Sample records for developing satellite communications

  1. Satellite Communication and Development: A Reassessment. (United States)

    Hudson, Heather E.

    The potential benefits of satellite communications development have been recognized since the notion of a geostationary "space platform" was proposed by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. Although there have been examples of developmental applications of satellite technology, the promise has been slow in being fulfilled. The history of the…

  2. Satellite communication programmes for rural education and development (United States)

    Karnik, Kiran

    In the space of three decades, the technology of satellite communication has notched up remarkable advances. Even more dramatic have been the range of its applications, and their impact. The reach of satellite communication, its ability to instantaneously link remote, far-flung and inaccessible areas, has been one of its major characteristics. Therefore, the contribution of this technology towards fostering development and education in rural areas is of special interest. Some uses of satellite communication for rural education and development in India are described. On the basis of an analysis of the Indian experience, some general lessons are discussed, many of which may be of relevance to other countries also.

  3. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  4. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  5. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  6. Communication satellite technology: State of the art and development opportunities (United States)

    Woodford, J. B. (Compiler)


    Opportunities in communication satellite technology are identified and defined. Factors that tend to limit the ready availability of satellite communication to an increasingly wide group of users are evaluated. Current primary limitations on this wide utilization are the availability of frequency and/or synchronous equatorial satellite positions and the cost of individual user Earth terminals. The former could be ameliorated through the reuse of frequencies, the use of higher frequency bands, and the reduction of antenna side lobes. The latter limitation requires innovative hardware, design, careful system design, and large scale production.

  7. Domestic satellite communications overview (United States)

    Nickelson, R. L.


    The current status and future planning of satellite systems for intranational communication are examined in a summary of presentations given at the CCIR international seminar on domestic satellite communications held in Shanghai in October 1983. Topics discussed include operational and planned systems in Australia, Japan, the U.S., India, China, France, Brazil, Italy, Thailand, and the European region; development and planning by NASA and Intelsat; systems for rural areas or light traffic; modulation and multiple access; antennas, propagation, and interference; geostationary orbits; and economics, planning, and implementation.

  8. Civil and military satellite communications: A systems overview and the future developments (United States)

    Dezaire, J. P.


    The project A90KM616, Orientatie SATCOM, is being performed on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) to assist the Navy on the subject of satellite communications. An overview is given of the phenomenon satellite communication. The result is a general overview of satellite communications for both civil and military applications. Some examples of applications are; international telephony, television broadcasting, small private business networks, and mobile (at the moment still principally maritime) communications. In these applications satellite communication systems provide a global coverage and a high flexibility. The scientific articles have not been considered because in this stage it was the intention to study on a specialist level the broad area of techniques. Magazines, books, and a number of reports of universities and research institutes have been the main sources of information. They provided afforded an understanding of the existing systems and insight in the future developments.

  9. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  10. Domestic Communication Satellites (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew


    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  11. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  12. Development of Mission and Spacecraft Dynamics Analysis System for Geostationary Communication Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Cheol Gong


    Full Text Available We consider the motion of the subsystems as separate bodies as well as the entire satellite for the attitude and orbit control of a communication satellite by multi-body modeling technique. Thus, the system can be applied to a general communication satellite as well as a specific communication satellite, i.e. Koreasat I, II. The simulation results can be viewed by two-dimensional graphics and three-dimensional animation. The graphical user interface (GUI makes its usage much simpler. We have simulated a couple of scenarios for Koreasat I, II which are being operated as geostationary communication satellites to verify the system performance.

  13. Overview of commercial satellite communications (United States)

    Beakley, G. W.


    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  14. A new wave of communication satellites (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Cuccia, C. L.


    Satellites provide at present telephone, television, data, and business services on a national, regional, and international scale, and the geostationary arc has become crowded at C-band (6/4 GHz) and Ku-band (14/11 GHz) frequencies. The evolution and the present state of satellite communications are discussed along with details regarding the development of direct broadcast satellites, the position of Canada with respect to satellite communications, Japanese developments, ESA and Eutelsat, aspects of collaboration between France and Germany regarding communications satellites, the United Kingdom, and the Nordic countries.

  15. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.


    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  16. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education


    Hafied Cangara


    Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and International cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also...

  17. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  18. Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites (United States)

    Joels, K. M.


    The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.

  19. Antennas for mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Huang, John


    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  20. Reusable Communication Infrastructure for Small Satellites (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive communications reference architecture that is applicable to a wide variety of small satellite...

  1. Communication satellites: Guidelines for a strategic plan (United States)


    To maintain and augment the leadership that the United States has enjoyed and to ensure that the nation is investing sufficiently and wisely to this purpose, a strategic plan for satellite communications research and development was prepared by NASA. Guidelines and recommendations for a NASA plan to support this objective and for the conduct of communication satellite research and development program over the next 25 years were generated. The guidelines are briefly summarized.

  2. Communication Satellites 1958 to 1986 (United States)


    CATALOG NUMBER S. TYRE OF REPORT * PERIOD COVERED Interim S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER TR-0084A(5417-03)-l S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMRERT...Intelsat Leases 7-211 Other Systems 7-215 The Philippines 7-215 Malaysia 7-215 Planned Systems 7-215 OTHER SATELLITES 8-1 Satellites for... industry . ( The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the technical details of each type of communication satellite for the years 1958 to

  3. Satellite Communications Industry (United States)


    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  4. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafied Cangara


    Full Text Available Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and international cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also possible to develop the Open University System in teaching and learning process, particularly since the internet technology has been intensively used

  5. Satellite-Based Quantum Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nordholt, Jane E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCabe, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Raymond T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Charles G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.

  6. USDA Forest Service mobile satellite communications applications (United States)

    Warren, John R.


    The airborne IR signal processing system being developed will require the use of mobile satellite communications to achieve its full capability and improvement in delivery timeliness of processed IR data to the Fire Staff. There are numerous other beneficial uses, both during wildland fire management operations or in daily routine tasks, which will also benefit from the availability of reliable communications from remote areas.

  7. Communication Satellites for Education and Development--The Case of India. Volume Two. (United States)

    Schramm, Wilbur; Nelson, Lyle

    India, like many developing nations, must soon make a decision about satellite television. National integration, upgrading and extending education, strengthening the vocational and technical components of education, modernizing agriculture, family planning, teaching literacy--the stated goals of the Indian government--could be more easily achieved…

  8. Satellite communications - Intelsat and global patterns (United States)

    Astrain, S.


    The global pattern of mankind's population growth is examined, taking into account the exponential increase in population which began only in the 17th century. As world population has grown, trade has increased, and transportation and communications have become vitally important. A revolution in global communications was initiated when Intelsat launched the first international communications satellite, 'Early Bird', in April 1965. Since April 1965, a tremendous development in global communications by means of satellites has taken place. The Intelsat VI satellite will have a capacity of 36,000 telephone circuits plus 2 TV channels, while the capacity of Early Bird was only 240 telephone circuits. Today, Intelsat is truly an international organization which includes 108 member countries. Attention is given to the particular importance of the Intelsat services to the developing countries, the exploration of new technologies and system concepts, and the extension of services to those portions of the global village which have remained electronically isolated.

  9. SDR Implementation for Satellite Communication


    Jakobsson, Carin; Sjödin, Olof


    SDR (Software Defined Radio) is a radio communicationsystem that has been of great interest and developmentover the last 20 years. It decreases communication costs significantlyas it replaces expensive analogue system components withcheap and flexible digital ones. In this article we describe anSDR implementation for communication with the SEAM (SmallExplorer for Advances Missions) satellite, a CubeSat satellitethat will perform high quality magnetic measurements in theEarth orbit. The projec...

  10. Satellite communications in Canada: A DOC perspective (United States)

    Stursberg, Richard

    The role of the Canadian government and, in particular, of the Department of Communications (DOC) in the evolution and growth of the Canadian communications satellite industry is discussed. Activities by DOC which affect communications technology include the following: (1) DOC undertakes research and development of enabling technologies; (2) promotes the use and diffusion of these technologies through applications development; (3) negotiates spectrum and orbit arrangements in the domestic and international arena; (4) assists in the promotion and marketing of Canadian technologies abroad; and (5) has overall responsibility of telecommunications policy including development of standards and regulations. A brief description is provided of global factors which are expected to affect technology and applications development in the near future. Strategic program reviews undertaken by the Satellite Communications Application Program, the research and development program, and the Government Telecommunications Agency are described.

  11. DAS photonics developments for analogue and digital photonic links for intra-satellite communications (United States)

    Blasco, Julián.; Rico, Eloy; Genovard, Pablo; Sáez, Cristina; Navasquillo, Olga; Martí, Javier


    During past years, special efforts have been invested to develop optical links, both digital and analogue, for space applications, such as reference signal distribution or digital communication cables. The aim of this paper is to present the current DAS developments for these applications as well as future work to increase TRL levels and flight opportunities.

  12. Clock Management Data Analysis for Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Rachel; Melkers, Raimond


    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has installed GPS-based timing systems in several Defense Satellite Communication System "DSCS-III" satellite communication facilities to support the Single Channel Transponder "SCT" program...

  13. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  14. Economics of satellite communications systems (United States)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one

  15. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  16. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite (United States)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.


    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  17. New policy and regulatory developments in satellite communications: Innovations by the German Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (United States)

    Boettcher, Christian D.

