Lindemann's rule applied to the melting of crystals and ultra-stable glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2016-05-01

    The ratio of the mean square amplitude root of thermal vibrations and the interatomic distance is a universal constant δls at the melting temperature Tm. The classical Gibbs free energy change completed by a volume energy saving ɛls (or Δɛlg) × ΔHm that governs the liquid to solid and liquid to ultra-stable glass transformations leads to a universal constant equal to δls (or δlg), ΔHm being the crystal melting enthalpy. The minimum values 0.217 of ɛls and 0.103 of δls are used to predict ultra-stable glass formation in pure metallic liquid elements at a universal reduced temperature θg = (Tg - Tm)/Tm = -0.6223.

  8. The relationship between the acidity and the hydrocarbon cracking activity of ultrastable H-Y zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Mark Andrew

    Changes in the structural, acidic, and catalytic properties of H-USY (acidic ultrastable Y zeolite) that occur during steam dealumination were investigated. This study focused on three factors that previously have been suggested to cause the enhanced activity of H-USY: (1) increased Bronsted acid strength caused by nonframework Al; (2) increased Bronsted acid strength caused by decreased framework Al content; and (3) direct participation of Lewis acid sites in the cracking reaction. Acidity was characterized by microcalorimetry and FTIR of NH3 adsorption. The 2-methylpentane cracking activity of H-USY at 573 K was 35 times higher than that of H-Y that had not been steamed. With further steaming of H-USY, the cracking activity decreased, although the activity per strong Bronsted acid site remained essentially constant. H-USY, with both Bronsted and Lewis acid sites, had a heterogeneous acid strength and many acid sites with heat of NH3 adsorption >130 kJ/mol. In contrast, zeolites containing only Bronsted acid sites had a rather homogeneous acid strength. The heat of NH3 adsorption did not exceed 130 U/mol for (H,NH4)-USY, in which the strongly acidic Lewis acid sites were covered by NH3, but its activity was equal to that of H-USY. Thus, Lewis acid sites are inactive for hydrocarbon cracking. Dealumination by ammonium hexafluorosilicate, which produces very little nonframework Al, resulted in a zeolite with a low heat of NH3 adsorption equal to that of H-Y, and activity only three times higher than that of H-Y. The mechanism of coke deactivation in H-USY was studied. Coke caused a proportionally larger decrease in n-hexane cracking activity than in the number of acid sites, but did not cause pore blockage or reduced n-hexane diffusivity. The evidence is consistent with a site poisoning deactivation model for a diffusion-limited reaction. In conclusion, the enhanced cracking activity of USY is not caused by Lewis acid sites nor by Bronsted acid sites with a very

  9. Ultrastable, high efficiency picosecond green light generation using K3B6O10Br series nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x  =  0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.

  10. TiO2 hierarchical porous film constructed by ultrastable foams as photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; He, Xuan; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hui; Li, Weixin; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Wanqiu; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Huan

    2016-11-01

    It reported a novel and simple method for the first time to prepare TiO2 hierarchical porous film (THPF) using ultrastable foams as a soft template to construct porous structures. Moreover, dodecanol as one foam component was creatively used as solvent during the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to decrease reaction temperature and simplify precipitation process. The result showed that hierarchical pores in scale of microns introduced by foams were regarded to benefit for high coverage and unimodal distribution of QDs on the surface of THPF to increase the efficiencies of light-harvesting, charge-collection and charge-transfer. The increased efficiencies caused an enhancement in quantum efficiency of the cell and thus remarkably increased the short circuit current density (Jsc). In addition, the decrease of charge recombination resulted in the increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc) as well. The QDSSC based on THPF exhibited about 2-fold higher power conversion efficiency (η = 2.20%, Jsc = 13.82 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.572 V) than that of TiO2 nanoparticles film (TNF) (η = 1.06%, Jsc = 6.70 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.505 V). It provided a basis to use foams both as soft template and carrier to realize simultaneously construction and in-situ sensitization of photoanode in further work.

  11. Long-distance remote comparison of ultrastable optical frequencies with 10(-15) instability in fractions of a second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, A; Terra, O; Friebe, J; Riedmann, M; Wübbena, T; Rasel, E M; Predehl, K; Legero, T; Lipphardt, B; Schnatz, H; Grosche, G

    2010-09-27

    We demonstrate a fully optical, long-distance remote comparison of independent ultrastable optical frequencies reaching a short term stability that is superior to any reported remote comparison of optical frequencies. We use two ultrastable lasers, which are separated by a geographical distance of more than 50 km, and compare them via a 73 km long phase-stabilized fiber in a commercial telecommunication network. The remote characterization spans more than one optical octave and reaches a fractional frequency instability between the independent ultrastable laser systems of 3 x 10 (-15) in 0.1 s. The achieved performance at 100 ms represents an improvement by one order of magnitude to any previously reported remote comparison of optical frequencies and enables future remote dissemination of the stability of 100 mHz linewidth lasers within seconds.

  12. Ultra-Stable Rubidium-Stabilized External-Cavity Diode Laser Based on the Modulation Transfer Spectroscopy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiang-Hui; CHEN Wen-Lan; YI Lin; ZHOU Da-Wei; ZHOU Tong; XIAO Qin; DUAN Jun; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; CHEN Xu-Zong

    2009-01-01

    @@ We construct an ultra-stable external-cavity diode laser via modulation transfer spectroscopy referencing on a hyperfine component of the 87Rb D2 lines at 780 hm. The Doppler-free dispersion-like modulation transfer signal is obtained with high signal-to-noise-ratio. The instability of the laser frequency is measured by beating with an optical frequency comb which is phase-locked to an ultra-stable oven controlled crystal oscillator. The Allan deviation is 3.9×10-13 at 1s averaging time and 9.8×10-14 at 90s averaging time.

  13. Ultra-stable optical frequency dissemination on a multi-access fibre network

    CERN Document Server

    Bercy, Anthony; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We report the dissemination of an ultrastable optical frequency signal to two distant users simultaneously using a branching network. The ultrastable signal is extracted along a main fibre link; it is optically tracked with a narrow-linewidth laser diode, which light is injected in a secondary link. The propagation noise of both links is actively compensated. We implement this scheme with two links of 50-km fibre spools, the extraction being setup at the mid-point of the main link. We show that the extracted signal at the end of the secondary link exhibits fractional frequency instability of 1.4x10-15 at 1-s measurement time, almost equal to the 1.3x10-15 instability of the main link output end. The long-term instabilities are also very similar, at a level of 3-5x10-20 at 3x104-s integration time. We also show that the setting up of this extraction device, or a simpler one, at the main link input, can test the proper functioning of the noise rejection on this main link. This work is a significant step towards...

  14. Structural Analysis of Communication Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  15. Ultrastable bonding of glass with femtosecond laser bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sören; Zimmermann, Felix; Döring, Sven; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    We report on the welding of fused silica with bursts of ultrashort laser pulses. The bursts consist of ultrashort laser pulses with a repetition rate of 9.4 MHz. However, the time between the laser bursts is about 10 μs, which reduces the maximal temperature rise. Micrographs and simulations show that the molten structures are enlarged while using laser bursts. In addition, the usage of bursts instead of continuous pulse trains reduces the laser induced stress. By optimizing the burst frequency and repetition rate we were able to achieve a breaking resistance of up to 96% of the bulk material, which is significantly higher than in conventional high repetition rate laser bonding.

  16. On the flicker noise of ferrite circulators for ultra-stable oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiola, Enrico; Gruson, Yannick; Giordano, Vincent

    2004-08-01

    The flicker noise of the ferrite circulator is a critical element in ultra-stable microwave oscillators, in which the signal reflected from the input of the reference cavity is exploited to stabilize the frequency. This paper explains why the circulator noise must be measured in isolation mode, proposes a measurement scheme, and provides experimental results. The observed flicker spans from -162 to -170 dB[rad2]/Hz at 1 Hz off the 9.2 GHz carrier, and at +19 dBm of input power. In the same conditions, the instrument limit is below -180 dB[rad2]/Hz. Experiments also give information on the mechanical stability of the microwave assembly, which is in the range of 10(-11) m. The measurement method can be used as the phase detector of a corrected oscillator; and, in the field of solid-state physics, it can be used for the measurement of random fluctuations in magnetic materials.

  17. In-situ precipitation of ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira, E-mail: amira_bagheri@um.edu.my; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, we prepared water-based magnetic fluids of iron oxide nanoparticles using an in-situ precipitation method. The effect of dodecanoic acid addition as a surfactant on the physico-chemical and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated as well. The quantity of the surfactant was varied between 3 and 5 g. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to confirm the presence of spinel phase magnetites (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the resulting magnetic nanoparticles' size and morphology. The results showed polydispersed hexagonal nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 70 nm) as a result of the protocol. Moreover, the pH-dependent stability of the samples confirms that magnetite nanofluids were highly stable in the wide range of pH, from 4–12. The optimal amount of dodecanoic acid to produce ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry with the highest saturation magnetization of 8.6 emu g{sup −1} was determined to be 4.5 g. - Highlights: • Ultra-stable aqueous colloidal suspension of nano-magnetite was prepared. • Different concentrations of dodecanoic acid were used as surfactant. • Addition of surfactant led to polysidpersity reduction and stability in a wide range of pH. • Magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water show superparamagnetic behavior and saturation magnetization as high as 8.6 emu g{sup −1}. • The optimum amount of saturated fatty acid to prepare highly-dispersed nano-magnetic slurry is 4.5 g.

  18. Soil Retaining Structures: Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these struc

  19. Ultrastable Liquid-Liquid Interface as Viable Route for Controlled Deposition of Biodegradable Polymer Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Iaccarino, Giulia; Bianchini, Paolo; Marotta, Roberto; D'autilia, Francesca; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Diaspro, Alberto; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-06-01

    Liquid-liquid interfaces are highly dynamic and characterized by an elevated interfacial tension as compared to solid-liquid interfaces. Therefore, they are gaining an increasing interest as viable templates for ordered assembly of molecules and nanoparticles. However, liquid-liquid interfaces are more difficult to handle compared to solid-liquid interfaces; their intrinsic instability may affect the assembly process, especially in the case of multiple deposition. Indeed, some attempts have been made in the deposition of polymer multilayers at liquid-liquid interfaces, but with limited control over size and stability. This study reports on the preparation of an ultrastable liquid-liquid interface based on an O/W secondary miniemulsion and its possible use as a template for the self-assembly of polymeric multilayer nanocapsules. Such polymer nanocapsules are made of entirely biodegradable materials, with highly controlled size-well under 200 nm-and multi-compartment and multifunctional features enriching their field of application in drug delivery, as well as in other bionanotechnology fields.

  20. In-situ precipitation of ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, we prepared water-based magnetic fluids of iron oxide nanoparticles using an in-situ precipitation method. The effect of dodecanoic acid addition as a surfactant on the physico-chemical and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated as well. The quantity of the surfactant was varied between 3 and 5 g. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to confirm the presence of spinel phase magnetites (Fe3O4). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the resulting magnetic nanoparticles' size and morphology. The results showed polydispersed hexagonal nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 70 nm) as a result of the protocol. Moreover, the pH-dependent stability of the samples confirms that magnetite nanofluids were highly stable in the wide range of pH, from 4-12. The optimal amount of dodecanoic acid to produce ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry with the highest saturation magnetization of 8.6 emu g-1 was determined to be 4.5 g.

  1. Mussel-inspired polydopamine: a biocompatible and ultrastable coating for nanoparticles in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangsheng; Cao, Jieming; Li, Huan; Li, Jianyu; Jin, Qiao; Ren, Kefeng; Ji, Jian

    2013-10-22

    Bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) has served as a universal coating to nanoparticles (NPs) for various biomedical applications. However, one remaining critical question is whether the PDA shell on NPs is stable in vivo. In this study, we modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with finely controlled PDA nanolayers to form uniform core/shell nanostructures (GNP@PDA). In vitro study showed that the PDA-coated GNPs had low cytotoxicity and could smoothly translocate to cancer cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated that the PDA nanoshells were intact within cells after 24 h incubation. Notably, we found the GNP@PDA could partially escape from the endosomes/lysosomes to cytosol and locate close to the nucleus. Furthermore, we observed that the PDA-coated NPs have very different uptake behavior in two important organs of the liver and spleen: GNP@PDA in the liver were mainly uptaken by the Kupffer cells, while the GNP@PDA in the spleen were uptaken by a variety of cells. Importantly, we proved the PDA nanoshells were stable within cells of the liver and spleen for at least six weeks, and GNP@PDA did not show notable histological toxicity to main organs of mice in a long time. These results provided the direct evidence to support that the PDA surface modification can serve as an effective strategy to form ultrastable coatings on NPs in vivo, which can improve the intracellular delivery capacity and biocompatibility of NPs for biomedical application.

  2. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  3. A Portable Ultra-Stable Calibration Source for Precision RV Measurements in NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ge, J.; Wan, X.; Delgado, A.; Jakeman, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the next decade, astronomers are aiming at reaching 0.1 m/s RV precision, which will enable discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. However, the RV precision is currently limited by stellar activity, the stability and bandwidth of RV calibration sources. We proposed to use an ultra-stable monolithic Michelson interferometer as an RV calibration source. This monolithic interferometer source has several advantages over the conventional RV calibration sources: (1), it produces sinusoidal spectral features which can be easily processed, unlike gas absorption cells or emission lamps, which spectral line distributions are extremely nonuniform; (2), it has a wide spectral coverage from visible to near infrared (NIR); (3), it is designed to be thermal-stable (thermally compensated) so that the thermal induced RV drift is very small; (4), it is also field compensated to ensure a high optical efficiency so that a spatially incoherent continuum light source is suitable for producing bright calibration light (unlike the faint ThAr emission lamp); (5). it is extremely compact ( 10x10x10 cm3) and low cost compared to the bulky (more than 1x1x1 m3) and extremely high cost laser frequency combs. With the help of the proposed RV calibration source, the search of exoplanets around M dwarfs or even L, T dwarfs can be extended to the NIR band. The predicted sub m/s RV calibration precision will enable the discovery of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around M dwarfs. The proposed calibration source may be quite useful for calibrating future space instruments for possible space RV exoplanet searches in the IR region where RV measurements are free of contamination of the Earth's telluric lines, which is a serious issue for ground-based IR RV observations. We will present our latest results of the calibration source on its application for both Echelle spectrograph and the instrument adopting DFDI method.

  4. Synthesis of ultrastable copper sulfide nanoclusters via trapping the reaction intermediate: potential anticancer and antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yin; Hua, Xian-Wu; Wu, Fu-Gen; Li, Bolin; Liu, Peidang; Gu, Ning; Wang, Zhifei; Chen, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Copper-based nanomaterials have broad applications in electronics, catalysts, solar energy conversion, antibiotics, tissue imaging, and photothermal cancer therapy. However, it is challenging to prepare ultrasmall and ultrastable CuS nanoclusters (NCs) at room temperature. In this article, a simple method to synthesize water-soluble, monodispersed CuS NCs is reported based on the strategy of trapping the reaction intermediate using thiol-terminated, alkyl-containing short-chain poly(ethylene glycol)s (HS-(CH2)11-(OCH2CH2)6-OH, abbreviated as MUH). The MUH-coated CuS NCs have superior stability in solutions with varied pH values and are stable in pure water for at least 10 months. The as-prepared CuS NCs were highly toxic to A549 cancer cells at a concentration of higher than 100 μM (9.6 μg/mL), making them be potentially applicable as anticancer drugs via intravenous administration by liposomal encapsulation or by direct intratumoral injection. Besides, for the first time, CuS NCs were used for antibacterial application, and 800 μM (76.8 μg/mL) CuS NCs could completely kill the E. coli cells through damaging the cell walls. Moreover, the NCs synthesized here have strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption and can be used as a candidate reagent for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. The method of trapping the reaction intermediate for simple and controlled synthesis of nanoclusters is generally applicable and can be widely used to synthesize many metal-based (such as Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) nanoclusters and nanocrystals.

  5. Trends in Performance and Characteristics of Ultra-Stable Oscillators for Deep Space Radio Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunication systems of spacecraft on deep space missions also function as instruments for Radio Science experiments. Radio scientists utilize the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine very small changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and/or polarization of radio signals to investigate a host of physical phenomena in the solar system. Several missions augmented the radio communication system with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) in order to provide a highly stable reference signal for oneway downlink. This configuration is used in order to enable better investigations of the atmospheres of the planets occulting the line-of-sight to the spacecraft; one-way communication was required and the transponders' built-in auxiliary oscillators were neither sufficiently stable nor spectrally pure for the occultation experiments. Since Radio Science instrumentation is distributed between the spacecraft and the ground stations, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is also equipped to function as a world-class instrument for Radio Science research. For a detailed account of Radio Science experiments, methodology, key discoveries, and the DSN's historical contribution to the field, see Asmar and Renzetti (1993). The tools of Radio Science can be and have also been utilized in addressing several mission engineering challenges; e.g., characterization of spacecraft nutation and anomalous motion, antenna calibrations, and communications during surface landing phases. Since the first quartz USO was flown on Voyager, the technology has advanced significantly, affording future missions higher sensitivity in reconstructing the temperature pressure profiles of the atmospheres under study as well as other physical phenomena of interest to Radio Science. This paper surveys the trends in stability and spectral purity performance, design characteristics including size and mass, as well as cost and history of these clocks in space.

  6. Trends in Performance and Characteristics of Ultra-Stable Oscillators for Deep Space Radio Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunication systems of spacecraft on deep space missions also function as instruments for Radio Science experiments. Radio scientists utilize the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine very small changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and/or polarization of radio signals to investigate a host of physical phenomena in the solar system. Several missions augmented the radio communication system with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) in order to provide a highly stable reference signal for oneway downlink. This configuration is used in order to enable better investigations of the atmospheres of the planets occulting the line-of-sight to the spacecraft; one-way communication was required and the transponders' built-in auxiliary oscillators were neither sufficiently stable nor spectrally pure for the occultation experiments. Since Radio Science instrumentation is distributed between the spacecraft and the ground stations, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is also equipped to function as a world-class instrument for Radio Science research. For a detailed account of Radio Science experiments, methodology, key discoveries, and the DSN's historical contribution to the field, see Asmar and Renzetti (1993). The tools of Radio Science can be and have also been utilized in addressing several mission engineering challenges; e.g., characterization of spacecraft nutation and anomalous motion, antenna calibrations, and communications during surface landing phases. Since the first quartz USO was flown on Voyager, the technology has advanced significantly, affording future missions higher sensitivity in reconstructing the temperature pressure profiles of the atmospheres under study as well as other physical phenomena of interest to Radio Science. This paper surveys the trends in stability and spectral purity performance, design characteristics including size and mass, as well as cost and history of these clocks in space.

  7. Structural ropes development for the E-ELT structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Eugenio; Gómez, José Ramón; Ronquillo, Bernardo; Brunetto, Enzo; Koch, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) structural rope system will be integrated in a mechanical structure, which can be made of mild steel and/or composite material. The following critical problems shall be solved by the rope system: matching of differential thermal expansion and tensioning forces calibration and control. The structural rope system consists of ropes, thermal compensation and tension control devices, and mechanical interfaces with the telescope structure. The objective of this study is to provide solutions to stabilize slender structural elements located in the upper part of the E-ELT Altitude Structure and increase global mode frequencies of the upper part of the E-ELT Altitude Structure. An appropriate rope system is developed to avoid local mode shapes and loss of stiffness that could lead to the failure of the whole structure under operational loads. The pre-tension level of the ropes needs to be controlled before operation to reach that objective.

  8. Development and evaluation of polybenzoxazole fibrous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    1995-01-01

    Woven and braided polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures have been developed for aerospace applications. The properties of PBO fibers are compared to those of other high performance fibers. PBO is unique for combining excellent flammability properties with the highest tensile strength and modulus of all synthetic organic fibers. The PBO structures are specifically developed to be compared to similar Kevlar structures. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and oxidative properties of the PBO woven and braided structures are determined. The resistance to various chemicals and to UV light is evaluated. Recommendations for specific aerospace applications are given with comments for further development and industrial applications.

  9. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  10. Structural Change and Employment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to structural changes in developing countries and concludes that unemployment and underemployment are best countered by generating new productive activities, developing economic linkages, and stimulating an increase in the number of workplaces. Advocates cooperation among developing nations. (JOW)

  11. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B.; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E.; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxide (OH-)-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)+ or Cp*2Co+] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)+ or Cp2Co+], Cp*2Co+ has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp*2Co+ cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp*2Co+-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices.

  12. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-29

    Hydroxide (OH(-))-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)(+) or Cp(*)2Co(+)] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)(+) or Cp2Co(+)], Cp(*)2Co(+) has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp(*)2Co(+) cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp(*)2Co(+)-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices.

  13. Prospects for Ultra-Stable Timekeeping with Sealed Vacuum Operation in Multi-Pole Linear Ion Trap Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    A recent long-term comparison between the compensated multi-pole Linear Ion Trap Standard (LITS) and the laser-cooled primary standards via GPS carrier phase time transfer showed a deviation of less than 2.7x10(exp -17)/day. A subsequent evaluation of potential drift contributors in the LITS showed that the leading candidates are fluctuations in background gases and the neon buffer gas. The current vacuum system employs a "flow-through" turbomolecular pump and a diaphragm fore pump. Here we consider the viability of a "sealed" vacuum system pumped by a non-evaporable getter for long-term ultra-stable clock operation. Initial tests suggests that both further stability improvement and longer mean-time-between-maintenance can be achieved using this approach

  14. Ultra-Stable Beacon Source for Laboratory Testing of Optical Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Yoichi; Marka, Szabolcs; Kovalik, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-stable beacon source (USBS) provides a laser-beam output with a very low angular jitter and can be used as an absolute angular reference to simulate a beacon in the laboratory. The laser is mounted on the top of a very short (approximately equal to 1 m) inverted pendulum (IP) with its optical axis parallel to the carbon fiber pendulum leg. The 85-cm, carbon fiber rods making up the leg are very lightweight and rigid, and are supported by a flex-joint at the bottom (see figure). The gimbal-mounted laser is a weight-adjustable load of about 1.5 kg with its center of rotation co-located with the center of percussion of the inverted pendulum. This reduces the coupling of transverse motion at the base of the pendulum to angular motion of the laser at the top. The inverted pendulum is mounted on a gimbal with its center of rotation coinciding with the pivot position of the inverted pendulum flexure joint. This reduces coupling of ground tilt at the inverted pendulum base to motion of the laser mounted at the top. The mass of the top gimbal is adjusted to give the pendulum a very low resonant frequency (approximately equal to 10 mHz) that filters transverse seismic disturbances from the ground where the base is attached. The motion of the IP is monitored by an optical-lever sensor. The laser light is reflected by the mirror on the IP, and then is detected by a quadrant photo-detector (QPD). The position of the beam spot on the QPD corresponds to the tilt of the IP. Damping of this motion is provided by two coil and magnet pairs. The bottom gimbal mount consists of two plates. The IP is mounted on the second plate. The first plate is supported by two posts through needles and can be rotated about the axis connecting the tips of the needles. The second plate hangs from the first plate and can be rotated about the axis perpendicular to the first plate. As a result, the second plate acts as a two-axis rotation stage. Its center of rotation is located at the

  15. Recent developments in evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) for continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong

    2010-06-01

    Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) and its later version bi-directional ESO (BESO) have gained widespread popularity among researchers in structural optimization and practitioners in engineering and architecture. However, there have also been many critical comments on various aspects of ESO/BESO. To address those criticisms, we have carried out extensive work to improve the original ESO/BESO algorithms in recent years. This paper summarizes some of the latest developments in the BESO method for topology optimization of continuum structures. Numerical results show that the ESO/BESO solutions agree well with those of other well-established topology optimization methods. It indicates that the current BESO method has great potential to become a robust and efficient design tool for practical applications in engineering and architecture.

  16. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  17. Developing Agility from a Structured Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继祥; 王俭保

    2001-01-01

    Modeling plays an important role in understanding and implementation of manufacturing system under changing competitive environment. Agile manuincturing is a new pattern of production. It is the issue to identify, analyze and evaluate agility for involved people, information,process and organization. There is no commonly accepted analytical structure. The essence of agility is investigated and a model to develop agility is elucidated.

  18. A Structural Theory of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development is restated in less technical terms, with emphasis on the concepts of: (1) moral judgment, rather than behavior, values, or feelings; (2) "stages," describing consistencies in moral reasoning procedures; and (3) "better" stages, measuring structurally more adequate levels. (MJB)

  19. Photogrammetry Methodology Development for Gossamer Spacecraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Jones, Thomas W.; Black, Jonathan T.; Walford, Alan; Robson, Stuart; Shortis, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    Photogrammetry--the science of calculating 3D object coordinates from images--is a flexible and robust approach for measuring the static and dynamic characteristics of future ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures (a.k.a., Gossamer structures), such as large membrane reflectors, solar sails, and thin-film solar arrays. Shape and dynamic measurements are required to validate new structural modeling techniques and corresponding analytical models for these unconventional systems. This paper summarizes experiences at NASA Langley Research Center over the past three years to develop or adapt photogrammetry methods for the specific problem of measuring Gossamer space structures. Turnkey industrial photogrammetry systems were not considered a cost-effective choice for this basic research effort because of their high purchase and maintenance costs. Instead, this research uses mainly off-the-shelf digital-camera and software technologies that are affordable to most organizations and provide acceptable accuracy.

  20. Development of light metals automotive structural subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, A.A.; Sachdev, A.K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Key technological developments in aluminum and magnesium alloys were reviewed in relation to the manufacturing processes that enable lightweight automotive structural subsystems. Examples included the materials and processes evolution of lightweight body structures, chassis systems, and instrument panel beams. New aluminum and magnesium alloys and manufacturing technologies used to reduce mass and improve performance in vehicle cradle structures were discussed. Hydroforming processes used to enable the use of lightweight aluminum alloy tubes in automotive body structures were also reviewed, in addition to body architectures enabled by different materials and manufacturing processes. The review noted that magnesium instrument panels are now being designed to provide significant performance improvement, reduced vibration, and enhanced crashworthiness in new automobiles. It was concluded that vehicles will incorporate more lightweight materials such as nanocomposites and aluminum and magnesium sheets. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  1. 改性Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定化对非水相中脂肪酶拆分(R,S)-2-辛醇的影响%Effect of Immobilization by Modified Ultrastable-Y Molecular Sieve on the Resolution of(R,S)-2-Octanol in Nonaqueous Media by Lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴大章; 夏黎明

    2008-01-01

    采用改性Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定Penicillium expansum PED-03脂肪酶(PEL),利用固定化PEL在非水相中对(R,S)-2-辛醇进行手性拆分,考察了改性Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定化处理对PEL催化性能的影响.结果表明,与游离PEL及经其它载体固定化的PEL相比,改性Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定的PEL所催化的拆分反应的转化率(c)和对映体过量值(ee)以及对映体选择性(E)均得到了较大提高.经固定化处理后,PEL的最适反应温度明显升高,适宜反应温度范围变宽,其稳定性也得到了明显改善,而适宜反应pH值则具有"记忆"性.在间歇式反应器中利用Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定化PEL对(R,S)-2-辛醇进行手性拆分,50℃反应24 h转化率(c)可达理论值的97.68%,对映体过量值(ee)可达98.75%.连续8批拆分反应的结果表明:改性Ultrastable-Y分子筛固定化脂肪酶催化效率高、立体选择性强(平均 E值>460),且催化性能稳定,显示了该固定化酶在(R,S)-2-辛醇的手性拆分方面具有良好的应用前景.

  2. Development of structural design criteria for ITER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-06-22

    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors such as HER presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the interim ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  3. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will be described, including: proton linac injectors for proton synchrotrons, compact proton linacs for PET isotope production, epithermal neutron sources for the BNCT application, energy boosters for proton therapy, compact portable neutron sources for thermal neutron radiography, and pulsed cold neutron sources for cold neutron physics and related applications.

  4. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  5. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  6. Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.

  7. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  8. Development of an active structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. A.; Wyse, R. E.; Schubert, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The design and development of the Air Force and TRW's Advanced Control Technology Experiment (ACTEX) flight experiment is described in this paper. The overall objective of ACTEX is to provide an active structure trailblazer which will demonstrate the compatibility of active structures with operational spacecraft performance and lifetime measures. At the heart of the experiment is an active tripod driven by a digitally-programmable analog control electronics subsystem. Piezoceramic sensors and actuators embedded in a graphite epoxy host material provide the sensing and actuation mechanism for the active tripod. Low noise ground-programmable electronics provide a virtually unlimited number of control schemes that can be implemented in the space environment. The flight experiment program provides the opportunity to gather performance, reliability, adaptability, and lifetime performance data on vibration suppression hardware for the next generation of DoD and NASA spacecraft.

  9. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  10. Documenting the decision structure in software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J. Christian; Maly, Kurt; Shen, Stewart N.

    1990-01-01

    Current software development paradigms focus on the products of the development process. Much of the decision making process which produces these products is outside the scope of these paradigms. The Decision-Based Software Development (DBSD) paradigm views the design process as a series of interrelated decisions which involve the identification and articulation of problems, alternates, solutions and justifications. Decisions made by programmers and analysts are recorded in a project data base. Unresolved problems are also recorded and resources for their resolution are allocated by management according to the overall development strategy. This decision structure is linked to the products affected by the relevant decision and provides a process oriented view of the resulted system. Software maintenance uses this decision view of the system to understand the rationale behind the decisions affecting the part of the system to be modified. D-HyperCase, a prototype Decision-Based Hypermedia System is described and results of applying the DBSD approach during its development are presented.

  11. Self-Powered Wireless Smart Sensor Node Enabled by an Ultrastable, Highly Efficient, and Superhydrophobic-Surface-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2016-09-27

    Wireless sensor networks will be responsible for a majority of the fast growth in intelligent systems in the next decade. However, most of the wireless smart sensor nodes require an external power source such as a Li-ion battery, where the labor cost and environmental waste issues of replacing batteries have largely limited the practical applications. Instead of using a Li-ion battery, we report an ultrastable, highly efficient, and superhydrophobic-surface-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to scavenge wind energy for sustainably powering a wireless smart temperature sensor node. There is no decrease in the output voltage and current of the TENG after continuous working for about 14 h at a wind speed of 12 m/s. Through a power management circuit, the TENG can deliver a constant output voltage of 3.3 V and a pulsed output current of about 100 mA to achieve highly efficient energy storage in a capacitor. A wireless smart temperature sensor node can be sustainably powered by the TENG for sending the real-time temperature data to an iPhone under a working distance of 26 m, demonstrating the feasibility of the self-powered wireless smart sensor networks.

  12. Ultra-stable laser with average fractional frequency drift rate below $5\\times10^{-19}/\\mathrm{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagemann, Christian; Lisdat, Christian; Falke, Stephan; Legero, Thomas; Sterr, Uwe; Riehle, Fritz; Martin, Michael J; Ye, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic single-crystal optical cavities have the potential to provide highest dimensional stability. We have investigated the long-term performance of an ultra-stable laser system which is stabilized to a single-crystal silicon cavity operated at 124 K. Utilizing a frequency comb, the laser is compared to a hydrogen maser that is referenced to a primary caesium fountain standard and to the $^{87}\\mathrm{Sr}$ optical lattice clock at PTB. With fractional frequency instabilities of $\\sigma_y(\\tau)\\leq2\\times10^{-16}$ for averaging times of $\\tau=60\\mathrm{~s}$ to $1000\\mathrm{~s}$ and $\\sigma_y(1 \\mathrm{d})\\leq 2\\times10^{-15}$ the stability of this laser, without any aid from an atomic reference, surpasses the best microwave standards for short averaging times and is competitive with the best hydrogen masers for longer times of one day. The comparison of modeled thermal response of the cavity with measured data indicates a fractional frequency drift below $5\\times 10^{-19}/\\mathrm{s}$, which we do not expec...

  13. Catalytic degradation of high-density polyethylene on an ultrastable-Y zeolite. Nature of initial polymer reactions, pattern of formation of gas and liquid products, and temperature effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manos, G.; Garforth, A.; Dwyer, J.

    2000-05-01

    The catalytic degradation of high-density polyethylene (hdPE) over ultrastable Y zeolite in a semibatch reactor was studied at different heating rates and reaction temperatures. Catalytic degradation of the polymer occurred at much lower temperatures than pure thermal degradation. When gel permeation chromatography was used to determine the molar mass distribution, it was found that solid state reactions occur only in the presence of a catalyst. These reactions change the polymer structure well before the formation of significant amounts of volatile products. The pattern of formation of gaseous and liquid products was studied and found to follow the temperature increase. After the system reached its final temperature, the reaction rate of formation of volatile products decreased rapidly. The product range was typically between C{sub 3} and C{sub 15}. Isobutane and isopentane were the main gaseous products. The liquid product fraction was alkane-rich, as alkenes rapidly undergo bimolecular hydrogen transfer reactions to give alkanes as secondary products.

  14. Strain in nonclassical silicon hydrides: An insight into the "ultrastability" of sila-bi[6]prismane (Si18 H12) cluster with the endohedrally trapped silicon atom, Si19 H12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgonos, Grygoriy A; Mekalka, Koshka

    2015-10-30

    The recently postulated concept of "ultrastability" and "electron-deficient aromaticity" (Vach, Nano Lett 2011, 11, 5477; Vach, J Chem Theory Comput 2012, 8, 2088) in a sila-bi[6]prismane having an additional entrapped silicon atom, Si19 H12 , has been disproved on the basis of a careful analysis of the energetic characteristics related to the formation of this and other silicon hydrides. The central silicon atom in Si19 H12 is weaker bound to other silicon atoms than in conventional tetrahedral silanes; moreover, Si19 H12 possesses a significant amount of strain. The role of strain in the formation of the title compounds has been further rationalized by calculating the relative energies for the transformation to a half-planar conformation in methane and in silane and by calculating the respective strain energies. The strain energy value in Si18 H12 is equal to 9.93 eV whereas the same property for Si19 H12 lies in range of 6.42-8.85 eV. Two low-energy isomers of Si19 H12 which lie by 2.77 and 3.42 eV (!) lower in energy than the originally considered sila-bi[6]prismane-based structure have been proposed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep M Saygin

    Full Text Available A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei. The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age.

  16. Reading skill and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-03-26

    Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.

  17. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  18. Hierarchical structures in fully developed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li

    Analysis of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the velocity increment dvl and of their deformation is used to reveal the statistical structure of the intermittent energy cascade dynamics of turbulence. By analyzing a series of turbulent data sets including that of an experiment of fully developed low temperature helium turbulent gas flow (Belin, Tabeling, & Willaime, Physica D 93, 52, 1996), of a three-dimensional isotropic Navier-Stokes simulation with a resolution of 2563 (Cao, Chen, & She, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3711, 1996) and of a GOY shell model simulation (Leveque & She, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1997) of a very big sample size (up to 5 billions), the validity of the Hierarchical Structure model (She & Leveque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 366, 1994) for the inertial-range is firmly demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that parameters in the Hierarchical Structure model can be reliably measured and used to characterize the cascade process. The physical interpretations of the parameters then allow to describe differential changes in different turbulent systems so as to address non-universal features of turbulent systems. It is proposed that the above study provides a framework for the study of non-homogeneous turbulence. A convergence study of moments and scaling exponents is also carried out with detailed analysis of effects of finite statistical sample size. A quantity Pmin is introduced to characterize the resolution of a PDF, and hence the sample size. The fact that any reported scaling exponent depends on the PDF resolution suggests that the validation (or rejection) of a model of turbulence needs to carry out a resolution dependence analysis on its scaling prediction.

  19. Amyloid beta: structure, biology and structure-based therapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Fang; Xu, Ting-Hai; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Yu-Ren; Jiang, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2017-09-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is produced through the proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases. Aβ accumulation in the brain is proposed to be an early toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. Currently, it is unclear what the physiological and pathological forms of Aβ are and by what mechanism Aβ causes dementia. Moreover, there are no efficient drugs to stop or reverse the progression of Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we review the structures, biological functions, and neurotoxicity role of Aβ. We also discuss the potential receptors that interact with Aβ and mediate Aβ intake, clearance, and metabolism. Additionally, we summarize the therapeutic developments and recent advances of different strategies for treating Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we will report on the progress in searching for novel, potentially effective agents as well as selected promising strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. These prospects include agents acting on Aβ, its receptors and tau protein, such as small molecules, vaccines and antibodies against Aβ; inhibitors or modulators of β- and γ-secretase; Aβ-degrading proteases; tau protein inhibitors and vaccines; amyloid dyes and microRNAs.