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has embarked on a course in cooperation with the European Commission to further the cause of regulatory reform in telecommunications through the furtherance of competition at the national and international level. This has been particularly true in the field of satellite communications. To date, 39 foreign and domestic countries have been given licenses to engage in satellite communications in some form in Germany. Currently, there are some 2300 transmitting or receive-only earth stations in operation. As a result of this policy significant new investment in satellite communications is expected with perhaps 530 million DM or US $350 million being spent on private networks by 1998. Currently the ministry is seeking competition in satellite communications in several areas. These include: (1) competition in the earth segment, nationally and internationally; (2) competitive access to the space segment of international satellite organizations (e.g., Intelsat, Inmarsat, Eutelsat); and (3) competitive space segment offerings. This report indicates the current status of these activities and plans for the future.

  18. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology. (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne


    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  19. VSAT applications in Russian satellite communications (United States)

    Dorofeev, V. M.; Kantor, L. Ya.


    The development of satellite communications in Russia tends to their application in low-capacity voice and data systems in which earth terminals are installed directly at users' premises. Low-power small terminals employed for this purpose can be classified as VSAT-type stations. This paper considers the applications of these terminals in voice and data transfer networks in Russia, their interaction with terrestrial systems, their basic technical characteristics and regulatory issues related to their use.

  20. Advanced mobile satellite communications using COMETS satellite in MM-wave and Ka-band (United States)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Isobe, Shunkichi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Naito, Hideyuki


    Early in the 21st century, the demand for personal communications using mobile, hand-held, and VSAT terminals will rapidly increase. In a future system, many different types of services should be provided with one-hop connection. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has studied a future advanced mobile satellite communications system using millimeter wave and Ka band. In 1990, CRL started the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) project. The satellite has been developed in conjunction with NASDA and will be launched in 1997. This paper describes the COMETS payload configuration and the experimental system for the advanced mobile communications mission.

  1. 14/12-GHz-band satellite communication services (United States)

    Hayashi, Kunihiro; Nagaki, Kiyoaki; Mori, Yasuo


    Three new systems for integrated TV-relay services have been developed: Satellite Video Comunication Service (SVCS) and Satellite Digital Communication Service (SDCS), with Japan's 14/12-GHz-band commercial communication satellites. These systems have been in commercial use since May 1989. Usually SVCS and SDCS have been provided using Ka-band (30/20 GHz-band) of CS-2 and Cs-3. This paper provides an overview of the design, the performance, and the systems of the new 14/12-GHz-band satellite communication services.

  2. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links (United States)

    Manning, R. M.


    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  3. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.


    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  4. European small geostationary communications satellites (United States)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián


    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  5. Activities of Canadian Satellite Communications, Inc. (United States)


    Canadian Satellite Communications (Cancom) has as its core business the provision of television and radio signals to cable systems in Canada, with the objective of making affordable broadcast signals available to remote and/or small communities. Cancom also provides direct-to-home services to backyard receiving dishes, as well as satellite digital data business communications services, satellite business television, and satellite network services. Its business communication services range from satellite links for big-city businesses with small branch operations located far from major centers, to a mobile messaging and tracking system for the trucking industry. Revenues in 1992 totalled $48,212,000 and net income was just over $7 million. Cancom bought 10 percent interest in Leosat Corp. of Washington, DC, who are seeking approval to operate a position locator network from low-orbit satellites. Cancom has also become a partner in SovCan Star Satellite Communications Inc., which will build an international satellite system in partnership with Russia. The first satellite in this east-west business network will be placed in a Russian orbital slot over the Atlantic by 1996, and a second satellite will follow for the Pacific region. This annual report of Cancom's activities for 1992 includes financial statements and a six year financial review.

  6. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN....... The Ka-band dual-reflector is inherently a high-gain and low-loss antenna, and investigations show negligible impact of the L-band backfire helical antenna. Therfore, this hybrid single/dual-reflector antenna presents a viable solution to the combined L- and Ka-band antenna. Novel hybrid antennas...... on the performance of an L-band antenna radiating through the FSS. From these investigations, it is concluded that the FSS antenna concept is well suited for hybrid L- and Ka-band operation. A printed reflectarray antenna with FSS ground-plane is demonstrated. The reflectarray produces a collimated beam as a curved...

  7. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)


    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  8. Satellite communications network design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Kenneth Y


    This authoritative book provides a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of satellite communications (SATCOM) network design and performance assessments. You find discussions on a wide class of SATCOM networks using satellites as core components, as well as coverage key applications in the field. This in-depth resource presents a broad range of critical topics, from geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellites and direct broadcast satellite systems, to low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, radio standards and protocols.This invaluable reference explains the many specific uses of

  9. The Arctic Regional Communications Small SATellite (ARCSAT) (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Kress, Martin; Sims, William; Spehn, Stephen; Jaeger, Talbot; Sanders, Devon


    Traditional satellite missions are extremely complex and expensive to design, build, test, launch and operate. Consequently many complementary operational, exploration and research satellite missions are being formulated as a growing part of the future space community capabilities using formations of small, distributed, simple to launch and inexpensive highly capable small scale satellites. The Arctic Regional Communications small SATellite (ARCSAT) initiative would launch a Mini-Satellite "Mothership" into Polar or Sun Sync low-earth-orbit (LEO). Once on orbit, the Mothership would perform orbital insertion of four internally stored independently maneuverable nanosatellites, each containing electronically steerable antennas and reconfigurable software-defined radios. Unlike the traditional geostationary larger complex satellite communication systems, this LEO communications system will be comprised of initially a five small satellite formation that can be later incrementally increased in the total number of satellites for additional data coverage. ARCSAT will provide significant enabling capabilities in the Arctic for autonomous voice and data communications relay, Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), data-extraction from unattended sensors, and terrestrial Search & Rescue (SAR) beacon detection missions throughout the "data starved desert" of the Arctic Region.

  10. Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference (United States)


    or elimination of required feedback signals, jammer herding, multi-source signalling, and interference alignment . In the case of the replace with...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0079 TR-2016-0079 ROBUST SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS UNDER HOSTILE INTERFERENCE Marc Lichtman and Jeffrey Reed...FA9453-14-1-0222 Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  11. A Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Approach to Aeronautical Communication Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Chomos, Gerald J.; Griner, James H.; Mainger, Steven W.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Kachmar, Brian A.


    Rapid growth in air travel has been projected to continue for the foreseeable future. To maintain a safe and efficient national and global aviation system, significant advances in communications systems supporting aviation are required. Satellites will increasingly play a critical role in the aeronautical communications network. At the same time, current ground-based communications links, primarily very high frequency (VHF), will continue to be employed due to cost advantages and legacy issues. Hence a hybrid satellite-terrestrial network, or group of networks, will emerge. The increased complexity of future aeronautical communications networks dictates that system-level modeling be employed to obtain an optimal system fulfilling a majority of user needs. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the current and potential future state of aeronautical communications, and is developing a simulation and modeling program to research future communications architectures for national and global aeronautical needs. This paper describes the primary requirements, the current infrastructure, and emerging trends of aeronautical communications, including a growing role for satellite communications. The need for a hybrid communications system architecture approach including both satellite and ground-based communications links is explained. Future aeronautical communication network topologies and key issues in simulation and modeling of future aeronautical communications systems are described.

  12. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Communication satellites to enter a new age of flexibility (United States)

    Balty, Cédric; Gayrard, Jean-Didier; Agnieray, Patrick


    To cope with the economical and technical evolutions of the communication market and to better compete with or complement terrestrial networks, satellite operators are requiring more flexible satellites. It allows a better fleet planning potential and back-up policy, a more standardized and efficient procurement process, mission adaptation to market evolution and the possibility of early entry in new markets. New technologies that are developed either for terrestrial networks or for space defense applications would become soon available to satellite and equipment manufacturers. A skilful mix of these new technologies with the older and more mature ones should boost satellite performances and bring flexibility to the new generation of communication satellites. This paper reviews the economical and technical environment of the space communication business for the next decade. It identifies the needs and levels of flexibility that are required by the market but also allowed by technologies, in both a top-down and bottom-up approach.

  14. Communication Satellites, 1958-1992 (United States)


    by: cess capacity on its spare satellites. This is still true: hut iii addi- Argentina Israel tion. some older satellites not needed as spares ha\\e...additional telemetry subsystem and transmitter as its unique payload. This subsystem \\was built by radio amateurs in Argentina and is the first spare...International Telemarketing Conference Proceedings (Octo- Ohm, G., T. Wiesmann, and E. Hieber, "Design anti Pvformance ber 1983). of a Repeater for Optical

  15. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications Technologies · Satellite Communications · Communications Satellites for Global Coverage · Satellite Transponders · The Four Generations Of Commercial Communication Geo-Sat · PowerPoint Presentation · An Indian Scenario INSAT ...

  16. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos


    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  17. Recent Korean R&D in Satellite Communications (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Jae Moung; Lee, Byung-Seub; Lee, Han; Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    The R&D in satellite communications in Korea has been driven mainly by KCC (Korea Communications Commission) but in a small scale compared to Korea space development program organized by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology). Public and civilian satcom sector R&D has been led mainly by ETRI with small/medium companies contrary to rare investment in private sector while military sector R&D has been orchestrated by ADD with defense industry. By the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) experimental Ka-band payload, Korea pursues a space qualification of own technology for national infrastructure evolution as well as industrialization of space R&D results. Once COMS launched and space qualified in 2009, subsequent application experiments and new technology R&D like UHDTV will entail service and industry promotion. The payload technology is expected for the next Korean commercial satellites or for new OBP satellites. The COMS ground control system and GNSS ground station technologies are under development for COMS operation and enhanced GNSS services along with advent of Galileo respectively. Satellite broadband mobile VSAT based on DVB-S2/RCS (+M) and low profile tracking antennas have been developed for trains, ships, and planes. While APSI is developing GMR-1 based Thuraya handset functions, ETRI is designing IMT-Advanced satellite radio interface for satellite and terrestrial dual-mode handheld communication system like Japanese STICS, with universities' satellite OFDM researches. A 21GHz Ka-band higher-availability scalable HD broadcasting technology and SkyLife's hybrid satellite IPTV technology are being developed. In near term Korea will extend R&D programs to upgrade the space communication infrastructure for universal access to digital opportunity and safer daily life from disaster, and to promote space green IT industrialization, national security, and space resources sovereign. Japanese stakeholders are invited to establish

  18. Anti-jamming Technology in Small Satellite Communication (United States)

    Jia, Zixiang


    Small satellite communication has an increasingly important position among the wireless communications due to the advantages of low cost and high technology. However, in view of the case that its relay station stays outside the earth, its uplink may face interference from malicious signal frequently. Here this paper classified enumerates existing interferences, and proposes channel signals as main interference by comparison. Based on a basic digital communication process, then this paper discusses the possible anti - jamming techniques that commonly be realized at all stages in diverse processes, and comes to the conclusion that regarding the spread spectrum technology and antenna anti-jamming technology as fundamental direction of future development. This work provides possible thought for the design of new small satellite communication system with the coexistence of multi - technologies. This basic popular science can be consulted for people interested in small satellite communication.

  19. Hard ACTS to follow. [NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Moy, L.


    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), the third phase of NASA's 30/20 GHz satellite communications program, is praised for its frugal usage of both the geosynchronous orbital arch and the frequency spectrum resources necessary for communications satellites. Its objective is to verify Ka-band satellite communications concepts and to develop a flight and ground system for validation of the multibeam communications proof-of-concept technologies. The ACTS ground segment (comprised of four types of terminals) is designed to compliment the spacecraft for the SS launch in 1989. Precise coordination between the ground and spacecraft segments is performed by the baseband processor (BBP), which is an in-orbit switchboard, and the tracking error word, which enables the ground terminals to remain synchronized with onboard timing. Fixed spot beams and scan beams, comprising the two types of spot beams used, both operate at the same frequency and hence, conserve frequency resources. In addition, the time division multiple access serves to enhance system efficiency. It is concluded that Ka-band satellites are a practical approach to the better usage of those resources potentially threatened by communications satellites. Comprehensive graphs and block diagrams of the system are included.

  20. Mass and power modeling of communication satellites (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Pidgeon, David; Tsao, Alex


    Analytic estimating relationships for the mass and power requirements for major satellite subsystems are described. The model for each subsystem is keyed to the performance drivers and system requirements that influence their selection and use. Guidelines are also given for choosing among alternative technologies which accounts for other significant variables such as cost, risk, schedule, operations, heritage, and life requirements. These models are intended for application to first order systems analyses, where resources do not warrant detailed development of a communications system scenario. Given this ground rule, the models are simplified to 'smoothed' representation of reality. Therefore, the user is cautioned that cost, schedule, and risk may be significantly impacted where interpolations are sufficiently different from existing hardware as to warrant development of new devices.

  1. Deep space optical communication via relay satellite (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Vilnrotter, V.; Gagliardi, R.


    The application of optical communications for a deep space link via an earth-orbiting relay satellite is discussed. The system uses optical frequencies for the free-space channel and RF links for atmospheric transmission. The relay satellite is in geostationary orbit and contains the optics necessary for data processing and formatting. It returns the data to earth through the RF terrestrial link and also transmits an optical beacon to the satellite for spacecraft return pointing and for the alignment of the transmitting optics. Future work will turn to modulation and coding, pointing and tracking, and optical-RF interfacing.

  2. New Channel Coding Methods for Satellite Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sebesta


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the new progressive channel coding methods for short message transmission via satellite transponder using predetermined length of frame. The key benefits of this contribution are modification and implementation of a new turbo code and utilization of unique features with applications of methods for bit error rate estimation and algorithm for output message reconstruction. The mentioned methods allow an error free communication with very low Eb/N0 ratio and they have been adopted for satellite communication, however they can be applied for other systems working with very low Eb/N0 ratio.

  3. Mobile satellite communications in the Forest Service (United States)

    Warren, John R.


    There are usually some places within a forest that do not have adequate communication coverage due to line-of-sight or other reasons. These areas are generally known by the foresters and radio technicians and allowances are made for that when working or traveling in those areas. However, when wildfire or other emergencies occur, communications are vital because wildfires can require hundreds of firefighters and cover thousands of acres. During these emergency operations, the existing communications are not adequate and complete radio systems are moved into the area for the conduct of fire communications. Incident command posts (ICPs) and fire camps are set up in remote locations and there is constant need for communications in the fire area and to agency headquarters and dispatch offices. Mobile satellite communications would be an ideal supplement to the Forest Service's current communications system in aiding forest fire control activities.

  4. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  5. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some. RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  6. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  7. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project (United States)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru


    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  8. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  9. Some design considerations for planetary relay communications satellites. (United States)

    Barber, T. A.; Bourke, R. D.


    Items affecting information transmitted from payload landed on remote planet to Earth via communications satellite including orbit, transmission policy and orbit injection error effect on communication capability

  10. Satellite switched FDMA advanced communication technology satellite program (United States)

    Atwood, S.; Higton, G. H.; Wood, K.; Kline, A.; Furiga, A.; Rausch, M.; Jan, Y.


    The satellite switched frequency division multiple access system provided a detailed system architecture that supports a point to point communication system for long haul voice, video and data traffic between small Earth terminals at Ka band frequencies at 30/20 GHz. A detailed system design is presented for the space segment, small terminal/trunking segment at network control segment for domestic traffic model A or B, each totaling 3.8 Gb/s of small terminal traffic and 6.2 Gb/s trunk traffic. The small terminal traffic (3.8 Gb/s) is emphasized, for the satellite router portion of the system design, which is a composite of thousands of Earth stations with digital traffic ranging from a single 32 Kb/s CVSD voice channel to thousands of channels containing voice, video and data with a data rate as high as 33 Mb/s. The system design concept presented, effectively optimizes a unique frequency and channelization plan for both traffic models A and B with minimum reorganization of the satellite payload transponder subsystem hardware design. The unique zoning concept allows multiple beam antennas while maximizing multiple carrier frequency reuse. Detailed hardware design estimates for an FDMA router (part of the satellite transponder subsystem) indicate a weight and dc power budget of 353 lbs, 195 watts for traffic model A and 498 lbs, 244 watts for traffic model B.

  11. Satellite communications in Europe - The earth-segment market (United States)

    Bartholome, P.; Hughes, C. D.


    The earth segment market of the new European satellite telecommunications field is projected for the next decade, and suggestions are made for its improvement. The home market for large Eutelsat stations (comprising the international telephone and television exchanges) is being dominated by the Japanese industry. Small station fixed satellite services (including business multiservices, distribution of CATV and SMATV, and the distribution of information to closed user groups) could create a substantial market for European industry with the relaxation of regulatory restraints. Four high-power satellites currently under development will open a market in direct broadcasting (DBS). Although the potential for mobile-satellite services (land mobile and maritime communications) is great, the European industry possesses only 15 percent of the present Inmarsat ship-terminal market. It is concluded that European industrial competitiveness could be increased by a general telecommunications policy for regulation, standardization, and research. Tables summarizing the telecommunications service potential and the satellite transponders available for TV distribution, are included.

  12. College curriculum-sharing via CTS. [Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Hudson, H. E.; Guild, P. D.; Coll, D. C.; Lumb, D. R.


    Domestic communication satellites and video compression techniques will increase communication channel capacity and reduce cost of video transmission. NASA Ames Research Center, Stanford University and Carleton University are participants in an experiment to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate college course sharing techniques via satellite using video compression. The universities will exchange televised seminar and lecture courses via CTS. The experiment features real-time video compression with channel coding and quadra-phase modulation for reducing transmission bandwidth and power requirements. Evaluation plans and preliminary results of Carleton surveys on student attitudes to televised teaching are presented. Policy implications for the U.S. and Canada are outlined.

  13. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellite Communications · Communications Satellites for Global Coverage · Satellite Transponders · The Four Generations Of Commercial Communication Geo-Sat · PowerPoint Presentation · An Indian Scenario INSAT SYSTEM · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA · Slide 11 · Education Scenario in India.

  14. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) multibeam antenna technology verification experiments (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Lagin, Alan R.


    The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) is a key to reaching NASA's goal of developing high-risk, advanced communications technology using multiple frequency bands to support the nation's future communication needs. Using the multiple, dynamic hopping spot beams, and advanced on board switching and processing systems, ACTS will open a new era in communications satellite technology. One of the key technologies to be validated as part of the ACTS program is the multibeam antenna with rapidly reconfigurable hopping and fixed spot beam to serve users equipped with small-aperature terminals within the coverage areas. The proposed antenna technology experiments are designed to evaluate in-orbit ACTS multibeam antenna performance (radiation pattern, gain, cross pol levels, etc.).

  15. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.