  20. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksiak, Matthew D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Ghorbanpour, Arian [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Conato, Marlon T. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman Quezon City 1101 Philippines; McGrail, B. Peter [Applied Functional Materials, Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Grabow, Lars C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Applied Functional Materials, Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Rimer, Jeffrey D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA

    2016-10-05

    Designing nanoporous zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications spanning diverse areas such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires the use of an organic structure-directing agent to facilitate the formation of crystals with specific pore size and topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially-viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of unwanted crystal polymorphs (i.e., impurities). Here, we present an organic-free synthesis of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS framework topology) that can be selectively tailored to produce two pure polymorphs: P1 and P2. To this end, we developed kinetic phase diagrams that identify synthesis compositions leading to the formation of GIS (P1 and P2), as well as their structural analogues MER and PHI. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we also show that both GIS polymorphs are highly selective adsorbents for H2O relative to other light gases (e.g,, H2, N2, CO2). These studies highlight the potential application of GIS materials for dehydration processes, while our findings also refute prior theoretical studies postulating that GIS-type zeolites are excellent materials for CO2 separation/sequestration. Moreover, there is an impetus for discovering novel small-pore zeolites that are shape-selective catalysts for the production of value-added chemicals (e.g., light olefins); thus, our discovery of more thermally-stable P2 opens new avenues for exploring the potential role of this material as a high-performance catalyst.

  1. Ultrastable nitrogen-doped carbon encapsulating molybdenum phosphide nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zonghua; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Mu, Shichun

    2016-10-06

    There is a crucial demand for cost-effective hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts towards future renewable energy systems, and the development of such catalysts operating under all pH conditions still remains a challenging task. In this work, a one-step facile approach to synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon encapsulating molybdenum phosphide nanoparticles (MoP NPs@NC) is introduced by using ammonium molybdate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and melamine as precursor. Benefitting from structural advantages, including ultrasmall nanoparticles, large exposed surface area and fast charge transfer, MoP NPs@NC exhibits excellent HER catalytic activities with small overpotentials at all pH values (j = 10 mA cm(-2) at η = 115, 136 and 80 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4, 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution and 1.0 M KOH, respectively.). Meanwhile, the high catalytic activities of MoP NPs@NC under both neutral and basic conditions have never been achieved before for molybdenum phosphide-based catalysts. Additionally, the encapsulation by N-doped carbon effectively prevents the MoP NPs from corrosion, exhibiting nearly unfading stability after 100 h testing in 0.5 M H2SO4. Thus, our work could pave a new avenue for unprecedented design and fabrication of novel low-cost metal phosphide electrocatalysts encapsulated by N-doped carbon.

  2. Development of Crashworthy Bottom and Side Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naar, H.; Kujala, P.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup;

    2002-01-01

    structures. The first structure is a conventional double bottom. In the second structure (presently protected through a patent) the bottom plating is stiffened with hat-profiles instead of bulb profiles. In the third structure the outer shell is an all-steel sandwich panel. In the fourth structure the bottom......The purpose of this work is to compare the resistance to damage of various types of double bottom structures in a stranding event. The results can also be interpreted as the crashworthiness of side structures penetrated by a striking vessel in a collision event. The comparative analyses are made...... by use of a commercial, explicit finite element program. The ship bottom is loaded with a conical indenter with a rounded tip, which is forced laterally into the structures in different positions. The aim is to compare resistance forces, energy absorption and penetration to fracture for four different...

  3. Mesoporous orthorhombic Nb2O5 nanofibers as pseudocapacitive electrodes with ultra-stable Li storage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Won; Youn, Doo-Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Yu, Sunmoon; Cho, Su-Ho; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-08-01

    Ultra-stable pseudocapacitive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are increasing in demand as highly sustainable energy storage system with excellent charge transport is important. The establishment of facile, controllable, and scalable synthesis of pseudocapacitive electrode materials is an attractive solution to realize such objectives. Here, we have successfully fabricated mesoporous orthorhombic Nb2O5 nanofibers (m-T-Nb2O5 NFs) by simple single-spinneret electrospinning followed by calcination at 600 °C. As-formed m-T-Nb2O5 NFs exhibit high surface area (23.7 m2 g-1) and a number of mesopores in the vacant sites where organic polymer was once decomposed. Such rationally designed m-T-Nb2O5-NFs allow facile Li ion and electron transport, with pseudocapacitive behavior. Arising from the high surface area coupled with mesopores in-between the Nb2O5 nanograins, it exhibits ultra-long cycle retention (a capacity of ∼160 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 after 2000 cycles and ∼88 mAh g-1 at 3000 mA g-1 after 5000 cycles) and higher rate capability (∼70 mAh g-1 at 5000 mA g-1). Such cycle retention characteristics of m-T-Nb2O5-NFs are at least 100-fold slower capacity decay compared with previously reported one-dimensional (1D) Nb2O5 nanostructures and even superior or comparable to recently reported Nb2O5-graphene composite materials.

  4. Probabilistic structural analysis algorithm development for computational efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.

    1991-01-01

    The PSAM (Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods) program is developing a probabilistic structural risk assessment capability for the SSME components. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis software system, NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress), is being developed as part of the PSAM effort to accurately simulate stochastic structures operating under severe random loading conditions. One of the challenges in developing the NESSUS system is the development of the probabilistic algorithms that provide both efficiency and accuracy. The main probability algorithms developed and implemented in the NESSUS system are efficient, but approximate in nature. In the last six years, the algorithms have improved very significantly.

  5. Wakefield monitor development for CLIC accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Girardot, P; Andersson, A; Riddone, G; Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Zennaro, R; Ruber, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To achieve high luminosity in CLIC, the accelerating structures must be aligned to an accuracy of 5 μm with respect to the beam trajectory. Position detectors called Wakefield Monitors (WFM) are integrated to the structure for a beam based alignment. This paper describes the requirements of such monitors. Detailed RF design and electromagnetic simulations of the WFM itself are presented. In particular, time domain computations are performed and an evaluation of the resolution is done for two higher order modes at 18 and 24 GHz. The mechanical design of a prototype accelerating structure with WFM is also presented as well as the fabrication status of three complete structures. The objective is to implement two of them in CTF3 at CERN for a feasibility demonstration with beam and high power rf.

  6. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurement...

  7. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  8. The Determination and Development of Sectoral Structure

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The development over time of sectors in terms of value added and employment has common characteristics in all economies. We develop a simple Ricardian multi-sector general equilibrium model that allows for (i) non-unitary income elasticities, (ii) different paces of technological progress per sector, and (iii) endogenously determined technological progress per sector. A model with these ingredients allows us to replicate the sectoral developments that are found empirically, and which are show...

  9. Understanding cochleate formation: insights into structural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Steiniger, Frank; Thamm, Jana; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred

    2016-04-20

    Understanding the structure and the self-assembly process of cochleates has become increasingly necessary considering the advances of this drug delivery system towards the pharmaceutical industry. It is well known that the addition of cations like calcium to a dispersion of anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserines results in stable, multilamellar cochleates through a spontaneous assembly. In the current investigation we have studied the intermediate structures generated during this self-assembly of cochleates. To achieve this, we have varied the process temperature for altering the rate of cochleate formation. Our findings from electron microscopy studies showed the formation of ribbonlike structures, which with proceeding interaction associate to form lipid stacks, networks and eventually cochleates. We also observed that the variation in lipid acyl chains did not make a remarkable difference to the type of structure evolved during the formation of cochleates. More generally, our observations provide a new insight into the self-assembly process of cochleates based on which we have proposed a pathway for cochleate formation from phosphatidylserine and calcium. This knowledge could be employed in using cochleates for a variety of possible biomedical applications in the future.

  10. The Determination and Development of Sectoral Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The development over time of sectors in terms of value added and employment has common characteristics in all economies. We develop a simple Ricardian multi-sector general equilibrium model that allows for (i) non-unitary income elasticities, (ii) different paces of technological progress per sector

  11. Nanoconfined phosphorus film coating on interconnected carbon nanotubes as ultrastable anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Liyuan; Li, Nan; Chen, Cheng; Li, Cuiyu; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Kuang, Liyun; Tian, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Elemental phosphorus (P) is extensively explored as promising anode candidates due to its abundance, low-cost and high theoretical specific capacity. However, it is of great challenge for P-based materials as practical high-energy-density and long-cycling anodes for its large volume expansion and low conductibility. Here, we significantly improve both cycling and rate performance of red P by cladding the nanoconfined P film on interconnected multi-walled carbon nanotube networks (P-MWCNTs composite) via facile wet ball-milling. The red P-MWCNTs anode presents a superior high reversible capacity of 1396.6 mAh g-1 on the basis of P-MWCNTs composite weight at 50 mA g-1 with capacity retention reaching at ∼90% over 50 cycles. Even at 1000 mA g-1, it still maintains remarkable specific reversible capacity of 934.0 mAh g-1. This markedly enhanced performance is ascribed to synergistic advantages of this unique structure: Intimate contacts between nanosized red P and entangled MWCNTs not only shorten the transmission routes of ions through MWCNTs toward red P, but also motivate the access with electrolyte to open structures of P film. Besides, the confined nanosized P film moderate volume expansions effectively and the entangled MWCNTs networks acted as conductive channels activate high ionic/electronic conductivity of the whole electrodes.

  12. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  13. THE ESSENCE OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT COMPANY IN THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the beginning of the article is defined a rational sequence of the consideration of the nature of the strategy of a company development, included into an integrated structure. Further the article describes the following items separately: "a strategy", "a development of a company", and "an integrational structure", applying them to companies included to the integrated structure; separating them from a strategy of development of an autonomous company. The article defines functions which such strategy must define, taking into consideration the nature of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. Next, the article defines six steps which describe a sequence of development of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. The analysis which is defined in the article allows determining a complete definition of essence of the strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure. The article also defines a place of the strategy of development into the hierarchical structure of the strategies. The strategy of the company development, included into an integrated structure (as well as the strategy of development of an autonomous company -- is a competition strategy, and it separates "strategy of leadership for costs", “differentiation strategy”, and “strategy of focusing for costs”. Also authors are analyzed the strategy of the cost optimization. According to the complex definition of the strategy, and the strategy's place inside the hierarchical structure, the article defines functions which corporate, competitive, and functional strategies execute during the management of companies inside an integrational structure. The article presents characteristics of applied strategic decisions at different levels of all three types of strategies. The article's researches allow companies included to the integrated structure define their place inside the

  14. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksiak, Matthew D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Ghorbanpour, Arian [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Conato, Marlon T. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman Quezon City 1101 Philippines; McGrail, B. Peter [Applied Functional Materials, Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Grabow, Lars C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Applied Functional Materials, Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Rimer, Jeffrey D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204 USA

    2016-09-02

    Designing zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires an organic structure-directing agent to obtain crystals with specific pore topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially-viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of impurities. Here, we present organic-free syntheses of two polymorphs of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS), P1 and P2. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory calculations, we show that GIS polymorphs are selective adsorbents for H2O relative to other light gases (e.g., H2, N2, CO2).

  15. Development of Hot Structures Materials for Inflatable Heat Shield Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative low cost, lightweight, durable structural concepts that feature simple robust designs, efficient packaging, and assembly are critical to the development...

  16. submitter The Ultra-Stable Magnet of the Mark II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Eichenberger, A; Vorotszhov, A

    2016-01-01

    A new watt balance experiment is under development at the Federal Institute of Metrology (METAS, Switzerland). Its scope is to link the mass unit to the Plank constant in order to set a new definition of the kilogram, which is no longer based on the international prototype. The experiment is performed in two steps with the same setup and requires that the magnetic field produced in the two steps by the magnet fitted in the setup remains stable within few parts per $10^8$. This paper describes the design, manufacture, and characterization of this magnet, which is performed through a collaboration between METAS and CERN.

  17. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiak, Matthew D; Ghorbanpour, Arian; Conato, Marlon T; McGrail, B Peter; Grabow, Lars C; Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2016-11-02

    Designing zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications, such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires an organic structure-directing agent to produce crystals with specific pore topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of impurities. Herein, we present organic-free syntheses of two polymorphs of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS), P1 and P2. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory calculations, we show that GIS polymorphs are selective adsorbents for H2 O relative to other light gases (e.g., H2 , N2 , CO2 ). Our findings refute prior theoretical studies postulating that GIS-type zeolites are excellent materials for CO2 separation/sequestration. We also show that P2 is significantly more thermally stable than P1, which broadens the operating conditions for GIS-type zeolites in commercial applications and opens new avenues for exploring their potential use in processes such as catalysis.

  18. Isolation of Renewable Phenolics by Adsorption on Ultrastable Hydrophobic MIL-140 Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, Ben; Damasceno Borges, Daiane; Vermoortele, Frederik; Wouters, Robin; Bozbiyik, Belgin; Denayer, Joeri; Taulelle, Francis; Martineau, Charlotte; Serre, Christian; Maurin, Guillaume; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-09-21

    The isolation and separation of phenolic compounds from aqueous backgrounds is challenging and will gain in importance as we become more dependent on phenolics from lignocellulose-derived bio-oil to meet our needs for aromatic compounds. Herein, we show that highly stable and hydrophobic Zr metal-organic frameworks of the MIL-140 type are effective adsorbent materials for the separation of different phenolics and far outperform other classes of porous solids (silica, zeolites, carbons). The mechanism of the hydroquinone-catechol separation on MIL-140C was studied in detail by combining experimental results with computational techniques. Although the differences in adsorption enthalpy between catechol and hydroquinone are negligible, the selective uptake of catechol in MIL-140C is explained by its dense π-π stacking in the pores. The interplay of enthalpic and entropic effects allowed separation of a complex, five-compound phenol mixture through breakthrough over a MIL-140C column. Unlike many other metal-organic frameworks, MIL-140C is remarkably stable and maintained structure, porosity and performance after five adsorption-desorption cycles.

  19. The Developement of A Lattice Structured Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans

    to a given set of inserted terms, that is the smallest lattice where the inserted terms preserve their value compared to the value in the initial algebra/lattice. The database is the dual representation of this most disjoint lattice. We develop algorithms to construct and make queries to the database....

  20. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  1. Structuring user-centred product development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolhorst, F.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decades, product development industry has found itself facing a general increase in product use problems. These problems originate from a mismatch between the actual functionality that the product provides and the afforded product-user interaction versus the user’s expectations regar

  2. Leading Change: Faculty Development through Structured Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Painter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are relentless calls for innovation in higher education programs in response to media and policy-makers attention to such concerns as instructional quality, relevance to employment, costs, and time-to-degree. At the same time, the individual course remains the primary unit of instruction and there is little evidence of faculty development strategies to assist with changing core instructional practices. We faced that dilemma when we led an innovative doctoral program in educational leadership. Soon after beginning, we implemented a regular meeting of all faculty members teaching and advising in the program to address upcoming events and review student progress. Our retrospective analysis indicates that these meetings evolved as a practical and sustainable framework for faculty development in support of deep change for instructional practices. Here we describe the challenge of faculty development for change and draw lessons learned from our four years of leadership centered on experiential learning and community sense-making. We hope that program leaders who aspire to promote faculty development in conjunction with graduate program implementation will find these lessons useful.

  3. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  4. Biomass development of soil bioengineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Emilio; von der Thannen, Magdalena; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a traditional construction technique focusing on living plants as construction material. Therefore, the development of plants, used in soil bioengineering constructions, plays a key role in their ecological and technical performance. Diverse constructions with the purpose of river bank stabilization have been studied in order to find out the long term vegetation development and suitability. The documented and analysed biomass records collected in the field are directly connected to the different parameters and site factors such as altitude, orientation, construction type, surrounding vegetation and distance to river bank. Consequently, the influence of the different parameters on biomass development can be presented. The study addresses the biomass calculation along with the suitability understanding of the most relevant plant species integrated in soil bioengineering constructions as well as the dominating vegetation at the end of the succession. Soil bioengineering constructions are believed to be more eco-efficient than conventional constructions. Thereby, the study provides worthwhile information demonstrating the ecological viability of these measures and their positive mitigation effects on carbon neutral construction style.

  5. Ultrastable low-bias water splitting photoanodes via photocorrosion inhibition and in situ catalyst regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yongbo; Jia, Qingxin; Ma, Guijun; Hisatomi, Takashi; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Yamada, Taro; Kudo, Akihiko; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting offers a means for distributed solar hydrogen production. However, the lack of stable and cost-effective photoanodes remains a bottleneck that hampers their practical applications. Here we show that particulate Mo-doped BiVO4 water oxidation photoanodes, without costly and complex surface modifications, can possess comparable stability to that of solar cells. The photoanode exhibits enhanced intrinsic photocorrosion inhibition and self-generation and regeneration of oxygen evolution catalysts, which allows stable oxygen evolution for >1,000 h at potentials as low as 0.4 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode. The significantly improved photocorrosion resistance and charge separation are attributed to the unusual high-temperature treatment. In situ catalyst regeneration is found to be a site-specific and oxygen evolution rate change-induced process. Our findings indicate the potential of PEC water splitting to compete with other solar hydrogen production solutions, and should open new opportunities for the development of feasible PEC water splitting systems.

  6. Hunting for dark matter with ultra-stable fibre as frequency delay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanpeng; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2015-07-10

    Many cosmological observations point towards the existence of dark-matter(DM) particles and consider them as the main component of the matter content of the universe. The goal of revealing the nature of dark-matter has triggered the development of new, extremely sensitive detectors. It has been demonstrated that the frequencies and phases of optical clock have a transient shift during the DMs' arrival due to the DM-SM(Standard Model) coupling. A simple, reliable and feasible experimental scheme is firstly proposed in this paper, based on "frequency-delay system" to search dark-matter by "self-frequency comparison" of an optical clock. During the arrival of a dark-matter, frequency discrepancy is expected between two signals with a short time difference(~ms) of the same optical clock to exhibit the interaction between atoms and dark-matter. Furthermore, this process can determine the exact position of dark-matter when it is crossing the optical clocks, therefore a network of detecting stations located in different places is recommended to reduce the misjudgment risk to an acceptable level.

  7. CARMENES. III: an innovative and challenging cooling system for an ultra-stable NIR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, S.; Lizon, J. L.; Sánchez-Carrasco, Miguel Andrés.; Mirabet, E.; Amado, P.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abril, M.; Antona, R.; Cárdenas, C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Rámon, A.; Rodríguez, E.; Herranz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The CARMENES project, which is currently at FDR stage, is a last-generation exoplanet hunter instrument to be installed in the Calar Alto Observatory by 2014. It is split into two different spectrographs: one works within the visual range while the other does it in the NIR range. Both channels need to be extremely stable in terms of mechanical and thermal behavior. Nevertheless, due to the operation temperature of the NIR spectrograph, the thermal stability requirement (+/-0.07 K in 24 hours; +/-0.01 K (goal)) becomes actually a major challenge. The solution here proposed consists of a system that actively cools a shield enveloping the optical bench. Thus, the instability produced on the shield temperature is further damped on the optical bench due to the high mass of the latter, as well as the high thermal decoupling between both components, the main heat exchange being produced by radiation. This system -which is being developed with the active collaboration and advice of ESO (Jean-Louis Lizon)- is composed by a previous unit which produces a stable flow of nitrogen gas. The flow so produced goes into the in-vacuum circuitry of the NIR spectrograph and removes the radiative heat load incoming to the radiation shield by means of a group of properly dimensioned heat exchangers. The present paper describes and summarizes the cooling system designed for CARMENES NIR as well as the analyses implemented.

  8. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  9. Development of numerical procedures for analysis of complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of novel numerical procedures for the solution of static, stability, free vibration and dynamic response analysis of large, complex practical structures. Thus, details of numerical algorithms evolved for dynamic analysis of usual non-rotating and also rotating structures as well as finite dynamic elements are presented in the paper. Furthermore, the article provides some description of a general-purpose computer program STARS specifically developed for efficient analysis of complex practical structures.

  10. Development of structure in a neutrino universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.; Khlopov, M.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis is given of the evolution of perturbations and the development of irregularities in cosmological models with a nonzero neutrino rest mass. Detailed study of the transition from the radiation-dominated era to present epoch, presumably dominated by massive neutrinos, yields more accurate values for the model parameters. The nonlinear theory of irregularity formation provides estimates for the amplitude of the initial metric perturbations. Measurements of small-scale and quadrupole ..delta..T/T fluctuations in the microwave background radiation appear incompatible with a universal, ''flat'' perturbation spectrum of the type Ak. In a neutrino universe the measurements could be mutually reconciled by adopting, say, a white-noise Ak/sub 0/ spectrum, the amplitude ..delta..T/T growing as the scale increases. The nonlinear stage in the evolution of irregularities is discussed.

  11. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  12. Stress and structure development in polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, Diane Melissa

    2002-09-01

    The main goal of this research is to measure the stress evolution in various polymer coating systems to establish the mechanisms responsible for stress development, stress relaxation, and defect formation. Investigated systems include ultraviolet (UV)-curable coatings, dense and porous coatings from polymer solutions, and latex coatings. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on a cantilever deflection principle. For acrylate coatings, it was found that by cycling a UV-lamp on and off, keeping the total dose constant, coating stress was lowered by 60% by decreasing the cycle period. A stress minimum was also found to exist for a given dose of radiation. The lower stress is attributed to stress relaxation and/or slower reaction during dark periods. A viscoelastic stress model of this process was formulated and predicted stress values close to those observed experimentally. During drying of cellulose acetate (CA) coatings cast in acetone, final stress increased from 10 to 45 MPa as coating thickness decreased from 60 to 10 mum. This thickness dependent coating stress for a solvent-cast polymer coating is a new finding and is attributed to (1) less shrinkage in thicker coatings due to more trapped solvent (from skinning) and (2) greater amounts of polymer stress relaxation in thicker coatings. For porous CA coatings prepared by dry-cast phase separation, final in-plane stresses ranged from 20 MPa for coatings containing small pores (˜1 mum) to 5 MPa for coatings containing small pores and macrovoids (˜200 mum). For these coatings, a small amount of stress relaxation occurs due to capillary pressure relief. A stress plateau for the macrovoid-containing coating is likely caused by stress-induced rupture of the polymer-rich phase. Measured stress in pigment-free latex coatings was much lower (˜0.3 MPa) than UV-curable and solvent-cast polymer coatings and was found to increase with increasing latex glass transition

  13. Structural development of livestock farms in a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    as a whole and in agriculture is seen. The vertical integration in the form of contract production and cooperative ownership is increasing in several places in the world. Labor emigration from agriculture is also a general feature during economic development, and this will intensify labor productivity......Structural development in agriculture has several international dimensions, and the topic is relevant and important for several reasons. There is a wide range of economic, structural and technological drivers that in a complex context both inhibits and promotes the structural development...

  14. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Structure and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Joel; Mills, Elizabeth D.; Conrad, Amy L.; Koscik, Timothy; Andreasen, Nancy C; Nopoulos, Peg

    2012-01-01

    Structural MRI studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, there are no studies examining sex differences of parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The current study evaluated sex difference in the structure of the parietal lobe in children (7-17 years of age). Also, by adding the cohort ...

  15. The Development of Logical Structures for E-Learning Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudevdagva, Uranchimeg; Hardt, Wolfram; Dolgor, Jargalmaa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with development of logical structures for e-learning evaluation. Evaluation is a complex task into which many different groups of people are involved. As a rule these groups have different understanding and varying expectations on e-learning evaluation. Using logical structures for e-learning evaluation we can join the different…

  16. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  17. Structural problems of mining region innovative development (Kuzbass, Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsenko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the issues of overcoming the negative structural shift in Russian economy, accelerating economic growth, reducing technological and social- and-economic gap between Russia and the developed countries are strategically important. Modern structure of Russian economy which had been developed as a part of market model does not generate the innovative type of development. In this situation, mining regions, the structure of which was formed in the early 20th century and is represented by the extractive industries, are undergoing the greatest problems of innovative development. Therefore, despite high urbanization and industrial development level the economy of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia is characterized by significant structural problems. They are associated with primary extractive nature of the regional industry, in which coal and iron ore, metallurgical and chemical industries dominate. They highly depend on Russian and global market of raw materials, widely use low-productive technologies, and they are characterized by high level of fixed capital depreciation and insufficient pace of innovative infrastructure development. The solution of the structural problems of economic development of mining region is connected with technological modernization of extractive industries and use of modern materials for the production of high-tech products.

  18. Students' Development of Structure Sense for the Distributive Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler-Meyer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    After being introduced to the distributive law in meaningful contexts, students need to extend its scope of application to unfamiliar expressions. In this article, a process model for the development of structure sense is developed. Building on this model, this article reports on a design research project in which exercise tasks support students…

  19. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development of 30/20 GHz satellite antenna structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, M.; Yasaka, T.

    1986-08-01

    An antenna structural design for a large capacity communication satellite using 13 beams in the 30/20GHz frequency bands is discussed. This design is to be utilized in developing a more cost effective domestic satellite communication system for Japan. This system requires 2 high precision deployable antennas with projected aperture diameters of 3.5m at 20GHz and 2.5m at 30GHz. The in-orbit demonstration will use the ETS-6 satellite. Based on experience in the development of spaceborne antennas for 30/20GHz bands (e.g., for the CS-2 and CS-3 satellites) activities in structural design of high precision deployable antennas show the truss reflector structure is promising for achieving required structural properties.

  1. Development of a Computer Application to Simulate Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Geometric modeling is an important tool to evaluate structural parameters as well as to follow the application of stereological relationships. The obtention, visualization and analysis of volumetric images of the structure of materials, using computational geometric modeling, facilitates the determination of structural parameters of difficult experimental access, such as topological and morphological parameters. In this work, we developed a geometrical model implemented by computer software that simulates random pore structures. The number of nodes, number of branches (connections between nodes and the number of isolated parts, are obtained. Also, the connectivity (C is obtained from this application. Using a list of elements, nodes and branches, generated by the software, in AutoCAD® command line format, the obtained structure can be viewed and analyzed.

  2. Recent Developments in Smart Adaptive Structures for Solar Sailcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, M. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Oakley, J.; Adetona, O.; Keel, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    The "Smart Adaptive Structures for Solar Sailcraft" development activity at MSFC has investigated issues associated with understanding how to model and scale the subsystem and multi-body system dynamics of a gossamer solar sailcraft with the objective of designing sailcraft attitude control systems. This research and development activity addressed three key tasks that leveraged existing facilities and core competencies of MSFC to investigate dynamics and control issues of solar sails. Key aspects of this effort included modeling and testing of a 30 m deployable boom; modeling of the multi-body system dynamics of a gossamer sailcraft; investigation of control-structures interaction for gossamer sailcraft; and development and experimental demonstration of adaptive control technologies to mitigate control-structures interaction.

  3. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  4. Managing spatial development in zones undergoing major structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper considers different aspects of spatial development management in the zones characterized by significant spatial interventions, whose consequences are structural changes in usage of space, social and economic development, environmental and ambient quality. Those are, above all, big mining regions, zones of big water accumulations and main infrastructure corridors. Paper deals with normative, institutional and organizational assumptions for managing spatial development, planning approaches, construction and spatial arrangement, searching and structuring data basis and development of information system, system of indicators and monitoring system. Special attention is given to balance and synchronization of activities during compilation of study, planning and technical documentation, as well as procedures of considering and enacting appropriate decisions by competent authorities on national, regional and local level.

  5. Observation of abrupt changes associated with air injection into the ground by the time lapse experiment using an ultra-stable seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, J.; Ito, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Hasada, Y.; Tsuruga, K.; Ikuta, R.; Fujii, N.; Yamaoka, K.; Nishigami, K.; Ito, K.

    2011-12-01

    To prove the temporal change of seismic waves due to the injection of air into the ground, we carried out a field test near the Nojima Earthquake Fault in Awaji Island using an ultra-stable and conscious seismic source and a seismic array. The newly built seismic ACROSS was installed horizontally as the rotational axis of weight-mass was horizontal. We used 10-35Hz. We injected 80 tons air into the Okasa formation at 100 m depth. We analyzed 31 3-component seismometer records and one 3-component borehole seismometer record at 800m depth. Applying source signature deoconvolution to the filed records, we obtained the transfer function between the source and each receiver. All transfer function associated with injection revealed very large changes of waveforms immediately after the beginning of injection of air at some sites. However the station #7 at 100m from the injection well showed extremely large change at 1 day after the injection. The delay times for appearance of waveform change vary place to place and the differential waveform characteristics for each station are quite different one by one. We explain possible causes of waveform change.

  6. A compact, robust, and transportable ultra-stable laser with a fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10{sup −15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qun-Feng; Nevsky, Alexander; Cardace, Marco; Schiller, Stephan, E-mail: Step.Schiller@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Legero, Thomas; Häfner, Sebastian; Uhde, Andre; Sterr, Uwe [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We present a compact and robust transportable ultra-stable laser system with minimum fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10{sup −15} at integration times between 1 and 10 s. The system was conceived as a prototype of a subsystem of a microwave-optical local oscillator to be used on the satellite mission Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) ( http://sci.esa.int/ste-quest/ ). It was therefore designed to be compact, to sustain accelerations occurring during rocket launch, to exhibit low vibration sensitivity, and to reach a low frequency instability. Overall dimensions of the optical system are 40 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm. The acceleration sensitivities of the optical frequency in the three directions were measured to be 1.7 × 10{sup −11}/g, 8.0 × 10{sup −11}/g, and 3.9 × 10{sup −10}/g, and the absolute frequency instability was determined via a three-cornered hat measurement. Two additional cavity-stabilized lasers were used for this purpose, one of which had an instability σ{sub y} < 4 × 10{sup −16} at 1 s integration time. The design is also appropriate and useful for terrestrial applications.

  7. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  8. Conjecturing and Generalization Process on The Structural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'mah, Khomsatun; Purwanto; Bambang Irawan, Edy; Hidayanto, Erry

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to describe how conjecturing process and generalization process of structural development to thirty children in middle school at grade 8 in solving problems of patterns. Processing of the data in this study uses qualitative data analysis techniques. The analyzed data is the data obtained through direct observation technique, documentation, and interviews. This study based on research studies Mulligan et al (2012) which resulted in a five - structural development stage, namely prestructural, emergent, partial, structural, and advance. From the analysis of the data in this study found there are two phenomena that is conjecturing and generalization process are related. During the conjecturing process, the childrens appropriately in making hypothesis of patterns problem through two phases, which are numerically and symbolically. Whereas during the generalization of process, the childrens able to related rule of pattern on conjecturing process to another context.

  9. Structure-property considerations in the development of biolubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives such as alkyl esters of various fatty acids are good candidates for the development of biolubricants. These materials possess structures that gives them certain highly desirable properties for lubricant applications than that found in petroleum-based oil. Among s...

  10. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  11. Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya: Structure and development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places. The survey

  12. Tracking and Tracing: Contemporary Practices and a Structure for Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Although government and business interest in tracking and tracing has grown enormously over the last decade, a clear and coherent overview of the topic is still lacking and is not found in (logistics) literature. This article presents a structure for development and contemporary practices of trackin

  13. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  14. Prefabricated elements and structures: Developments, tests and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    Danish concrete structures are often built with prefabricated elements, joined together on the site and this provides a large challenge to constantly improve and optimize the elements, the joints and the models. DTU Byg has been active in the development, testing and modelling of new elements...

  15. Development of a remote inspection robot for high pressure structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Kim, Jae H.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S

    1999-10-01

    The high pressure structures in industrial plants must be periodically inspected for ensure their safety. Currently, the examination of them is manually performed by human inspectors, and there are many restrictions to examine the large containers which enclose dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials. We developed a remotely operated robot to examine these structures using recent mobile robot and computer technologies. Our robot has two magnetic caterpillars that make the robot can adhere to the structures made of steel like materials. The robot moves to the position for examination, and scans that position using ultrasonic probes equipped on it's arm, and transmits the result to the inspector according to his/her commands. Without building any auxiliary structures the robot can inspect the places where manual inspection can't reach. Therefore the robot can make shortening the inspection time as well as preventing the inspector from an accident. (author)

  16. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  17. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  18. Structure, agency, and sexual development of Latino gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Sonya G; Ayala, George; Díaz, Rafael M; Kral, Alex H

    2013-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV among Latino gay men, with limited proven HIV prevention interventions. This study used qualitative methods to explicate earlier findings showing differential health outcomes among Latino gay men who had no sex, voluntary, or forced sex before age 16. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 27 Latino gay men revealed that structural factors in childhood contribute to their developing sexuality by enhancing or inhibiting a sense of agency. Agency is essential for making decisions that are in line with their intentions to have healthy sexual lives. Findings suggest that interventions should focus on developing a sense of sexual agency among Latino gay men by (a) increasing their recognition of structural factors that contribute to feelings of worthlessness in order to relocate internalized blame and homophobia to external structural forces, (b) facilitating awareness of the social structural oppressions that lead to psychological and sexual risk in order to enhance their options for sexual health, and (c) shifting from individually focused constructions of sexual health to those that consider the structural factors that reduce agency and contribute to diminished sexual health among Latino gay men.

  19. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  20. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evolution and development of mammalian limb integumentary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Mark W

    2003-08-15

    The adaptive radiation of mammalian clades has involved marked changes in limb morphology that have affected not only the skeleton but also the integumentary structures. For example, didelphid marsupials show distinct differences in nail and claw morphology that are functionally related to the evolution of arboreal, terrestrial, and aquatic foraging behaviors. Vespertilionoid bats have evolved different volar pad structures such as adhesive discs, scales, and skin folds, whereas didelphid marsupials have apical pads covered either with scales, ridges, or small cones. Comparative analysis of pad and claw development reveals subtle differences in mesenchymal and ectodermal patterning underlying interspecific variation in morphology. Analysis of gene expression during pad and claw development reveals that signaling molecules such as Msx1 and Hoxc13 play important roles in the morphogenesis of these integumentary structures. These findings suggest that evolutionary change in the expression of these molecules, and in the response of mesenchymal and ectodermal cells to these signaling factors, may underlie interspecific differences in nail, claw, and volar pad morphology. Evidence from comparative morphology, development, and functional genomics therefore sheds new light on both the patterns and mechanisms of evolutionary change in mammalian limb integumentary structures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Regional Institutional Structure in the Context of Innovative Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves that successful innovation-oriented development of the industrial complex of the region can be ensured through the creation of adequate institutional structure. As a theoretical and conceptual platform for this task the use of regional institutionalism is suggested. It is reasoned that integration component plays an important role in providing of the innovative development of the industry in modern economic realities and the potential effects of integration on meso- and micro-levels of economy are provided. Integration of industrial structures potential at the same time assumes expansion of a partner segment of the entities relations in the market environment on the basis of network, cluster, and integration approaches convergence to management in the industrial development. On the basis of the international experience analysis it is illustrated that forming of multichannel partnership of actors in the industrial sphere with a vector on an innovatization requires creation of the corresponding institutional conditions. It is established that the main objectives of the relevant institutes consist in legitimization of various forms and technologies of partnership and stimulation of economic entities interactions. The first problem is solved by means of legal support of integration and partners’ interactions, the second one - with the use of a program and project approach. The basic structural elements and functional areas of regional institutional structure in the context of innovative industry development are determined. It is shown that the institutions of the partnership and monitoring of the obligations implementation by integration formations participants can have formal and informal nature, at the same time the trust institution is especially important. In work significant influence of regional specifics on institutional structure and integration of economic entities is proved.

  3. Preface: Advanced Thin Film Developments and Nano Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Y.Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this special issue, we invited a few leading materials researchers to present topics in thin films, coatings, and nano structures. Readers will find most recent developments in topics, including recent advances in hard, tough, and low friction nanocomposite coatings; thin films for coating nanomaterials; electroless plating of silver thin films on porous Al2O3 substrate; CrN/Nano Cr interlayer coatings; nano-structured carbide derived carbon (CDC) films and their tribology; predicting interdiffusion in high-temperature coatings; gallium-catalyzed silica nanowire growth; and corrosion protection properties of organofunctional silanes. Authors are from both national laboratories and academia.

  4. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number....... The different interpolation schemes used are described, and it is briefly outlined how design rules/manufacturing constraints can be included in the optimization. The approach has been demonstrated for a number of global design criteria like mass, compliance, buckling load factors, etc., but recent work makes...