    After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

  16. Innovative Networking Concepts Tested on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Friedman, Daniel; Gupta, Sonjai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Ephremides, Anthony


    This paper describes a program of experiments conducted over the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and the associated TI-VSAT (very small aperture terminal). The experiments were motivated by the commercial potential of low-cost receive only satellite terminals that can operate in a hybrid network environment, and by the desire to demonstrate frame relay technology over satellite networks. The first experiment tested highly adaptive methods of satellite bandwidth allocation in an integrated voice-data service environment. The second involved comparison of forward error correction (FEC) and automatic repeat request (ARQ) methods of error control for satellite communication with emphasis on the advantage that a hybrid architecture provides, especially in the case of multicasts. Finally, the third experiment demonstrated hybrid access to databases and compared the performance of internetworking protocols for interconnecting local area networks (LANs) via satellite. A custom unit termed frame relay access switch (FRACS) was developed by COMSAT Laboratories for these experiments; the preparation and conduct of these experiments involved a total of 20 people from the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado and COMSAT Laboratories, from late 1992 until 1995.

  17. A new antenna concept for satellite communications (United States)

    Skahill, G.; Ciccolella, D.


    A novel antenna configuration of two reflecting surfaces and a phased array is examined for application to satellite communications and shown to be superior in every respect to earlier designs for service to the continental United States from synchronous orbit. The vignetting that afflicts other two reflector optical systems is eliminated by use of a reflecting field element. The remaining aberrations, predominantly coma, are isolated in the time delay distribution at the surface of the array and can be compensated by ordinary array techniques. The optics exhibits infinite bandwidth and the frequency range is limited only by the design of the array.

  18. Concept for advanced satellite communications and required technologies (United States)

    Ramler, J. R.; Salzman, J. A.


    The advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program of NASA is aimed at the development of high risk technologies that will enable exploiting higher frequency bands and techniques for improving frequency reuse. The technologies under development include multiple beam spacecraft antennas, on-board switching and processing, RF devices and components and advanced earth stations. The program focus is on the Ka-band (30/20 GHz) as the implementing frequency since it has five times the bandwidth of either the C- or Ku-bands. However, the technology being developed is applicable to other frequency bands as well and will support a wide range of future communications systems required by NASA, other Government agencies and the commercial sector. An overview is presented of an operational 30/20 GHz satellite system that may evolve. How the system addresses service requirements is discussed, and the technology required and being developed is considered. Previously announced in STAR as N83-11210

  19. The 'INMARSAT' international maritime satellite communication system (United States)

    Atserov, Iu. S.


    The history, design, operating characteristics, achievements, and prospects of INMARSAT are discussed. More than 1300 ships are presently equipped to operate within the system, and this number is expected to rise to about 5000 by 1986. The principle of operation involves single coordinating earth stations allocating telephone channels in their zones between other earth stations. The messages reach a common signalling channel with which all ship stations keep in touch. The ship stations are connected to the international telex network. The INMARSAT system enables ships in the automated mode of operation to establish telephone and telegraph comunication with any subscriber on the shore of any country. The quality of the communication is practically independent of the distance between ship and shore at any time of year and under any meteorological conditions. Estimates indicate that the use of satellite communication with ships reduces losses from accidents by 10 percent per year.

  20. Comparison of INMARSAT and ATS3 satellite communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    There exists a need to provide communication through a satellite- based network which allows a user to communicate from a remote site to a fixed site. This discussion provides a comparison, both technical and financial, between the existing ATS3 satellite system and the commercial INMARSAT system. This comparison identified the limitations of each system to provide various types of communication.

  1. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems (United States)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.


    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  2. Verification of authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication systems


    Reham Abdellatif Abouhogail


    In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for mobile satellite communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Many security protocols for the mobile satellite communication system have been presented. This paper analyzes three of the most famous authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication system from the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. Based on strand spac...

  3. Implementation of Multiple Access Techniques Applicable for Maritime Satellite Communications


    Stojce Dimov Ilcev


    In this paper are introduced fundamentals, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Access (MA) employed as transmission techniques in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC) between ships and Coast Earth Station (CES) via Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) or Not-GEO satellite constellations. In fixed satellite communication, as a rule, especially in MMSC many users are active at the same time. The problem of simultaneous communications between many single or multip...

  4. DOA estimation for attitude determination on communication satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bin


    Full Text Available In order to determine an appropriate attitude of three-axis stabilized communication satellites, this paper describes a novel attitude determination method using direction of arrival (DOA estimation of a ground signal source. It differs from optical measurement, magnetic field measurement, inertial measurement, and global positioning system (GPS attitude determination. The proposed method is characterized by taking the ground signal source as the attitude reference and acquiring attitude information from DOA estimation. Firstly, an attitude measurement equation with DOA estimation is derived in detail. Then, the error of the measurement equation is analyzed. Finally, an attitude determination algorithm is presented using a dynamic model, the attitude measurement equation, and measurement errors. A developing low Earth orbit (LEO satellite which tests mobile communication technology with smart antennas can be stabilized in three axes by corporately using a magnetometer, reaction wheels, and three-axis magnetorquer rods. Based on the communication satellite, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The method could be a backup of attitude determination to prevent a system failure on the satellite. Its precision depends on the number of snapshots and the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR with DOA estimation.

  5. Implementation of Multiple Access Techniques Applicable for Maritime Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Dimov Ilcev


    Full Text Available In this paper are introduced fundamentals, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Access (MA employed as transmission techniques in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC between ships and Coast Earth Station (CES via Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO or Not-GEO satellite constellations. In fixed satellite communication, as a rule, especially in MMSC many users are active at the same time. The problem of simultaneous communications between many single or multipoint mobile satellite users can be solved by using MA technique, such as Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA, Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA and Random (Packet Division Multiple Access (RDMA. Since the resources of the systems such as the transmitting power and the bandwidth are limited, it is advisable to use the channels with complete charge and to create a different MA to the channel. This generates a problem of summation and separation of signals in the transmission and reception parts, respectively. Deciding this problem consists in the development of orthogonal channels of transmission in order to divide signals from various users unambiguously on the reception part.

  6. Scheduling algorithm for data relay satellite optical communication based on artificial intelligent optimization (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-hu; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-hong; Li, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Yi; Dong, Chen


    Optical satellite communication with the advantages of broadband, large capacity and low power consuming broke the bottleneck of the traditional microwave satellite communication. The formation of the Space-based Information System with the technology of high performance optical inter-satellite communication and the realization of global seamless coverage and mobile terminal accessing are the necessary trend of the development of optical satellite communication. Considering the resources, missions and restraints of Data Relay Satellite Optical Communication System, a model of optical communication resources scheduling is established and a scheduling algorithm based on artificial intelligent optimization is put forwarded. According to the multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, multi-optical-antenna and multi-mission with several priority weights, the resources are scheduled reasonable by the operation: "Ascertain Current Mission Scheduling Time" and "Refresh Latter Mission Time-Window". The priority weight is considered as the parameter of the fitness function and the scheduling project is optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. The simulation scenarios including 3 relay satellites with 6 optical antennas, 12 user satellites and 30 missions, the simulation result reveals that the algorithm obtain satisfactory results in both efficiency and performance and resources scheduling model and the optimization algorithm are suitable in multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, and multi-optical-antenna recourses scheduling problem.

  7. Hall Thruster Impact Analysis on Digital Satellite Communications (United States)

    Zuniga, C. D.; Hallock, G. A.; Wiley, J. C.; Meyer, J. W.; Loane, J. T.


    Hall Thrusters will be used for stationkeeping of geosynchronous communications satellites. These thrusters produce an inhomogeneous plasma plume which may interfere with communications signals (1-20 GHz) to and from the satellite. The plume's effects include beam-pointing error, beam attenuation, and spectral modulation [1]. Many systems digitally modulate an RF carrier and use coherent detection methods. The plasma may degrade the performance of these systems by diminishing the SNR at the receiver by squinting the beam away and degrading the synchronization by phase modulating the signal. We simulate a receiver whose input signals have been corrupted by the plasma plume. These modified input signals are formed by using the results of a previously developed ray tracing code [1]. We will present performance measures including bit-error rates and link availability. * Work supported by Lockheed Martin Corp. and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. [1] Hallock et al, J. Spacecraft and Rockets V. 39 No 1 pp 115-124

  8. Choice of an ion engine for the Communications Technology Satellite. (United States)

    Payne, W. F.; Bens, A. R.; Bassett, D. A.; Lovell, R. R.


    The purpose of the spacecraft is to space qualify a number of components for the next generation of communications satellites. The state of development of ion thrusters has reached a point where at least three types of engine may be considered for integration on spacecraft. The proposed methods of stationkeeping require that the thruster operate with a duty cycle of somewhat less than 12 hours in a 24 hour period. Several possible mounting positions for the thrusters were considered during the conceptual design phase. It is concluded that an experimental ion thruster subsystem may be incorporated in the communication satellite and used to demonstrate, at a minimum, north-south stationkeeping of the spacecraft in synchronous orbit.

  9. The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite and ISDN (United States)

    Lowry, Peter A.


    This paper depicts the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) system as a global central office switch. The ground portion of the system is the collection of earth stations or T1-VSAT's (T1 very small aperture terminals). The control software for the T1-VSAT's resides in a single CPU. The software consists of two modules, the modem manager and the call manager. The modem manager (MM) controls the RF modem portion of the T1-VSAT. It processes the orderwires from the satellite or from signaling generated by the call manager (CM). The CM controls the Recom Laboratories MSPs by receiving signaling messages from the stacked MSP shelves ro units and sending appropriate setup commands to them. There are two methods used to setup and process calls in the CM; first by dialing up a circuit using a standard telephone handset or, secondly by using an external processor connected to the CPU's second COM port, by sending and receiving signaling orderwires. It is the use of the external processor which permits the ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Signaling Processor to implement ISDN calls. In August 1993, the initial testing of the ISDN Signaling Processor was carried out at ACTS System Test at Lockheed Marietta, Princeton, NJ using the spacecraft in its test configuration on the ground.

  10. Communication Satellite: Nigeria's Efforts at Bridging Digital Divide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Nigeria's technological efforts so far at bridging the Digital Divide through communication Satellite. This discourse focuses on the uses and challenges of Satellite communication in Nigeria. The paper relies on secondary data to explore the fate of Nigeria nation in the era of digital divide and ...

  11. Personal communications via ACTS satellite HBR transponders (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.


    The concept of a fully meshed network of briefcase-sized terminals is presented for personal communications over Ka-band satellite transponders. In this concept, undesirable double-hop delays are avoided for voice communications. The bandwidth and power resources of the transponder are efficiently shared by users in a simple demand-assigned manner via code-division multiple access (CDMA). Voice, data, and facsimile are statistically multiplexed at each terminal. In order to minimize terminal costs, frequency-precorrected, and level-preadjusted continuous-wave tones are sent from the central network control station in each beam so that the terminals in each down-link beam can use these pilots as references for antenna acquisition and tracking, as reliable frequency sources, and as indicators of signal fade for up-link power control (ULPC). The potential CDMA 'near-far' problem due to up-link fades is mitigated by using ULPC. Quasi-burst mode transmission is employed to minimize the potential clock and pseudorandom number code synchronization.

  12. Verification of authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Abdellatif Abouhogail


    Full Text Available In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for mobile satellite communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Many security protocols for the mobile satellite communication system have been presented. This paper analyzes three of the most famous authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication system from the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. Based on strand spaces testing model, data desynchronization attacks on these protocols were tested and analyzed. Furthermore, improvements to overcome the security vulnerabilities of two protocols are mentioned.

  13. Development of a 200 W CW high efficiency traveling wave tube at 12 GHz. [for use in communication technology satellites (United States)

    Christensen, J. A.; Tammaru, I.


    The design, development, and test results are reported for an experimental PPM focused, traveling-wave tube that produces 235 watts of CW RF power over 85 MHz centered at 12.080 GHz. The tube uses a coupled cavity RF circuit with a velocity taper for greater than 30 percent basic efficiency. Overall efficiency of 51 percent is achieved by means of a nine stage depressed collector designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This collector is cooled by direct radiation to deep space.

  14. Adaptive Beamforming for Submarine-Satellite Communications with the (MBCA) Multielement Buoyant Cable Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, Blair


    In order to provide the capability for submarines to communicate through a satellite while remaining submerged and traveling at operational speeds a towed buoyant cable array antenna is being developed...

  15. Live Satellite Communications... An Exciting Teaching Aid (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976


    Describes ways that orbiting satellites carrying amateur radios can be used in the classroom at various grade levels to supplement physics, mathematics, electronics, and social science curricula. (MLH)

  16. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks (United States)


    of the Experiment ....................................................53 Figure 26. A Snapshot of the First Step to Run the Python Program...54 Figure 27. A Snapshot of the Python Program Menu .................................................54 xiii LIST OF TABLES... learn about the satellite, even though I did not have a strong background in this area. He convinced me not to be afraid. I want to thank Dr. Alex

  17. Integration of Commercial Mobile Satellite Services into Naval Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Cary


    Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) need to be integrated into Naval Communications. DoD SATCOM military owned systems fall well short of meeting DoD SATCOM requirements in general and mobile SATCOM specifically...

  18. Military Dependence on Commercial Satellite Communications Systems - Strength or Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Jack


    The military's growing dependence on commercial satellite communications systems will become a strength or vulnerability based on how well the right balance is achieved between commercial and military systems...

  19. Estimating Effects Of Rain On Ground/Satellite Communication (United States)

    Manning, R. M.


    LeRC-SLAM provides static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of attenuation by rain on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Program designed for use in specification, design, and assessment of satellite link for any terminal location in continental United States. IBM PC version written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, and Macintosh version written in Microsoft Basic.

  20. Students Partner with Laboratory Staff to Modernize LES-9 Satellite Communications (United States)


    orbiting counterpart, a satellite model built by Minuteman Technical High School students and Laboratory staff hangs reminiscent of one of the...communications satellite was developed for the U.S. Air Force and designed to operate in coplanar, circular, inclined, and geosynchronous orbits . Royster...Laboratory’s first pioneering inventions, the Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES) family. Launched on 14 March 1976, LES-9 is the last in a series of

  1. Computer communications through telecommunications satellite systems - The NADIR project (United States)

    Grange, J.-L.

    Current developments in satellite digital communication in Europe are surveyed, and the status of the French NADIR project begun in 1980 is reported. The geographic coverage, transmission rates, propagation delays, broadcasting and multidestination channels, and error rates characteristic of present satellite systems are discussed, and the specific performance parameters of the Telecom-1 system, comprising three geosynchronous satellites (one operational and two backup) with six 25-Mbit/sec, 12-14-GHz digital transponders and one 4-6 GHz analog port (for telephone and TV services) each, are examined. Telecom-1 will operate in a TDMA-AD mode with coverage of up to 320 earth stations in Central and Western Europe, transmission rates of 2.4-2000 kbit/sec, and error rates less than 10 to the -6th during 99 percent of the time. New applications foreseen include remote processing, distributed databases, computer teleconferencing, and electronic mail systems; new basic tools such as bulk-transfer and transaction-transfer protocols and database-management systems will be required. These tools are under development and testing (using the ANIS Telecom-1 simulator) by NADIR.

  2. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  3. Satellite cluster concept for space communications. I - Holonic cluster satellite communications system (United States)

    Wakana, H.; Kawase, S.

    A satellite cluster system is a promising candidate for future reliable satellite systems. This concept means the colocation of many different satellites, which are connected with each other by intersatellite links, on geostationary orbit. This paper presents the concept of an advanced satellite cluster system, the 'holonic satellite cluster system'.

  4. An advanced system design for future global mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Okinaka, Hideo; Hirata, Yasuo

    This paper presents a system concept applicable to the future global mobile satellite communications system. The main features of the proposed system are a demand-assigned beam-hopping TDMA operation in the satellite-to-mobile direction and a demand-assigned SCPC operation in the mobile-to-satellite direction. A beam-hopping repeater configuration which does not require a dynamic switch between transmitters and a multiple spot beam antenna is another feature of the proposed design. The paper first discusses requirements for the future mobile satellite communications system as well as a possible system evolutional scenario. The advanced system design is then presented, including the design of transmission channels, the satellite repeater block diagram, and the link budgets.

  5. Equalization and detection for digital communication over nonlinear bandlimited satellite communication channels. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alberto, Jr.


    This dissertation evaluates receiver-based methods for mitigating the effects due to nonlinear bandlimited signal distortion present in high data rate satellite channels. The effects of the nonlinear bandlimited distortion is illustrated for digitally modulated signals. A lucid development of the low-pass Volterra discrete time model for a nonlinear communication channel is presented. In addition, finite-state machine models are explicitly developed for a nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. A nonlinear fixed equalizer based on Volterra series has previously been studied for compensation of noiseless signal distortion due to a nonlinear satellite channel. This dissertation studies adaptive Volterra equalizers on a downlink-limited nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. We employ as figure of merits performance in the mean-square error and probability of error senses. In addition, a receiver consisting of a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) followed by a Volterra equalizer (FSE-Volterra) is found to give improvement beyond that gained by the Volterra equalizer. Significant probability of error performance improvement is found for multilevel modulation schemes. Also, it is found that probability of error improvement is more significant for modulation schemes, constant amplitude and multilevel, which require higher signal to noise ratios (i.e., higher modulation orders) for reliable operation. The maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) receiver for a nonlinear satellite channel, a bank of matched filters followed by a Viterbi detector, serves as a probability of error lower bound for the Volterra and FSE-Volterra equalizers. However, this receiver has not been evaluated for a specific satellite channel. In this work, an MLSD receiver is evaluated for a specific downlink-limited satellite channel. Because of the bank of matched filters, the MLSD receiver may be high in complexity. Consequently, the probability of error performance of a more practical

  6. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications (United States)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah


    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  7. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications (United States)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah

    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  8. Multiquantum well beam-steering device for laser satellite communication (United States)

    Lahat, Roee; Levy, Itamar; Shlomi, Arnon


    With the increasing interest in laser satellite communications, new methods are sought to solve the existing problems of accurate and rapid laser beam deflection. Current solutions in the form of galvanometers or piezo fast steering mirrors with one or two degrees of freedom are bulky, power-consuming and slow. The Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) is a semiconductor device with unique potential to steer laser beams without any moving parts. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential application of the MQW as a laser beam-steering device for laser satellite communication, examining the performance of critical parameters for this type of communications.

  9. FD/DAMA Scheme For Mobile/Satellite Communications (United States)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee; Wang, Charles C.; Cheng, Unjeng; Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled I.


    Integrated-Adaptive Mobile Access Protocol (I-AMAP) proposed to allocate communication channels to subscribers in first-generation MSAT-X mobile/satellite communication network. Based on concept of frequency-division/demand-assigned multiple access (FD/DAMA) where partition of available spectrum adapted to subscribers' demands for service. Requests processed, and competing requests resolved according to channel-access protocol, or free-access tree algorithm described in "Connection Protocol for Mobile/Satellite Communications" (NPO-17735). Assigned spectrum utilized efficiently.

  10. Algorithm Development Library for Environmental Satellite Missions (United States)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The EDRs for Suomi NPP are currently undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. As Cal/Val proceeds, changes to the

  11. Study to forecast and determine characteristics of world satellite communications market (United States)

    Filep, R. T.; Schnapf, A.; Fordyce, S. W.