  5. Structural synthetic biotechnology: from molecular structure to predictable design for industrial strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wilmanns, Matthias; Zeng, An-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The future of industrial biotechnology requires efficient development of highly productive and robust strains of microorganisms. Present praxis of strain development cannot adequately fulfill this requirement, primarily owing to the inability to control reactions precisely at a molecular level, or to predict reliably the behavior of cells upon perturbation. Recent developments in two areas of biology are changing the situation rapidly: structural biology has revealed details about enzymes and associated bioreactions at an atomic level; and synthetic biology has provided tools to design and assemble precisely controllable modules for re-programming cellular metabolic circuitry. However, because of different emphases, to date, these two areas have developed separately. A linkage between them is desirable to harness their concerted potential. We therefore propose structural synthetic biotechnology as a new field in biotechnology, specifically for application to the development of industrial microbial strains. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and installation of Picostrain sensors in structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Joseph C.; Latta, Bernard M.; Ross, Jimmy D.

    2004-07-01

    The concept of the Picostrain sensor technology is based on a standard, commercially available, electrical cable assembly embedded in pavement or structural members. The concept has been developed through the 1990s and patented by the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in 2003. The objective of this new technology is to build an inexpensive, easily installed and maintained sensor system for the purposes of vehicle classification (VC), vehicle identification (VI), weigh-in-motion (WIM), and vehicle tracking (VT) applications along with real-time monitoring and evaluation of structural performance under static and dynamic traffic loading. It is intended, in the future, that these sensors will be further developed to replace curently utilized expensive embedded pavement and structural sensors for ultimate improvement of transportation decision-making and planning. This will also help to document the movement of people and goods along with the evironmental, social, economic and financial parameters with an emphasis on tracking movements in social life for security based upon the use of this durable and reliable transducers. Approximately, 400 sensors have been installed on and in the reinforced concrete structural members of the West Park Center River Crossing Bridge (Bridge) and the Micron Engineering Center (MEC) building (Building) at Boise State University (BSU) in Boise, Idaho, USA, since 1998. These sensors were installed: in bridge pile caps, piers, girders and decks; bridge abutment embankments; building footings, columns, beams, floor slabs; and, have been linked to instrument cabinets on site. These sensors installed structures may now be called "smart" structures since they contain a resident sensing system capable of maintaining a constant watch over the integrity of the structure. These sensing systems will be able to evaluate the applied loads, as well as the static and dynamic response of the structure. This paper introduces and describes the new

  7. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Macroeconomic Volatility: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data from 1997–2014 of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, subdividing trended and cyclical volatility of macroeconomics and inflation, considering different indicators of financial development and financial structure, this paper investigated the impact of financial development and financial structure on macroeconomic volatility. The empirical results found that (1 the trended and cyclical volatility of the previous macroeconomic period had a significantly positive impact on that of the current period, and the impact of trended volatility was greater than that of cyclical volatility; (2 financial development had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility through inflation cyclical volatility, but inflation trended volatility would amplify macroeconomic volatility; financial markets have no significant effect on macroeconomic volatility; financial structure measured with the ratio of stock market turnover and the efficiency of the financial development had a significant positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility; and (3 inflation trended volatility had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility and trended volatility, while inflation cyclical volatility had a significantly positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility.

  8. Structure of executive functions in typically developing kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Lafrenière, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Whereas studies of the past 10 years have shown the executive functions (EFs) in adults to be differentiated into at least three principal components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility), EF structure in children is far less well understood despite a large body of research on the subject. A study was undertaken to test different structural models of EFs through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a large sample of typically developing kindergarteners (N = 272). The method employed sought to remedy the shortcomings of past research in this field such as absence of CFA, insufficient number of EF components tested, insufficient number of indicators per latent variable, and absence of control on processing speed. Children were assessed using a battery of EF tasks developed by the researchers to measure working memory (WM), flexibility, and inhibition (backward word span, backward block span, fruit Stroop, day-night test, hand Stroop, Trails-P, card sort, face sort, and verbal fluency shift). CFA results show the best-fitting model to comprise two factors, namely, an inhibition factor and a WM-flexibility factor. Invariance analyses suggest that this structure is the same for girls and boys and that latent variable means do not differ by sex. These results support the hypothesis of EF differentiation during development. The researchers formulate other hypotheses regarding neurophysiological development.

  9. Development of a structured undergraduate research experience: Framework and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne M; Lewis, Stephanie N; Bevan, David R

    2016-09-10

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process. Modernizing the current life sciences research environment to accommodate the growing demand by students for experiential learning is needed. By developing and implementing a structured, theory-based approach to undergraduate research in the life sciences, specifically biochemistry, it has been successfully shown that more students can be provided with a high-quality, high-impact research experience. The structure of this approach allowed students to develop novel, independent projects in a computational molecular modeling lab. Students engaged in an experience in which career goals, problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independence in a research lab were developed. After experiencing this approach to undergraduate research, students reported feeling challenged to think critically and prepared for future career paths. The approach allowed for a progressive learning environment where more undergraduate students could participate in publishable research. Future areas for development include implementation in a bench-top lab and extension to disciplines beyond biochemistry. In this study, it has been shown that utilizing the structured approach to undergraduate research could allow for more students to experience undergraduate research and develop into more confident, independent life scientists well prepared for graduate schools and professional research environments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):463-474, 2016.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna

    2012-07-01

    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  11. The National Biomedical Communications Network as a Developing Structure *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ruth M.

    1971-01-01

    The National Biomedical Communications Network has evolved both from a set of conceptual recommendations over the last twelve years and an accumulation of needs manifesting themselves in the requests of members of the medical community. With a short history of three years this network and its developing structure have exhibited most of the stresses of technology interfacing with customer groups, and of a structure attempting to build itself upon many existing fragmentary unconnected segments of a potentially viable resourcesharing capability. In addition to addressing these topics, the paper treats a design appropriate to any network devoted to information transfer in a special interest user community. It discusses fundamentals of network design, highlighting that network structure most appropriate to a national information network. Examples are given of cost analyses of information services and certain conjectures are offered concerning the roles of national networks. PMID:5542912

  12. INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURAL AND COHESION FUNDS UPON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pautu Sorina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional development and the difference cutback between the development regions of Romania represent the objectives required once Romania joined the European Union. Removing the differences of economic development between the regions among the European Union embodies one of the strategic objectives of the policy of European economic cohesion. In the view of achieving an intra and inter-regional cohesion, we consider that a great significance corresponds to the programmes of non-refundable financing, operationalized by means of structural Instruments of regional development. Highlighting the effects of non-refundable financing upon the economic development of the regions implies the identification of its determinant factors, the dynamic of the absorption level of available funds and a comparative ex-ante analysis during the implementation of the project and another one, ex-post. This is why there will be made a study upon the two Romanian regions with different level of economic development: the West Region (area with a high level of economic development and the Nord-East Region (area with a low level of economic development. In order to measure the economic differences between the two regions and to highlight the level of economic development influenced by the non-refundable finances allocated by the European Union, we will take into consideration synthetic indicators, relevant for the analysis and comparable in terms of space. Therefore, the specific indicators relevant to the objective of our study are: the GDP - indicator for measuring the level of development, the Unemployment Rate - indicator for characterising the local labour market, and the Average Monthly Income due to its influence upon the standard of living. The research methodology entails a quantitative analysis which will test the validity of the statement according to which the programmes of non-refundable financing influence directly the level of development of a region on its

  13. Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva, Marina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account, whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

  14. The development of convective structures in the solar photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, O.; Stodilka, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the development of convective structures in the solar photosphere on the basis of the photospheric convection models obtained using data from VTT by the solving of the inverse nonequilibrium radiative transfer problem. Temporal changes of the variations of vertical velocity and temperature within granular cells are analyzed. Features of the appearance and the disappearance of granules according to their size, the formation of "trees" of fragmenting granules are investigated.

  15. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  16. The development of convective structures in the solar photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, O.; Stodilka, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the development of convective structures in the solar photosphere on the basis of the photospheric convection models obtained using data from VTT by the solving of the inverse nonequilibrium radiative transfer problem. Temporal changes of the variations of vertical velocity and temperature within granular cells are analyzed. Features of the appearance and the disappearance of granules according to their size, the formation of "trees" of fragmenting granules are investigated.

  17. Recent Developments in Micro-Structured Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in fiber-optic sensing have involved booming research in the design and manufacturing of novel micro-structured optical fiber devices. From the conventional tapered fiber architectures to the novel micro-machined devices by advanced laser systems, thousands of micro-structured fiber-optic sensors have been proposed and fabricated for applications in measuring temperature, strain, refractive index (RI, electric current, displacement, bending, acceleration, force, rotation, acoustic, and magnetic field. The renowned and unparalleled merits of sensors-based micro-machined optical fibers including small footprint, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interferences, durability to harsh environment, capability of remote control, and flexibility of directly embedding into the structured system have placed them in highly demand for practical use in diverse industries. With the rapid advancement in micro-technology, micro-structured fiber sensors have benefitted from the trends of possessing high performance, versatilities and spatial miniaturization. Here, we comprehensively review the recent progress in the micro-structured fiber-optic sensors with a variety of architectures regarding their fabrications, waveguide properties and sensing applications.

  18. Sex differences in parietal lobe structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Joel; Mills, Elizabeth D; Conrad, Amy L; Koscik, Timothy; Andreasen, Nancy C; Nopoulos, Peg

    2012-02-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, in particular in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, no studies have examined sex differences in parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The present study evaluated sex differences in the structure of the parietal lobe in children aged 7 to 17 years. In addition, by adding a cohort of previously studied adults aged 18 to 50 years, sex differences in parietal lobe structure were examined across the age span of 7 to 50 years. Compared with the adult sample, the younger sample showed that the ratio of parietal lobe cortex to white matter was greater in female brains, but no sex differences in surface area. When examining the effects of age, surface area exhibited a significant sex-age interaction. In male brains, there was essentially no decrease in surfaces area over time, whereas in female brains, there was a significant decrease in surface area over time. These findings support the notion of structural sex differences in the parietal lobe, not only in the context of cross-sectional assessment but also in terms of differences in developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an in-situ soil structure characterization methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debos, Endre; Kriston, Sandor

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  20. Structural development of aleurone and its function in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Yu, Xu-Run; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    The wheat aleurone is formed from surface endosperm cells, and its developmental status reflects its biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. In this report, wheat caryopses at different development stages were embedded in Spurr's low-viscosity embedding medium for observation of the development of aleurone cells (ACs) by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. According to their structures and physiological characterization, the ACs development process was divided into five stages: endosperm cellulization, spherosome formation, aleurone grain formation, filling material proliferation, and maturation. Furthermore, ACs in different parts of the caryopsis formed differently. ACs near the vascular bundle developed earlier and formed transfer cells, but other ACs formed slowly and did not form transfer cells. ACs on the caryopsis backside were a regular square shape; however, ACs in the caryopsis abdomen were mainly irregular. There were also differences in development between wheat varieties. ACs were rectangular in hard wheat but square in soft wheat. ACs were larger and showed a greater degree of filling in hard compared to soft wheat. The storage materials in ACs were different compared to inner endosperm cells (IECs). The concentrations of minerals such as sodium, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus and potassium were higher in ACs than in IECs. ACs contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, which store lipids and mineral nutrients, respectively. The cell nucleus did not disappear and the cells were still alive during aleurone maturation. However, IECs were dead and mainly contained amyloplast and protein bodies, which store starch and protein, respectively. Overall, the above results characterized major structural features of aleurone and revealed that the wheat aleurone has mainly four functions.

  1. Concepts, analysis and development for precision deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard K.; Thomson, Mark; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Several issues surrounding the development of large Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) designs are investigated. The concerns include nonlinear dynamics of large unruly masses such as the multi-layer thermal insulation of sunshades for instruments such as the precision pointing 20-m-diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR). A study of the residual oscillations after bang-bang reorientation maneuvers of a rigid satellite with a string appendage is presented. Application is made to the design of a sunshade (thermal blanket) for the LDE satellite. Another concern is the development of a deployable truss that has minimum structural redundancy (such as the tetrahedral truss) and that can be configured with planar and doubly curved geometries. A kinematically synchronized articulation scheme for a deployable tetrahedral truss is presented. Called the Tetrapac, this truss is currently limited to a planar configuration that has two rings. The final concern is the development and demonstration of hardware that enables astronauts to attach large, cumbersome, and fragile precision reflector segments to an erectable truss structure. This task must be accomplished with a high degree of precision and with relative ease. A design for a Panel Attachment Device (PAD) was developed and manufactured for neutral buoyancy simulations to be performed by LaRC.

  2. Surface self-assembled PEGylation of fluoro-based PVDF membranes via hydrophobic-driven copolymer anchoring for ultra-stable biofouling resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nien-Jung; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Yung; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Aimar, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2013-08-13

    Stable biofouling resistance is significant for general filtration requirements, especially for the improvement of membrane lifetime. A systematic group of hyper-brush PEGylated diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and polystyrene (PS) was synthesized using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and varying PEGMA lengths. This study demonstrates the antibiofouling membrane surfaces by self-assembled anchoring PEGylated diblock copolymers of PS-b-PEGMA on the microporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. Two types of copolymers are used to modify the PVDF surface, one with different PS/PEGMA molar ratios in a range from 0.3 to 2.7 but the same PS molecular weights (MWs, ∼5.7 kDa), the other with different copolymer MWs (∼11.4, 19.9, and 34.1 kDa) but the similar PS/PEGMA ratio (∼1.7 ± 0.2). It was found that the adsorption capacities of diblock copolymers on PVDF membranes decreased as molar mass ratios of PS/PEGMA ratio reduced or molecular weights of PS-b-PEGMA increased because of steric hindrance. The increase in styrene content in copolymer enhanced the stability of polymer anchoring on the membrane, and the increase in PEGMA content enhanced the protein resistance of membranes. The optimum PS/PEGMA ratio was found to be in the range between 1.5 and 2.0 with copolymer MWs above 20.0 kDa for the ultrastable resistance of protein adsorption on the PEGylated PVDF membranes. The PVDF membrane coated with such a diblock copolymer owned excellent biofouling resistance to proteins of BSA and lysozyme as well as bacterium of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis and high stable microfiltration operated with domestic wastewater solution in a membrane bioreactor.

  3. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  4. Runx1 Structure and Function in Blood Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifer, Constanze; Levantini, Elena; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2017-01-01

    RUNX transcription factors belong to a highly conserved class of transcriptional regulators which play various roles in the development of the majority of metazoans. In this review we focus on the founding member of the family, RUNX1, and its role in the transcriptional control of blood cell development in mammals. We summarize data showing that RUNX1 functions both as activator and repressor within a chromatin environment, a feature that requires its interaction with multiple other transcription factors and co-factors. Furthermore, we outline how RUNX1 works together with other factors to reshape the epigenetic landscape and the three-dimensional structure of gene loci within the nucleus. Finally, we review how aberrant forms of RUNX1 deregulate blood cell development and cause hematopoietic malignancies.

  5. Structured Development Environment Based on the Object—Oriented Comcepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费翔林; 廖雷; 等

    1992-01-01

    The object-oriented software development is a kind of promising software methodology and leading to a wholly new way for solving problems.In the research on the rapid construction of Structured Development Environment(SDE)that supports detailed design and coding in software development,a generator that can generate the SE has been applied as a metatool.The kernel of SDE is a syntax-directed editor based on the object-oriented concepts.The key issue in the design of SDE is how to represent the elements of target language with the class concept and a program internally.In this paper,the key concepts and design of the SDE and its generator as well as the implementation of a prototype are to be discussed.

  6. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, K.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Allen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. Here, it is vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility and deformation characteristics be defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objective is to describe the research results in two areas for the above goal: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compressed under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress.

  7. Modelling human actions on lightweight structures: experimental and numerical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent, numerical and experimental, developments in modelling dynamic loading generated by humans. As modern structures with exposure to human-induced loading, such as footbridges, building floors and grandstands, are becoming ever lighter and more slender, they are increasingly susceptible to vibration under human-induced dynamic excitation, such as walking, jumping, running and bobbing, and their vibration serviceability assessment is often a deciding factor in the design process. While simplified modelling of the human using a harmonic force was sufficient for assessment of vibration performance of more robust structures a few decades ago, the higher fidelity models are required in the contemporary design. These models are expected not only to describe both temporal and spectral features of the force signal more accurately, but also to capture the influence, psychological and physiological, of human-structure and human-human interaction mechanisms on the human kinematics, and consequently on the force generated and the resulting vibration response. Significant advances have been made in both the research studies and design guidance. This paper reports the key developments and identifies the scope for further research.

  8. Development of XAFS for multi-dimensional structural information

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, K

    1998-01-01

    time-resolved XAFS data on dilute metal systems. The development .also involved off-line commissioning of a UV/visible stopped-flow unit and adapting it to carry out time-resolved fluorescence XAFS data. The rest of the upgrade in implementing sagittal focusing optics are in progress. Similarly a novel fast count rate and compact solid state fluorescence detector has also been designed and is to be commissioned shortly. Our aim is to reduce sample size and data integration lime for obtaining high quality time-resolved XAFS data. There were two distinct projects which this thesis reports. The overall aim was to extend the XAFS technique to a multi-dimensional structural technique. First of the projects, concerned with the development of the EXAFS analysis method. This new approach in EXAFS analysis aims to extend it to give 3-D structural information with atomic precision and accuracy. The method involves making use of the structural information available from the vast library of the PDB database on protein mo...

  9. Overcoming scientific and structural bottlenecks in antibacterial discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasing threat, with too few novel antibiotics coming to market to replace those lost due to resistance development. Efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for and design novel antibacterials have not been successful, with several companies minimizing or closing down their antibacterial research units, leading to a loss of skills and know-how. At the same time, antibiotic innovation in academia is not filling the void due to misaligned incentive structures and lack of vital knowledge of drug discovery. The scientific and structural difficulties in discovering new antibiotics have only begun to be appreciated in the latest years. Part of the problem has been a paradigm shift within both industry and academia to focus on ‘rational’ drug development with an emphasis on single targets and high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, which may not be suited to target bacteria. The very particular aspects of ‘targeting an organism inside another organism’ have not been given enough attention. In this paper, researcher interviews have complemented literature studies to delve deeper into the specifics of the different scientific and structural barriers, and some potential solutions are offered. PMID:24646118

  10. Energy Efficiency, Ownership Structure, and Sustainable Development: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low energy efficiency and severe environmental pollution are two growing issues haunting China’s fast economic development. Under China’s current development model, economic growth still heavily depends on massive energy input, which makes energy efficiency one crucial topic in order to secure future sustainable development of China. This paper focuses on the unique energy ownership structure of China, and designs and adopts MATLAB programming for optimization solutions of multi-variable constrained nonlinear functions to obtain results that can better reflect China’s energy efficiency and solutions to sustainable development of China. Using this model, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the impact of difference energy investment behaviors between China’s state-owned entities and non-state-owned business on China’s Total Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE and sustainable development from 2003 to 2014. We find that Beijing and Shanghai represent the highest energy efficiency level in China. However, except for the more developed regions in Eastern China, for other provinces in Northeast China, Central China and Western China, the TFEE of energy investment by state-owned and non-state-owned economies are both quite low compared with the optimal level. Based on the above findings from the empirical study and detailed analysis by region, this paper discusses the possible reasons for China’s low TFEE and provides implications and policy recommendations.

  11. The development of micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-14

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  12. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  13. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail. PMID:24424468

  14. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    -optical tuneable filter to illuminate the sample. The generated beam is spectrally narrow and can be tuned in the spectral range from 450-1050 nm. This system is described in detail in [3]. It is a research platform, which is constantly developed and adjusted according to research needs. Besides providing a non....... It is therefore essential to monitor these structural changes and a variety of methods have been proposed to continuously follow this coagulation of milk [1]. Especially non-invasive methods for in situ production line application have been of interest. We propose a method for analyzing structural changes in milk......-invasive method, the system also has potential as a design platform for creating specialized and cost-efficient vision systems. Our preliminary results are highly encouraging and show a clear relation between rheology and diffuse reflectance. A factorial experiment studying the effects of the content of fat...

  15. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  16. Development of cluster structures in the field of waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishenin Yevgen Vasyliovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The authors formulate methodological foundations that define organizational and innovative basis for cluster structures formation in the field of waste management. Using the cluster approach in terms of regional ecological-economic problems in the field of waste management solution causes necessity to focus on the definition of “cluster”. It should be mentioned that system of important components in the process of ecological and economic problems in the field of waste management solving, such as specialization of production, the processes of combination, concentration and association of business potentials of enterprises and government agencies, authorities, is necessary organizational and economic condition for cluster approach implementation. The results of the analysis. The basic processes of creating integrated business structures in the field of waste management should include a system of organizational, economic, financial, social and environmental activities at different hierarchical levels of governance: national, sectorial, regional (territorial, as well as on the level of business organizations (enterprises. From these perspectives, integrated businesses focused on cooperation in the field of waste management can have a form of cluster associations. In this context, cluster policy in the field of waste management should be considered as a system of organizational and economic relations between public authorities and individuals regarding environmentally safe disposal of waste as secondary raw materials, improving the competitiveness of enterprises due to formation and development of cluster formations. The theory of creation of the cluster structures allows to determine the fundamental differences between cluster as a business structure in the field of waste management from other territorial and industrial associations. The main tasks and principles concerning the formation, operation and development of

  17. Process and structure: resource management and the development of sub-unit organisational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packwood, T; Keen, J; Buxton, M

    1992-03-01

    Resource Management (RM) requires hospital units to manage their work in new ways, and the new management processes affect, and are affected by, organisation structure. This paper is concerned with these effects, reporting on the basis of a three-year evaluation of the national RM experiment that was commissioned by the DH. After briefly indicating some of the major characteristics of the RM process, the two main types of unit structures existing in the pilot sites at the beginning of the experiment, unit disciplinary structure and clinical directorates, are analysed. At the end of the experiment, while clinical directorates had become more popular, another variant, clinical grouping, had replaced the unit disciplinary structure. Both types of structure represent a movement towards sub-unit organisation, bringing the work and interests of the service providers and unit managers closer together. Their properties are likewise analysed and their implications, particularly in terms of training and organisational development (OD), are then considered. The paper concludes by considering the causes for these structural changes, which, in the immediate time-scale, appear to owe as much to the NHS Review as to RM.

  18. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; S L Mannan; P R Vasudeva Rao; M D Mathew

    2002-10-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are destined to play a crucial role inthe Indian nuclear power programme in the foreseeable future. FBR technology involves a multi-disciplinary approach to solve the various challenges in the areas of fuel and materials development. Fuels for FBRs have significantly higher concentration of fissile material than in thermal reactors, with a matching increase in burn-up. The design of the fuel is an important aspect which has to be optimised for efficient, economic and safe production of power. FBR components operate under hostile and demanding environment of high neutron flux, liquid sodium coolant and elevated temperatures. Resistance to void swelling, irradiation creep, and irradiation embrittlement are therefore major considerations in the choice of materials for the core components. Structural and steam generator materials should have good resistance to creep, low cycle fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction and sodium corrosion. The development of carbide fuel and structural materials for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was a great technological challenge. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), advanced research facilities have been established, and extensive studies have been carried out in the areas of fuel and materials development. This has laid the foundation for the design and development of a 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Highlights of some of these studies are discussed in this paper in the context of our mission to develop and deploy FBR technology for the energy security of India in the 21st century.

  19. The CECAM Electronic Structure Library: community-driven development of software libraries for electronic structure simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Micael

    The CECAM Electronic Structure Library (ESL) is a community-driven effort to segregate shared pieces of software as libraries that could be contributed and used by the community. Besides allowing to share the burden of developing and maintaining complex pieces of software, these can also become a target for re-coding by software engineers as hardware evolves, ensuring that electronic structure codes remain at the forefront of HPC trends. In a series of workshops hosted at the CECAM HQ in Lausanne, the tools and infrastructure for the project were prepared, and the first contributions were included and made available online (http://esl.cecam.org). In this talk I will present the different aspects and aims of the ESL and how these can be useful for the electronic structure community.

  20. The dynamics of bone structure development during pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, F

    2012-03-01

    The pubertal growth spurt is a time of rapid changes in bone length, mass and structure, followed by the cessation of longitudinal growth. The two best studied anatomical areas in this respect are the metaphyses and the diaphyses of peripheral long bones. A model is presented here in which the speed of longitudinal growth and the resulting age gradient in metaphyseal bone are key factors in explaining the high incidence of distal radius fractures during puberty. As growth in length accelerates, the age of the bone structural elements at a given distance to the growth plate decreases, leaving less time for cortical thickening through trabecular coalescence. This leads to a discrepancy between stagnant metaphyseal bone strength and increasing mechanical requirements in the case of accidents. In comparison to the metaphysis, diaphyseal bone develops more in line with the increasing mechanical requirements, presumably because the bone formation rates needed for diaphyseal growth in width are only a fraction of the apposition rates in the metaphysis. It remains largely unexplored how local and systemic signals are integrated to achieve site-specific changes in bone structure.

  1. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

  2. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  3. Development of ramp-flat structures during Aegean extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Pierre; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    Low-angle extensional shear is frequently observed in the Aegean metamorphic rocks. This deformation is commonly interpreted as being related to detachment at crustal scale, yet it often corresponds to ramp-flat extensional systems that, at many places, control the deposition of Neogene sedimentary basins. From a mechanical point of view, the development of a ramp-flat structure requires the presence of weak layers that can be activated as décollement between stronger rocks units. In the Aegean, the décollement generally develops within the upper brittle crust (i.e. with temperatures lower than about 400°C) that consists in recently exhumed metamorphic rocks. The process by which, these layers become weak enough to form efficient décollements in extension is somewhat intriguing and not well understood. In this contribution we examine the particular case of ramp-flat structures of the Southern Rhodope Core Complex that controlled the deposition of late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments in continental and marine basins. Field evidence is used to argue that the décollement corresponds to marble layers that separate orthogneisses at 2-3 km depth within an upper brittle crust whose thickness is around 5 km. Field observation and stable isotope measurements suggest that the ramp-flat structure observed on the island of Thassos occurred in a marble unit rich in fluids at a temperature of around 200°C. Using laboratory experiments, we explore the geometry of extensional structures (fault systems, rollovers, piggy-back basins…) that can develop at crustal-scale as a function of: i) décollement depth and dip, ii) number of décollements, and iii) strength contrast, between the décollement and overlying strong units. The results are compared with the situation observed in the Southern Rhodope Core Complex. We are convinced that the principles of ramp-flat extension discussed here have a strong potential of application in many other orogenic domains affected by large

  4. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhentang

    2017-05-01

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  5. Design and development of conformal antenna composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zonghong; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    In the manufacturing process of the common smart skin antenna, the adhesive covered on the radiating elements of the antenna led to severe deviation of the resonant frequency, which degraded the electromagnetic performance of the antenna. In this paper, a new component called package cover was adopted to prevent the adhesive from covering on the radiating elements of the microstrip antenna array. The package cover and the microstrip antenna array were bonded together as packaged antenna which was then embedded into the composite sandwich structure to develop a new structure called conformal antenna composite structure (CACS). The geometric parameters of the microstrip antenna array and the CACS were optimized by the commercial software CST microwave studio. According to the optimal results, the microstrip antenna array and the CACS were manufactured and tested. The experimental and numerical results of electromagnetic performance showed that the resonant frequency of the CACS was close to that of the microstrip antenna array (with error less than 1%) and the CACS had a higher gain (about 2 dB) than the microstrip antenna array. The package system would increase the electromagnetic radiating energy at the design frequency nearly 66%. The numerical model generated by CST microwave studio in this study could successfully predict the electromagnetic performance of the microstrip antenna array and the CACS with relatively good accuracy. The mechanical analysis results showed that the CACS had better flexural property than the composite sandwich structure without the embedment of packaged antenna. The comparison of the electromagnetic performance for the CACS and the MECSSA showed that the package system was useful and effective.

  6. CREDIT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ITALIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    colantonio emiliano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups

  7. Development of structural health monitoring systems for composite bonded repairs on aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Moss, Scott D.; Konak, Michael J.; van der Velden, Stephen P.; Stade, Bryan; Baker, Alan A.

    2001-08-01

    The application of bonded composite patches to repair or reinforce defective metallic structures is becoming recognized as a very effective versatile repair procedure for many types of problems. Immediate applications of bonded patches are in the fields of repair of cracking, localized reinforcement after removal of corrosion damage and for reduction of fatigue strain. However, bonded repairs to critical components are generally limited due to certification concerns. For certification and management of repairs to critical structure, the Smart Patch approach may be an acceptable solution from the airworthiness prospective and be cost effective for the operator and may even allow some relaxation of the certification requirements. In the most basic form of the Smart Patch in-situ sensors can be used as the nerve system to monitor in service the structural condition (health or well-being) of the patch system and the status of the remaining damage in the parent structure. This application would also allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. TO this end a stand-alone data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired systems, which is in close proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be up-loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote (wireless) data access. This paper describes two in-situ health monitoring systems which will be used on a composite bonded patch applied to an F/A-18. The two systems being developed consists of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film-based and a conventional electrical-resistance foil strain gauge-based sensing system. The latter system uses a primary cell (Lithium- based battery) as the power source, which should enable an operating life of 1-2 years. The patch

  8. Structural and Histochemical Characterization of Developing Rice Caryopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-run; ZHOU Liang; XIONG Fei; WANG Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The development of pericarp, seed coat, starchy endosperm and aleurone of the rice caryopsis was investigated, histochemically and structurally, from the time of flowering to maturity. The results showed that during its growth, the maximum length of the caryopsis was attained first, followed by width and then thickness. Histochemical examination of the caryopsis showed that starch was mainly accumulated in the endosperm, but the endosperm showed no metabolic activity, while embryo and pericarp contained a few starch grains, and embryo and aleurone were strongly active. Aleuronic cells contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, and aleurone in the dorsal region developed earlier and contained more layers of cells. Amyloplasts in endosperm contained many starch granules and were spherical at early stages but polyhedric at late stages. The protein bodies appeared later than amyloplasts, and the number of protein bodies in subaleurone was greater than those in the starchy endosperm. The white-belly portion of endosperm might be relative to the status of amyloplast development.

  9. Compound library development guided by protein structure similarity clustering and natural product structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A; Wittenberg, Lars-Oliver; Basu, Sudipta; Jeyaraj, Duraiswamy A; Gourzoulidou, Eleni; Reinecke, Kerstin; Odermatt, Alex; Waldmann, Herbert

    2004-11-30

    To identify biologically relevant and drug-like protein ligands for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology research the grouping of proteins according to evolutionary relationships and conservation of molecular recognition is an established method. We propose to employ structure similarity clustering of the ligand-sensing cores of protein domains (PSSC) in conjunction with natural product guided compound library development as a synergistic approach for the identification of biologically prevalidated ligands with high fidelity. This is supported by the concepts that (i) in nature spatial structure is more conserved than amino acid sequence, (ii) the number of fold types characteristic for all protein domains is limited, and (iii) the underlying frameworks of natural product classes with multiple biological activities provide evolutionarily selected starting points in structural space. On the basis of domain core similarity considerations and irrespective of sequence similarity, Cdc25A phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2 were grouped into a similarity cluster. A 147-member compound collection derived from the naturally occurring Cdc25A inhibitor dysidiolide yielded potent and selective inhibitors of the other members of the similarity cluster with a hit rate of 2-3%. Protein structure similarity clustering may provide an experimental opportunity to identify supersites in proteins.

  10. Sea urchin vault structure, composition, and differential localization during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey-Sims Carrie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Results The sequence of the sea urchin major vault protein (MVP was assembled from expressed sequence tags and genome traces, and the predicted protein was found to have 64% identity and 81% similarity to rat MVP. Sea urchin MVP includes seven ~50 residue repeats in the N-terminal half of the protein and a predicted coiled coil domain in the C-terminus, as does rat MVP. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM reconstruction of isolated sea urchin vaults reveals the assembly to have a barrel-shaped external structure that is nearly identical to the rat vault structure. Analysis of the molecular composition of the sea urchin vault indicates that it contains components that may be homologs of the mammalian vault RNA component (vRNA and protein components (VPARP and TEP1. The sea urchin vault appears to have additional protein components in the molecular weight range of 14–55 kDa that might correspond to molecular contents. Confocal experiments indicate a dramatic relocalization of MVP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during sea urchin embryogenesis. Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role for the vault in delivering macromolecules to the nucleus during development.

  11. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Evolution of the Human Nervous System Function, Structure, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, André M M; Meyer, Kyle A; Santpere, Gabriel; Gulden, Forrest O; Sestan, Nenad

    2017-07-13

    The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits. We also discuss the developmental mechanisms and underlying genetic and molecular changes that generate these structural and functional differences. As relevant new information and tools materialize at an unprecedented pace, the field is now ripe for systematic and functionally relevant studies of the development and evolution of human nervous system specializations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Spataro, B.

    1999-04-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements made on a prototype have shown good agreement. Two possible supporting stem configurations (single stem and two stems 180° apart for each drift tube) were examined and a comparison of the results in both cases are discussed.

  15. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L; Spataro, B

    1999-01-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements m...

  16. Feelings about culture scales: development, factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel

    2015-04-01

    Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture.

  17. Kinetics of tracheid development explain conifer tree-ring structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Fournier, Meriem

    2014-09-01

    Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure.

  18. Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model

  19. Developing a structural model of reading: the role of hearing status in reading development over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a structural model of reading based on the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002). Data from a 4-year longitudinal study of Dutch primary school children with and without hearing loss were used to conduct an exploratory analysis of how lexical components (i.e., decoding skills, lexical decision, and lexical use) relate to one another and to reading comprehension. Our structural model supports a positive role of the quality of the mental lexicon for reading comprehension. Furthermore, it was possible to apply the same conceptual model of reading development to both groups of children when incorporating hearing status as a grouping variable. However, a multigroup comparison model showed that the predictive values of the relations between the different tasks differed for the two groups.

  20. Recent development of antifouling polymers: structure, evaluation, and biomedical applications in nano/micro-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingyun; Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Antifouling polymers have been proven to be vital to many biomedical applications such as medical implants, drug delivery, and biosensing. This review covers the major development of antifouling polymers in the last 2 decades, including the material chemistry, structural factors important to antifouling properties, and how to challenge or evaluate the antifouling performances. We then discuss the applications of antifouling polymers in nano/micro-biomedical applications in the form of nanoparticles, thin coatings for medical devices (e.g., artificial joint, catheter, wound dressing), and nano/microscale fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Exploration and Development of High Entropy Alloys for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Miracle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C, medium (≤450 °C and high (≥1,100 °C use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives methods to build HEAs from these palettes. We show that intermetallic phases are consistent with HEA definitions, and the strategy developed here includes both single-phase, solid solution HEAs and HEAs with intentional addition of a 2nd phase for particulate hardening. A thermodynamic estimate of the effectiveness of configurational entropy to suppress or delay compound formation is given. A 3-stage approach is given to systematically screen and evaluate a vast number of HEAs by integrating high-throughput computations and experiments. CALPHAD methods are used to predict phase equilibria, and high-throughput experiments on materials libraries with controlled composition and microstructure gradients are suggested. Much of this evaluation can be done now, but key components (materials libraries with microstructure gradients and high-throughput tensile testing are currently missing. Suggestions for future HEA efforts are given.

  2. Developing Dynamic Virtual Environments Using Hierarchical, Tree-Structured Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Rizhan Wan Idris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR has been utilized in various applications such as in architecture, medicine, advertisement, business, entertainment, and education. In the world of simulation, VR software allows users to visualize, manipulate and interact with the computers and complex data. However, developing VR environments is costly and expensive. Highly-technical persons are needed to create the virtual objects from scratch. Once a virtual system is created, managing and modifying it creates further problems. There is a need for non-technical users to be able to create and modify their own virtual environments. This paper discusses a systematic technique to develop dynamic virtual environments and to manage virtual objects in their virtual environment. The technique is called hierarchical, tree-structured approach. To implement the technique, object-oriented programming language was used such as Java, Java 3D and Java Swing. For the usability and performance of the technique, a virtual environment has been created to become as case study. The tool has been perceived as an easy tool to use, especially for an environment in education.