    The world commercial communications satellite market during the spring and summer of 1983 was examined and characteristics and forecasts of the market extending to the year 2000 were developed. Past, present and planned satellites were documented in relation to frequencies, procurement and launch dates, costs, transponders, and prime contractor. Characteristics of the market are outlined for the periods 1965 - 1985, 1986 - 1989, and 1990 - 2000. Market share forecasts, discussions of potential competitors in various world markets, and profiles of major communication satellite manufacturing and user countries are documented.

  12. A Survey of Satellite Communications System Vulnerabilities (United States)


    Myers, Raymond M. Nuber, Jaime L. Prieto, Jr., and Eric R. Wiswell, “Fast Packet Vs. Circuit Switch and Bent Pipe Satellite Network Architectures...Workshop, 19-20 June 2007. 123. “Peer-to-peer,”, 2 April 2008, accessed 7 April 2008. 124. Pinker, Aron and

  13. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.


    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  14. Denying Access to Commercial Communications Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washington, Tania


    .... Commercial systems such as Orion, Panamsat, Iridium and Globalstar will provide the U.S. military and its potential adversaries with a relatively inexpensive and highly effective means to increase the command, control and communications (C3...

  15. Standard Testing Methods for Satellite Communication Systems


    Stoner, Jerry


    University space programs continue to push the envelope of small satellite technology. Because budgets are often limited, and equipment costs can often be prohibitive to even well-established space programs, it becomes necessary to maximize the benefit/cost ratio of testing methods. Expensive testing is often not an option, nor is it realistic. Traditional methods such as anechoic chambers or antenna test ranges are not options, and testing the craft on the ground is not practical. Because of...

  16. Effects of atmospheric scintillation in Ka-band satellite communications (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Scott A.

    This research is motivated by the need to characterize the effects of atmospheric scintillation on Ka-band satellite communications. The builders of satellite communications systems are planning to utilize Ka-band in more than a dozen systems that have been proposed for launch in the next decade. The NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) program has provided a means to investigate the problems associated with Ka-band satellite transmissions. Experimental measurements have been conducted using a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) to evaluate the effects of scintillation on narrowband and wideband signals. The theoretical background of scintillation theory is presented, noting especially the additional performance degradation predicted for wideband Ka-band systems using VSATs. Experimental measurements of the amplitude and phase variations in received narrowband carrier signals were performed, using beacon signals transmitted by ACTS and carrier signals which are relayed through the satellite. Measured amplitude and phase spectra have been compared with theoretical models to establish the presence of scintillation. Measurements have also been performed on wideband spread spectrum signals which are relayed through ACTS to determine the bit-error rate degradation of the digital signal resulting from scintillation effects. The theory and measurements presented for the geostationary ACTS have then been applied to a low-earth orbiting satellite system, by extrapolating the effects of the moving propagation path on scintillation.

  17. Medical image transmission via communication satellite. Evaluation of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideki; Inoue, Tomio; Endo, Keigo; Shimamoto, Shigeru.


    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT 1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical imagings by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6±2.6% via satellite, and 93.2±2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes. (author)

  18. [Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of bone scintigraphy]. (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Inoue, T; Endo, K; Shimamoto, S


    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical images by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6 +/- 2.6% via satellite, and 93.2 +/- 2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes.

  19. NASA to launch second business communications satellite (United States)


    The two stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle was chosen to place the second small business satellite (SBS-B) into a transfer orbit with an apogee of 36,619 kilometers and a perigee of 167 km, at an inclination of 27.7 degrees to Earth's equator. The firing and separation sequence and the inertial guidance system are described as well as the payload assist module. Facilities and services for tracking and control by NASA, COMSAT, Intelsat, and SBS are outlined and prelaunch operations are summarized.

  20. Secure satellite communications in the ISDN (United States)

    de Cristofaro, R.; Bratcher, B. A.

    The single channel per carrier (SCPC) earth station equipment using continuously variable slope delta modulation voice encoding and phase shift keying carrier modulation is examined. The satellite earth station for SCPC consists of: antenna, high power amplifier, low noise amplifier, RF up-converter and down-converter, and the SCPC common equipment and channel unit. The functions and operations of the common equipment and channel unit of the SCPC are described. The data transmission security is achieved using full duplex digital encryption; the crypto synchronizing sequence format is discussed.

  1. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) multibeam antenna analysis and experiment (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Lagin, Alan R.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Narvaez, Adabelle


    One of the most important aspects of a satellite communication system design is the accurate estimation of antenna performance degradation. Pointing error, end coverage gain, peak gain degradation, etc. are the main concerns. The thermal or dynamic distortions of a reflector antenna structural system can affect the far-field antenna power distribution in a least four ways. (1) The antenna gain is reduced; (2) the main lobe of the antenna can be mispointed thus shifting the destination of the delivered power away from the desired locations; (3) the main lobe of the antenna pattern can be broadened, thus spreading the RF power over a larger area than desired; and (4) the antenna pattern sidelobes can increase, thus increasing the chances of interference among adjacent beams of multiple beam antenna system or with antenna beams of other satellites. The in-house developed NASA Lewis Research Center thermal/structural/RF analysis program was designed to accurately simulate the ACTS in-orbit thermal environment and predict the RF antenna performance. The program combines well establish computer programs (TRASYS, SINDA and NASTAN) with a dual reflector-physical optics RF analysis program. The ACTS multibeam antenna configuration is analyzed and several thermal cases are presented and compared with measurements (pre-flight).

  2. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  3. Mobile communications satellites innovative services, advanced technology, new opportunities (United States)

    Wiedeman, R. A.; Anglin, R. L.

    A new service is described that will be introduced in the next few years and will provide communications by satellite to mobile users equipped with inexpensive transceivers utilizing omnidirectional or low-gain antennas similar to cellular radio. The system operates in the UHF band and provides demand-access SCPC communications services over a wide area coverage. Examples considered include a bilateral domestic system (United States and Canada) and a multinational regional system (Pacific basin).

  4. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 1: Background (United States)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.


    Basic characteristics of digital data transmission systems described include the physical communication links, the notion of bandwidth, FCC regulations, and performance measurements such as bit rates, bit error probabilities, throughputs, and delays. The error probability performance and spectral characteristics of various modulation/demodulation techniques commonly used or proposed for use in radio and satellite communication links are summarized. Forward error correction with block or convolutional codes is also discussed along with the important coding parameter, channel cutoff rate.

  5. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  6. An Australian thin route satellite communications system (United States)

    Zacher, G. H.

    The design of a ground terminal for thin-route SCPC satellite digital telephony (at 32 kb/s) and data transmission (at up to 9.6 kb/s, encoded for error protection) is presented. The operation of the terminal is described, and a block diagram and a table of specifications are provided. The components of the indoor unit (voice and data module, data module, channel-control module, terminal controller, modulator/synthesizer, demodulator/synthesizer, pilot receiver, power supply, and digital switch) and the outdoor unit (up/down-converter, SHF local oscillator, solid-state power amplifier, forward power detector, combiner, transmit reject filter, low-noise amplifier, TVRO converter, and power supply and interface module are listed and briefly characterized.

  7. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.


    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  8. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.


    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akioka


    Full Text Available Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1 Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order

  10. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.


    Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1) Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order 2) Trial

  11. Direct Measurements of Laser Communication Point-Ahead Angles from the Artemis Geostationary Satellite Through Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzkov, V.P.


    Full Text Available Laser experiments with ARTEMIS geostationary satellite have been performed in partly cloudy weather using the developed system for the telescope. It has been found that the part of the laser beam is observed simultaneously at the points in direction of the velocity vector where the satellite would arrive at when the laser light reaches the telescope. These results agree with the theory of relativity for light aberration in transition from fixed to moving coordinate system. Observation results open the way for research and development of systems to compensate atmospheric turbulence in laser communications between ground stations and satellites through the atmosphere.

  12. Communication schemes for olfar's inter-satellite links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan


    The Orbiting Low Frequency Array for Radio astronomy(OLFAR) project is aimed at developing a radio telescope in space sensitive for the 0.3–30 MHz range by using a swarm of more than 50 identical nano-satellites. The satellites will form a very large aperture, capable of capturing very weak

  13. Global mobile satellite communications theory for maritime, land and aeronautical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilčev, Stojče Dimov


    This book discusses current theory regarding global mobile satellite communications (GMSC) for maritime, land (road and rail), and aeronautical applications. It covers how these can enable connections between moving objects such as ships, road and rail vehicles and aircrafts on one hand, and on the other ground telecommunications subscribers through the medium of communications satellites, ground earth stations, Terrestrial Telecommunication Networks (TTN), Internet Service Providers (ISP) and other wireless and landline telecommunications providers. This new edition covers new developments and initiatives that have resulted in land and aeronautical applications and the introduction of new satellite constellations in non-geostationary orbits and projects of new hybrid satellite constellations. The book presents current GMSC trends, mobile system concepts and network architecture using a simple mode of style with understandable technical information, characteristics, graphics, illustrations and mathematics equ...

  14. Rural applications of Advanced Traveler Information Systems : evaluation of satellite communications systems for mayday applications (United States)

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of satellite communication systems for mayday applications conducted as part of the Rural Applications of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) study. It focuses on satellite communications sy...

  15. Communication Media and Educational Technology: An Overview and Assessment with Reference to Communication Satellites. (United States)

    Ohlman, Herbert

    In this survey and analysis of the present state and future trends of communication media and educational technology, particular emphasis is placed on the potential uses of communication satellites and the substitution of electronic transmission for physical distribution of educational materials. The author analyzes in detail the characteristics…

  16. The Coming of Age of Development Communication. (United States)

    Brace, Judy


    Reviews landmark projects in development communication since the formation of the Information Center on Instructional Technology in 1972, including Nicaragua's Radio Mathematics for the primary grades; India's Satellite Instructional Television; Guatemala's Basic Village Education Project; and the use of mass media to disseminate health…

  17. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite... (United States)


    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories... associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are so registered with the...

  18. Prediction of Communication Outage Period between Satellite and Earth station Due to Sun Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Song


    Full Text Available We developed a computer program to predict solar interference period. To calculate Sun‘s position, we used DE406 ephemerides and Earth ellipsoid model. The Sun‘s position error is smaller than 10arcsec. For the verification of the calculation, we used TU media ground station on Seongsu-dong, and MBSAT geostationary communication satellite. We analysis errors, due to satellite perturbation and antenna align. The time error due to antenna align has -35 to +16 seconds at 0.1 degree, and -27 to +41 seconds at 0.25 degree. The time errors derived by satellite perturbation has 30 to 60 seconds.

  19. Low traffic density, small terminal network, and satellite antenna design for communications in the rural areas (United States)

    Bardelli, L.; Martinino, F.; Rispoli, F.

    The applications of satellite communications techniques for improving the telecommunications scenario in developing countries and access to isolated and disperse users are discussed. The main issues determining the strategy for solving communications problems are summarized, and the main requirements for both the earth and space segments are outlined. System considerations for satellite-network design and the main criteria correlated to rural-area requirements are presented, and emphasis is placed on two proposed concepts for satellite multiple-access techniques: single channel per carrier/demand assignment multiple access (SCPC/DAMA) and code division multiple access/spread spectrum (CDMA/SS). A CDMA/SS network architecture design for 9600 b/s voice-communication and TV-program distribution in African countries and an onboard reconfigurable multispot antenna design for the coverage optimization of African regions are considered as examples.



    Діана Терещук


    In the article the author analyses how intercultural competency can provide realization of the main purpose of foreign language education, namely developing intercultural communication competence. The author concretizes the content of intercultural communication competence, its components, and frames the educational potential of intercultural communication in the development of this competence. The principal ways of through which educators can foster students to take part in intercultural com...

  1. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 1 (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Gaelick, C.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.


    Commercial organizations as well as government agencies invest in spacecraft (S/C) technology programs that are aimed at increasing the performance of communications satellites. The value of these programs must be measured in terms of their impacts on the financial performane of the business ventures that may ultimately utilize the communications satellites. An economic evaluation and planning capability was developed and used to assess the impact of NASA on-orbit propulsion and space power programs on typical fixed satellite service (FSS) and direct broadcast service (DBS) communications satellite business ventures. Typical FSS and DBS spin and three-axis stabilized spacecraft were configured in the absence of NASA technology programs. These spacecraft were reconfigured taking into account the anticipated results of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power programs. In general, the NASA technology programs resulted in spacecraft with increased capability. The developed methodology for assessing the value of spacecraft technology programs in terms of their impact on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures is described. Results of the assessment of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power technology programs are presented for typical FSS and DBS business ventures.

  2. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and... (United States)


    ...-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of... importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason... importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system, and components thereof that infringe...

  3. A LEO concept for millimeter wave satellite communication (United States)

    Jackson, A. H.; Christopher, P.


    A conceptual 60 satellite LEO constellation for millimeter wave communication is discussed. It could be launched in segments, with the first 30 satellites providing high elevation angles for all time in the Northern latitudes between Miami and Thule. The second set of 30 satellites would complete the worldwide coverage with emphasis on high ground elevation angles in the densely populated temperate zones. Full earth searches for all time are used to generate probability density functions for elevation angle. The density functions are used to derive optimum frequencies for random elevation systems. The 55 degree average elevation angle and 14 degree standard deviation are seen to be acceptable for 0.997 rain availability in Washington, DC for the 40 to 47 GHz region. The 40 to 47 GHz region is nearly optimum, if 0.99 rain availability is acceptable.

  4. The 30/20 GHz communications satellite trunking network study (United States)

    Kolb, W.


    Alternative transmission media for a CONUS-wide trunking network in the years 1990 and 2000 are examined. The alternative technologies comprised fiber optic cable, conventional C- and Ku-band satellites, and 30/20 GHz satellites. Three levels of implementation were considered - a 10-city network, a 20-city network, and a 40-city network. The cities selected were the major metropolitan areas with the greatest communications demand. All intercity voice, data, and video traffic carried more than 40 miles was included in the analysis. In the optimized network, traffic transmitted less than 500 miles was found to be better served by fiber optic cable in 1990. By the year 2000, the crossover point would be down to 200 miles, assuming availability of 30/20 GHz satellites.

  5. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service (United States)

    Potter, J. G.


    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  6. Progress in MMIC technology for satellite communications (United States)

    Haugland, Edward J.; Leonard, Regis F.


    NASA's Lewis Research Center is actively involved in the development of monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The approach of the program is to support basic research under grant or in-house, while MMIC development is done under contract, thereby facilitating the transfer of technology to users. Preliminary thrusts of the program have been the extension of technology to higher frequencies (60 GHz), degrees of complexity, and performance (power, efficiency, noise figure) by utilizing novel circuit designs, processes, and materials. A review of the progress made so far is presented.

  7. Integration of an ion engine on the Communications Technology Satellite. (United States)

    Payne, W. F.; Finke, R. C.


    An ion engine subsystem intended for satellite stationkeeping tasks is described. Ion thrusters are chosen to perform the task because the specific impulse is at least an order of magnitude higher than the commonly used reaction control jets. The higher the value of specific impulse, the greater the total impulse that can be attained for a given weight of propellant, hence cost benefits result. The integration, subsystem testing, and the operating plans for the ion engine experiment to be flown in 1975 on the Canadian Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are described. The subsystem is designed to demonstrate north-south stationkeeping, attitude control by means of thrust vectoring, long-term space storage and restart capability, and compatibility with a high powered communications transponder.

  8. Evolution of Satellite Communication Antennas on Mobile Ground Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Getting connected whenever and wherever you travel is not kind of luxury any more. Satellite communication researchers are making it a reality to bring you data, video, and voice services when you are away from home, out of office, or on a long journey. Satellite communication antenna mounted on mobile ground terminals is an essential prerequisite of successful connectivity. In this paper, we review the evolution of this kind of antenna in its historical context and outline the major research achievements on ground mobile terminals. Many striking demonstrations and prototypes are revisited to understand the emerging technologies and assess their potential towards practical implementations. The future trends and challenges are also discussed.

  9. Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of ultrasonographic images. (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Horikoshi, H; Shiba, H; Shimamoto, S


    As compared with terrestrial circuits, communication satellites possess superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting functions, high capacity, and resistance to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the stationary communication satellite JCSAT1 located at an altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, we investigated satelliterelayed dynamic medical images transmitted by video signals, using hepatic ultrasonography as a model. We conclude that the "variable playing speed transmission scheme" proposed by us is effective for the transmission of dynamic images in the narrow band channel. This promises to permit diverse utilization and applications for purposes such as the transmission of other types of ultrasonic images as well as remotely directed medical diagnosis and treatment.

  10. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann


    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  11. Overview of the Chinese lidar satellite development (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwei; Dai, Jun; He, Tao; Zhao, Chenguang; Huang, Jin; Li, Xu; Huang, Genghua; Cao, Haiyi


    The Domestic Spaceborne Lidar as a pivotal method in satellite remote sensing is introduced, including the development status and the key technology. By analysing the Lidar system design among the weighted Chang'e-1, resource satellite, the expectation of Spaceborne Lidar Development is released.

  12. A low bit rate FSK technique for SCPC satellite communication systems (United States)

    Shpilka, Vladimir

    This paper concerns itself with the description and analysis of an application of FSK (frequency shift keying) communication system method, with which it is possible to eliminate the degrading effects of ground station as well as satellite contributed phase noise on very low bit rate communication systems. Typical transmitter and receiver block diagrams are provided. In situations where speed of information transmission is not of the greatest importance, but availability of DC power for the radio frequency transmitter is at premium, the above mentioned FSK technique would yield very low power communication systems, that could be used with the proposed MSAT satellite. Potential applications could include the development of handheld pocket sized messaging communicators and solar powered environmental data collection platforms. This class of earth terminals would operate at L-Band and would fall into the category of mobile earth terminals within the context of the MSAT system.

  13. Research of remote control for Chinese Antarctica Telescope based on iridium satellite communication (United States)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Yang, Shihai


    Astronomers are ever dreaming of sites with best seeing on the Earth surface for celestial observation, and the Antarctica is one of a few such sites only left owing to the global air pollution. However, Antarctica region is largely unaccessible for human being due to lacking of fundamental living conditions, travel facilities and effective ways of communication. Worst of all, the popular internet source as a general way of communication scarcely exists there. Facing such a dilemma and as a solution remote control and data transmission for telescopes through iridium satellite communication has been put forward for the Chinese network Antarctic Schmidt Telescopes 3 (AST3), which is currently under all round research and development. This paper presents iridium satellite-based remote control application adapted to telescope control. The pioneer work in China involves hardware and software configuration utilizing techniques for reliable and secure communication, which is outlined in the paper too.

  14. Results of computer network experiment via the Japanese communication satellite CS - Performance evaluation of communication protocols (United States)

    Ito, A.; Kakinuma, Y.; Uchida, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Takahashi, H.