  3. DEVELOPING DYNAMIC VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS USING HIERARCHICAL, TREE-STRUCTURED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Rizhan Wan Idris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR has been utilized in various applications such as in architecture, medicine, advertisement, business, entertainment, and education. In the world of simulation, VR software allows users to visualize, manipulate and interact with the computers and complex data. However, developing VR environments is costly and expensive. Highly-technical persons are needed to create the virtual objects from scratch. Once a virtual system is created, managing and modifying it creates further problems. There is a need for non-technical users to be able to create and modify their own virtual environments. This paper discusses a systematic technique to develop dynamic virtual environments and to manage virtual objects in their virtual environment. The technique is called hierarchical, tree-structured approach. To implement the technique, object-oriented programming language was used such as Java, Java 3D and Java Swing. For the usability and performance of the technique, a virtual environment has been created to become as case study. The tool has been perceived as an easy tool to use, especially for an environment in education.

  4. Development of smart sensing system for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Chun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian Huang

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to upgrade a wireless sensing unit which can meet the following requirements: 1) Improvement of system powering and analog signal processing 2) Enhancement of signal resolution and provide reliable wireless communication data, 3) Enhance capability for continuous long-term monitoring. Based on the prototype of the wireless sensing unit developed by Prof. Lynch at the Stanford University, the following upgrading steps are summarized: 1. Reduce system noise by using SMD passive elements and preventing the coupling digital and analog circuits, and increasing the capacity of power. 2. Improve the ADC sampling resolution and accuracy with a higher resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC): a 24bits ADC with programmable gain amplifier. 3. Improve wireless communication by using the wireless radio 9XTend which supported by the router (Digi MESH) communication function using 900MHz frequency band. Based on the upgrade wireless sensing unit, verification of the new wireless sensing unit was conducted from the ambient vibration survey of a base-isolated building. This new upgrade wireless sensing unit can provide more reliable data for continuous structural health monitoring. Incorporated with the identification software (modified stochastic subspace identification method) the smart sensing system for SHM is developed.

  5. Structured Annual Faculty Review Program Accelerates Professional Development and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley J. Robboy MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective observational study on faculty development analyzes the Duke University Pathology Department’s 18-year experience with a structured mentoring program involving 51 junior faculty members. The majority had MD degrees only (55%. The percentage of young women faculty hires before 1998 was 25%, increasing to 72% after 2005. Diversity also broadened from 9% with varied heritages before 1998 to 37% since then. The mentoring process pivoted on an annual review process. The reviews generally helped candidates focus much earlier, identified impediments they individually felt, and provided new avenues to gain a national reputation for academic excellence. National committee membership effectively helped gain national exposure. Thirty-eight percent of the mentees served on College of American Pathologists (CAP committees, exponential multiples of any other national society. Some used CAP resources to develop major programs, some becoming nationally and internationally recognized for their academic activities. Several faculty gained national recognition as thought leaders for publishing about work initiated to serve administrative needs in the Department. The review process identified the need for more protected time for research, issues with time constraints, and avoiding exploitation when collaborating with other departments. This review identified a rigorous faculty mentoring and review process that included annual career counseling, goal-oriented academic careers, monitored advancement to promotion, higher salaries, and national recognition. All contributed to high faculty satisfaction and low faculty turnover. We conclude that a rigorous annual faculty review program and its natural sequence, promotion, can greatly foster faculty satisfaction.

  6. The development of structures and the prospects of automatic transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Girutskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage development of transport technology has a rapid change of production models along with intensification of modification processes of vehicles, increasing number of new developments thereby providing vehicles with higher consumer qualities and competitiveness at the markets. Automation control of car transmissions is an important task. It raises the life of the engine and transmission, increased permeability and comfort due to a smoother change of torque to the drive wheels, driving off, and acceleration, etc.The article analyzes the promising schemes rotary shaft and planetary gearboxes of leading companies in the world automotive industry, the advantages of automated transmissions. It offers the prospects of creating the control systems of transmissions based on artificial intelligence methods.To design modern vehicles equipped with automatically controlled fluid transmission is a challenge. It requires various technologies to be applied using new technical solutions and scientific principles. An analysis to solve the problem of automation control of various technical objects shows that the classical theory of automatic control does not allow taking into account the diversity of vehicles operating conditions. In this regard, the effectiveness of the systems based on its scientific principles becomes often lower than expected.Implementation of modern design technology is based on a number of scientific and philosophical principles. The most important and most common of them is the principle of hierarchy, which means to structure representations of objects by degree of detailed descriptions and the principle of decomposition (blocking, which means to decompose representations of each level on the number of components (blocks with the possibility for the separate (sub-block designing.In order to create a design of control systems for the cars and synthesize its control algorithms within the framework of the developed concept

  7. Love-Hate ligands for high resolution analysis of strain in ultra-stable protein/small molecule interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhead, Michael; Shen, Di; Chan, Louis K M; Lowe, Ed D; Donohoe, Timothy J; Howarth, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The pathway of ligand dissociation and how binding sites respond to force are not well understood for any macromolecule. Force effects on biological receptors have been studied through simulation or force spectroscopy, but not by high resolution structural experiments. To investigate this challenge, we took advantage of the extreme stability of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, a paradigm for understanding non-covalent binding as well as a ubiquitous research tool. We synthesized a series of biotin-conjugates having an unchanged strong-binding biotin moiety, along with pincer-like arms designed to clash with the protein surface: 'Love-Hate ligands'. The Love-Hate ligands contained various 2,6-di-ortho aryl groups, installed using Suzuki coupling as the last synthetic step, making the steric repulsion highly modular. We determined binding affinity, as well as solving 1.1-1.6Å resolution crystal structures of streptavidin bound to Love-Hate ligands. Striking distortion of streptavidin's binding contacts was found for these complexes. Hydrogen bonds to biotin's ureido and thiophene rings were preserved for all the ligands, but biotin's valeryl tail was distorted from the classic conformation. Streptavidin's L3/4 loop, normally forming multiple energetically-important hydrogen bonds to biotin, was forced away by clashes with Love-Hate ligands, but Ser45 from L3/4 could adapt to hydrogen-bond to a different part of the ligand. This approach of preparing conflicted ligands represents a direct way to visualize strained biological interactions and test protein plasticity.

  8. Rational design of ultrastable and reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for super-resolution imaging of the bacterial periplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khatib, Mariam; Martins, Alexandre; Bourgeois, Dominique; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Adam, Virgile

    2016-01-01

    Phototransformable fluorescent proteins are central to several nanoscopy approaches. As yet however, there is no available variant allowing super-resolution imaging in cell compartments that maintain oxidative conditions. Here, we report the rational design of two reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins able to fold and photoswitch in the bacterial periplasm, rsFolder and rsFolder2. rsFolder was designed by hybridisation of Superfolder-GFP with rsEGFP2, and inherited the fast folding properties of the former together with the rapid switching of the latter, but at the cost of a reduced switching contrast. Structural characterisation of the switching mechanisms of rsFolder and rsEGFP2 revealed different scenarios for chromophore cis-trans isomerisation and allowed designing rsFolder2, a variant of rsFolder that exhibits improved switching contrast and is amenable to RESOLFT nanoscopy. The rsFolders can be efficiently expressed in the E. coli periplasm, opening the door to the nanoscale investigation of proteins localised in hitherto non-observable cellular compartments. PMID:26732634

  9. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body- An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Internal Organization of the Plant Body...

  10. Some Recent Developments in Structure and Glassy Behavior of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-02-01

    We have used ARVO developed by us to find that the ratio of volume and surface area of proteins in Protein Data Bank distributed in a very narrow region [1]. Such result is useful for the determination of protein 3D structures. It has been widely known that a spin glass model can be used to understand the slow relaxation behavior of a glass at low temperatures [2]. We have used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that polymer chains with neighboring monomers connected by rigid bonds can relax very slowly and show glassy behavior [3]. We have also found that native collagen fibrils show glassy behavior at room temperatures [4]. The results of [3] and [4] about the glassy behavior of polymers or proteins are useful for understanding the mechanism for a biological system to maintain in a non-equilibrium state, including the ancient seed [5], which can maintain in a non-equilibrium state for a very long time. (1) M.-C. Wu, M. S. Li, W.-J. Ma, M. Kouza, and C.-K. Hu, EPL, in press (2011); (2) C. Dasgupta, S.-K. Ma, and C.-K. Hu. Phys. Rev. B 20, 3837-3849 (1979); (3) W.-J. Ma and C.-K. Hu, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 79, 024005, 024006, 054001, and 104002 (2010), C.-K. Hu and W.-J. Ma, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 184, 369 (2010); S. G. Gevorkian, A. E. Allahverdyan, D. S. Gevorgyan and C.-K. Hu, EPL 95, 23001 (2011); S. Sallon, et al. Science 320, 1464 (2008).

  11. Development of structured polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasa, Jeffrey

    The objective of this research was to explore structure-property relationships to develop the understanding needed for introduction of superior PEM materials. Polymer electrolyte membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) were fabricated using N-methyl pyrrolidone as casting solvent. The membranes were characterized in terms of properties that were relevant to fuel cell applications, such as proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and swelling properties, among others. It was found in this study that the proton conductivity of neat SPEKK membranes could reach the conductivity of commercial membranes such as NafionRTM. However, when the conductivity of SPEKK was comparable to NafionRTM, the swelling of SPEKK in water was quite excessive. The swelling problem was remedied by modifying the microstructure of SPEKK using different techniques. One of them involved blending of lightly sulfonated PEKK with highly acidic particles (sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene-SXLPS). Low sulfonation level of SPEKK was used to reduce the swelling of the membrane in water and the role of the highly acidic particles was to enhance the proton conductivity of the membrane. Because of the residual crystallinity in SPEKK with low sulfonation levels (IEC sulfone)) to act as mechanical reinforcement. It was found that miscibility behavior of the blends had a significant impact on the transport and swelling properties of these blends, which could be explained by the blend microstructure. The miscibility behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the sulfonation level of SPEKK. The conductivities of the blends were enhanced by as much as two orders of magnitude when the morphology was modified by electric field. The last approach was ionic crosslinking of the sulfonate groups in SPEKK using divalent cations, specifically barium ions. The crosslinking treatment has greatly improved the thermal stability of the membranes in both dry and wet conditions.

  12. Multiscale analysis of structure development in expanded starch snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Broeze, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we perform a multiscale analysis of the food structuring process of the expansion of starchy snack foods like keropok, which obtains a solid foam structure. In particular, we want to investigate the validity of the hypothesis of Kokini and coworkers, that expansion is optimal at the mo

  13. Child Development and Structural Variation in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Haraksingh, Rajini; Grubert, Fabian; Abyzov, Alexej; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Urban, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    Structural variation of the human genome sequence is the insertion, deletion, or rearrangement of stretches of DNA sequence sized from around 1,000 to millions of base pairs. Over the past few years, structural variation has been shown to be far more common in human genomes than previously thought. Very little is currently known about the effects…

  14. Child Development and Structural Variation in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Haraksingh, Rajini; Grubert, Fabian; Abyzov, Alexej; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Urban, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    Structural variation of the human genome sequence is the insertion, deletion, or rearrangement of stretches of DNA sequence sized from around 1,000 to millions of base pairs. Over the past few years, structural variation has been shown to be far more common in human genomes than previously thought. Very little is currently known about the effects…

  15. Study on the Evolution Mechanism and Development Forecasting of China’s Power Supply Structure Clean Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The clean development of China’s power supply structure has become a crucial strategic problem for the low-carbon, green development of Chinese society. Considering the subsistent developments of optimized allocation of energy resources and efficient utilization, the urgent need to solve environmental pollution, and the continuously promoted power market-oriented reform, further study of China’s power structure clean development has certain theoretical value. Based on the data analysis, this paper analyzes the key factors that influence the evolution process of the structure with the help of system dynamics theory and carries out comprehensive assessments after the construction of the structure evaluation system. Additionally, a forecasting model of the power supply structure development based on the Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR has been put forward to forecast the future structure. Through the research of policy review and scenario analysis, the paths and directions of structure optimization are proposed. In this paper, the system dynamics, vector autoregressive model (VAR, policy mining, and scenario analysis methods are combined to systematically demonstrate the evolution of China’s power structure, and predict the future direction of development. This research may provide a methodological and practical reference for the analysis of China’s power supply structure optimization development and for theoretical studies.

  16. Development of X-band accelerating structures for high gradients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Bini; M. G. Grimaldi; L. Romano; F. Ruffino; R. Parodi; V. Chimenti; A. Marcelli; L. Palumbo; B. Spataro; V. A. Dolgashev; S. Tantawi; A.D. Yeremian; Y. Higashi

    2012-01-01

    Short copper standing wave (SW) structures operating at an X-band frequency have been recently designed and manufactured at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) using the vacuum brazing technique.High power tests of the structures have been performed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.In this manuscript we report the results of these tests and the activity in progress to enhance the high gradient performance of the next generation of structures,particularly the technological characterization of high performance coatings obtained via molybdenum sputtering.

  17. Coherent structures in fully-developed pipe turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, A P; Cossu, C

    2009-01-01

    A turbulent mean profile for pipe flow is prescribed which closely matches experimental observations. The nature of perturbations superimposed upon this profile is then considered. Optimal growth calculations predict two distinct classes of structures, clearly associated with near-wall and large-scale structures. Quantitative correspondence of the spanwise wavelength of wall-structures with experimental observations is very good. The response to harmonic forcing is also considered, and the linear growth tested with direct numerical simulation of forced turbulence. Despite the very simple eddy viscosity assumption, this linear approach predicts well the surprisingly large growth of outer-scale modes in the bulk flow. Un profil moyen turbulent est prescrit dans une conduite cylindrique, en adequation avec les observations experimentales. Nous considerons ensuite la nature des perturbations a cet ecoulement synthetique. Le calcul des croissances optimales predit deux types de structures, associees respectivement...

  18. Developing a structural brand equity model for cultural destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Kladou, Stella; Kehagias, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – This paper aims to investigate the structural relationships between the brand equity (BE) dimensions, when the fifth dimension of cultural brand assets is incorporated. The paper seeks to establish and validate a five-dimensional BE measure for cultural urban destination, by comparing findings in two destinations.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The structural model was tested from the perspective of 399 international tourists visiting Athens. Confirmatory factor analysis...

  19. Scientific structures in context : identification and use of structures, context, and new developments in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buter, Reindert Klaas (Renald)

    2012-01-01

    The use and visualisation of structures in science (sets of related publications, authors, words) is investigated in a number of applications. We hold that the common ground of a field can explain the use and applicability of these structures.

  20. Structural development and energy dissipation in simulated silicon apices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Paul Jarvis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the stability of silicon tip apices by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. We find that some tip structures - modelled as small, simple clusters - show variations in stability during manipulation dependent on their orientation with respect to the sample surface. Moreover, we observe that unstable structures can be revealed by a characteristic hysteretic behaviour present in the F(z curves that were calculated with DFT, which corresponds to a tip-induced dissipation of hundreds of millielectronvolts resulting from reversible structural deformations. Additionally, in order to model the structural evolution of the tip apex within a low temperature NC-AFM experiment, we simulated a repeated tip–surface indentation until the tip structure converged to a stable termination and the characteristic hysteretic behaviour was no longer observed. Our calculations suggest that varying just a single rotational degree of freedom can have as measurable an impact on the tip–surface interaction as a completely different tip structure.

  1. Structural development and energy dissipation in simulated silicon apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Samuel Paul; Kantorovich, Lev; Moriarty, Philip

    2013-12-20

    In this paper we examine the stability of silicon tip apices by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that some tip structures - modelled as small, simple clusters - show variations in stability during manipulation dependent on their orientation with respect to the sample surface. Moreover, we observe that unstable structures can be revealed by a characteristic hysteretic behaviour present in the F(z) curves that were calculated with DFT, which corresponds to a tip-induced dissipation of hundreds of millielectronvolts resulting from reversible structural deformations. Additionally, in order to model the structural evolution of the tip apex within a low temperature NC-AFM experiment, we simulated a repeated tip-surface indentation until the tip structure converged to a stable termination and the characteristic hysteretic behaviour was no longer observed. Our calculations suggest that varying just a single rotational degree of freedom can have as measurable an impact on the tip-surface interaction as a completely different tip structure.

  2. Seeking Development in the Succession-An Analysis of Saussure's Structuralism and Strauss' Cultural Structuralism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍芳

    2009-01-01

    With an analysis of Saussure's linguistic structuralism and Strauss' cultural structuralism and exploration of their great impact on linguistic and cultural theory respectively, the author of this paper can safely draw the conclusion that "Saussure's perspective was to provide an intellectual seed that was to flower in later decades as structuralism became a general approach to the study of culture". Saussure, together

  3. Object-Oriented Analysis, Structured Analysis, and Jackson System Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.; Van Assche, F.; Moulin, B.; Rolland, C.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual modeling is the activity of producing a conceptual model of an actual or desired version of a universe of discourse (UoD). In this paper, two methods of conceptual modeling are compared, structured analysis (SA) and object-oriented analysis (OOA). This is done by transforming a model prod

  4. Strategy, Structure and Quality Service: Developing School Wide Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Builds on earlier contributions to the literature on educational leadership and total quality management in education. Introduces two new tools--the service guarantee and the House of Quality, placing them in the context of strategic marketing, structural change, and other total quality management methods. (19 references) (MLH)

  5. Object-Oriented Analysis, Structured Analysis, and Jackson System Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assche, F.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Moulin, B.; Rolland, C

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual modeling is the activity of producing a conceptual model of an actual or desired version of a universe of discourse (UoD). In this paper, two methods of conceptual modeling are compared, structured analysis (SA) and object-oriented analysis (OOA). This is done by transforming a model

  6. Design and Development of RF Structures for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F; Pasini, M; Wegner, R

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV H− linac proposed at CERN to replace the 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster, with the goal of doubling its brightness and intensity. The present design foresees after RFQ and chopping line a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) from 3 to 40 MeV, a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) to 90 MeV and a Side Coupled Linac (SCL) up to the final energy. The DTL and CCDTL operate at 352 MHz, while in the SCL the frequency is doubled to 704 MHz. Although the injection in the PS Booster requires only a low duty cycle, the accelerating structures are designed to operate at the high duty cycle required by a possible future extension to a high-power linac driver for a neutrino facility. This paper presents the different accelerating structures, underlining the progress in the design of critical resonator elements, like post-couplers in the DTL, coupling slots in the CCDTL and bridge couplers for the SCL. Prototyping progress for the different structures is reported...

  7. Safety factors for structural design-history and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The design of structures is concemed with the generation of solutions and the verification of the reliability. potential design solutions are a result of a process of problem formulation, definition of objeciive functions, conceptual design and optimization. To control this process, many strategies

  8. Development of deterioration models and tests of structural materials for nuclear containment structures(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The nuclear containment structures are very important infrastructures which require much cost for construction and maintenance. If these structures lose their functions and do not ensure their safety, great losses of human lives and properties will result. Therefore, the nuclear containment structures should secure appropriate safety and functions during these service lives. The nuclear concrete structures start to experience deterioration due to severe environmental condition, even though the concrete structures exhibit generally superior durability. It is, therefore, necessary to take appropriate actions at each stage of planning, design and construction to secure safety and functionability. Thorough examination of deterioration mechanism and comprehensive tests have been conducted to explore the durability characteristics of nuclear concrete structures. 88 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  9. Certification Testing Methodology for Composite Structure. Volume 2. Methodology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    J.E., "F-18 Composites Development Tests," N00019- 79-C-0044 (January 1981). 3. Stenberg , K.V., et al., "YAV-8B Composite Wing Development," Volumes I...Louis, MO 63166 (Attn: K. Stenberg , R. Garrett, R. Riley, J. Doerr). . . 4 MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS CORP., Long Beach, CA 90846 (Attn: J. Palmer

  10. A Structural and Functional Model of Teachers' Monitoring Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalimova, Alfiya R.; Barinova, Nataliya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused by a strong need to conduct monitoring processes in all types of teaching processes and a poor development of theoretical, content and technological, scientific and methodological material for teachers' monitoring skills development during their teaching practice. The aim of the article is to create and…

  11. Children, structure and agency: realities across the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    The child labour debate, the Child Rights Convention and the target of universal primary education in the Millennium Development Goals have drawn increasing attention to children in developing countries. Alongside, a debate has waged on the need for child participation and the appropriateness of spr

  12. Development of explosive welding procedures to fabricate channeled nozzle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, H. E.; Linse, V. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating a large contoured structure with complex internal channeling by explosive welding procedures. Structures or nozzles of this nature for wind tunnel applications were designed. Such nozzles vary widely in their complexity. However, in their simplest form, they consist of a grooved base section to which a cover sheet is attached to form a series of internal cooling passages. The cover sheet attachment can be accomplished in various ways: fusion welding, brazing, and diffusion welding. The cover sheet has also been electroformed in place. Of these fabrication methods, brazing has proved most successful in producing nozzles with complex contoured surfaces and a multiplicity of internal channels.

  13. Plant membranes a biophysical approach to structure, development and senescence

    CERN Document Server

    Leshem, Ya’Acov Y

    1992-01-01

    The plasma membrane is at once the window through which the cell senses the environment and the portal through which the environment influences the structure and activities of the cell. Its importance in cellular physiology can thus hardly be overestimated, since constant flow of materials between cell and environment is essential to the well-being of any biological system. The nature of the materials mov­ ing into the cell is also critical, since some substances are required for maintenance and growth, while others, because of their toxicity, must either be rigorously excluded or permitted to enter only after chemical alteration. Such alteration frequently permits the compounds to be sequestered in special cellular compartments having different types of membranes. This type of homogeneity, plus the fact that the wear and tear of transmembrane molecular traffic compels the system to be constantly monitored and repaired, means that the membrane system of any organism must be both structurally complex and dy­...

  14. Market Structure in the Context of Developing Competitive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Krivka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The abstract deals with the application of positioning strategies under the conditions of classical market structures. It is discovered that the assumptions of pure competition leave no space for M. Porter’s generic cost leadership and differentiation strategies to be applied. The enterprise’s actions, influencing five competitive forces and implementing generic strategies, are reasonable under the conditions of imperfect competition market structures. The game theory models, applied to oligopoly, indicate the close interaction of enterprises and interdependence of their strategic decisions: cost reduction and differentiation strategies not only increase the profit of the enterprise, implementing the strategy, but by affecting market price and residual demand decrease the competitor’s profit.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Additional developments regarding manifest dream structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowitz, H

    1998-06-01

    Detailed observation of manifest dream sequences indicated self-advocating occurrences facilitating the dreamer's self interests, opposed by self-adversarial interferences. Further examination of manifest dream syntactical structure additionally suggested a recurrent, four-step, algorithm for personal problem-solving within an interpersonal matrix consisting of the following cycle: (1) an opening scene setting the stage, (2) for the emergence of a self-concern, (3) which evokes a strategy to deal with dreamer's self-concern, (4) that eventuates in a consequence of the strategy. These steps repeat until the dream ends. Observing these manifest dream structural features, attributable to broadening past theorizing with "bottom-up" approaches, clarifies the dream's problem-solving process by providing an empirical, observable framework for dream interpretation and by contributing to their consensual validation.

  16. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  17. Development of paradigms for the dynamics of structured populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This is a technical progress report on the dynamics of predator-prey systems in a patchy environment. A new phenomenon that might contribute to outbreaks in systems of discrete patches has been determined using a discrete time model with both spatial and age structure. A model for a single species in a patchy environment with migration, local population growth and disasters with in patches has been formulated and a brief description is included.

  18. Development of large-scale structure in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ostriker, J P

    1991-01-01

    This volume grew out of the 1988 Fermi lectures given by Professor Ostriker, and is concerned with cosmological models that take into account the large scale structure of the universe. He starts with homogeneous isotropic models of the universe and then, by considering perturbations, he leads us to modern cosmological theories of the large scale, such as superconducting strings. This will be an excellent companion for all those interested in the cosmology and the large scale nature of the universe.

  19. Development of structure in a model universe containing unstable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Klypin, A.A.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Computer analysis of model universe containing unstable elementary particles discloses parameter domains for which the two-point galaxy autocorrelation function, the time scale for nonlinear evolution of structure, and the fractional mass in galaxy clusters and superclusters all are compatible with the observations. A low density for the cold missing-mass component can reconcile the low random velocities measured for galaxies in superclusters with inflationary-universe models having a critical mean density.

  20. Development and Testing of an Inflatable, Rigidizable Space Structure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    AFIT electrodynamic vibration table, hereafter referred to as a vibe table, utilizes - unted ll erall h a feedback control system to drive...the maximum levels are reached, if problems with feedback control arise. If the system inadvertently exceeds the MEFL, and structural damage...proceeded as programmed until full EFL was tested for a full two minutes. Figure 4.8 RIGEX and CAPE Coordinate Systems The

  1. How Staphylococcus aureus biofilms develop their characteristic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Periasamy, Saravanan; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Anthony C. Duong; Bach, Thanh-Huy L.; Tan, Vee Y.; Chatterjee, Som S; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Otto, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms cause significant problems in the environment and during the treatment of infections. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm formation are poorly understood. There is a particular lack of knowledge about biofilm maturation processes, such as biofilm structuring and detachment, which are deemed crucial for the maintenance of biofilm viability and the dissemination of cells from a biofilm. Here, we identify the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) surfactant peptides as key biofi...

  2. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Domestic Investment: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumana, Léonce

    2003-01-01

    Does it matter for domestic investment whether a country’s financial system is bank based or stock-market based? This paper posits that financial intermediation affects domestic investment notably by alleviating financing constraints, allowing firms to increase investment in response to increased demand for output. The key result is that the structure of the financial system has no independent effect on investment, in the sense that it does not enhance the response of investment to changes in...

  3. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert

    2005-06-01

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain architecture and natural product inspired compound library design. Domains and proteins identified as being structurally similar in their ligand-sensing cores are grouped in a protein structure similarity cluster (PSSC). Natural products can be considered as evolutionary pre-validated ligands for multiple proteins and therefore natural products that are known to interact with one of the PSSC member proteins are selected as guiding structures for compound library synthesis. Application of this novel strategy for compound library design provided enhanced hit rates in small compound libraries for structurally similar proteins.

  4. New Developments and Techniques in Structural Equation Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoulides, George A

    2001-01-01

    Featuring contributions from some of the leading researchers in the field of SEM, most chapters are written by the author(s) who originally proposed the technique and/or contributed substantially to its development. Content highlights include latent varia

  5. Time-domain analysis of nonlinear motion responses and structural loads on ships and offshore structures: development of WISH programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghwan Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduced a computer program, called WISH, which is based on a time-domain Rankine panel method. The WISH has been developed for practical use to predict the linear and nonlinear ship motion and structural loads in waves. The WISH adopts three different levels of seakeeping analysis: linear, weakly-nonlinear and weak-scatterer approaches. Later, WISH-FLEX has been developed to consider hydroelasticity effects on hull-girder structure. This program can solve the springing and whipping problems by coupling between the hydrodynamic and structural problems. More recently this development has been continued to more diverse problems, including the motion responses of multiple adjacent bodies, the effects of seakeeping in ship maneuvering, and the floating-body motion in finite-depth domain with varying bathymetry. This paper introduces a brief theoretical and numerical background of the WISH package, and some validation results. Also several applications to real ships and offshore structures are shown.

  6. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain

  7. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain architec

  8. Development and Structural Modification of BACE1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ting; Wu, Wen-Yu; Dong, Ze-Xi; Yu, Shao-Peng; Sun, Ying; Zhong, Yue; Lu, Yu-Ting; Li, Nian-Guang

    2016-12-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which usually occurs in the elderly. The accumulation of β-amyloid and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles are considered as the main pathogenies of AD. Research suggests that β-secretase 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the formation of β-amyloid. Discovery of new BACE1 inhibitors has become a significant method to slow down the progression of AD or even cure this kind of disease. This review summarizes the different types and the structural modification of these new BACE1 inhibitors.

  9. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  10. Work Breakdown Structure for Management Control of Exploratory Development Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    detection, tracking, surveillance, propulsion, mobility , guidance and control, navigation energy conversion, materials and struc- tures, and personnel...4.3.2.1 ’The contractor shall formoolite a techonology de~elopment plan. This plan shall Include technical objectives, schedules for development Including

  11. Exploring Coordination Structures in Open Source Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hegeman, J.H.; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Harmsen, Frank; Amrit, Chintan; Geisberger, Eva; Keil, Patrick; Kuhrmann, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Coordination is difficult to achieve in a large globally distributed project setting. The problem is multiplied in open source software development projects, where most of the traditional means of coordination such as plans, system-level designs, schedules and defined process are not used. In order

  12. Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Dekker, S.C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web comp

  13. Structure, agency, and the development of students' identities as learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2006-12-01

    This paper focuses on the role of dominant school discourses in structuring how students position themselves and others relative to a community centered on science. The study was conducted in a diverse, eighth grade classroom in an urban magnet school. I argue that dominant discourses portray a limited view of available subject positions, in that the purpose of learning science is associated with a dichotomous view of people as being either college-bound or not. I explore how these limited subject positions can pose contradictions with some students' interests, constrain students' visions of possibilities, exacerbate disadvantages based on race and class, and interfere with students acquiring identities as science learners. However, there are also possibilities for resistance, agency and self-definition through students' talk.

  14. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  15. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  16. Note on the structure of developing seeds of Knema and Horsfieldia (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the seed is based on the massive development of the ovule immediately above the insertion of the outer integument. This may be called endochalazal development, as suggested by F. Bouman (Pers. comm.).

  17. The influence of the chain and network information and communication structure on sustainable business development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Haverkamp, D.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    This article links the public-private information and communication structure (IC-structure) and Ajzen¿s model of planned behaviour to explain the development of environmental management systems (EMSs). The structure of the IC-system, especially the public-private information exchange, can influence

  18. Special Features of Development of the Present World Financial Market Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Patsenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the different approaches to definition of the world financial market. Basic criterion approaches to the present world financial market structuring have been examined. The own world financial market structure model has been proposed. Current trends in development of the world financial market have been revealed in the perspective of its geographical, functional, monetary and institutional structure.

  19. Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo for electronic structure: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez, Maria Milagos Soto [Lawrence Berkeley Lab. and Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-04-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have been found to give excellent results when applied to chemical systems. The main goal of the present work is to use QMC to perform electronic structure calculations. In QMC, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to solve the Schroedinger equation, taking advantage of its analogy to a classical diffusion process with branching. In the present work the author focuses on how to extend the usefulness of QMC to more meaningful molecular systems. This study is aimed at questions concerning polyatomic and large atomic number systems. The accuracy of the solution obtained is determined by the accuracy of the trial wave function`s nodal structure. Efforts in the group have given great emphasis to finding optimized wave functions for the QMC calculations. Little work had been done by systematically looking at a family of systems to see how the best wave functions evolve with system size. In this work the author presents a study of trial wave functions for C, CH, C2H and C2H2. The goal is to study how to build wave functions for larger systems by accumulating knowledge from the wave functions of its fragments as well as gaining some knowledge on the usefulness of multi-reference wave functions. In a MC calculation of a heavy atom, for reasonable time steps most moves for core electrons are rejected. For this reason true equilibration is rarely achieved. A method proposed by Batrouni and Reynolds modifies the way the simulation is performed without altering the final steady-state solution. It introduces an acceleration matrix chosen so that all coordinates (i.e., of core and valence electrons) propagate at comparable speeds. A study of the results obtained using their proposed matrix suggests that it may not be the optimum choice. In this work the author has found that the desired mixing of coordinates between core and valence electrons is not achieved when using this matrix. A bibliography of 175 references is

  1. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  2. Structural and cellular changes in fetal renal papilla during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vinci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mature renal papilla is characterized by medullary collecting ducts, Henle’s loops, vasa recta and the interstitium. Cortical and medullary stromal cells are essential for the regulation of urine concentration and other specialized kidney functions. Mechanisms that direct the renal papilla development are not clearly understood. In recent years, the renal papilla has been identified as a niche for renal stem/progenitor cells in the adult mouse. Studies on experimental animals evidenced a probably common interstitial progenitor for the medullary and cortical stromal cells, characterized by the Foxd1+/PAX2- phenotype. Moreover, Hox10 and Hox11 expression is required for differentiation and patterning of the multiple subtypes of developing medullary interstitial cells. Given the scarcity of morphological and molecular studies on the human renal papilla, this work aimed to evidence morphological changes during human gestation, both in the architecture of the medullary interstitium and in cell types differentiating between the collecting tubules and the Henle’s loops. Future immunohistochemical studies are needed to better identify different interstitial cell types giving rise to the mature interstitium of the renal papilla.

  3. The Professional Development of Teachers in Higher Education: Structures, Methods and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Liz

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of professional development for teachers in higher education highlights developing professional practice, including the Kolb Learning Cycle; the elements of professional development; the Staff and Educational Development Association (SEDA) accreditation scheme in the United Kingdom; essential processes and structures for professional…

  4. Serious Gaming in Medical Education: A Proposed Structured Framework for Game Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Wolbrink, Traci A

    2017-08-01

    Serious games are increasingly being used for medical education. However, the design and development of serious games for the education of health professionals is highly variable, and very few articles report the development process used for game development. There are many established processes for software development that can improve and streamline development, and incorporating the best practices from educational pedagogy and software development may enhance teamwork and communication, decrease development costs, and improve the quality of serious games. In this article, we review and summarize the literature for serious game development for medical education, and combining the best practices, we propose a structured three-phase iterative development framework for serious game development.

  5. Development of flame resistant treatment for Nomex fibrous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Flame resistant fibrous materials for space shuttle application were developed through chemical modification of commercially available aromatic polyamide fibrous products. The new surface treatment was achieved in the laboratory by ultraviolet activation of the fabric in the presence of fluoroolefin monomers and a diluent gas. The monomers grafted under these conditions provide the improved properties of the fabric in flame resistance, chemical inertness, and nonwettability without the sacrifice of color or physical properties. The laboratory reaction vessel was scaled-up to a batch continuous process, which treats ten yards of the commercial width textiles. The treated commercial width Nomex (HT-10-41) from the scaled-up reactor is self-extinguishing in an oxygen-enriched environment, water-repellent, soft, silky, and improved in chemical resistance. Unlike most textile processes, the grafting unit operates under dry conditions and no chemical by-products have to be washed out of the finished product.

  6. Development of Low Density Titanium Alloys for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, F. H.; Suryanarayana, C.; Powell, C.; Ward-Close, C. Malcolm; Wilkes, D. M. J.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the results of a program designed to reduce the density of titanium by adding magnesium are presented. Because these two elements are immiscible under conventional ingot metallurgy techniques, two specialized powder metallurgy methods namely, mechanical alloying (MA) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) were implemented. The mechanical alloying experiments were done both at the University of Idaho and at the Defense Research Agency in UK. Since titanium is reactive with interstitial elements, a secondary goal of this research was to correlate solubility extensions with interstitial contamination content, especially oxygen and nitrogen. MA was carried out in SPEX 8000 shaker mils and different milling containers were utilized to control the level of contamination. Results showed that solubilities of Mg in Ti were obtained up to 28 at.% (16.4 wt. %) Mg in Ti for Ti-39.6 at. % (25 wt. %) Mg alloys, which greatly exceed those obtained under equilibrium conditions. This reflects a density reduction of approximately 26 %. Contamination of oxygen and nitrogen seemed to increase the solubility of magnesium in titanium in some cases; however, we were not able to make a clear correlation between contamination levels with solubilities. Work at the DRA has emphasized optimization of present PVD equipment, specifically composition and temperature control. Preliminary PVD data has shown Ti-Mg deposits have successfully been made up to 2 mm thick and that solubility extensions were achieved. The potential for density reduction of titanium by alloying with magnesium has been demonstrated; however, this work has only scratched the surface of the development of such low density alloys. Much research is needed before such alloys could be implemented into industry. Further funding is required in order to optimize the MA/PVD processes including contamination control, determination of optimal alloy compositions, microstructure development, and mechanical property

  7. Incorporating flood event analyses and catchment structures into model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Henning; Schumann, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The space-time variability in catchment response results from several hydrological processes which differ in their relevance in an event-specific way. An approach to characterise this variance consists in comparisons between flood events in a catchment and between flood responses of several sub-basins in such an event. In analytical frameworks the impact of space and time variability of rainfall on runoff generation due to rainfall excess can be characterised. Moreover the effect of hillslope and channel network routing on runoff timing can be specified. Hence, a modelling approach is needed to specify the runoff generation and formation. Knowing the space-time variability of rainfall and the (spatial averaged) response of a catchment it seems worthwhile to develop new models based on event and catchment analyses. The consideration of spatial order and the distribution of catchment characteristics in their spatial variability and interaction with the space-time variability of rainfall provides additional knowledge about hydrological processes at the basin scale. For this purpose a new procedure to characterise the spatial heterogeneity of catchments characteristics in their succession along the flow distance (differentiated between river network and hillslopes) was developed. It was applied to study of flood responses at a set of nested catchments in a river basin in eastern Germany. In this study the highest observed rainfall-runoff events were analysed, beginning at the catchment outlet and moving upstream. With regard to the spatial heterogeneities of catchment characteristics, sub-basins were separated by new algorithms to attribute runoff-generation, hillslope and river network processes. With this procedure the cumulative runoff response at the outlet can be decomposed and individual runoff features can be assigned to individual aspects of the catchment. Through comparative analysis between the sub-catchments and the assigned effects on runoff dynamics new

  8. Aircraft structural health monitoring system development: overview of the Air Force/Navy smart metallic structures program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Way, Craig B.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Zeigler, Michael L.; Alper, James M.

    1995-05-01

    Significant progress in fulfilling the current joint Air Force/Navy `Smart Metallic Structures (SMS)' program primary objective, to demonstrate a viable structural health monitoring system (SHMS) for a large structural aircraft component, is presented. Structural health monitoring and its relation to current Force Management (FM) and Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) procedures are first reviewed together with a brief status overview of the relevant sensor technologies (e.g. AE, fiber-optic, corrosion, etc.). Key features of the SHMS architecture are described for the selected F/A-18 bulkhead and T-38 wing spar structural demonstration articles, highlighting sensors, processors, data busses, hardware, and software. Results from acoustic monitoring of the program sub-element structural tests are presented in some detail along with a status review of the SHMS multiplex bus component hardware and software. Finally, structural requirements for an SHMS meeting minimum ASIP guidelines for damage detection are discussed along with foals for future testing and development of the SHMS under the SMS program.

  9. Process-oriented organizational structure and its application in real estate development enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current organizational structure of real estate development enterprises in China. Integrating the idea of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) with organizational reformation, the authors bring out a process-oriented organizational structure. A further study on the application of process-oriented organizational structure in real estate development enterprises is carried out in a test case. Using residence-development process as an example, the authors illustrate the composition and operation of the business process system of real estate development enterprises.

  10. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  11. Innovative, Inexpensive Etching Technique Developed for Polymer Electro- Optical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-optic, polymer-based integrated optic devices for high-speed communication and computing applications offer potentially significant advantages over conventional inorganic electro-optic crystals. One key area of integrated optical technology--primary processing and fabrication--may particularly benefit from the use of polymer materials. However, as efforts concentrate on the miniaturization of electro-integrated circuit pattern geometries, the ability to etch fine features and smoothly sloped sidewalls is essential to make polymers useful for electro-integrated circuit applications. There are many existing processes available to etch polymer materials, but they all yield nearly vertical sidewalls. Vertical sidewalls are too difficult to reliably cover with a metal layer, and incomplete metalization degrades microwave performance, particularly at high frequency. However, obtaining a very sloped sidewall greatly improves the deposition of metal on the sidewall, leading to low-loss characteristics, which are essential to integrating these devices in highspeed electro-optic modulators. The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed in-house an inexpensive etching technique that uses a photolithography method followed by a simple, wet chemical etching process to etch through polymer layers. In addition to being simpler and inexpensive, this process can be used to fabricate smoothly sloped sidewalls by using a commercial none rodible mask: Spin-On-Glass. A commercial transparent material, Spin-On-Glass, uses processes and equipment similar to that for photoresist techniques.

  12. Gene expression and dental enamel structure in developing mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehic, Amer; Risnes, Steinar; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Khuu, Cuong; Osmundsen, Harald

    2010-04-01

    At the mouse incisor tip the initially differentiated ameloblasts produce a thin, prism-free enamel, while further apically, in the immediate adjacent segment, the enamel thickness increases and the four-layered enamel of mouse incisor is formed. Comparative gene-expression profiling was carried out on RNA isolated from these two segments of incisor tooth germs at embryonic day (E)17.5 and at postnatal days (P)0, 1, 2, and 10 using microarrays to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) species present in the segments. Validation of expression data was achieved using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Bioinformatic data suggested enhanced cellular apoptosis in the incisal tip segment, which, together with diminished expression of the Amelx and Enam genes, may contribute to the production of the thin enamel seen in this tooth segment. For genes exhibiting higher levels of expression in the adjacent segment where complex enamel is being formed, bioinformatic analysis suggested significant associations with cellular functions involving the actin cytoskeleton, cellular development, morphology, and movement. This is suggested to reflect that ameloblasts with Tomes' process are being organized in transverse rows, facilitating the transverse movement that results in prism decussation in the inner enamel of the adjacent segment. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA expression data lends support to these suggestions.

  13. Postglacial Development and Geological Structure of the Great Lake Ladoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Amantova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the key intriguing regions for constraining the glacial rebound model. It is located close to the margin of expansion of the last glaciation. The majority of data of its post-glacial development, rebound and drainage are disputable in spite of huge amount of data collected by different researchers. The modern basin is located on the slope of the Baltic shield sloping under the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic cover of the Russian platform, and in spatial links with the shape of Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) basin. Because of this position and contrast topography, several papers report on strong neotectonics with differentiated movements and unclear role of the isostatic rebound. We want to highlight the following points: 1. Lake Ladoga basin is clearly a product of Cenozoic erosion, with the dominant role in glacial time. Different resistance of Mesoproterozoic formations causes the contrast relief. We consider the deepest northwestern part as the world largest glacial cirque. 2. Sub-Upper Vendian peneplain (base of the "proper" sedimentary cover) and other major Upper Vendian-Cambrian reference horizons show gentle tilt across the area of distribution, as seen in shallow seismic profiling. They continue offshore in the same way, showing clear absence of noticable neotectonic movements that could change the overall rebound pattern. 3. Modeling, which includes sediment redistribution, shows it's potentially significant role in landscape changes. Widespread thick Ice Lake sediments should be deposited north of the highland of Karelic peninsula, and their later erosion contributed to minor additional uplift. 4. Water level fluctuations are well known for the Ladoga post-glacial history. In hydroisostatic response Ladoga appeared as a circle with the center of additional uplift (or subsidence) migrating southwards. This caused deviations of pure glacial isobases. 5. Peat autocompaction / compaction changed topography over time, especially in oldest sedge

  14. Structural complexity and the time course of grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R

    1998-06-01

    a new type of explanation for the time course of syntactic development in terms of the complexity of formal grammatical devices.

  15. Skills development and structural change: Possibilities for and limitations of redressing structural racial inequalities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, Zelda

    2013-12-01

    Improving structural racial equality for historically-disadvantaged Black South Africans, including low-skilled and unemployed adults and youths, is a pertinent challenge for the South African government during the ongoing transition from apartheid capitalism to post-apartheid capitalism. Within the framework of the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS), the introduction of "learnerships" and "learning programmes", which include structured learning programmes, learnerships, apprenticeships and skills programmes, has had some impact. But emerging theoretical perspectives assert that apartheid structural racial inequalities persist and that structural reform is imperative. Opposing positions translate into two perspectives on social transition: either capitalism can be de-racialised, or capitalism in South Africa should be dismantled in order to de-racialise it. After a review of relevant literature and governmental documents, the author identifies five structural and pedagogical barriers as likely causes for low completion rates of skills development courses and concludes that structural reform needs more favourable political and economic conditions in order to be successful.

  16. Specification Improvement Through Analysis of Proof Structure (SITAPS): High Assurance Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    SPECIFICATION IMPROVEMENT THROUGH ANALYSIS OF PROOF STRUCTURE (SITAPS): HIGH ASSURANCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT BAE SYSTEMS FEBRUARY...ANALYSIS OF PROOF STRUCTURE (SITAPS): HIGH ASSURANCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-13-C-0240 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...General adoption of these techniques has had limited penetration in the software development community. Two interrelated causes may account for

  17. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    results show that the nanostructural complexity of pectins present in CDTA and Na2CO3 fractions diminishes during fruit development, and this correlates with the solubilisation of pectins and the softening of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis on Relationship between Adjustment of Agricultural Structure and Urbanization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.

  19. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  20. Physical modeling of river spanning rock structures: Evaluating interstitial flow, local hydraulics, downstream scour development, and structure stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K.L.; Thornton, C.I.; Mefford, B.; Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Rock weir and ramp structures uniquely serve a necessary role in river management: to meet water deliveries in an ecologically sound manner. Uses include functioning as low head diversion dams, permitting fish passage, creating habitat diversity, and stabilizing stream banks and profiles. Existing information on design and performance of in-stream rock structures does not provide the guidance necessary to implement repeatable and sustainable construction and retrofit techniques. As widespread use of rock structures increases, the need for reliable design methods with a broad range of applicability at individual sites grows as well. Rigorous laboratory testing programs were implemented at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and at Colorado State University (CSU) as part of a multifaceted research project focused on expanding the current knowledge base and developing design methods to improve the success rate of river spanning rock structures in meeting project goals. Physical modeling at Reclamation is being used to measure, predict, and reduce interstitial flow through rock ramps. CSU is using physical testing to quantify and predict scour development downstream of rock weirs and its impact on the stability of rock structures. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  1. Summary of Structural Concept Development and High Temperature Structural Integrity Evaluation Technology for a Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon (and others)

    2008-04-15

    The economic improvement is a hot issue as one of Gen IV nuclear plant goals. It requires many researches and development works to meet the goal by securing the same level of plant safety. One of the key research items is the increase of the plant capacity with the minimum number of components and loops. Through the successful conceptual design experience for the KALIMER-600, the structural design study for a 1200MWe large capacity of sodium-cooled fast reactor has been performed to achieve the above plant size effects. The component number and reactor structural sizing were determined based on the core and fluid system design information. Several researches were performed to reduce the construction cost of NSSS in structural point of view, for example, a simplified component arrangement, concept proposals of integrated components, a high temperature LBB application technology, and an innovative in-service inspection (ISI) tool, and a computer program development of the ASME-NH design procedure of the class 1 structure and component under high temperature over 500 .deg. C. The IHTS piping arrangement was also proposed to minimize the length through the properly locating the SG and pump by 126m. Further studies of these concepts are required to confirm on the fabricability and the structural integrity for the operating and design loads. The proposed concepts will be optimized to a unified conceptual design through several trade-off studies.

  2. On the development and testing of a guided ultrasonic wave array for structural integrity monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Fromme, P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Canvley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The prototype of a guided ultrasonic wave array for the structural integrity monitoring of large, plate-like structures has been designed, built, and tested. The development of suitably small transducers for the excitation and measurement of the first antisymmetric Lamb wave mode A(0) is described. The array design consists of a ring of 32 transducers, permanently bonded to the structure with a protective membrane, in a compact housing with the necessary multiplexing electronics. Using a phas...

  3. Recent Developments in the Area of Probabilistic Design of Timer Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Timber is a complex building material with properties which are highly variable both spatially and in time. In structural engineering, the important material properties are the strength and stiffness related properties of standard test specimen under given (standard) loading and climate conditions and the timber density. JCSS (Joint Committee of Structural Safety) has recently developed a probabilistic model code for timber properties for structural design, (JCSS 2006). This paper describes t...

  4. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Schut, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatrop

  5. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight OFDR Structural Health Monitoring Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a cost-effective, robust, tunable, miniaturized, ruggedized, and flight tested swept laser for in-flight structural health monitoring. The objective...

  6. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golovey L.A; Savenysheva S.S; Engelgardt E.E

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children...

  7. Exploring the impact of socio-technical core-periphery structures in open source software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply the social network concept of core-periphery structure to the socio-technical structure of a software development team. We propose a socio-technical pattern that can be used to locate emerging coordination problems in Open Source projects. With the help of our tool and method

  8. The Analysis of the Development Dynamics and Structural Balance of Solar Energy in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A. E.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Akulov, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents data the analysis of the development dynamics and structural balance of solar energy in the world. In the article presents information about total installed production capacity of solar energy, the world solar energy production capacity distribution and the European Union energy market structure in 2000 and 2015 years.

  9. Rapid excavation with a newly developed retaining system:Spiral assembly steel structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关成立; 杨宇友; 王成彪

    2015-01-01

    The spiral assembly steel structure, a newly developed retaining wall for the rapid excavation of small-sized foundation pits in unsaturated soil, is presented. This new type of retaining structure is prefabricated in the factory and is assembled on site in the excavation of a pit. This retaining structure is composed of several prefabricated steel structural units, in which the adjacent steel structural units are joined with connectors. Each steel structural unit has one steel pipe in the radial direction and is welded to a single piece of steel plate. After full installation in situ, the retaining structure becomes a cylindrical steel structure. With the protection afforded by this new type of retaining structure, excavation work can be completed within 24 h to a depth up to 5 m. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of this new retaining structure, field construction tests were conducted in Beijing, China. The test construction was monitored. The monitoring program included measuring stress in the structure, lateral earth pressure, and lateral deformation of the surrounding soil. The monitoring data from the field test were compared with the theoretical results. The results show that the proposed new structure is reliable and effective.

  10. Critical Assessment 14: High Entropy Alloys and Their Development as Structural Materials (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0219 CRITICAL ASSESSMENT 14: HIGH ENTROPY ALLOYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS (POSTPRINT) Daniel...December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRITICAL ASSESSMENT 14: HIGH ENTROPY ALLOYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS (POSTPRINT) 5a...available at DOI 10.1179/1743284714Y.1142 0000000749. 14. ABSTRACT The field of high entropy alloys has exploded in its first 10 years. Vast

  11. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  12. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/LARC 160 polyimide structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R. K.; Jones, J. S.; Dynes, P. J.; Wykes, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of manufacturing technologies for the structural application of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide composite material is discussed. Process development and fabrication of demonstration components are discussed. Process development included establishing quality assurance of the basic composite material and processing, nondestructive inspection of fabricated components, developing processes for specific structural forms, and qualification of processes through mechanical testing. Demonstration components were fabricated. The demonstration components consisted of flat laminates, skin/stringer panels, honeycomb panels, chopped fiber compression moldings, and a technology demonstrator segment (TDS) representative of the space shuttle aft body flap.

  13. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  14. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Aquatic Education and Its Application to Existing Aquatic Curricula and Needed Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1984-01-01

    Northern Minnesota secondary teachers (N=55) were surveyed on their knowledge of a priority for selected water topics. Teachers' assessment of these topic areas provide: (1) a suggested structure for marine education; (2) the evaluation of existing curricula; and (3) needs analysis to determine areas of future curriculum development. (BC)

  15. Development of Optimal CZTS Device Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-476

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hest, Maikel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Suntricity Corporation and NREL will develop an optimal CZTS device structure. In this process absorber materials provided by Suntricity Corporation will be used for testing. For this purpose Suntricity Corporation will provide dried film precursors or ink precursors. NREL will process these into PV material and complete cells with buffer, window and contacts.

  16. Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT and E): Appropriations Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Department of Defense Research , Development , Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Appropriations Structure John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in...Congressional Research Service Summary The Department of Defense (DOD) conducts research , development , testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) in support...is for applied research ; 6.3 is for advanced technology development ; 6.4 is for advanced component development and prototypes; 6.5 is for systems

  17. Analysis of the Development Structure on Non-governmental Enterprises of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-bao; GONG Ben-gang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the development of the non-governmental enterprises of science and technology in the past twenty years, this paper applied an interpretive structure model (ISM) to make a research on the regllar development pattern of these enterprises and to probe into the interior development mechanism theoretically. The studying results supply ideas underlying the scientific decision for the govermments at all levels and show the direction of the development of the non- governmental enterprises of science and technology in the future.

  18. Nanostructured and nanolayer coatings based on nitrides of the metals structure study and structure and composition standard samples set development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches by methods of analytical microscopy and the x-ray analysis have allowed to develop a set of standard samples of composition and structure of the strengthening nanostructured and nanolayer coatings for control of the strengthening nanostructured and nanolayer coatings based on nitrides of the metals used to protect critical parts of the compressor of the gas turbine engine from dust erosion, corrosion and oxidation.

  19. Development and comparison of advanced reduced-basis methods for the transient structural analysis of unconstrained structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgowan, David M.; Bostic, Susan W.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    The development of two advanced reduced-basis methods, the force derivative method and the Lanczos method, and two widely used modal methods, the mode displacement method and the mode acceleration method, for transient structural analysis of unconstrained structures is presented. Two example structural problems are studied: an undamped, unconstrained beam subject to a uniformly distributed load which varies as a sinusoidal function of time and an undamped high-speed civil transport aircraft subject to a normal wing tip load which varies as a sinusoidal function of time. These example problems are used to verify the methods and to compare the relative effectiveness of each of the four reduced-basis methods for performing transient structural analyses on unconstrained structures. The methods are verified with a solution obtained by integrating directly the full system of equations of motion, and they are compared using the number of basis vectors required to obtain a desired level of accuracy and the associated computational times as comparison criteria.

  20. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Hunter, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    The work included establishing controls on the polymer, the prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, as well as fabrication of structural elements to demonstrate the developed materials and processes. The fabricated structures were hat sections, I-beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite-reinforced fittings. The graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system was shown to be well suited for use in the 550-600 F temperature range; the processing techniques developed were proved and found potentially useful for other commercially available systems.

  1. 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures and structural development of the eastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Arif Mohiuddin; Alam, M. Mustafa

    2003-02-01

    Structural architecture of the Bengal Basin has been strongly controlled by the collision pattern of the Indian plate with the Burma and Tibetan plates. The eastern fold belt (EFB) of the basin, comprising a series of north-south-trending curvilinear anticlines and synclines, represents a fold-and-thrust belt that constitutes the westward continuation of Arakan-Chin fold system of the Indo-Burman Ranges. The present study is mainly concerned with the 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures in order to develop an understanding about the process-response relationships between the structural style and tectonic evolution of the eastern fold belt. The dominant fold-generating mechanism is believed to be the east-west-directed compressional force arising from oblique subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma plate that resulted in the growth of fault-propagation folds above a detachment or decollement at depth, giving rise to the Neogene accretionary prism complex development. A prominent feature of the region is the major east-dipping thrusts separating successive accretionary wedges. In seismic sections, evidence for several phases of compressional deformation suggests that multiphase stress conditions were responsible for the structural expression of the fold belt. Deep seismic sections reveal that the base of folding is characterized by a low-interval velocity horizon that represents a detachment separating the upper folded zone from the lower, seismically coherent, nearly unfolded zone. This detachment coincides with the undercompacted pressured shale unit, which is thought to have played an important role in the structural development of the eastern fold belt. Clay mineralogical analysis reveals the presence of a low-density shale horizon within the dense and thick shale sequence that is thought to be an undercompacted pressured shale during the geological past, and was responsible for the initiation of decollement and incipient diapirism involving thin

  2. Coupling Neumann development and component mode synthesis methods for stochastic analysis of random structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Sarsri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the first two moments (mean and variance of the structural dynamics response of a structure with uncertain variables and subjected to random excitation. For this, Newmark method is used to transform the equation of motion of the structure into a quasistatic equilibrium equation in the time domain. The Neumann development method was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the statistical values of the random response. The use of modal synthesis methods can reduce the dimensions of the model before integration of the equation of motion. Numerical applications have been developed to highlight effectiveness of the method developed to analyze the stochastic response of large structures.

  3. Structural basis of Prospero-DNA interaction: implications for transcription regulation in developing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mohammad S; Matthews, Brian W

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structure of a complex between the novel homeodomain of the neural transcription factor Prospero and DNA shows that the invariant residues Lys1290, Asn1294, and Asp1297 make specific contacts with the noncanonical DNA binding site. The overall structure includes the homeodomain and the adjacent Prospero domain and confirms that they act as a single structural unit, a Homeo-Prospero domain. The Prospero domain facilitates the proper alignment of the protein on the DNA. Knowledge of the structure reconciles two different DNA sequences that have been proposed as transcriptional targets for Prospero. As in the apo structure, the C terminus of the Prospero domain shields a short helix within the homeodomain that includes a nuclear export signal (NES). The structural results suggest that exposure of the NES is not coupled directly to DNA binding. We propose a DNA recognition mechanism specific to Prospero-type homeodomains in developing cells.

  4. Variability of Stand Structures and Development in Old-Growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Sun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest stand structure class “old-growth” has previously been qualitatively described as having several distinct “sub-structures.” Species composition, diameter distribution, and other structural features commonly associated with old-growth in the Pacific Northwest are quite variable. We determined which quantitative stand structure variables are commonly found together using the Spearman correlation and non-metric multidimensional analysis. Some features were more commonly found together than others, indicating different old-growth stand types, or sub-structures. Cluster analysis classified the old-growth forests into four groups: Douglas-fir dominance, shade tolerant species dominance, and intermediate groups. The intermediate groups were split by the density of large logs and large shade tolerant trees. The old-growth sub-structures appear to change from one to another as the old forest develops.

  5. Supporting Structures for Education for Sustainable Development and School-Based Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…

  6. Supporting structures for education for sustainable development and school-based health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to explore the following question: How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development...

  7. Structured Case Analysis: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in a Marketing Case Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebba, Joanne M.; Hamilton, Janet G.

    2007-01-01

    Structured case analysis is a hybrid pedagogy that flexibly combines diverse instructional methods with comprehensive case analysis as a mechanism to develop critical thinking skills. An incremental learning framework is proposed that allows instructors to develop and monitor content-specific theory and the corresponding critical thinking skills.…

  8. Supporting Structures for Education for Sustainable Development and School-Based Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…

  9. Reindustrialization and structural change in function of the economic development of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Micic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines industrialization and structural change induced thereof, which are the main drivers and bearers of economic development. The author observes that the industry of the Republic of Serbia is devastated due to sudden and premature tertiarization as well as inadequate reforms. The current structures of both the economy and the industry do not have a sufficient capacity to ensure sustainable economic development; hence, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to emphasize the importance of reindustrialization and the implementation of structural changes in the Republic of Serbia. The paper starts from the premise that industry is the main driver and the bearer of economic growth and development. Therefore, it is necessary for the Republic of Serbia to turn to reindustrialization and implement structural changes in this sector given the fact that the levels of the development and competitiveness of the industry are correlated to the intensity of industrialization. The research findings indicate that developed industrial countries are characterized by more effective structural changes and more propulsive production that creates higher value-added products. This reflects not only at the level of the industrial development but also at the level of the competitiveness, volume and quality of exports.

  10. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time.

  11. The Human Placenta Project: Placental Structure, Development, and Function in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan E.; Maddox, Yvonne T.; Spong, Catherine Y.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated “Human Placenta Project,” with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time. PMID:24661567

  12. Structural Restriction in the Development of China's Financial Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianLi

    2004-01-01

    After China's accession to the WTO, the main problem China now faces in its financial development is how to enhance international competitiveness while safeguarding financial security. Since reform and opening up, the development of China's financial industry has featured extensive quantitative expansion, but without sufficient consideration given to increased risk. This has led to serious defects in the financial structure, which has hampered the financial industry from further development and from improving its international competitiveness. All these have had unfavorable impacts on financial stability and security.Therefore, in developing China 's financial industry, the stubborn pursuit of growth in quantity is inadvisable. What is needed is to change this way of thinking and to promote reform and development of the financial industry with emphasis on structure improvement,and to seek a way of development that can raise international competitiveness, while at the same time ensuring financial security.

  13. EVOLUTIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF MOUNTAIN TOURISM WITH IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA-MANUELA GOGONEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the global economic crisis, sustainable development of tourism in Romania, is still one of the main drivers of economic recovery mechanism. Treated in an integrating vision, sustainable tourism includes a wide range of matters affecting mountain tourism a basic shape of this area of activity. The study highlights the level of development and place of mountain tourism, among other forms of Romanian tourism through evolutionary and structural analysis of the number of structures for tourist arrivals and overnight stays within them. Purposes of determining aspects of mountain tourism development are aiming to detect its impact on sustainable development. However, the overall image of the development of mountain tourism has created the premises for the adoption of strategies for sustainable development of tourism in Romania

  14. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities. In age 3-4 the role of level of development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities increases in the structure of complex preparedness, and in an age-dependent period 4-5 years again there is an increase of role of physical development with the maintain of role of physical preparedness and psycho-physiological possibilities.

  15. Development and verification testing of automation and robotics for assembly of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1993-01-01

    A program was initiated within the past several years to develop operational procedures for automated assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The assembly operations require the use of a robotic manipulator and are based on the principle of supervised autonomy to minimize crew resources. A hardware testbed was established to support development and evaluation testing. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop the baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. As the system matured and an operation was proven, upgrades were incorprated and assessed against the baseline test results. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, the current status, and a series of proposed developments for additional hardware and software control capability. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly of truss structures have been encountered. The current system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  16. Technology development on the assessment of structural integrity of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Y. S.; Choi, I. K. and others

    1999-04-01

    Nuclear power plants in Korea show drop off in their performance and safety margin as the age of plants increase. The reevaluation of Kori-1 Unit on its performance and safety for life extension is expected in the near future. However, technologies and information related are insufficient to quantitatively estimate them. The final goal of this study is to develop the basic testing and evaluation techniques related with structural integrity of important nuclear equipment and structures. A part of the study includes development of equipment qualification technique. To ensure the structural integrity of structures, systems, and equipment in nuclear power plants, the following 5 research tasks were performed in the first year. - Analysis of dynamic characteristics of reactor internals - Analysis of engineering characteristics of instrumental earthquakes recorded in Korea - Analysis of ultimate pressure capacity and failure mode of containments building - Development of advanced NDE techniques using ultrasonic resonance scattering - Development of equipment qualification technique against vibration aging. These technologies developed in this study can be used to ensure the structural safety of operational nuclear power plants, and for the long-term life management. (author)

  17. Technology development on the assessment of structural integrity of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Y. S.; Choi, I. K. and others

    1999-04-01

    Nuclear power plants in Korea show drop off in their performance and safety margin as the age of plants increase. The reevaluation of Kori-1 Unit on its performance and safety for life extension is expected in the near future. However, technologies and information related are insufficient to quantitatively estimate them. The final goal of this study is to develop the basic testing and evaluation techniques related with structural integrity of important nuclear equipment and structures. A part of the study includes development of equipment qualification technique. To ensure the structural integrity of structures, systems, and equipment in nuclear power plants, the following 5 research tasks were performed in the first year. - Analysis of dynamic characteristics of reactor internals - Analysis of engineering characteristics of instrumental earthquakes recorded in Korea - Analysis of ultimate pressure capacity and failure mode of containments building - Development of advanced NDE techniques using ultrasonic resonance scattering - Development of equipment qualification technique against vibration aging. These technologies developed in this study can be used to ensure the structural safety of operational nuclear power plants, and for the long-term life management. (author)

  18. Guidelines for development of structural integrity programs for DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; Rooyen, D. van; Weeks, J.

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for developing programs to promote the structural integrity of high-level waste storage tanks and transfer lines at the facilities of the Department of Energy. Elements of the program plan include a leak-detection system, definition of appropriate loads, collection of data for possible material and geometric changes, assessment of the tank structure, and non-destructive examination. Possible aging degradation mechanisms are explored for both steel and concrete components of the tanks, and evaluated to screen out nonsignificant aging mechanisms and to indicate methods of controlling the significant aging mechanisms. Specific guidelines for assessing structural adequacy will be provided in companion documents. Site-specific structural integrity programs can be developed drawing on the relevant portions of the material in this document.

  19. Development and Application of a Structural Health Monitoring System Based on Wireless Smart Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Ma, Haoyan; Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing; Wu, Jianxin

    2017-07-17

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can improve the safety and reliability of structures, reduce maintenance costs, and extend service life. Research on concrete SHMs using piezoelectric-based smart aggregates have reached great achievements. However, the newly developed techniques have not been widely applied in practical engineering, largely due to the wiring problems associated with large-scale structural health monitoring. The cumbersome wiring requires much material and labor work, and more importantly, the associated maintenance work is also very heavy. Targeting a practical large scale concrete crack detection (CCD) application, a smart aggregates-based wireless sensor network system is proposed for the CCD application. The developed CCD system uses Zigbee 802.15.4 protocols, and is able to perform dynamic stress monitoring, structural impact capturing, and internal crack detection. The system has been experimentally validated, and the experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed system. This work provides important support for practical CCD applications using wireless smart aggregates.

  20. Development of chemical and topological structure in aluminosilicate liquids and glasses at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewitt, James W. E.; Jahn, Sandro; Sanloup, Chrystèle; de Grouchy, Charlotte; Garbarino, Gaston; Hennet, Louis

    2015-03-01

    The high pressure structure of liquid and glassy anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) glass was measured by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell up to 32.4(2) GPa. The results, combined with ab initio molecular dynamics and classical molecular dynamics simulations using a polarizable ion model, reveal a continuous increase in Al coordination by oxygen, with 5-fold coordinated Al dominating at 15 GPa and a preponderance of 6-fold coordinated Al at higher pressures. The development of a peak in the measured total structure factors at 3.1 Å-1 is interpreted as a signature of changes in topological order. During compression, cation-centred polyhedra develop edge- and face- sharing networks. Above 10 GPa, following the pressure-induced breakdown of the network structure, the anions adopt a structure similar to a random close packing of hard spheres.

  1. Design and Development of Mechanical Structure and Control System for Tracked Trailing Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchuan Xu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the science and technology unceasing progress, the uses of tracing robots become more and more widely. Tracked tracing robot was adopted as the research object in this paper, mechanical structure and control system of robot was designed and developmented. In mechanical structure design part, structure designed and positioned  were completed, including design of robot body, wheel, underpan, transmission structure and the positioning of batteries, control panel, sensors, etc, and then robot dynamics was analyzed; In control section, M30245 was used as the core, according to the characteristics of tracked tracing robot differential drive, realization scheme of motion control system was put forward, system drive circuit, detection module, control program were developed. System were discussed and checked through test. From this paper tracked tracing robot was researched, and a certain design and experimental basis can be provided in future research.

  2. Simultaneous imaging of structural plasticity and calcium dynamics in developing dendrites and axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Friederike; Lohmann, Christian

    2013-11-01

    During nervous system development, the formation of synapses between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is a remarkably specific process. Both structural and functional plasticity are critical for the selection of synaptic partners and for the establishment and maturation of synapses. To unravel the respective contributions of structural and functional mechanisms as well as their interactions during synaptogenesis, it is important to directly observe structural changes and functional signaling simultaneously. Here, we present an imaging approach to simultaneously follow changes in structure and function. Differential labeling of individual cells and the neuronal network with distinct dyes allows the study of structural plasticity and changes in calcium signaling associated with neural activity at the same time and with high resolution. This is achieved by bulk loading of neuronal populations with a calcium-sensitive indicator in combination with electroporation of individual cells with a calcium indicator and an additional noncalcium-sensitive dye with a different excitation spectrum. Recordings of the two differently labeled structures can be acquired simultaneously using confocal microscopy. Thus, structural plasticity and calcium dynamics of the individually labeled neuron and the surrounding network can be related to each other. This combined imaging approach can be applied to virtually all systems of neuronal networks to study structure and function. We provide a comprehensive description of the labeling procedure, the imaging parameters, and the important aspects of analysis for simultaneous recordings of structure and function in individual neurons.

  3. nD modelling in the development of cast in place concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jongeling, Rogier; Emborg, Mats; Olofsson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

      The Swedish IT-stomme (IT-structure) project is a two year research project, which is aimed at applying product models in practice and developing modelling tools for cast in place concrete structures. Implementations and applications discussed in this paper are mainly driven by the interests from a ready mixed concrete supplier who identified product modelling as a threat and as an opportunity for its business process. A number of product model dimensions is discussed that result from co...

  4. Swedish post-war economic development. The role of age structure in a welfare state.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas; Malmberg, Bo

    2002-01-01

    There are strong life cycle patterns in practically all human behavior as well as in resources and capabilities. Variations in the age structure therefore affect all aspects of the aggregate economy. Swedish post-war development exhibit patterns of age structure effects on saving, growth, investment, current account, budget balance and inflation consistent with the dynamics of these variables in historic cycles. The deviations of actual time series from the model predictions arise with identi...

  5. Effect of Credit Market Structure on Bank Development: the Case of Iran and Selected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Shahchera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has investigated a possible relationship between credit market structure and bank development in Iran and selected developing countries, using a panel regression analysis. Accordingly, the bank development index is proxied by the allocated credits to private sector, while a dummy variable has been defined as a proxy for credit market. To estimate the regressions, we have used data of 44 developing countries over the period 2000-2008. The results confirm that, depending on the regulation system, the coefficient value of the credit market has been different in the countries under consideration. The results show that the effect of credit market on bank development has been more pronounced in China, Ecuador, Iceland, Iran and Malaysia than that of other countries, which implies the more efficient regulation system in developing countries the more development in their banking system. Thus, the bigger effect of the credit markets on bank development can be obtained by the further reforms in these markets.

  6. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  7. Organizational development structure: improvements for service agencies aiding women of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    Through this article the author explains how systems-based structures provide enhanced care for women of domestic violence abuse via intra-agency and inter-agency initiatives. Qualitative data was collected through interviews with eight leaders of four different agencies that were included in this case study. Organizational development models of service agencies aiding women were investigated. Results indicate that systems-based structures are the most beneficial organizational design to enhance services to abused women, as they require simultaneous, complex, and multifaceted care. This ideal structure best provides women with comprehensive, collaborative, and effective care when agencies cooperate to meet women's diverse needs.

  8. Development and Comparison of Mechanical Structures for FNAL 15 T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-08

    Main design challenges for 15 T accelerator magnets are large Lorentz forces at this field level. The large Lorentz forces generate high stresses in the coil and mechanical structure and, thus, need stress control to maintain them at the acceptable level for brittle Nb3Sn coils and other elements of magnet mechanical structure. To provide these conditions and achieve the design field in the FNAL 15 T dipole demonstrator, several mechanical structures have been developed and analysed. The possibilities and limitations of these designs are discussed in this paper

  9. CURRENT TRENDS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Doraliyski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key components of the management system is the organizational structure of management. This report presents the current trends of development and improvement of organizational structures of management. The semantics of the term "organizational structure" used in the report is clarified. Key aspects of structural policy of organizations are discussed, as well as the introduction of flexible organizational forms. The main directions for analysis of organizational policy of organizations are also mentioned. It is stressed that the analysis of current trends for the future development of organizational structures of management should be an integral component of the management policy of every organization. The trends are flexibility and adaptability of the organizational structure, rational proportion between centralization and decentralization, an appropriate balance between the rights, duties and responsibilities, reducing regulations, rules and other normative documents. A recommendetaion is made that organizational governance structures must be adapted constantly in accordance with changes in the overall management system, as they are one of its main components.

  10. Structures of Cryptococcus neoformans protein farnesyltransferase reveal strategies for developing inhibitors that target fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael A; Nichols, Connie B; Armstrong, Stephanie M; Kelly, Shannon M; Hellinga, Homme W; Alspaugh, J Andrew; Beese, Lorena S

    2011-10-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. Few antifungals can treat C. neoformans infections, and drug resistance is increasing. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes post-translational lipidation of key signal transduction proteins and is essential in C. neoformans. We present a multidisciplinary study validating C. neoformans FTase (CnFTase) as a drug target, showing that several anticancer FTase inhibitors with disparate scaffolds can inhibit C. neoformans and suggesting structure-based strategies for further optimization of these leads. Structural studies are an essential element for species-specific inhibitor development strategies by revealing similarities and differences between pathogen and host orthologs that can be exploited. We, therefore, present eight crystal structures of CnFTase that define the enzymatic reaction cycle, basis of ligand selection, and structurally divergent regions of the active site. Crystal structures of clinically important anticancer FTase inhibitors in complex with CnFTase reveal opportunities for optimization of selectivity for the fungal enzyme by modifying functional groups that interact with structurally diverse regions. A substrate-induced conformational change in CnFTase is observed as part of the reaction cycle, a feature that is mechanistically distinct from human FTase. Our combined structural and functional studies provide a framework for developing FTase inhibitors to treat invasive fungal infections.

  11. Structures of Cryptococcus neoformans Protein Farnesyltransferase Reveal Strategies for Developing Inhibitors That Target Fungal Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hast, Michael A.; Nichols, Connie B.; Armstrong, Stephanie M.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Hellinga, Homme W.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Beese, Lorena S. (Duke)

    2012-09-17

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. Few antifungals can treat C. neoformans infections, and drug resistance is increasing. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes post-translational lipidation of key signal transduction proteins and is essential in C. neoformans. We present a multidisciplinary study validating C. neoformans FTase (CnFTase) as a drug target, showing that several anticancer FTase inhibitors with disparate scaffolds can inhibit C. neoformans and suggesting structure-based strategies for further optimization of these leads. Structural studies are an essential element for species-specific inhibitor development strategies by revealing similarities and differences between pathogen and host orthologs that can be exploited. We, therefore, present eight crystal structures of CnFTase that define the enzymatic reaction cycle, basis of ligand selection, and structurally divergent regions of the active site. Crystal structures of clinically important anticancer FTase inhibitors in complex with CnFTase reveal opportunities for optimization of selectivity for the fungal enzyme by modifying functional groups that interact with structurally diverse regions. A substrate-induced conformational change in CnFTase is observed as part of the reaction cycle, a feature that is mechanistically distinct from human FTase. Our combined structural and functional studies provide a framework for developing FTase inhibitors to treat invasive fungal infections.

  12. Research Developments in Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring for the Sustainment of Composite Aerospace Structures at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable both the use and sustainment of composites in commercial aircraft structures. One key to the sustainment of these large composite structures is the rapid, in-situ characterization of a wide range of potential defects that may occur during the vehicle's life. Additionally, in many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over their lifetime. Quantitative characterization through Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of defects such as reduced bond strength, microcracking, and delamination damage due to impact, are of particular interest. This paper will present an overview of NASA's applications of NDE technologies being developed for the characterization and sustainment of advanced aerospace composites. The approaches presented include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods and infrared thermography techniques for NDE. Finally, the use of simulation tools for optimizing and validating these techniques will also be discussed.

  13. Development of Substrate Structure CdTe Photovoltaic Devices with Performance Exceeding 10%: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; DeHart, C. M.; Li, J. V.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    Most work on CdTe-based solar cells has focused on devices with a superstrate structure. This focus is due to the early success of the superstrate structure in producing high-efficiency cells, problems of suitable ohmic contacts for lightly doped CdTe, and the simplicity of the structure for manufacturing. The development of the CdCl2 heat treatment boosted CdTe technology and perpetuated the use of the superstrate structure. However, despite the beneficial attributes of the superstrate structure, devices with a substrate structure are attractive both commercially and scientifically. The substrate structure eliminates the need for transparent superstrates and thus allows the use of flexible metal and possibly plastic substrates. From a scientific perspective, it allows better control in forming the junction and direct access to the junction for detailed analysis. Research on such devices has been limited. The efficiency of these devices has been limited to around 8% due to low open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor. In this paper, we present our recent device development efforts at NREL on substrate-structure CdTe devices. We have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. We have worked on a variety of contact materials including Cu-doped ZnTe and CuxTe. We will present a comparative analysis of the performance of these contacts. In addition, we have studied the influence of fabrication parameters on junction properties. We will present an overview of our development work, which has led to CdTe devices with Voc values of more than 860 mV and NREL-confirmed efficiencies approaching 11%.

  14. Development of a thermal and structural model for a NASTRAN finite-element analysis of a hypersonic wing test structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a thermal and structural model for a hypersonic wing test structure using the NASTRAN finite-element method as its primary analytical tool is described. A detailed analysis was defined to obtain the temperature and thermal stress distribution in the whole wing as well as the five upper and lower root panels. During the development of the models, it was found that the thermal application of NASTRAN and the VIEW program, used for the generation of the radiation exchange coefficients, were definicent. Although for most of these deficiencies solutions could be found, the existence of one particular deficiency in the current thermal model prevented the final computation of the temperature distributions. A SPAR analysis of a single bay of the wing, using data converted from the original NASTRAN model, indicates that local temperature-time distributions can be obtained with good agreement with the test data. The conversion of the NASTRAN thermal model into a SPAR model is recommended to meet the immediate goal of obtaining an accurate thermal stress distribution.

  15. An investigation of the development of the topological spatial structures in elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Susan Ann

    1999-09-01

    In this study the relationships among the topological spatial structures were examined in students in kindergarten, second, and fourth grades. These topological spatial structures are part of the three major types of spatial thinking: topological, projective, and Euclidean (as defined by Jean Piaget and associates). According to Piaget's model of spatial thinking, the spatial structures enable humans to think about spatial relationships at a conceptual or representational level rather than only at a simpler, perceptual level. The clinical interview technique was used to interact individually with 72 children to assess the presence of each of the different topological spatial structures. This was accomplished through the use of seven task protocols and simple objects which are familiar to young children. These task protocols allowed the investigator to interact with each child in a consistent manner. The results showed that most of the children in this study (97.2%) had not developed all of the topological spatial structures. The task scores, were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests due to the ordinal nature of the data. From the data the following results were obtained: (1) the spatial structures did not develop in random order based on the task scores but developed in the sequence expected from Piaget's model, (2) task performance improved with grade level with fourth grade students outperforming second graders and kindergartners on each of the seven tasks, and (3) no significant differences on task performance due to gender were found. Based on these results, young elementary children are beginning to develop topological spatial thinking. This is critical since it provides the foundation for the other types of spatial thinking, projective and Euclidean. Since spatial thinking is not a "gift" but can be developed, educators need to provide more opportunities for students to increase their level of spatial thinking since it is necessary for conceptual

  16. Nonlinear Time Domain Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) Deep Soil Site Methodology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, Robert Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Currently the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear industry perform seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis using equivalent linear numerical analysis tools. For lower levels of ground motion, these tools should produce reasonable in-structure response values for evaluation of existing and new facilities. For larger levels of ground motion these tools likely overestimate the in-structure response (and therefore structural demand) since they do not consider geometric nonlinearities (such as gaping and sliding between the soil and structure) and are limited in the ability to model nonlinear soil behavior. The current equivalent linear SSI (SASSI) analysis approach either joins the soil and structure together in both tension and compression or releases the soil from the structure for both tension and compression. It also makes linear approximations for material nonlinearities and generalizes energy absorption with viscous damping. This produces the potential for inaccurately establishing where the structural concerns exist and/or inaccurately establishing the amplitude of the in-structure responses. Seismic hazard curves at nuclear facilities have continued to increase over the years as more information has been developed on seismic sources (i.e. faults), additional information gathered on seismic events, and additional research performed to determine local site effects. Seismic hazard curves are used to develop design basis earthquakes (DBE) that are used to evaluate nuclear facility response. As the seismic hazard curves increase, the input ground motions (DBE’s) used to numerically evaluation nuclear facility response increase causing larger in-structure response. As ground motions increase so does the importance of including nonlinear effects in numerical SSI models. To include material nonlinearity in the soil and geometric nonlinearity using contact (gaping and sliding) it is necessary to develop a nonlinear time domain methodology. This

  17. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child relationship and family atmosphere on the intellectual develop- ment in comparison with its structure. Negative impact of attitudes on the severity, harsh- ness, acceleration the development of the child on the intellectual development is revealed. Influence of parents’ gender on intellectual development of children manifests in the lead- ing role of the father’s relationship in girls IQ results, and mother’s parental attitudes in boys IQ results. The authors of the article reveal the importance of the adequacy of the system of regulation and control, severity of requirements for the development of girls; lack of parental custody and adequacy to meet the needs — for the development of boys. The authors outline the significant role of preschool children perception, especially girls, of the emotional atmosphere in the family in their intellectual development. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-008480 «Family as a resource for mental development of children in stable and critical periods of ontogeny»

  18. Instrumentation development for magnetic and structural studies under extremes of pressure and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Giriat, Gaetan

    2012-01-01

    The study of the magnetic and structural properties of matter under extreme conditions is a fast developing field. With the emergence of new techniques and innovative instruments for measuring physical properties, the need for compatible pressure generating devices is constantly growing. The work described in this thesis is focused on development, construction and testing of several high pressure (HP) cells of novel design. One of the cells is intended for single crystal X-r...

  19. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DIMENSIONS ON FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    IONESCU ALIN; TUDOREANU PETRU

    2014-01-01

    Corporate governance represents a current topic for academic community and practitioners, in the context of globalization and crisis, especially in case of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which dimensions of corporate governance are able to exercise a significant impact on the companies’ financial structure, using a dataset with 77 developing countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. The data are provided from World Bank Ente...

  20. EVOLUTIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF MOUNTAIN TOURISM WITH IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    RODICA-MANUELA GOGONEA

    2014-01-01

    Following the global economic crisis, sustainable development of tourism in Romania, is still one of the main drivers of economic recovery mechanism. Treated in an integrating vision, sustainable tourism includes a wide range of matters affecting mountain tourism a basic shape of this area of activity. The study highlights the level of development and place of mountain tourism, among other forms of Romanian tourism through evolutionary and structural analysis of the number of ...

  1. Instrumentation development for magnetic and structural studies under extremes of pressure and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Giriat, Gaetan

    2012-01-01

    The study of the magnetic and structural properties of matter under extreme conditions is a fast developing field. With the emergence of new techniques and innovative instruments for measuring physical properties, the need for compatible pressure generating devices is constantly growing. The work described in this thesis is focused on development, construction and testing of several high pressure (HP) cells of novel design. One of the cells is intended for single crystal X-r...

  2. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DIMENSIONS ON FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU ALIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance represents a current topic for academic community and practitioners, in the context of globalization and crisis, especially in case of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which dimensions of corporate governance are able to exercise a significant impact on the companies’ financial structure, using a dataset with 77 developing countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. The data are provided from World Bank Enterprise Survey website and the variables are grouped in two directions: corporate governance and financial structure variables. In this regard, using principal components analysis approach, we grouped firstly the variables related to financial structure and then variables related to the main four dimensions of corporate governance, such as ownership structure and management quality, transparency, environment and corruption. The impact of corporate governance dimensions on companies’ financial structure was analyzed in a generalized linear model framework and the main result of this paper consists in the fact that, for analyzed countries, companies’ financial structure is significantly influenced by several dimensions of the governance like transparency, environment or corruption.

  3. Disposition of Human Resource Development Structure in Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Human Resource Development (HRD is rapidly gaining importance in manufacturing firms in Malaysia, as there are strong driving forces such as legal, financial and infrastructural support from the Government. This is because the Government believes that investment in human capital is key to the success of the country’s economy. However, this strategy may not be effective without the availability of a properly implemented HRD structure. Approach: The aim of this paper is to examine and report on the disposition of HRD structure in manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Its specific focus is the desirability and existence of separate HRD departments within organisations, as well as the size of these departments, the terms used to label them and the location of HRD within the organisational structure. This study employed a mixed-method concurrent research design, combining a questionnaire survey with personal interviews with HR managers from manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Results: The findings revealed that HRD in large firms is structurally strategically aligned, whereas small to medium firms are active in training and development and tend to focus on output rather than structure and strategy. Conclusion: Nevertheless, the findings of this study will enable employers to understand the importance of structure for the effective implementation of strategic HRD practice.

  4. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DIMENSIONS ON FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU ALIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance represents a current topic for academic community and practitioners, in the context of globalization and crisis, especially in case of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which dimensions of corporate governance are able to exercise a significant impact on the companies’ financial structure, using a dataset with 77 developing countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. The data are provided from World Bank Enterprise Survey website and the variables are grouped in two directions: corporate governance and financial structure variables. In this regard, using principal components analysis approach, we grouped firstly the variables related to financial structure and then variables related to the main four dimensions of corporate governance, such as ownership structure and management quality, transparency, environment and corruption. The impact of corporate governance dimensions on companies’ financial structure was analyzed in a generalized linear model framework and the main result of this paper consists in the fact that, for analyzed countries, companies’ financial structure is significantly influenced by several dimensions of the governance like transparency, environment or corruption

  5. Structural and biochemical basis for development of influenza virus inhibitors targeting the PA endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M DuBois

    Full Text Available Emerging influenza viruses are a serious threat to human health because of their pandemic potential. A promising target for the development of novel anti-influenza therapeutics is the PA protein, whose endonuclease activity is essential for viral replication. Translation of viral mRNAs by the host ribosome requires mRNA capping for recognition and binding, and the necessary mRNA caps are cleaved or "snatched" from host pre-mRNAs by the PA endonuclease. The structure-based development of inhibitors that target PA endonuclease is now possible with the recent crystal structure of the PA catalytic domain. In this study, we sought to understand the molecular mechanism of inhibition by several compounds that are known or predicted to block endonuclease-dependent polymerase activity. Using an in vitro endonuclease activity assay, we show that these compounds block the enzymatic activity of the isolated PA endonuclease domain. Using X-ray crystallography, we show how these inhibitors coordinate the two-metal endonuclease active site and engage the active site residues. Two structures also reveal an induced-fit mode of inhibitor binding. The structures allow a molecular understanding of the structure-activity relationship of several known influenza inhibitors and the mechanism of drug resistance by a PA mutation. Taken together, our data reveal new strategies for structure-based design and optimization of PA endonuclease inhibitors.

  6. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  7. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New

  8. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  9. Research and development of a digital design system for hull structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi-Ting; Ji, Zhuo-Shang; Liu, Yin-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Methods used for digital ship design were studied and formed the basis of a proposed frame model suitable for ship construction modeling. Based on 3-D modeling software, a digital design system for hull structures was developed. Basic software systems for modeling, modifying, and assembly simulation were developed. The system has good compatibility, and models created by it can be saved in different 3-D file formats, and 2D engineering drawings can be output directly. The model can be modified dynamically, overcoming the necessity of repeated modifications during hull structural design. Through operations such as model construction, intervention inspection, and collision detection, problems can be identified and modified during the hull structural design stage. Technologies for centralized control of the system, database management, and 3-D digital design are integrated into this digital model in the preliminary design stage of shipbuilding.

  10. The Structural Engineering Strategy for Photonic Material Research and Device Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structural engineering strategy is introduced for optimizing the fabrication of arrayed nanorod materials, optimizing superlattice structures for realizing a strong coupling, and directly developing nanophotonic devices. The strategy can be regarded as “combinatorial” because of the high efficiency in optimizing structures. In this article, this strategy was applied to grow ZnO nanorod arrays, and to develop a new multifunctional photodetector using such nanorod arrays, which is able to simultaneously detect power, energy, and polarization of an incident ultraviolet radiation. The strategy was also used to study the extraordinary dielectric behavior of relaxor ferroelectric lead titanate doped lead magnesium niobate heterophase superlattices in the terahertz frequencies, in order to investigate their dielectric polariton physics and the potential to be integrated with tunable surface resonant plasmonics devices.

  11. Development of paint area estimation software for ship compartments and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Yeoun Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The painting process of large ships is an intense manual operation that typically comprises 9–12% of the total shipbuilding cost. Accordingly, shipbuilders need to estimate the required amount of anti-corrosive coatings and painting resources for inventory and cost control. This study aims to develop a software system which enables the shipbuilders to estimate paint area using existing 3D CAD ship structural models. The geometric information of the ships structure are extracted from the existing shipbuilding CAD/CAM system and used to create painting zones. After specifying the painting zones, users can generate the paint faces by clipping structural parts inside each zone. Finally, the paint resources may be obtained from the product of the paint areas and required paint thickness. Implementing the developed software system to real shipbuilders' operations has contributed to improved productivity, faster resource estimation, better accuracy, and fewer coating defects over their conventional manual calculation methods for painting resource estimation.

  12. Research and development of a digital design system for hull structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yi-ting; JI Zhuo-shang; LIU Yin-dong

    2007-01-01

    Methods used for digital ship design were studied and formed the basis of a proposed frame model suitable for ship construction modeling. Based on 3-D modeling software, a digital design system for hull structures was developed. Basic software systems for modeling, modifying, and assembly simulation were developed. The system has good compatibility, and models created by it can be saved indifferent 3-D file formats, and 2D engineering drawings can be output directly. The model can be modified dynamically, overcoming the necessity of repeated modifications during hull structural design.Through operations such as model construction, intervention inspection, and collision detection,problems can be identified and modified during the hull structural design stage. Technologies for centralized control of the system, database management, and 3-D digital design are integrated into this digital model in the preliminary design stage of shipbuilding.

  13. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  14. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  15. Multiple roles of biosurfactants in structural biofilm development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    . aeruginosa rhl4 mutants were defective in migration-dependent development of mushroom-shaped multicellular structures in the later phase of biofilm formation. Experiments involving three-color-coded mixed-strain P. aeruginosa biofilms demonstrated that the wild-type and rhl4 and pil4 mutant strains formed...

  16. An Exchange Structure Analysis of the Development of Online Intercultural Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitade, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Internet-mediated intercultural discussions have been adopted for intercultural and second-language learning. However, the notion of community development in this context has received less attention. This study employs exchange structure (ES) analysis (Stubbs, M. (1983). "Discourse analysis." Oxford: Basil Blackwell) to investigate the dialogic…

  17. Regional, spatial and environmental indicators for an assessment of regional development, structure and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of adopting regional, spatial and environmental data, indicators and criteria for the assessment of regional structure, potentials and development within the context of regional and spatial planning. The proposal of the system of indicators is presented on the basis of the CONSPACE project.

  18. Regional, spatial and environmental indicators for an assessment of regional development, structure and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article brings theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of adopting regional, spatial and environmental data, indicators and criteria for the assessment of regional structure, potentials and development within the context of regional and spatial planning. The proposal of the system of indicators is presented on the basis of the CONSPACE project.

  19. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  20. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  1. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  2. The Contribution of Family Structure and Differentiation to Identity Development in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosa, Linda M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Relationships among S. Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development were studied with 164 female undergraduates. Factor analysis of results from measures of ego identity support Minuchin's model and provide a framework for understanding individuation in the adolescent female. (SLD)

  3. Development of novel repellents using structure-activity modeling of compounds in the USDA archival database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. Repellency and toxicity data for over 30,000 compounds are contained within the USDA archive. Repellency data from subsets of similarly structured compounds were used to dev...

  4. Developing a Structured Teaching Plan for Psychiatry Tutors at Oxford University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taiar, Hasanen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…

  5. Classroom Structuration and the Development of Social Representations of the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Duveen, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    The study drew on Bernstein's theory and Moscovici's theory of Social Representations to investigate how children in classrooms with different types of structuration developed social representation of the curriculum. Comparable case studies were carried out in schools chosen to reflect three types of pedagogy according to Bernstein's typology.…

  6. Developing Teachers' Knowledge of Students as Learners of Mathematics through Structured Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Oliver F.

    2010-01-01

    A structured interview process is proffered as an effective means to advance prospective teachers' understandings of students as learners of mathematics, a key component of pedagogical content knowledge. The interview process is carried out in three phases with the primary objective of developing listening skills for accessing students'…

  7. The Impact of Development Office Structure on Fund-Raising Efficiency for Research and Doctoral Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Stephen D.

    1995-01-01

    Based on survey data from 70 universities, this study concludes that differences in the organizational structure of development offices have no significant effect on fund-raising efficiency. However, because decentralized offices may be able to expand their activities more rapidly than centralized programs, decentralization may facilitate overall…

  8. Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor Interaction Structure and Its Relation to Elementary Preservice Mathematics Teacher Knowledge Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Roxanne V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a…

  9. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  10. Factorial temperament structure in stuttering, voice-disordered, and typically developing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying temperamental structure of the Dutch Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; B. Van den Bergh & M. Ackx, 2003) was identical for children who stutter (CWS), typically developing children (TDC), and children with vocal nodules

  11. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  12. The changing industry structure of software development for consumer electronics and its consequences for software architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Herman; Trew, Tim; Bosch, Jan

    During the last decade the structure of the consumer electronics industry has been changing profoundly. Current consumer electronics products are built using components from a large variety of specialized firms, whereas previously each product was developed by a single, vertically integrated

  13. Theoretical Borderlands: Using Multiple Theoretical Perspectives to Challenge Inequitable Power Structures in Student Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abes, Elisa S.

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of possibilities and methodological considerations for using multiple theoretical perspectives in research that challenges inequitable power structures in student development theory. Specifically, I explore methodological considerations when partnering queer theory and constructivism in research on lesbian identity…

  14. Factorial Temperament Structure in Stuttering, Voice-Disordered, and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying temperamental structure of the Dutch Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; B. Van den Bergh & M. Ackx, 2003) was identical for children who stutter (CWS), typically developing children (TDC), and children with vocal nodules (CWVN). Method: A principal axis factor…

  15. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordance...

  16. Student Oriented Approaches in the Teaching of Thermodynamics at Universities--Developing an Effective Course Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply current pedagogical research in order to develop an effective course and exercise structure for a physical chemistry thermodynamics course intended for second or third year university students of chemistry. A mixed-method approach was used to measure the impact the changes had on student learning. In its final…

  17. Classroom Structuration and the Development of Social Representations of the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Duveen, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    The study drew on Bernstein's theory and Moscovici's theory of Social Representations to investigate how children in classrooms with different types of structuration developed social representation of the curriculum. Comparable case studies were carried out in schools chosen to reflect three types of pedagogy according to Bernstein's typology.…

  18. New Developments in Structural Health Monitoring Based on Diagnostic Lamb Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenfang YUAN; Yingdi XU; Ge PENG

    2004-01-01

    Structure health monitoring based on diagnostic Lamb waves has been found to be one of the most promising techniques recently. This paper has a brief review of the new developments on this method including the basic novel of the method, fundamentals and mathematics of Lamb wave propagation, narrowband and wideband Lamb wave excitation methods, optimization of excitation factors and diagnostic Lamb wave interpretation methods.

  19. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  20. Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, W.; Li, X.; Choi, S.R.; Dhandapani, V.; Im, S.; Park, M.Y.; Jang, C.S.; Yang, M.S.; Ham, I.K.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, W.; Lee, S.S.; Bonnema, A.B.; Park, S.; Piao, Z.; Lim, Y.P.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy

  1. Tool developments for structure-function studies of host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangshun

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or host defense peptides, are universal signaling and effector molecules in host defense and innate immunity. This article highlights various tools developed for cathelicidins and defensins, ranging from peptide identification, production, and structural biology, including the eight databases for antimicrobial peptides. Novel peptides can be identified from natural sources at both gene and protein levels. Solid-phase synthesis and bacterial expression are the two important methods for peptide production. Three-dimensional structures of antimicrobial peptides, primarily determined by solution NMR techniques, are essential for an in-depth understanding of the mode of action. The introduction of octanoyl phosphatidylglycerol as a bacterial membrane-mimetic model provides new insights into peptide-lipid interactions. The incorporation of structure and activity data into the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html) will lead to an integrated understanding of these peptides via structural bioinformatics.

  2. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria.

  3. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyaz, Md. Kausar; Ikramul Hasan, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria. PMID:25580350

  4. Development of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical double structure model for expansive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašín David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, development of a thermo-hydro-mechanical model for expansive soils including double structure is described. The model is based on hypoplastic model by Mašín [6], in which the hydro-mechanical coupling is considered at each of the two structural levels. The model also includes separate effective stress definitions and water retention curves for the two levels of structure. In the proposed model, an approach by Mašín and Khalili [8] to include thermal effects into hypoplastic models is followed. This is combined with temperature-dependent water retention curve of macrostructure, temperature-induced deformation of microstructure and an enhanced double-structure coupling law. Good predictions of the model are demonstrated by comparing the model simulations with experimental data on MX80 bentonites taken over from literature.

  5. Developments of the neutron scattering analysis method for the determination of magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Je-Geun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Park, Jung Hwan; Kong, Ung Girl [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea); So, Ji Yong [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Neutron diffraction is up to now almost the only and very important experimental method of determining the magnetic structure of materials. Unlike the studies of crystallographic structure, however to use neutron diffraction for magnetic structure determination is not easily accessible to non-experts because of the complexity of magnetic group theory: which is very important in the magnetic structure analysis. With the recent development of computer code for magnetic group, it is now time to rethink of these difficulties. In this work, we have used the computer code of the magnetic group (Mody-2) and Fullprof refinement program in order to study the magnetic structure of YMnO{sub 3} and other interesting materials. YMnO{sub 3} forms in the hexagonal structure and show both ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic phase transitions. Since it was recently found that YMnO{sub 3} can be used as a nonvolatile memory device, there has been many numbers of applied research on this material. We used neutron diffraction to determine the magnetic structure, and, in particular, to investigate the correlation between the order parameters of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic phase transitions. From this study, we have demonstrated that with a proper use of the computer code of the magnetic group one can overcome most of difficulties arising from the magnetic group theory. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  7. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  8. Faculty development on professionalism and medical ethics: the design, development and implementation of Objective Structured Teaching Exercises (OSTEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Mylona, Elza; Lane, Susan; Wertheim, William A; Baldelli, Perrilynn; Williams, Peter C

    2014-10-01

    As students are expected to develop competency in professionalism and medical ethics, faculty are also expected to facilitate medical students' learning and understanding of these areas. One of the main challenges to success in this domain has been uncertainty of whether or not faculty know the content and the methods to teach and assess these competencies. We used the Objective Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE) format as a faculty development tool to train and evaluate faculty on how to teach professionalism and medical ethics to students in clinical settings. The process for the design, development and implementation of OSTEs consisted of five phases: (1) performing a literature review and student needs assessment, (2) developing the OSTE cases and performance checklists, (3) recruiting and training of standardized students, (4) conducting a mock training session and (5) organizing faculty development workshops using OSTEs. Twenty clinical faculty members participated in one of three half-day OSTE workshops offered. Faculty confidence and attitudes about teaching professionalism increased significantly (p teaching medical students, the information and skills they learned from the workshop are important to them as clinical educators, and that the information and skills will likely have an impact on the way they teach professionalism and ethics in the future.

  9. Development of magnetic fabric in sedimentary rocks: insights from early compactional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2013-07-01

    The timing of development of the magnetic fabric is a major issue in the application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a strain marker. Analysis of AMS in unconcealed synsedimentary structures can be a sound approximation to this task. In this work, three types of early compactional structures (ECS) were studied by means of AMS, since they can help to understand the timing of development of the magnetic fabric. All three types of ECS are found in fine-grained detrital rocks (to avoid other influences such as palaeocurrents), claystones and marls of the Enciso Group within the Cameros Basin (NE Spain): dinosaur footprints, load structures due to differential compaction and dish-and-flame structures associated with fluid migration related to seismites. In addition, to determine possible influences of lithology on the magnetic fabric, different rock types (siltstones and limestones) were also sampled. In general, the influence of ECS results in scattering of the three magnetic axes, higher at the margins of the structure than at its centre. This fact suggests that ECS occurs during the development of the magnetic fabric, disturbing the incipient magnetic fabric stages, and strongly conditions its later evolution during diagenesis. The later homogeneous compaction process due to sedimentary load and physicochemical processes reorient the susceptibility carriers to some extent (i.e. the magnetic fabric is still under development), but not totally, since AMS still records the previous scattering due to ECS imprint. For the Enciso Group deposits, the magnetic fabric begins to develop at the earliest stages after deposition and it stops when diagenetic processes have finished.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF LATTICE COMPOSITE FUSELAGE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice composite fuselage structures are developed as an alternative to conventional composite structures based on laminated skin and stiffeners. Structure layout of lattice structures allows to realize advantages of current composite materials to a maximal extent, at the same time minimizing their main shortcomings, that allows to provide higher weight efficiency for these structures in comparison with conventional analogues.Development and creation of lattice composite structures requires development of novel methods of strength anal- ysis, as conventional methods, as a rule, are aiming to strength analysis of thin-walled elements and do not allow to get confident estimation of local strength of high-loaded unidirectional composite ribs.In the present work the method of operative strength analysis of lattice composite structure is presented, based onspecialized FE-models of unidirectional composite ribs and their intersections. In the frames of the method, every rib is modeled by a caisson structure, consisting of arbitrary number of flanges and webs, modeled by membrane finite elements. Parameters of flanges and webs are calculated automatically from the condition of stiffness characteristics equality of real rib and the model. This method allows to perform local strength analysis of high-loaded ribs of lattice structure without use of here-dimensional finite elements, that allows to shorten time of calculations and sufficiently simplify the procedure of analysis of results of calculations.For validation of the suggested method, the results of experimental investigations of full-scale prototype of shell of lattice composite fuselage section have been used. The prototype of the lattice section was manufactured in CRISM and tested in TsAGI within the frames of a number of Russian and International scientific projects. The results of validation have shown that the suggested method allows to provide high operability of strength analysis, keeping

  11. Development and structure of hawthorn seeds (Crataegus L. from species occurring in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, internal and external structure of seeds of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., C. curvisepala Lindm., C. lindmannii Hrabĕt-Uhr., C. oxyacantha L. em. Jacq., C. palmstruchii Lindm., C. macrocarpa Hegetsch were investigated. It was found that the embryo development is specific, and the development of endosperm precedes that of the embryo. In mature seeds of the examined species endosperm is present under the seed coat and the embryo with large cotyledones and radicle is completely immersed in it. The external appearance of the seeds of particular species differs, and on this basis their specific appurtenance may be determined.

  12. Development of a Conceptual Structure for a Domain-Specific Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Shams, Rushdi

    2012-01-01

    The corpus reported in this paper was developed for the evaluation of a domain-specific Text to Knowledge Mapping (TKM) prototype. The TKM prototype operates on the basis of both a combinatory categorical grammar (CCG) linguistic model and a knowledge model that consists of three layers: ontology, qualitative and quantitative layers. In the course of this evaluation it was necessary to populate these initial models with lexical items and semantic relations. Both elements, the lexicon and semantic relations, are meant to reflect the domain of the prototype; hence both had to be extracted from the corpus. While dealing with the lexicon was straight forward, the identification and extraction of appropriate semantic relations was much more involved. It was necessary, therefore, to manually develop a conceptual structure for the domain which was then used to formulate a domain-specific framework of semantic relations. The conceptual structure was developed using the Cmap tool of IHMC. The framework of semantic rel...

  13. Structural MRI of pediatric brain development: what have we learned and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L

    2010-09-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows unprecedented access to the anatomy and physiology of the developing brain without the use of ionizing radiation. Over the past two decades, thousands of brain MRI scans from healthy youth and those with neuropsychiatric illness have been acquired and analyzed with respect to diagnosis, sex, genetics, and/or psychological variables such as IQ. Initial reports comparing size differences of various brain components averaged across large age spans have given rise to longitudinal studies examining trajectories of development over time and evaluations of neural circuitry as opposed to structures in isolation. Although MRI is still not of routine diagnostic utility for evaluation of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders, patterns of typical versus atypical development have emerged that may elucidate pathologic mechanisms and suggest targets for intervention. In this review we summarize general contributions of structural MRI to our understanding of neurodevelopment in health and illness.

  14. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iassen Halatchliyski

    Full Text Available Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  15. Structural Change and Income Inequality – Agricultural Development and Inter-sectoral Dualism in the Developing World, 1960-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Andersson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural change consists of the long-term changes in the sectoral composition of output and employment. We introduce a structural change perspective to the study of income inequality in 27 countries of the developing world for the period 1960-2010. The service sector has become the main employer, but the agricultural sector is central to the income distribution because poverty is mostly rural, and the labor surplus is high. We decompose the sectoral composition of aggregate labor productivity at the country level, divide the countries into agrarian, dual (beginner, intermediate and advanced, and mature economies and use the inter-sectoral productivity gap to test the effect of structural change on income inequality. We confirm increases in agricultural productivity everywhere and find that the inter-sectoral gap is positively associated with income inequality. The effect is negligible in agrarian and advanced economies but powerful in dual beginner economies: an increase of 1% in the inter-sectoral gap increases income inequality by 0.5%. The effect peters out in dual intermediate economies and disappears completely in dual advanced economies. Finally, redistribution has been the key to compensating the losers in the income changes, particularly for those entering the non-agricultural economy.

  16. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Theodore M; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2011-10-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant’s structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes.

  17. A Methoology for Development of Software Composite—Metrics for Program Control—Flow Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AftabAhmad

    1992-01-01

    is paper reports on a pioneer effort for the establishment of a software compostie-metric with key capability of distinguishing among different structrues.As a part of this effort most of the previously proposed program control-flow complexity metrics are evaluated.It is obseved that most of these metrics are inhrently limited in distinguishing capability.However,the concept of composite metrics in potentially useful for the development of a practical metrics.This paper presents a methology for the development of a practical composite metric using statistical techniques.The proposed metric differs from all previous metrics in 2 ways:(1)It is based on an overall structural analysis of a given program in deeper and broader context.It captures various structural measurements taken from all existing structural levels;(2)It unifies a set of 19 important structural metrics.The compositing model of these metrics in based on statistical techniques rather than on an arbitrary method.Experinces with the proposd metric clearly indicate that it distinguishes different structures better than the previous metrics.

  18. Development of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge of Grammatical Structures in Chinese EFL Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN LI; XIAOQING QIN

    2014-01-01

    Although the theoretical distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language has long been recognized , minimal documented description exists of the development of the two types of knowledge in L2 learners due to the difficulty in finding separate measures of the two types . To address this gap , this study first investigated the construct validity of the four tests developed by R . Ellis ( 2005 ) intended to distinguish between the two knowledge types: an oral imitation test , a timed grammaticality judgment test ( GJT ) , an untimed GJT and a metalinguistic knowledge test . The four tests , all examining 17 English grammatical structures , were administered to 88 native speakers of Chinese studying English as their major at the first three year levels in a Chinese university . The results from a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the two‐factor solution for the implicit/explicit model proposed in R . Ellis (2005 ) . Repeated measures ANOVA was then used to reveal developmental trends of the two knowledge types in the EFL learners across the three year levels . The results showed that learners at higher year level ( or higher proficiency level ) generally had higher level of both implicit and explicit knowledge of grammatical structures , and overall , the Chinese EFL learners possessed higher level of explicit knowledge than implicit knowledge . With regard to individual grammatical structures , the results of this study confirmed R . Ellis�(2006b) finding that the level of difficulty of grammatical structures varied according to whether it was implicit or explicit knowledge of the structures involved .

  19. Polymeric Inverse Glasses for Development of Noniridescent Structural Colors in Full Visible Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Ho; Sim, Jae Young; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Amorphous colloidal array with short-range order displays noniridescent structural colors due to the isotropic nature of the colloidal arrangement. The low angle dependence renders the colloidal glasses, which is promising for various coloration applications. Nevertheless, the colloidal glasses are difficult to develop red structural color due to strong cavity-like resonance from individual particles in the blue region. To suppress the cavity mode and develop the colors in the full visible range, we prepare inverse glasses composed of amorphous array of air cavities with short-range order. To produce the structures in a simple and reproducible manner, monodisperse silica particles are dispersed in a photocurable resin of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) at a volume fraction of 0.3. The particles spontaneously form the amorphous array with short-range order, which is rapidly captured in polymeric films by photopolymerization of the resin. Selective removal of silica particles from the polymerized resin leaves behind amorphous array of air cavities. The inverse glasses display structural colors with negligible backscattering in blue due to short optical path and low index in each cavity. Therefore, the colors can be tuned in full visible range by simply controlling the cavity size. The photocurable suspensions of silica particles can be patterned by photolithography, which enables the production of freestanding films containing patterned inverse glasses with noniridescent structural colors.

  20. Development of structural health monitoring and early warning system for reinforced concrete system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranata, Data, E-mail: iranata-data@yahoo.com, E-mail: data@ce.its.ac.id; Wahyuni, Endah [Civil Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia); Murtiadi, Suryawan [Civil Engineering Department, Universitas Mataram, Mataram 83125 (Indonesia); Widodo, Amien [Geophysical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia); Riksakomara, Edwin; Sani, Nisfu Asrul [Information Systems Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Many buildings have been damaged due to earthquakes that occurred recently in Indonesia. The main cause of the damage is the large deformation of the building structural component cannot accommodate properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) to measure precisely the deformation of the building structural component in the real time conditions. This paper presents the development of SHMS for reinforced concrete structural system. This monitoring system is based on deformation component such as strain of reinforcement bar, concrete strain, and displacement of reinforced concrete component. Since the deformation component has exceeded the limit value, the warning message can be sent to the building occupies. This warning message has also can be performed as early warning system of the reinforced concrete structural system. The warning message can also be sent via Short Message Service (SMS) through the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network. Hence, the SHMS should be integrated with internet modem to connect with GSM network. Additionally, the SHMS program is verified with experimental study of simply supported reinforced concrete beam. Verification results show that the SHMS has good agreement with experimental results.

  1. Crustal structure and development of the SW Barents Sea and the adjacent continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Asbjoern Johan

    1998-12-31

    Because of its expected petroleum potential, the western Barents Sea has been extensively mapped and investigated. The present thesis deals with many aspects of the geological development of this area. The emphasis is on Late Paleozoic structuring, Late Mesozoic basin formation, and early Tertiary margin formation including geodynamical response to the late Cenozoic sedimentation. The thesis begins with a review of the literature on the Late Palaeozoic structural development of the south-western Barents Sea, Svalbard and eastern Greenland. A structural map is developed for the Upper Carboniferous rift system in the southwestern Barents Sea that shows the interference of the northeasterly and the northerly structural grain. A discussion of the Ottar Basin uses a combination of seismic interpretation and gravity modelling to investigate this important structural element of the Upper Palaeozoic rift system. Previous work on Late Mesozoic basin formation in the southwestern Barents Sea is extended by incorporating new seismic reflection data and gravity modelling. Finally, the focus is shifted from the Barents Sea shelf to the continental-ocean transition and the oceanic basin. Gridded free-air gravity data from the ERS-1 enables the construction of a Bouguer gravity map of unprecedented resolution. The relationship between isostacy and gravity was resolved by modelling the thermal structure across the margin. Admittance analysis of the relationship between bathymetry and free-air gravity indicates an elastic thickness of the oceanic Lithosphere of 15-20 km, which is compatible with the depth to the 450{sup o}C isotherm obtained from thermal modelling. It is concluded that the southwestern Barents Sea margin does not deviate in any significant respects from passive rifted margins, except for a very straight and narrow continent-ocean transition zone. 332 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Impediments to the structural development of South African maritime supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Fourie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the South African economy relies heavily on earnings from physical exports, which depend increasingly on the competitiveness in global markets of the maritime supply chains that serve the country. World best practice requires that those chains should function as entities structured to serve their logistical purpose, while the development of such structured chains requires chain leadership. Transnet fulfils a prominent role in South Africa’s maritime supply chains, but that role, in accordance with the declared policy of the Government, constitutes an impediment to restructuring the chains as competing entities under private leadership. The solution may be found in leadership by public-private partnerships.

  3. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  4. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  5. Recent Developments in Doping and Structural Modification of Ceria-Based Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Changgen; Fan Guodong

    2005-01-01

    Recent development in the modification of ceria-based catalysts for exhaust gas treatment was reviewed with the dependence of redox properties on structural characters of materials. The doping of ceria with different cations such as rare earth or transition metal oxides results in improvement of structural stability, catalytic function and resistance to sintering at high temperatures. Aging and reduction treatment at high temperatures promote ceria reduction and is beneficial for oxygen storage capacity of the three-way catalysts. Chemical filing technique is very effective in modifying the redox property in the low temperature regions.

  6. Ultra-Structural Changes of the Early Childhood Caries Starting Phases of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent 20 years, besides dramatic reduction of caries in many countries where complex programme of prevention is carried out, prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC has expressed continual growth trend. The aim of our research was to determine precisely ultra-structural changes in the enamel substance at the initial lesion of the ECC (white spot lesion, as initial change of great importance for its preventive aspect. Therefore, we directed our experiment to evaluate ultra-structural changes of the teeth enamel in primary teeth with circular caries in its opening stages of development: initial caries lesion and superficial form.

  7. Development of diffractive antireflection structures on ZnSe for high power CO II laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reversat, Fabien; Berthou, Thierry; Tisserand, Stéphane; Dupuy, Lionel; Gautier, Sophie; Muys, Peter; Delbeke, Danae; Grojo, David; Laraichi, Mohammed; Delaporte, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The unavoidable absorption of thin films used in antireflective coatings forms a permanent bottleneck in the development of optics for high power laser applications. A valid alternative would be the micro-structuring of the optics surface, realizing a diffraction grating which emulates the functioning of an Anti-Reflection thin film layer. Due to the absence of film material, this diffractive structure would not contribute to the overall absorption of the optics. This paper investigates the practical limits of this strategy, applied to zinc selenide as low absorption infrared substrate material.

  8. [Vestigial structures are important to the development of the human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido

    2011-07-01

    Vestigial structures are homologous of organs that have lost all or most of their original function in a species through evolution. Atavism is the recurrence of a trait after an absence of one or more generations due to a chance recombination of genes. The genome contains genes that were active in the past, but are no longer active. Those genes exist in all flora and fauna. Some of these disappear during embryonic development, but others are retained in adult Life. Those structures are sometimes the result of an intrauterine 'evolutionary' process.

  9. M-FILE FOR MIX DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USING DEVELOPED MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABDULLAHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An m-file for mix design of structural lightweight concrete is presented. Mix design of structural lightweight concrete is conducted using guide in the standards. This may be tasking involving reading and understanding of the relevant standards. This renders the process inefficient and liable to errors in computations. A computer approach to mix design will alleviate this problem. An m-file was developed in MATLAB environment for the concrete mix design. The m-file has been tested and has proved to be efficient in computing the mix composition for the first trial batch of lightweight concrete mixes. It can also perform concrete mixture proportioning adjustment.

  10. Further Development of Ko Displacement Theory for Deformed Shape Predictions of Nonuniform Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2009-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory previously formulated for deformed shape predictions of nonuniform beam structures is further developed mathematically. The further-developed displacement equations are expressed explicitly in terms of geometrical parameters of the beam and bending strains at equally spaced strain-sensing stations along the multiplexed fiber-optic sensor line installed on the bottom surface of the beam. The bending strain data can then be input into the displacement equations for calculations of local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles for generating the overall deformed shapes of the nonuniform beam. The further-developed displacement theory can also be applied to the deformed shape predictions of nonuniform two-point supported beams, nonuniform panels, nonuniform aircraft wings and fuselages, and so forth. The high degree of accuracy of the further-developed displacement theory for nonuniform beams is validated by finite-element analysis of various nonuniform beam structures. Such structures include tapered tubular beams, depth-tapered unswept and swept wing boxes, width-tapered wing boxes, and double-tapered wing boxes, all under combined bending and torsional loads. The Ko displacement theory, combined with the fiber-optic strain-sensing system, provide a powerful tool for in-flight deformed shape monitoring of unmanned aerospace vehicles by ground-based pilots to maintain safe flights.

  11. Developing and supporting coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Mentoring is considered to be such an important contributor to accelerated people development in South Africa that structured mentoring schemes are often used by organisations. There are at present few sources of development and support for coordinators of such schemes.Research purpose: The aim of this research is to discover what the characteristics of coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa are, what is required of such coordinators and how they feel about their role, with a view to improving development and support for them.Motivation for the study: The limited amount of information about role requirements for coordinators which is available in the literature is not based on empirical research. This study aims to supply the empirical basis for improved development and support for coordinators.Research design and method: A purposive sample of 25 schemes was identified and both quantitative and qualitative data, obtained through questionnaires and interviews, were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.Main findings: Functions of coordinators tend to be similar across different types of mentoring schemes. A passion for mentoring is important, as the role involves many frustrations. There is little formalised development and support for coordinators.Practical/managerial implications: The study clarifies the functions of the coordinator, offers a job description and profile and makes suggestions on how to improve the development of the coordinator’s skills.Contribution/value-add: An understanding of what is required from a coordinator, how the necessary knowledge and skills can be developed and how the coordinator can be supported,adds value to an organisation setting up or reviewing its structured mentoring schemes.

  12. Development status and research directions on the structural components of the fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Nam; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Bang, Jae Keon

    1997-06-01

    Survey on the structural components of the state-of-the art of the PWR fuel assembly developed by various nuclear fuel vendors has been performed. As a result, some developmental directions and mechanical/structural basic technology to be established for these structural components have been drawn out. The developmental directions are as follows; The top end piece shall be designed in shape to reduce its height to accommodate the fuel rod growth for high burnup and to have a function for easy reconstitution of the fuel assembly. The bottom end piece shall be designed in shape to reduce its height to accommodate the fuel rod growth for high burnup and to have a function for easy reconstitution of the fuel assembly. The bottom end piece shall be designed in shape to reduce its height to accommodate the fuel rod growth for high burnup and to have a function of debris protection. The spacer grid shall be designed in shape to have a function of enhancing the thermal margin and maintaining the fuel rod integrity without fuel failure due to fuel rod fretting and vibration. The mechanical/structural basic technology which must be established is as follows; The stress analysis results shall comply with the stress criteria specified in the ASME code stress limits and the shape optimization technology shall be developed for the top/bottom end pieces. For the spacer grid cell, the nonlinear analysis model of the fuel rod and the analysis model on the flow-induced fuel rod vibration, and a study of the mechanism and a quantified model on the fuel rod fretting wear shall be developed. In addition, numerical analysis model to estimate the buckling strength of the spacer grid assembly shall be developed. Besides above technology, technology related the verification test should be developed. (author). 30 figs., 54 refs.

  13. Coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures: early interactions in the Drosophila leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    cedric esoler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localisation of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes.

  14. Methods and considerations for longitudinal structural brain imaging analysis across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has allowed the unprecedented capability to measure the human brain in vivo. This technique has paved the way for longitudinal studies exploring brain changes across the entire life span. Results from these studies have given us a glimpse into the remarkably extended and multifaceted development of our brain, converging with evidence from anatomical and histological studies. Ever-evolving techniques and analytical methods provide new avenues to explore and questions to consider, requiring researchers to balance excitement with caution. This review addresses what MRI studies of structural brain development in children and adolescents typically measure and how. We focus on measurements of brain morphometry (e.g., volume, cortical thickness, surface area, folding patterns, as well as measurements derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. By integrating finding from multiple longitudinal investigations, we give an update on current knowledge of structural brain development and how it relates to other aspects of biological development and possible underlying physiological mechanisms. Further, we review and discuss current strategies in image processing, analysis techniques and modeling of brain development. We hope this review will aid current and future longitudinal investigations of brain development, as well as evoke a discussion amongst researchers regarding best practices.

  15. Development of a flow structure interaction methodology applicable to a convertible car roof

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, J J

    2003-01-01

    The current research investigates the flow-induced deformation of a convertible roof of a vehicle using experimental and numerical methods. A computational methodology is developed that entails the coupling of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with an in-house structural code. A model two-dimensional problem is first studied. The CFD code and a Source Panel Method (SPM) code are used to predict the pressure acting on the surface of a rigid roof of a scale model. Good agreement is found between predicted pressure distribution and that obtained in a parallel wind-tunnel experimental programme. The validated computational modelling of the fluid flow is then used in a coupling strategy with a line-element structural model that incorporates initial slackness of the flexible roof material. The computed flow-structure interaction yields stable solutions, the aerodynamically loaded flexible roof settling into static equilibrium. The effects of slackness and material properties on deformation and co...

  16. Beyond dichotomies-(m)others' structuring and the development of toddlers' prosocial behavior across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha

    2017-08-05

    Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring. The experiences that toddlers make in these social interactions have important implications for how the basic elements of prosociality are refined and further develop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron beam applications; technical development for thermodynamic and structural properties of micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Chul; Suh, Song Hyuck; Min, Yoong Ki; Ahn, Eun Ju [Andong National University, Andong (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Two non-ionic surfactants, which are the non-ionic surfactants with the polydisperse properties and non-ionic surfactant with the ellipsoidal structure, and which were measured by the small-angle neutron scattering installed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute have been analyzed by using the IGOR Program code. Through the analysis of the SANS data, the strengths and weaknesses of the IGOR program code have been tested in details. To reinforce the IGOR program, the computer programs which are based on the Percus-Yevick, hypernetted-chain, Rogers-Young, and density functional approximation have been developed for the model micelles, and their results have been compared with the computer simulations. It is expected that this study would be applied to study the thermodynamic and structural properties of polymers with the complex structure. 22 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  18. Development of a truss joint for robotic assembly of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed study of mechanical fasteners which were designed to facilitate robotic assembly of structures. Design requirements for robotic structural assembly were developed, taking into account structural properties and overall system design, and four candidate fasteners were designed to meet them. These fasteners were built and evaluated in the laboratory, and the Hammer-Head joint was chosen as superior overall. It had a high reliability of fastening under misalignments of 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and 3 deg, the highest end fixity (2.18), the simplest end effector, an integral capture guide, good visual verification, and the lightest weight (782 g, 1.72 lb). The study found that a good design should incorporate chamfers sliding on chamfers, cylinders sliding on chamfers, and hard surface finishes on sliding surfaces. The study also comments on robot flexibility, sag, hysteresis, thermal expansion, and friction which were observed during the testing.

  19. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Techniques with Continuous Parameters to Detect Structural Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several earthquakes with strong magnitude occurred globally at various locations, especially the unforgettable tsunami disaster caused by the earthquake in Indonesia and Japan. If the characteristics of structures can be well understood to implement new technology, the damages caused by most natural disasters can be significantly alleviated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method for using continuous parameter is applied for developing a low-cost digital image correlation coefficient method with advanced digital cameras and high-speed computers. The experimental study using cantilever test object with defect control confirms that the vibration mode calculated using this proposed method can highly express the defect locations. This proposed method combined with the sensitivity of Inter-Story Drift Mode Shape, IDMS, can also reveal the damage degree of damage structure. These test and analysis results indicate that this proposed method is high enough for applying to achieve the object of real-time online monitoring of structure.

  20. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  1. Lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I Structure: Insights into HDL Formation and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I is the major protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays an important role during the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Knowledge of the high-resolution structure of full-length apoA-I is vital for a molecular understanding of the function of HDL at the various steps of the RCT pathway. Due to the flexible nature of apoA-I and aggregation properties, the structure of full-length lipid-free apoA-I has evaded description for over three decades. Sequence analysis of apoA-I suggested that the amphipathic α-helix is the structural motif of exchangeable apolipoprotein, and NMR, X-ray and MD simulation studies have confirmed this. Different laboratories have used different methods to probe the secondary structure distribution and organization of both the lipid-free and lipid-bound apoA-I structure. Mutation analysis, synthetic peptide models, surface chemistry and crystal structures have converged on the lipid-free apoA-I domain structure and function: the N-terminal domain [1–184] forms a helix bundle while the C-terminal domain [185–243] mostly lacks defined structure and is responsible for initiating lipid-binding, aggregation and is also involved in cholesterol efflux. The first 43 residues of apoA-I are essential to stabilize the lipid-free structure. In addition, the crystal structure of C-terminally truncated apoA-I suggests a monomer-dimer conversation mechanism mediated through helix 5 reorganization and dimerization during the formation of HDL. Based on previous research, we have proposed a structural model for full-length monomeric apoA-I in solution and updated the HDL formation mechanism through three intermediate states. Mapping the known natural mutations on the full-length monomeric apoA-I model provides insight into atherosclerosis development through disruption of the N-terminal helix bundle or deletion of the C-terminal lipid-binding domain. PMID:26048453

  2. APPROACHES DEVELOPMENT TO FORMALIZED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCIPLINARY COMPETENCE OF TESTABLE COMPONENT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim L. Kon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is a development of approaches and recommendations on the selection of quantitative and qualitative component structure of disciplinary competencies, as well as ways of its formal description. One of the main problems, which it is necessary to decide while developing a studying and methodical discipline complex (for example, a discipline program, a fund of estimation tools, etc. of competence-oriented educational program, is designing of a component structure of each part of competence (a disciplinary competence, that is involved in the formation of the discipline. In this case, a significant impact on this process has not only the content of thematic plan and selected kinds of class and self works of students, but proposed control tools and diagnosing methods of learning outcomes specified in the competency format. Methods. It is proposed to use joint (testable design component structure of disciplinary competencies and control tools (tests, test materials, check the level of development of their constituent elements described in the triad of «to know», «to be able to», «to master». Requirements to the basic quantitative and qualitative properties of disciplinary competence component structure are formulated and substantiated. A structure of diagnostic table that makes it possible to set a correspondence between disciplinary competence elements and components and their control tests, and also to fix outcomes of current control of development level (test reactions in the binary and not binary alphabets is proposed and analyzed. A classification of diagnostic tests is given; their impact on format and properties of diagnostic table is shown. Scientific novelty. The approach to designing of a testable component structure of disciplinary competence is proposed; it allows setting some properties of control object, which can increase procedure effective and decoding precision of diagnosis of learning outcomes

  3. Development of dual PZT transducers for reference-free crack detection in thin plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon; Kim, Seuno Bum

    2010-01-01

    A new Lamb-wave-based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique, which does not rely on previously stored baseline data, is developed for crack monitoring in plate structures. Commonly, the presence of damage is identified by comparing "current data" measured from a potentially damaged stage of a structure with "baseline data" previously obtained at the intact condition of the structure. In practice, structural defects typically take place long after collection of the baseline data, and the baseline data can be also affected by external loading, temperature variations, and changing boundary conditions. To eliminate the dependence on the baseline data comparison, the authors previously developed a reference-free NDT technique using 2 pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers placed on both sides of a plate. This reference-free technique is further advanced in the present study by the necessity of attaching transducers only on a single surface of a structure for certain applications such as aircraft. To achieve this goal, a new design of PZT transducers called dual PZT transducers is proposed. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden thickness change of the structure. This crack appearance is instantly detected from the measured Lamb wave signals using the dual PZT transducers. This study also suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the currently measured data set. Numerical simulations and experiments were conducted using an aluminum plate with uniform thickness and fundamental Lamb waves modes to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to reference-free crack detection.

  4. Development of an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection method for impact damage detection in composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, M.; Kim, H. E.; Lanza di Scalea, F.; Kim, H.

    2017-04-01

    High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact (HEWABI) due to ground service equipment can often occur in aircraft structures causing major damages. These Wide Area Impact Damages (WAID) can affect the internal components of the structure, hence are usually not visible nor detectable by typical one-sided NDE techniques and can easily compromise the structural safety of the aircraft. In this study, the development of an NDI method is presented together with its application to impacted aircraft frames. The HEWABI from a typical ground service scenario has been previously tested and the desired type of damages have been generated, so that the aircraft panels could become representative study cases. The need of the aircraft industry for a rapid, ramp-friendly system to detect such WAID is here approached with guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) and a scanning tool that accesses the whole structure from the exterior side only. The wide coverage of the specimen provided by GUW has been coupled to a differential detection approach and is aided by an outlier statistical analysis to be able to inspect and detect faults in the challenging composite material and complex structure. The results will be presented and discussed with respect to the detection capability of the system and its response to the different damage types. Receiving Operating Characteristics curves (ROC) are also produced to quantify and assess the performance of the proposed method. Ongoing work is currently aimed at the penetration of the inner components of the structure, such as shear ties and C-frames, exploiting different frequency ranges and signal processing techniques. From the hardware and tool development side, different transducers and coupling methods, such as air-coupled transducers, are under investigation together with the design of a more suitable scanning technique.

  5. The development of abstract syntax: evidence from structural priming and the lexical boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M; Lieven, Elena V M

    2012-10-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by taking a developmental approach to structural priming. Using a dialog comprehension-to-production paradigm, we primed participants (3-4year olds, 5-6year olds and adults) with double object datives (Wendy gave Bob a dog) and prepositional datives (Wendy gave a dog to Bob). Half the participants heard the same verb in prime and target (e.g. gave-gave) and half heard a different verb (e.g. sent-gave). The results revealed substantial differences in the magnitude of priming across development. First, there was a small but significant abstract structural priming effect across all age groups, but this effect was larger in younger children than in older children and adults. Second, adding verb overlap between prime and target prompted a large, significant increase in the priming effect in adults (a lexical boost), a small, marginally significant increase in the older children and no increase in the youngest children. The results support the idea that abstract syntactic knowledge can develop independently of verb-specific frames. They also support the idea that different mechanisms may be needed to explain abstract structural priming and lexical priming, as predicted by the implicit learning account (Bock, K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: Transient activation or implicit learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology - General, 129(2), 177-192). Finally, the results illustrate the value of an integrative developmental approach to both theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntax acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Innovative Strategies to Develop Chemical Categories Using a Combination of Structural and Toxicological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batke, Monika; Gütlein, Martin; Partosch, Falko; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Helma, Christoph; Kramer, Stefan; Maunz, Andreas; Seeland, Madeleine; Bitsch, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Interest is increasing in the development of non-animal methods for toxicological evaluations. These methods are however, particularly challenging for complex toxicological endpoints such as repeated dose toxicity. European Legislation, e.g., the European Union's Cosmetic Directive and REACH, demands the use of alternative methods. Frameworks, such as the Read-across Assessment Framework or the Adverse Outcome Pathway Knowledge Base, support the development of these methods. The aim of the project presented in this publication was to develop substance categories for a read-across with complex endpoints of toxicity based on existing databases. The basic conceptual approach was to combine structural similarity with shared mechanisms of action. Substances with similar chemical structure and toxicological profile form candidate categories suitable for read-across. We combined two databases on repeated dose toxicity, RepDose database, and ELINCS database to form a common database for the identification of categories. The resulting database contained physicochemical, structural, and toxicological data, which were refined and curated for cluster analyses. We applied the Predictive Clustering Tree (PCT) approach for clustering chemicals based on structural and on toxicological information to detect groups of chemicals with similar toxic profiles and pathways/mechanisms of toxicity. As many of the experimental toxicity values were not available, this data was imputed by predicting them with a multi-label classification method, prior to clustering. The clustering results were evaluated by assessing chemical and toxicological similarities with the aim of identifying clusters with a concordance between structural information and toxicity profiles/mechanisms. From these chosen clusters, seven were selected for a quantitative read-across, based on a small ratio of NOAEL of the members with the highest and the lowest NOAEL in the cluster (cluster and to use this information for a

  7. Predicting the structural development in Danish livestock and how it affects control strategies against FMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the optimal control strategy against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread is invariant to structural development in Danish livestock until 2030. The DTU-DADS model as presented by Halasa et al. uses demographic information of all farms including their loc......The purpose of this study was to assess if the optimal control strategy against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread is invariant to structural development in Danish livestock until 2030. The DTU-DADS model as presented by Halasa et al. uses demographic information of all farms including...... their location, size, and production type. The main challenge was to predict the demographic data. Based on data for all herds with animals susceptible to FMD in the Central Husbandry Registry from 1999 to 2010 and supplementary data for swine herds from Danish Agriculture & Food Council (2002 to 2009), all...

  8. Model Data Fusion: developing Bayesian inversion to constrain equilibrium and mode structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hole, M J; Bertram, J; Svensson, J; Appel, L C; Blackwell, B D; Dewar, R L; Howard, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new probabilistic "data fusion" framework based on Bayesian principles has been developed on JET and W7-AS. The Bayesian analysis framework folds in uncertainties and inter-dependencies in the diagnostic data and signal forward-models, together with prior knowledge of the state of the plasma, to yield predictions of internal magnetic structure. A feature of the framework, known as MINERVA (J. Svensson, A. Werner, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50, 085022, 2008), is the inference of magnetic flux surfaces without the use of a force balance model. We discuss results from a new project to develop Bayesian inversion tools that aim to (1) distinguish between competing equilibrium theories, which capture different physics, using the MAST spherical tokamak; and (2) test the predictions of MHD theory, particularly mode structure, using the H-1 Heliac.

  9. Development of a method for quantitative measures of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    2013-01-01

    applicable description of quantitative methods for measuring lumbar disc herniations and related structures on sagittal MRIs. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop methods for quantitative measures of intervertebral discs, lumbar disc herniations and dural sac/spinal canal using MRIs, 2......) to evaluate the agreement of these methods, and 3) to identify factors in the measurement procedures that may compromise agreement. Methods: In this intra- and inter-rater agreement study, lumbar quantitative measurements were performed on magnetic resonance images from 32 participants from a study cohort...... representative of the Danish general population. A new method for quantitative measures of intervertebral discs and related structures was developed and systematically described. MRI-images were measured twice by one rater for intra-rater agreement and once by a second rater for inter-rater agreement. Length...

  10. The structure of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas, M; Gawron, A

    2002-01-01

    The study presents the structure of the ovaries of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) during the first months of life. The ovaries in neonate females exhibit a large number of primordial and primary follicles, sometimes clustered in nests. The growing follicles were also observed within the ovary at that period. The first, early antral follicles appeared in the ovary during the second week of life. In the group of 60-day old females, the structure of the ovaries was characterized by a significant increase in the connective tissue elements. Moreover, ovarian follicles at various stages of development were observed, except for the antral ones with cumulus oophorus. The first mature follicles were identified in 3-month old females. In the ovarian follicles, apoptosis occurs at all stages of follicle development, especially in the early antral follicles. In the atretic follicles, apoptotic cells were identified in the layer of granulosa cells.

  11. Development of a method for quantitative measures of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir;

    2013-01-01

    applicable description of quantitative methods for measuring lumbar disc herniations and related structures on sagittal MRIs. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop methods for quantitative measures of intervertebral discs, lumbar disc herniations and dural sac/spinal canal using MRIs, 2......) to evaluate the agreement of these methods, and 3) to identify factors in the measurement procedures that may compromise agreement. Methods: In this intra- and inter-rater agreement study, lumbar quantitative measurements were performed on magnetic resonance images from 32 participants from a study cohort...... representative of the Danish general population. A new method for quantitative measures of intervertebral discs and related structures was developed and systematically described. MRI-images were measured twice by one rater for intra-rater agreement and once by a second rater for inter-rater agreement. Length...

  12. Issues on the Development and Application of Computer Tools to Support Product Structuring and Configuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Riitahuhta, A.

    2001-01-01

    that there are large positive effects to be gained for industrial companies by conscious implementing computer tools based on the results of design science. The positive effects will be measured by e.g. predictable product quality, reduced lead time, and reuse of design solutions.......The aim of this article is to make a balance on the results and challenges in the efforts to develop computer tools to support product structuring and configuring in product development projects. The balance will be made in two dimensions, a design science and an industrial dimension. The design...... science dimension focuses on our understanding of product structure and product configuration. The industrial dimension presents findings from a number of projects regarding the implementation of computer tools to support engineering designers in industrial practice. The article concludes...

  13. Development and internal structure investigation of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and on DSM-IV-TR diagnoses criteria, and seek validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability indexes of the factors. In order to do that, a self-report test composed of 215 items, the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI was developed and applied to 561 respondents aged between 18 and 90 years (M = 28,8; SD = 11.4, with 51.8% females. Exploratory factor analysis and verification of reliability were performed using Cronbach's alpha. Data provided validity evidence based on internal structure of the instrument according to the theory of Millon and DSM-IV-TR.

  14. Development, structure and strength properties of PP/PMMA/FA blends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; S R Vashishtha

    2000-04-01

    A new type of flyash filled PP/PMMA blend has been developed. Structural and thermal properties of flyash (FA) filled polypropylene (PP)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend system have been determined and analysed. Filled polymer blends were developed on a single screw extruder. Strength and thermal properties of FA filled and unfilled PP/PMMA blends were determined. Addition of flyash imparted dimensional and thermal stability, which has been observed in scanning electron micrographs and in TGA plot. Increase of flyash concentration increased the initial degradation temperature of PP/PMMA blend. The increase of thermal stability has been explained based on increased mechanical interlocking of PP/PMMA chains inside the hollow structure of flyash.

  15. Bank Portfolio Structure and Economic Absorption Theory of Economic Development: A Theoretical Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak B. UBOM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article was on theoretical proposition of Bank Portfolio Structure and Economic Absorption Theory of economic development. Specifically, the work sought to establish the basis of bank portfolio rigidity and to identify the causes of economic absorption problems and their implications on economic development. The theoretical and conceptual research designs were used. Existing literatures were reviewed using archival retrieval approach, library search and internet exploration. The information obtained was judgmentally, logically and qualitatively analyzed. It was discovered among others, that, bank portfolio rigidity stems from regulatory policy defects using inconsistent monetary policy tools such as high liquidity ratio and cash ratio, etc. and compelling the banks to adhere to the regulatory requirement, as well as lack of adequate and quality stock of infrastructure and technology as the basic causes of economic absorption problems. Above all, low level of economic absorption has been discovered to hinder effective contributions of banks to economic development. Following from above, it was therefore recommended that regulatory tools used by Central Banks should be aligned with the development needs of the economy and the direction of governments. The monetary policy tools such as liquidity and cash ratios should also be moderated and stabilized for stable bank portfolio performance as well as aggressive improvement in the stock and quality of infrastructure and technology within an economy. With the new theory, it is expected that policy formulations and adjustments concerning bank portfolio structure and management would be designed with adequate flexibility and focus on long term loans and investments coupled with improved stock and quality of infrastructure to enhance economic development. This theory therefore provides another frontier of research on bank portfolio structure and contributions to economic development.

  16. Development and Application of a Structural Health Monitoring System Based on Wireless Smart Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haoyan; Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing; Wu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can improve the safety and reliability of structures, reduce maintenance costs, and extend service life. Research on concrete SHMs using piezoelectric-based smart aggregates have reached great achievements. However, the newly developed techniques have not been widely applied in practical engineering, largely due to the wiring problems associated with large-scale structural health monitoring. The cumbersome wiring requires much material and labor work, and more importantly, the associated maintenance work is also very heavy. Targeting a practical large scale concrete crack detection (CCD) application, a smart aggregates-based wireless sensor network system is proposed for the CCD application. The developed CCD system uses Zigbee 802.15.4 protocols, and is able to perform dynamic stress monitoring, structural impact capturing, and internal crack detection. The system has been experimentally validated, and the experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed system. This work provides important support for practical CCD applications using wireless smart aggregates. PMID:28714927

  17. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  18. Temperature induced development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Howaniec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of chars affects their reactivity in gasification, having an impact on the course and product distribution of the process. The shape, size and connections between pores determine the mechanical properties of chars, as well as heat and mass transport in thermochemical processing. In the study the combined effects of temperature in the range of 973–1273 °K and elevated pressure of 3 MPa on the development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars were investigated. Relatively low heating rate and long residence time characteristic for the in-situ coal conversion were applied. The increase in the temperature to 1173 °K under pressurized conditions resulted in the enhancement of porous structure development reflected in the values of the specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore area and volume, as well as ratio of the micropore volume to the total pore volume. These effects were attributed to the enhanced vaporization and devolatilization, as well as swelling behavior along the increase of temperature and under high pressure, followed by a collapse of pores over certain temperature value. This proves the strong dependence of the porous structure of chars not only on the pyrolysis process conditions but also on the physical and chemical properties of the parent fuel.

  19. Developing a Computerized Aging Management System for Concrete Structures in Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hradil P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years. Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures.

  20. Developing a Computerized Aging Management System for Concrete Structures in Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-07-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures.

  1. Automated Reconstruction of Historic Roof Structures from Point Clouds - Development and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöchtrager, M.; Styhler-Aydın, G.; Döring-Williams, M.; Pfeifer, N.

    2017-08-01

    The analysis of historic roof constructions is an important task for planning the adaptive reuse of buildings or for maintenance and restoration issues. Current approaches to modeling roof constructions consist of several consecutive operations that need to be done manually or using semi-automatic routines. To increase efficiency and allow the focus to be on analysis rather than on data processing, a set of methods was developed for the fully automated analysis of the roof constructions, including integration of architectural and structural modeling. Terrestrial laser scanning permits high-detail surveying of large-scale structures within a short time. Whereas 3-D laser scan data consist of millions of single points on the object surface, we need a geometric description of structural elements in order to obtain a structural model consisting of beam axis and connections. Preliminary results showed that the developed methods work well for beams in flawless condition with a quadratic cross section and no bending. Deformations or damages such as cracks and cuts on the wooden beams can lead to incomplete representations in the model. Overall, a high degree of automation was achieved.

  2. SU-E-T-338: Ultrastable PRNA 3WJ Nanoparticles as Potential I-125 and C-131 Carriers for Targeted Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, W; Li, H; Guo, P [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of using the pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles to carry I-125 or Cs-131 to target and treat cancer. As the first step, we investigated the stabilities of pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles that are essential for cancer targeting and treatment in this study. Methods: The thermodynamic stability of assembled RNA 3WJ nanoparticles was studied using the TGGE system. The nanoparticles were irradiated with I-125 or Cs-131 radioactive sources that were immersed in the RNA nanoparticle/DNA structure sample liquid contained in a small vial. The irradiation of the RNA samples was performed for different time periods and doses. The purpose was to distinguish the effects of radiation on DNA and RNA structures. Unradiated samples were used as control. Results: RNA nanoparticles were formed by mixing three pieces of oligos, 3WJa, 3WJb, and 3WJc at 1:1:1 molar ratio. Figure 4 demonstrates that 2′-F modified 3WJ nanoparticles remained stable at temperatures as high as 66.8 ± 2°C, and exhibited melting temperatures of 71 ± 2°C. The radiation stability test was performed with I- 125 and Cs-131 irradiation. Several DNA structures including plasmids were included as control. The first test introduced I-125 and a low dose of 1 Gy to both RNA and DNA samples, but no change was observed. When the dose was increased to 30 Gy, DNA was damaged while RNA remained unchanged. Three tests were also conducted with Cs-131 with 7 Gy, 21 Gy, 30 Gy, and 89 Gy, and the results were similar to those with I-125. Conclusion: pRNA 3WJ nanoparticles are able to form efficiently by onepot self-assembly. They remained stable at high temperatures and high therapeutic doses over a long time. These unique features suggest that RNA 3WJ nanoparticles have the potential to be used for targeted radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

  3. The Structural Modeling of Factors for the Development of Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkolnik Inna A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at evaluating the impact of individual determinants of stock market on its level of development. The groups of factors, which influence the development of stock market, were considered. Among a number of factors, two have been chosen, which level of influence is possible to adjust by introducing new types of insurance: activities of depository institutions in the securities market and activities of private investors on it. With a view to determining the relationships between factors and the level of development of stock market along with their economic-mathematical substantiation, the method of modeling by the structural equations was used. As a result of the carried out calculations, the hypothesis about existing relationship between the level of development of stock market, the depository activity, and activities of private investors in the securities market has been confirmed, also a mathematical evaluation of the level of the specified relationship has been obtained.

  4. The principle and main structure design on national database of poverty, environment, and development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjie; Feng, Xiangfeng; Yu, Zhuoyuan; Cui, Jing

    2009-07-01

    Poverty is listed as the one of eight "Millennium Development Goals" by UN Summit. From 1978 to 2004, rural poverty population in China is cut to 26.1 million from 250 million. In order to support the decision maker to make nice planning in elimination of poverty and promotion of regional sustainable development in China, the GIS based systemic and comprehensive database for poverty, environment and development is proposed and designed in the paper. Additionally, the design principle and main content of the database is discussed by utilization modern technology, such as spatialtemporal and tree-ring data models for data structuring and coding, in order to represent current poverty status, spatial distribution and temporal variations, and to explore the relationship among poverty, environment and development ultimately.

  5. Analysis of Structural Development of Petroleum and Sugar Markets in the Russian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Avdasheva Svetlana; Rozanova Nadezhda

    1999-01-01

    This paper results from the research in the framework of the project "Market developments under transition (applied to the petrol and sugar industries)" and its policy implications. A general definition of the problem, the hypothesis and the research methodology are presented in the Introduction. Part 1 includes characteristics of the markets chosen. Part 2 deals with the tolling contracts and their structural effects. The results of the factorial analysis are given in Part 3. The authors ana...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ALGORITHMS OF NUMERICAL PROJECT OPTIMIZATION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLJUK О. І.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The paper analyzes the numerical optimization methods of construction projects and reconstruction of engineering structures. Purpose. Possible ways of modeling organizational and technological solutions in construction are presented. Based on the analysis the most effective method of optimization by experimental and statistical modeling with application of modern computer programs in the field of project management and mathematical statistics is selected. Conclusion. An algorithm for solving optimization problems by means of experimental and statistical modeling is developed.

  7. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  8. Interactive Processes Between University Students: Structures of Interactions and Related Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Claudia V.

    2003-06-01

    Interactions between peers as well as between students and teachers play an important role in social learning. Although much research investigates the structure of (peer) discourse and its relation to learning outcomes, only a few studies try to describe in detail how individuals create meaning for content developed within the dialogues. Thus, it often remains unclear which contents and structures of the discourse contributed to the development of individual knowledge and which did not. This paper describes a study that investigated in great detail peer discourse and its relation to the cognitive development of every participating learner. In total, 27 university students were followed with video while working in pairs during physics laboratory exercises on electrodynamics. Students'' cognitive processes developed during their interactions were reconstructed from the video by a small step analysis and students'' meaning-making of other participants'' contributions was investigated. Results show that students only interact about topics they already know whereas they develop new meaning outside of interactive processes.

  9. Structural Pathways of Cytokines May Illuminate Their Roles in Regulation of Cancer Development and Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila [Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, 34450 Sariyer Istanbul (Turkey); Nussinov, Ruth, E-mail: nussinor@helix.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Sackler Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-03-25

    Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB) is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching—PRISM)

  10. The development of a knowledge base for basic active structures: an example case of dopamine agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Taketo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical compounds affecting a bioactivity can usually be classified into several groups, each of which shares a characteristic substructure. We call these substructures "basic active structures" or BASs. The extraction of BASs is challenging when the database of compounds contains a variety of skeletons. Data mining technology, associated with the work of chemists, has enabled the systematic elaboration of BASs. Results This paper presents a BAS knowledge base, BASiC, which currently covers 46 activities and is available on the Internet. We use the dopamine agonists D1, D2, and Dauto as examples and illustrate the process of BAS extraction. The resulting BASs were reasonably interpreted after proposing a few template structures. Conclusions The knowledge base is useful for drug design. Proposed BASs and their supporting structures in the knowledge base will facilitate the development of new template structures for other activities, and will be useful in the design of new lead compounds via reasonable interpretations of active structures.

  11. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  12. Development and evaluation of a long range image-based monitoring system for civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Today, many large-scale civil engineering structures are permanently monitored to provide early warnings and to initiate counter actions from structural failure. Total station measurements are commonly used to determine 3D movements of selected points with measurement intervals of several minutes or hours. However, these measurements do not provide information on the vibration behavior of the structures. For this purpose, other sensors like accelerometers have to be installed on the object. In this paper, we present a monitoring system based on a state of the art image assisted total station (IATS) suitable for the measurement of absolute 3D coordinates and the determination of the structure's natural frequencies. The 3D coordinates can be determined with an accuracy of a few millimeters using conventional total station measurements. For analyzing the structure's natural frequencies, the telescope camera of the IATS is used in combination with dedicated image processing techniques optimized for artificial and natural targets. While the determination of 3D coordinates based on total station measurements is common practice, the idea of using the total station's image data for frequency analysis is new. Consequently, investigations on the achievable performance are pending for commercially available products. We therefore evaluate the potential of this technique at a life-size footbridge by comparison with accelerometer measurements. We demonstrate that with our developed monitoring concept and state of the art hardware, accelerometer measurements can be replaced in several monitoring situations by IATS measurements and image processing techniques.

  13. Structural pathways of cytokines may illuminate their roles in regulation of cancer development and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-03-25

    Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB) is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching-PRISM).

  14. Development and Integration of Hardware and Software for Active-Sensors in Structural Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overly, Timothy G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) promises to deliver great benefits to many industries. Primarily among them is a potential for large cost savings in maintenance of complex structures such as aircraft and civil infrastructure. However, several large obstacles remain before widespread use on structures can be accomplished. The development of three components would address many of these obstacles: a robust sensor validation procedure, a low-cost active-sensing hardware and an integrated software package for transition to field deployment. The research performed in this thesis directly addresses these three needs and facilitates the adoption of SHM on a larger scale, particularly in the realm of SHM based on piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The first obstacle addressed in this thesis is the validation of the SHM sensor network. PZT materials are used for sensor/actuators because of their unique properties, but their functionality also needs to be validated for meaningful measurements to be recorded. To allow for a robust sensor validation algorithm, the effect of temperature change on sensor diagnostics and the effect of sensor failure on SHM measurements were classified. This classification allowed for the development of a sensor diagnostic algorithm that is temperature invariant and can indicate the amount and type of sensor failure. Secondly, the absence of a suitable commercially-available active-sensing measurement node is addressed in this thesis. A node is a small compact measurement device used in a complete system. Many measurement nodes exist for conventional passive sensing, which does not actively excite the structure, but there are no measurement nodes available that both meet the active-sensing requirements and are useable outside the laboratory. This thesis develops hardware that is low-power, active-sensing and field-deployable. This node uses the impedance method for SHM measurements, and can run the sensor diagnostic algorithm also developed here

  15. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.

  16. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  17. Developments in Nano-Satellite Structural Subsystem Design at NASA-GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; Panetta, Peter V.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA-GSFC Nano-satellite Technology Development Program will enable flying constellations of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites for future NASA Space and Earth Science missions. Advanced technology components must be developed to make these future spacecraft compact, lightweight, low-power, low-cost, and survivable to a radiation environment over a two-year mission lifetime. This paper describes the efforts underway to develop lightweight, low cost, and multi-functional structures, serviceable designs, and robust mechanisms. As designs shrink, the integration of various subsystems becomes a vital necessity. This paper also addresses structurally integrated electrical power, attitude control, and thermal systems. These innovations bring associated fabrication, integration, and test challenges. Candidate structural materials and processes are examined and the merits of each are discussed. Design and fabrication processes include flat stock composite construction, cast aluminum-beryllium alloy, and an injection molded fiber-reinforced plastic. A viable constellation deployment scenario is described as well as a Phase-A Nano-satellite Pathfinder study.

  18. In silico structural characterization of protein targets for drug development against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlyle Ribeiro; Carels, Nicolas; Guimaraes, Ana Carolina Ramos; Tufféry, Pierre; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan pathogen responsible for Chagas disease, which is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of developing countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite many studies, there is no efficient treatment against Chagas disease, and the search for new therapeutic targets specific to T. cruzi is critical for drug development. Here, we have revisited 41 protein sequences proposed by the analogous enzyme pipeline, and found that it is possible to provide structures for T. cruzi sequences with clear homologs or analogs in H. sapiens and likely associated with trypanothione reductase, cysteine synthase, and ATPase functions, and structures for sequences specific to T. cruzi and absent in H. sapiens associated with 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, and leishmanolysin activities. The implications of our structures refined by atomistic molecular dynamics (monomer or dimer states) in their in vitro environments (aqueous solution or membrane bilayers) are discussed for drug development and suggest that all protein targets, except cysteine synthase, merit further investigation.

  19. Hippocampal Structure Predicts Statistical Learning and Associative Inference Abilities during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Guarino, Katharine F; Schapiro, Anna C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Preston, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning and remembering across the lifespan, little is known about how the episodic memory system develops to support the extraction of associative structure from the environment. Here, we relate individual differences in volumes along the hippocampal long axis to performance on statistical learning and associative inference tasks-both of which require encoding associations that span multiple episodes-in a developmental sample ranging from ages 6 to 30 years. Relating age to volume, we found dissociable patterns across the hippocampal long axis, with opposite nonlinear volume changes in the head and body. These structural differences were paralleled by performance gains across the age range on both tasks, suggesting improvements in the cross-episode binding ability from childhood to adulthood. Controlling for age, we also found that smaller hippocampal heads were associated with superior behavioral performance on both tasks, consistent with this region's hypothesized role in forming generalized codes spanning events. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of examining hippocampal development as a function of position along the hippocampal axis and suggest that the hippocampal head is particularly important in encoding associative structure across development.

  20. The necessity to focus on the development of low carbon cities in urban management structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mohammad Bagheri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is developed along with the economic growth and development of countries. This phenomenon has led to increasing the energy consumption in urban areas and consequently, the emission of greenhouse gases. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions with carbon source in urban areas and its adverse effects due to universality have affected all countries. This became a concern for the international community. Thus, the idea of low-carbon cities has been raised at the international level. Efficient use of energy, better use of public transportation systems, improving recycling and increasing public awareness are the important factors in achieving the low-carbon cities. Urbanization is increased in all developing countries in the process of moving on the path of economic growth and development. In this path, our country is faced with rapidly increasing urbanization. Some shortcomings in urban management created many problems such as environmental problems especially for big cities. Due to the importance of sustainable urban management and urban development, focusing on the establishment of a comprehensive program to reduce carbon emissions in cities is a prerequisite for the development of public transport increasing the efficiency of energy consumption, financing the emission reduction projects, improving the recycling system of municipal solid waste on the role of urban management and taking a step in the direction of low-carbon cities. Thus, developing the carbon emission reducing plans is inevitable in urban management structure along with the growth and development of cities.

  1. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  2. Development of a modular MR valve using meandering flow path structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichwan, B.; Mazlan, S. A.; Imaduddin, F.; Ubaidillah; Koga, T.; Idris, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    The extensive development of the magnetorheological (MR) valve has successfully introduced a new high-performance compact-class MR valve using a meandering flow path structure. Aside from the performance improvement, in real applications, the ease of performance adjustment also needs to be improved. This study focused on the development of a new design of a modular MR valve using a meandering flow path to improve the adjustability of the valve performance. The approach is proposed based on the high-performance advantages of a meandering flow path structure, while at the same time utilizing the benefit of the modular structure in terms of performance flexibility. In order to evaluate the performance of the modular structure, the analytical assessment was conducted for three different module stages: the single-stage module, the double-stage module, and triple-stage module. To predict the strength of the magnetic field in the effective area, the magnetic simulation was conducted through an open-source software called the FEMM (Finite Element Method Magnetics). The quasi-steady mathematical model of the proposed valve was also derived to conduct the analytical assessment as well as to predict the valve performance. In order to validate the simulation results, the prototypes of the proposed valve are experimentally tested with the aid of the hydraulic cylinder on a dynamic test machine. The results of the MR valve assessment from both the simulation and experimental test demonstrated that the pressure drop rating of the meandering type MR valve can be easily modified using modular structure by changing the number of module stages.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of Developed Structural Turbulence Taking into Account Fluctuations of Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.

    2004-03-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the construction of a phenomenological macroscopic model of developed turbulence in a compressible fluid is considered with regard for the formation of space-time dissipative structures. A set of random variables were introduced into the model as internal parameters of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. This allowed us to obtain, by methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation in the configuration space. This equation serves to determine the temporary evolution of the conditional probability distribution function of structural parameters pertaining to the cascade process of fragmentation of large-scale eddies and temperature inhomogeneities and to analyze Markovian stochastic processes of transition from one nonequilibrium stationary turbulent-motion state to another as a result of successive loss of stability caused by a change in the governing parameters. An alternative method for investigating the mechanisms of such transitions, based on the stochastic Langevin-type equation intimately related to the derived kinetic equation, is also considered. Some postulates and physical and mathematical assumptions used in the thermodynamic model of structurized turbulence are discussed in detail. In particular, we considered, using the deterministic transport equation for conditional means, the cardinal problem of the developed approach-the possibility of the existence of asymptotically stable stationary states of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. Also proposed is the nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential for internal coordinates, which extends the well-known Boltzmann-Planck relationship for equilibrium states to the nonequilibrium stationary states of the representing ensemble. This potential is shown to be the Lyapunov function for such states. The relation is also explored between the internal intermittence in the inertial interval of scales and the fluctuations of the energy of dissipation. This study is aimed at

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH MODELS OF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE OF SUBSYSTEM SALES OF CORPORATE INTEGRATED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes basic principles and the results of modeling the business architecture of the company on the example of the subsystem sales of integrated corporate structures. As the object of investigation we have chosen the company called Dinskoy Meatprocessing complex, which is part of Southern diversified Corporation. The main artifacts of the conducted research are: graphical layout of business processes of a subsystem of the sales made in the instrumental environment of All Fusion Process Modeler (BPWin and developed a model of decomposition of business processes, a model of business event, a model for the location of functions and integration model, and to evaluate the relationship between the business processes with the strategic direction of the organization. The source data for the study were collected by conducting a special survey of the organization within which the surveys were conducted, and interviewing of managers and employees of relevant structures of the research object, the study of local normative documents, regulations on departments, job descriptions, etc. The resulting set of artifacts of business architecture can be used further in the process of re-engineering business processes, developing indicators for the effectiveness functions, business processes, organization, and development of requirements for the application systems that automate the processing of data and development of subsequent domains of enterprise architecture

  5. Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Klute

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if

  6. Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline Hollis T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sensory experience plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal shape and in developing synaptic contacts during brain formation. These features are required for a neuron to receive, integrate, and transmit signals within the neuronal network so that animals can adapt to the constant changing environment. Insulin receptor signaling, which has been extensively studied in peripheral organ systems such as liver, muscle and adipocyte, has recently been shown to play important roles in the central nervous system. Here we review the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate structural and functional aspects of circuit development, particularly with respect to the role of insulin receptor signaling in synaptic function and the development of dendritic arbor morphology. The potential link between insulin receptor signaling malfunction and neurological disorders will also be discussed.

  7. Foreign trade infrastructure of a frontier region: structure, role and development trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Filippovich Saliychuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main factors influencing the efficiency of foreign trade in the region. One of the main factors is described in a more detailed way - the infrastructure of the region's foreign trade. The definition of foreign trade infrastructure is given, it's structure (institutional, material and normative subsystem is determined. The main purpose of foreign trade and infrastructure problems are indicated, the solution of which contributes to the presence of the optimal balance of foreign trade infrastructure in the region. The main factors influencing the development of infrastructure in today's conditions are: transfer of customs registration and formalisation into border regions as well as establishment of the Customs Union within the EurAsEC. Practical issues of foreign trade infrastructure are considered on the example of Kurgan region. The author identifies some trends in the development of infrastructure and describes priority areas for infrastructure development of foreign trade.

  8. Learning to learn from stories: children's developing sensitivity to the causal structure of fictional worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Gopnik, Alison; Ganea, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Fiction presents a unique challenge to the developing child, in that children must learn when to generalize information from stories to the real world. This study examines how children acquire causal knowledge from storybooks, and whether children are sensitive to how closely the fictional world resembles reality. Preschoolers (N = 108) listened to stories in which a novel causal relation was embedded within realistic or fantastical contexts. Results indicate that by at least 3 years of age, children are sensitive to the underlying causal structure of the story: Children are more likely to generalize content if the fictional world is similar to reality. Additionally, children become better able at discriminating between realistic and fantastical story contexts between 3 and 5 years of age. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Development and Validation of a Novel Bird Strike Resistant Composite Leading Edge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanidis, Th.; Labeas, G.; Sunaric, M.; Ubels, L.

    2005-11-01

    A novel design of a fibre-reinforced composite Leading Edge (LE) of a Horizontal Tail Plain (HTP) is proposed. The development and validation approach of the innovative composite LE structure are described. The main design goal is the satisfactory impact resistance of the novel composite LE in the case of bird strike. The design concept is based on the absorption of the major portion of the bird kinetic energy by the composite skins, in order to protect the ribs and the inner LE structure from damaging, thus preserving the tail plane functionality for safe landing. To this purpose, the LE skin is fabricated from specially designed composite panels, so called ‘tensor skin’ panels, comprising folded layers, which unfold under the impact load and increase the energy absorption capability of the LE. A numerical model simulating the bird strike process is developed and bird strike experimental testing is performed, in order to validate the proposed layout and prove the capability of the structure to successfully withstand the impact loading. The numerical modelling issues and the critical parameters of the simulation are discussed. The present work is part of the European Aeronautics Research Project, ‘Crashworthiness of aircraft for high velocity impact CRAHVI’ [1].

  10. Developing students' functional thinking in algebra through different visualisations of a growing pattern's structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Clarke, Doug M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial visualisation of geometric patterns and their generalisation have become a recognised pathway to developing students' functional thinking and understanding of variables in algebra. This design-based research project investigated upper primary students' development of explicit generalisation of functional relationships and their representation descriptively, graphically and symbolically. Ten teachers and their classes were involved in a sequence of tasks involving growing patterns and geometric structures over 1 year. This article focuses on two aspects of the study: visualising the structure of a geometric pattern in different ways and using this to generalise the functional relationship between two quantifiable aspects (variables). It was found that in an initial assessment task ( n = 222), students' initial visualisations could be categorised according to different types and some of these were more likely to lead either to recursive or explicit generalisation. In a later task, a small number of students demonstrated the ability to find more than one way to visualise the same geometric structure and thus represent their explicit generalisations as different but equivalent symbolic equations (using pronumerals). Implications for the teaching of functional thinking in middle-school algebra are discussed.

  11. Investigation of soil structure development and properties of macropore networks with X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Peth, Stephan; Horn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography provides a non-destructive method to visualize and quantify three-dimensional pore networks. Geometrical and morphological parameters of the complex pore system such as connectivity, tortuosity, porosity and pore surface area would be very useful for modeling and simulating of transport and exchange processes. Thus, quantitative data on relevant soil structural features and their modification by soil management could be provided. The scope of this study was to analyze and quantify the development of soil structure in the subsoil depending on three different precrop species (alfalfa, chicory and fescue), at three depths (45, 60 and 75 cm) and three cultivation periods (1, 2 and 3 yrs) on an experimental field trial (Germany) with a Haplic Luvisol as major soil type. Morphological (air-filled porosity, pore surface area) and geometrical (pore diameter, connectivity, continuity, tortuosity) parameters were gathered with X-ray CT and evaluated with image analysis. Furthermore, the results were linked with air-capacity data from laboratory measurements to validate the data and with tortuosity/connectivity data from diffusion-based measurements. Air-filled porosity was highest for alfalfa (3 yrs, 75 cm). Tortuosity values ranged between 1.3 and 4.38, while alfalfa (3 yrs) showed the highest value, which may indicate structural development due to crack formation by enhanced root water uptake. An increase in accessible surfaces may improve water and nutrient supply for plants, whereas the high tortuosity values may also assume that oxygen supply is limited.

  12. On language acquisition in speech and sign: development of combinatorial structure in both modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Languages are composed of a conventionalized system of parts which allow speakers and signers to generate an infinite number of form-meaning mappings through phonological and morphological combinations. This level of linguistic organization distinguishes language from other communicative acts such as gestures. In contrast to signs, gestures are made up of meaning units that are mostly holistic. Children exposed to signed and spoken languages from early in life develop grammatical structure following similar rates and patterns. This is interesting, because signed languages are perceived and articulated in very different ways to their spoken counterparts with many signs displaying surface resemblances to gestures. The acquisition of forms and meanings in child signers and talkers might thus have been a different process. Yet in one sense both groups are faced with a similar problem: "how do I make a language with combinatorial structure"? In this paper I argue first language development itself enables this to happen and by broadly similar mechanisms across modalities. Combinatorial structure is the outcome of phonological simplifications and productivity in using verb morphology by children in sign and speech.

  13. Cultural order and participatory local development: structure for the occupational therapist practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cultural Order is understood as the expression of a game of interdependencies determinations between local and global social groups, pairs identified by productions, values and behavior that consciously guide the life projects and the expansion of a collective freedom. Based on a Social Science research and with theoretical mark of Nobert Elias and Amartya Sen, this article aims to present a theoretical-practice structure of the approach in participatory local development- PLD to the occupational therapist surround by the construction of collective life projects, in order to operationalize in the practice of the community question, understood as the strengths that singularize the participation. We discuss the use of the PLD approach to the occupational therapist in a flexible structure, aiming to guarantee its domain, the Human Occupation, and the set of interventions, technologies, sustained in the management of the activities of daily living. The approach in participatory local development presents itself as an important structural outline to the community actions, and it is the occupational therapist role to be an articulator of the Local Cultural Order dimensions, to deal with the target population their work processes of continuity in collective life projects and expansion of freedom.

  14. Development of an impedance-based wireless sensor node for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David L.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the development and application of a miniaturized impedance sensor node for structural health monitoring (SHM). A large amount of research has been focused on utilizing the impedance method for structural health monitoring. The vast majority of this research, however, has required the use of expensive and bulky impedance analyzers that are not suitable for field deployment. In this study, we developed a wireless impedance sensor node equipped with a low-cost integrated circuit chip that can measure and record the electrical impedance of a piezoelectric transducer, a microcontroller that performs local computing and a wireless telemetry module that transmits the structural information to a base station. The performance of this miniaturized and portable device has been compared to results obtained with a conventional impedance analyzer and its effectiveness has been demonstrated in an experiment to detect loss of preload in a bolted joint. Furthermore, for the first time, we also consider the problem of wireless powering of such SHM sensor nodes, where we use radio-frequency wireless energy transmission to deliver electrical energy to power the sensor node. In this way, the sensor node does not have to rely on an on-board power source, and the required energy can be wirelessly delivered as needed by human or a remotely controlled robotic device.

  15. The roles of host evolutionary relationships (genus: Nasonia) and development in structuring microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Robert M; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2012-02-01

    The comparative structure of bacterial communities among closely related host species remains relatively unexplored. For instance, as speciation events progress from incipient to complete stages, does divergence in the composition of the species' microbial communities parallel the divergence of host nuclear genes? To address this question, we used the recently diverged species of the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia to test whether the evolutionary relationships of their bacterial microbiotas recapitulate the Nasonia phylogenetic history. We also assessed microbial diversity in Nasonia at different stages of development to determine the role that host age plays in microbiota structure. The results indicate that all three species of Nasonia share simple larval microbiotas dominated by the γ-proteobacteria class; however, bacterial species diversity increases as Nasonia develop into pupae and adults. Finally, under identical environmental conditions, the relationships of the microbial communities reflect the phylogeny of the Nasonia host species at multiple developmental stages, which suggests that the structure of an animal's microbial community is closely allied with divergence of host genes. These findings highlight the importance of host evolutionary relationships on microbiota composition and have broad implications for future studies of microbial symbiosis and animal speciation. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. The integration of genomic and structural information in the development of high affinity plasmepsin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami, Azin; Freire, Ernesto

    2002-12-04

    The plasmepsins are key enzymes in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria. Since plasmepsin inhibition leads to parasite death, these enzymes have been acknowledged to be important targets for the development of new antimalarial drugs. The development of effective plasmepsin inhibitors, however, is compounded by their genomic diversity which gives rise not to a unique target for drug development but to a family of closely related targets. Successful drugs will have to inhibit not one but several related enzymes with high affinity. Structure-based drug design against heterogeneous targets requires a departure from the classic 'lock-and-key' paradigm that leads to the development of conformationally constrained molecules aimed at a single target. Drug molecules designed along those principles are usually rigid and unable to adapt to target variations arising from naturally occurring genetic polymorphisms or drug-induced resistant mutations. Heterogeneous targets need adaptive drug molecules, characterised by the presence of flexible elements at specific locations that sustain a viable binding affinity against existing or expected polymorphisms. Adaptive ligands have characteristic thermodynamic signatures that distinguish them from their rigid counterparts. This realisation has led to the development of rigorous thermodynamic design guidelines that take advantage of correlations between the structure of lead compounds and the enthalpic and entropic components of the binding affinity. In this paper, we discuss the application of the thermodynamic approach to the development of high affinity (K(i) - pM) plasmepsin inhibitors. In particular, a family of allophenylnorstatine-based compounds is evaluated for their potential to inhibit a wide spectrum of plasmepsins.

  17. A Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis Approach for Multi Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.

  18. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics. PMID:28054558

  19. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  20. Development of a structure-property correlation for castable urethane elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    A significant problem in electronic encapsulation is the poor load bearing performance of existing replacements for Adiprene-MOCA urethane elastomer. In response to this problem, this study defines the structural features that control the viscoelastic properties of the following liquid castable elastomers: Adiprene-MOCA, EN-7, and 3121-S. A review of previous investigations on a related class of materials suggests that viscoelastic properties may be more directly related to the physical structure or morphology of these elastomers, rather than their chemical structure. Accordingly, the morphology of the subject elastomers is characterized by means of electron microscopy and x-ray scattering measurements. These measurements reveal that within each elastomer incompatible chain segments cluster into separate domains, or microphases on a scale of 10 +- 1 nm. On this basis, it is concluded that the two major thermomechanical transitions present in each elastomer can be assigned to separate transitions within the two microphases. The above-ambient transition, which determines the upper use temperature of the elastomer, is specifically assigned to the glass transition of an amorphous microphase. The significance of this structure-property correltion for the liquid castable elastomers is twofold: (1) it permits generalization of mechanical property measurements on existing materials in order to predict their performance in unusual applications and (2) it leads to a rational strategy for developing improved elastomers for new, more demanding applications.

  1. Changing Structure and Sustainable Development for China’s Hog Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply shortages and competitive disadvantages are the main problems faced by China’s hog sector. The non-essential import of pork products, triggered by competitive disadvantages, poses great challenges to hog farms. Structural changes are an important policy concern in China and elsewhere. Previous literature has ignored whether the ongoing structural changes from backyard to large farms can contribute to sustainable development. This study adopts the micro-level data of hog farms collected from Jiangsu Province, and uses a two-step metafrontier model and a primal system approach. The empirical results reveal that the ongoing structural changes are capable of boosting the growth in output in China’s hog sector, since the stronger increase in comparable technical efficiency compensates for the inappropriate technology. Furthermore, the ongoing structural changes are also beneficial in the reduction of production costs and in improving competitiveness in China’s hog sector. The decline in technical and allocative inefficiency costs, particularly for technical inefficiency costs, contributes to the cost advantage with the increasing farm size.

  2. Wavelike Structures in the Turbulent Layer During the Morning Development of Convection at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petenko, Igor; Argentini, Stefania; Casasanta, Giampietro; Kallistratova, Margarita; Sozzi, Roberto; Viola, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    In the period January-February 2014, observations were made at the Concordia station, Dome C, Antarctica to study atmospheric turbulence in the boundary layer using a high-resolution sodar. The turbulence structure was observed beginning from the lowest height of about 2 m, with a vertical resolution of less than 2 m. Typical patterns of the diurnal evolution of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulence detected by the sodar are analyzed. Here, we focus on the wavelike processes observed within the transition period from stable to unstable stratification occurring in the morning hours. Thanks to the high-resolution sodar measurements during the development of the convection near the surface, clear undulations were detected in the overlying turbulent layer for a significant part of the time. The wavelike pattern exhibits a regular braid structure, with undulations associated with internal gravity waves attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. The main spatial and temporal scales of the wavelike structures were determined, with predominant periodicity of the observed wavy patterns estimated to be 40-50 s. The horizontal scales roughly estimated using Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis are about 250-350 m.

  3. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-05

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  4. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  5. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  6. Chief Development Tendencies, Structural Changes and Innovativeness of the Industrial and Service Sectors in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiak Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to determine regularities concerning structural changes in the industrial and service sectors in Poland in the light of trends observable in the development of the world and national economies. The analysis embraces Poland in the years of the socio-economic transformation, but because of access to comparable data it focuses mainly on the years 2000-2014. Use is made of measures commonly applied in economic geography (employment, gross value added and indicators based on them (mainly the structure and dynamics of change. First, the change in the role of the industrial and service sectors in the Polish economy as compared with other EU states is analysed in the light of the theoretical conceptions presented in the literature. Examined next are changes in the internal structure of the sectors and in the level of their innovativeness. The research showed there to be only slight changes in the role of the two sectors over the study period. Changes in the structure of the industrial sector tend towards its modernisation, which can signal steps taken for re-industrialisation.

  7. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast an......-resolution structural studes of many membrane proteins and their complexes in solution as the analysis of SANS data for this platform is greatly simplified and allows for the application of existing data analysis tools already available for soluble proteins...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...... which can be used for SANS structural analysis of membrane proteins in solution. In combination with the D2O/H2O-based contrast variation method it is demonstrated that it is possible to prepare specifically deuterated analogues of the nanodisc, which give minimal contribution to the neutron scattering...

  8. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  9. The Conditions of Structural and Innovation Policy of Development of Economy of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in the article the problems of formation of conditions for Russia’s social and economic development with a consideration of the present and recreated scientific and technological potential are considered. The purpose of the article consists in researching the sources of social and economic development of Russian economy in the medium- and long-term perspective, and also in rationalization of possibilities of their long term usage. Methods: the in the article methods of the comparative economic analysis, system approach to the economy development management as a complex self-recovering system with a potential, which has certain properties and regularities such as: complete social and economic system lifecycle, complete production cycle, technological structure, basic technologies, etc., are used. Results: during the research process if has been concluded that economic downturn in Russia was caused by economy export orientation of the initial repartitions and low added value resource products. Supporting such strategy were the economic instruments: taxes, ruble exchange rate, bank rate etc. Conclusions and Relevance: it has been shown that long-term development can be based mainly on usage of intensive factors. Even the involvement of Russian huge natural resources into the economic activity will not be able to completely solve a problem of prevention of degradation of the processing industrial economic sectors. Two key development terms are noted: investments and structural reform. It is noted that the main sources of investments are the internal and external ones. Increase of their potential is connected with adoption of tough strategic and political decisions. In its turn, effective usage of the expected increase in investments requires an urgent solution of competitive domestic technologies development problems, as well as problem of effective management of economy and its development on an innovative basis. Possibilities of

  10. The organization of mineral exploitation and the relationship to urban structures and local business development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores relations between mining and urban structures as these are decisive for involving the local workforce and developing local businesses. A major challenge for Greenland is the on-going decoupling between existing settlements and the main export industry based on marine living...... resources. Because Greenland, as other Arctic regions, are structured in relatively isolated island economies with only modest trade between the settlements and no possibility of commuting, a number of settlements are left without substantial industrial base. Administration of the settlement becomes...... of the resources using immigrant and migrant labour, working intensively over a period of time, while living in shantytowns. Both local and international experiences show that such an organization of work life is not attractive for the population, and that it often provides significant human and social challenges...

  11. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism development: A structural model via Akcakoca sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Duran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE The objective of this study is to showcase a structural model that explores residents’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism development. Factors influencing residents’ attitudes were examined using a model consisting five latent constructs and six path hypotheses. Within this context, findings from 300 resident-respondents from Akcakoca, Turkey were analyzed. Utilizing LISREL 8,54 structural equation analysis package, a confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were performed successively on the collected data. Also content analysis was employed for testing the data from open-ended questions. Results indicated that the residents’ support is likely to be strongly affected by most constructs, especially by the relationship between “tourism benefits” and “long term plan” factors for sustainability.

  12. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    which can be used for SANS structural analysis of membrane proteins in solution. In combination with the D2O/H2O-based contrast variation method it is demonstrated that it is possible to prepare specifically deuterated analogues of the nanodisc, which give minimal contribution to the neutron scattering......Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast...... scaffolding protein. To obtain physiologically relevant deuterated phosphatidylcholine (PC) species with the required scattering length density a novel method for deuteration of PC was developed to separately control the deuteration levels of three different parts of the phospholipid molecule: the lipid head...

  13. External conditions and structure development in the Norwegian electricity supply; Rammebetingelser og strukturutvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommessen; Krefting; Greve; Lund

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, an act of 1996 implied a total reform of the taxation system for electricity suppliers. Publicly owned utilities are also subject to this act. The problem discussed in this report is whether energy political goals about fewer and larger units are weakened or strengthened because of today`s taxation rules. The taxation rules are considered only in relation to any structural changes. The external conditions that can affect the structural development are: (1) duties and licences, (2) concessionary rules, (3) regulation of network tariffs, (4) judicial problems of competition, (5) judicial problems of company. They are discussed in detail. The general conclusion is that the design and practice of public regulations strongly interfere with and affect the incentives and possibility for a restructuring of the power sector. 1 table

  14. Identifying Coordination Problems in Software Development: Finding Mismatches between Software and Project Team Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Amrit, Chintan; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    Today's dynamic and iterative development environment brings significant challenges for software project management. In distributed project settings, "management by walking around" is no longer an option and project managers may miss out on key project insights. The TESNA (TEchnical Social Network Analysis) method and tool aims to provide project managers both a method and a tool for gaining insights and taking corrective action. TESNA achieves this by analysing a project's evolving social and technical network structures using data from multiple sources, including CVS, email and chat repositories. Using pattern theory, TESNA helps to identify areas where the current state of the project's social and technical networks conflicts with what patterns suggest. We refer to such a conflict as a Socio-Technical Structure Clash (STSC). In this paper we report on our experience of using TESNA to identify STSCs in a corporate environment through the mining of software repositories. We find multiple instances of three S...

  15. [Relationship between adult craniofacial structures and development of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuqin; Liu, Lizhong

    2010-06-01

    To explore the influence of adult craniofacial structures on obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study compared the measurements of the height, body weight,neck circumference, the mallampati oropharyngeal score grading, thyromental distance, thyromental angle, lobule-mental distance, mental-lower lip distance of 50 patients with OSAHS with those of 50 controls. Statistical findings showed that OSAHS patients were different from controls in the following ways: (1) higher neck circumference; (2) larger thyromental angle; (3) higher Mallampati scores; (4) higher body mass index; (5) shorter mental-lower lip distance. A crowded posterior oropharynx and a steep thyromental plane are associated with OSAHS. The adult craniofacial structures of bony and soft tissue determine the dimension of upper airway during sleep andpaly an important role in the development of OSAHS.

  16. Structural control of landslides. A regional approach based on a developed ArcGIS tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, Viorel; Sandric, Ionut; Chitu, Zenaida; Jurchescu, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between bedding planes and topographic slopes plays a major role in controlling landslide mechanisms. The catastrophic nature of many landslides around the Globe was proved to have a relevant structural background. This paper aims at analyzing the relationship between the spatial distribution of landslides and geological structure and lithology at a regional scale (1:50,000). Moreover, by automatizing a well known method to assess the influence of bedding planes on landslide occurence, this study further provides a GIS-based tool useful to speed up regional analyses, when study areas extend over hundreds or thousands of square kilometers. Three areas with different geological and geomorphological features and extents ranging from 70 to 179 km² were selected as case-studies. The sites are located in the Southern Carpathians, the Curvature and the Getic Subcarpathians of Romania. Computation of the topography - bedding plane relation required the following three phases: i) data acquisition, ii) developing a tool for an easy data processing and analysis and iii) testing the tool on the few selected sites having different geological and geomorphological settings. Three categories of spatial data were acquired: i) landslide inventory data; ii) detailed lithological data and iii) data related to geological structure (dip angle and dip direction point data). The landslide database was built based on interpretation of aerial images and field mapping during a more than 8 years long period. Lithology was extracted from geological maps at a 1:50,000 scale, while dip angle and dip direction data were obtained both from geological maps and direct measurements in the field meant to increase the level of detail. In order to rapidly identify the type of slope in relation to the geological structure (anaclinal, cataclinal and orthoclinal), a tool was developed which integrates a well-known index called TOBIA. This custom created GIS tool was developed using Python

  17. Structural-Functional Model of Designing Individual Educational Path of Teacher's Professional Development in Conditions of Information Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzyanova, Kadriya Sh.; Shtreter, Juliya N.; Nauryzbayeva, Rahat N.

    2015-01-01

    Actuality of studied problem is due to constant modernization of teacher's professional development which depends on many factors and conditions aimed at identifying the reserve possibilities of professional qualified and competitive specialist. In this context, this article aims to develop structure the content of structural-functional model of…

  18. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs...

  19. Development of Modeling and Signal Processing Techniques for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Rhim, H.C. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Radar method has a potential of being a powerful and effective tool for nondestructive testing(NDT) of concrete structures, roadways, tunnels and airport pavements. Yet, not all of the available features of the method have been fully developed. The advancement of the method can be achieved through the study of electromagnetic properties of concrete, development of computer simulation techniques for radar measurements, application of appropriate radar hardware systems for specific problem areas, and implementation of proper imaging algorithms for the processing of radar measurement data. In this paper, a numerical modeling technique of finite difference-time domain (FD-TD) method has been applied to simulate radar measurements of concrete structures for NDT. The modeling work is found to be useful in predicting radar measurement signal for thickness detection, rebar detection and the detection of delamination inside concrete. Also, an imaging scheme has been developed and proposed for the use of radar in detecting steel reinforcing bars embedded inside concrete. The scheme utilizes the measured data of electromagnetic properties of concrete and impedance mismatch between concrete and the steel bar. The results have shown improved output of the radar measurement compared to commercially available processing methods. (author). 8 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Modelling the development and arrangement of the primary vascular structure in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartenì, Fabrizio; Giannino, Francesco; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The process of vascular development in plants results in the formation of a specific array of bundles that run throughout the plant in a characteristic spatial arrangement. Although much is known about the genes involved in the specification of procambium, phloem and xylem, the dynamic processes and interactions that define the development of the radial arrangement of such tissues remain elusive. This study presents a spatially explicit reaction-diffusion model defining a set of logical and functional rules to simulate the differentiation of procambium, phloem and xylem and their spatial patterns, starting from a homogeneous group of undifferentiated cells. Simulation results showed that the model is capable of reproducing most vascular patterns observed in plants, from primitive and simple structures made up of a single strand of vascular bundles (protostele), to more complex and evolved structures, with separated vascular bundles arranged in an ordered pattern within the plant section (e.g. eustele). The results presented demonstrate, as a proof of concept, that a common genetic-molecular machinery can be the basis of different spatial patterns of plant vascular development. Moreover, the model has the potential to become a useful tool to test different hypotheses of genetic and molecular interactions involved in the specification of vascular tissues.