    Computer network experiments have been performed by using the Japanese communication satellite CS. The network is of a centralized (star) type, consisting of one center station and many user stations. The protocols are determined taking into consideration the long round trip delay of a satellite channel. This paper treats the communication protocol aspects of the experiments. Performances of the burst level and the link protocols (which correspond nearly to data link layer of OSI 7 layer model) are evaluated. System performances of throughput, delay, link level overhead are measured by using the statistically generated traffic.

  15. Bispectrum modulation for jamming rejection on satellite communication channels (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.


    The Global Grid communications environment is designed to provide a high-data-rate network that supports the full complement of DoD communications needs. Satellite links are an integral part of the Global Grid concept which extends the connectivity to individual mobile units and jointly operating forces at isolated locations. However, satellite channels are vulnerable to jamming, in particular when a high data rate is required. To overcome the jamming problem, the traditional approach is to design modulation techniques such that, on the average, the spectrum of the signal looks like the spectrum of a white noise process. This together with channel coding provides immunity against jamming. The main problem with this approach is that it requires a much larger spectrum than that of the data sequence; hence, the available spectrum on the link is used mostly for jamming protection and not for data communications. The traditional modulation techniques employed on satellite communication links are based on various properties of the second-order spectrum of the modulation wave form. In this study we have explored the utility and performance of a new family of modulation schemes that exploit the properties of the higher-order cumulant sequences and associated polyspectra of the waveform. In particular, we have investigated an approach in which the third-order polyspectrum, which is generally referred to as the bispectrum, is modulated. To determine the performance characteristics of this bispectral modulation scheme, we have considered two different detector structures, for which we have completed both theoretical and simulated performance analyses.

  16. Solar Paddle Antenna on Pico-Satellite for Amateur Radio Communication (United States)

    Nohmi, Masahiro; Oi, Katsumi; Takuma, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masaaki

    This paper describes solar paddle antenna proposed in the development of Kagawa Satellite "KUKAI." KUKAI is a mother-daughter pico-satellite for technical verification of a tethered space robot. The mother and the daughter satellites communicate respectively with the ground station by amateur radio frequencies. For the purpose of simple deployment system on orbit and antenna directivity suitable for KUKAI, solar paddle antenna mounted at the edge of a solar paddle is employed. After sufficient antenna adjustment on the ground, KUKAI was launched on 23 January 2009 by the H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. The solar paddles were successfully deployed, and communication by the solar paddle antenna was successful.

  17. Networks systems and operations. [wideband communication techniques for data links with satellites (United States)


    The application of wideband communication techniques for data links with satellites is discussed. A diagram of the demand assigned voice communications system is provided. The development of prototype integrated spacecraft paramps at S- and C-bands is described and the performance of space-qualified paramps is tabulated. The characteristics of a dual parabolic cylinder monopulse zoom antenna for use with the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) are analyzed. The development of a universally applicable transponder at S-band is reported. A block diagram of the major subassemblies of the S-band transponder is included. The technology aspects of network timing and synchronization of communication systems are to show the use of the Omega navigation system. The telemetry data compression system used during the Skylab program is evaluated.

  18. High Speed Inter-Satellite Communication System by Incorporating Hybrid Polarization-Wavelength Division Multiplexing Scheme (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sushank; Chaudhary, Neha; Sharma, Saurabh; Choudhary, BC


    Inter-Satellite communication is one of remarkable technologies that can be used to communicate between satellites. This work is focused to carry out the investigations of polarization scheme by incorporating dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) scheme in inter-satellite communication system. A 20×6 Gbps data are transported over inter-satellite optical link having span of 5,000 km to realize the total data transmission of 120 Gbps. Moreover, results are also reported with the effect of RZ and NRZ modulation schemes. The performance of proposed inter-satellite communication link is measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, received power and eye diagrams.

  19. ACTS TDMA network control. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (United States)

    Inukai, T.; Campanella, S. J.


    This paper presents basic network control concepts for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. Two experimental systems, called the low-burst-rate and high-burst-rate systems, along with ACTS ground system features, are described. The network control issues addressed include frame structures, acquisition and synchronization procedures, coordinated station burst-time plan and satellite-time plan changes, on-board clock control based on ground drift measurements, rain fade control by means of adaptive forward-error-correction (FEC) coding and transmit power augmentation, and reassignment of channel capacities on demand. The NASA ground system, which includes a primary station, diversity station, and master control station, is also described.

  20. Estimation of the demand for public services communications. [market research and economic analysis for a communications satellite system (United States)


    Market analyses and economic studies are presented to support NASA planning for a communications satellite system to provide public services in health, education, mobile communications, data transfer, and teleconferencing.

  1. Effect of digital scrambling on satellite communication links (United States)

    Dessouky, K.


    Digital data scrambling has been considered for communication systems using NRZ symbol formats. The purpose is to increase the number of transitions in the data to improve the performance of the symbol synchronizer. This is accomplished without expanding the bandwidth but at the expense of increasing the data bit error rate (BER). Models for the scramblers/descramblers of practical interest are presented together with the appropriate link model. The effects of scrambling on the performance of coded and uncoded links are studied. The results are illustrated by application to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) links. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of scrambling are also given.

  2. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. Part 2: Theoretical development of a dynamic model and application to rain fade durations and tolerable control delays for fade countermeasures (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.


    A dynamic rain attenuation prediction model is developed for use in obtaining the temporal characteristics, on time scales of minutes or hours, of satellite communication link availability. Analagous to the associated static rain attenuation model, which yields yearly attenuation predictions, this dynamic model is applicable at any location in the world that is characterized by the static rain attenuation statistics peculiar to the geometry of the satellite link and the rain statistics of the location. Such statistics are calculated by employing the formalism of Part I of this report. In fact, the dynamic model presented here is an extension of the static model and reduces to the static model in the appropriate limit. By assuming that rain attenuation is dynamically described by a first-order stochastic differential equation in time and that this random attenuation process is a Markov process, an expression for the associated transition probability is obtained by solving the related forward Kolmogorov equation. This transition probability is then used to obtain such temporal rain attenuation statistics as attenuation durations and allowable attenuation margins versus control system delay.

  3. NASA/DARPA advanced communications technology satellite project for evaluation of telemedicine outreach using next-generation communications satellite technology: Mayo Foundation participation. (United States)

    Gilbert, B K; Mitchell, M P; Bengali, A R; Khandheria, B K


    To describe the development of telemedicine capabilities-application of remote consultation and diagnostic techniques-and to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of such clinical outreach to rural and underserved communities with limited telecommunications infrastructures. In 1992, Mayo Foundation (Rochester, Minn, Jacksonville, Fla, and Scottsdale, Ariz), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency collaborated to create a complex network of fiberoptic landlines, video recording systems, satellite terminals, and specially developed data translators linking Mayo sites with other locations in the continental United States on an on-demand basis. The purpose was to transmit data via the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) digital communications protocol over the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. The links were intended to provide a conduit for transmission of data for patient-specific consultations between physicians, evaluation of medical imagery, and medical education for clinical staffs at remote sites. Low-data-rate (LDR) experiments went live late in 1993. Mayo Clinic Rochester successfully provided medical consultation and services to 2 small regional medical facilities. High-data-rate (HDR) experiments included studies of remote digital echocardiography, store-and-forward telemedicine, cardiac catheterization, and teleconsultation for congenital heart disease. These studies combined landline data transmission with use of the satellite. The complexity of the routing paths and network components, immaturity of available software, and inexperience with existing telecommunications caused significant study delays. These experiments demonstrated that next-generation satellite technology can provide batch and real-time imagery for telemedicine. The first-generation of the ATM and satellite network technology used in these experiments created several technical problems and inconveniences that should

  4. The ACTS Flight System - Cost-Effective Advanced Communications Technology. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (United States)

    Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.


    The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.

  5. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof... (United States)


    ... Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337... certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof that infringe one or... within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices...

  6. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELF Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Cavalheiro


    Full Text Available The traditional notion of English as a foreign language solely for communicating with native speakers can no longer be applied in a world that is constantly changing, hence paving the way for an alternative use of the language known as English as a lingua franca. As a result, instead of focusing only on grammatical correctness, research into language pedagogy has also come to recognize the importance of exploring bottom-up learning processes, and developing intercultural communicative competence (ICC and more communicative-based methods. Nowadays, it is essential to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate successfully. To show the importance of integrating ICC in language pedagogy, a recording from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English is analysed here to demonstrate the significance of developing critical awareness as well as several communicative strategies, so that language learners can afterwards have the necessary ICC to interact in today’s multi-lingual/cultural society.

  7. X-band Cube Satellite Communication System Demonstration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will develop, test and demonstrate an end-to-end innovative, compact, efficient and low cost S-band uplink and X-band downlink CubeSat Communication System...

  8. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2 (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.


    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  9. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.


    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  10. Integrating small satellite communication in an autonomous vehicle network: A case for oceanography (United States)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Costa, Maria; Nodar-López, Diego; Aguado Agelet, Fernando


    Small satellites and autonomous vehicles have greatly evolved in the last few decades. Hundreds of small satellites have been launched with increasing functionalities, in the last few years. Likewise, numerous autonomous vehicles have been built, with decreasing costs and form-factor payloads. Here we focus on combining these two multifaceted assets in an incremental way, with an ultimate goal of alleviating the logistical expenses in remote oceanographic operations. The first goal is to create a highly reliable and constantly available communication link for a network of autonomous vehicles, taking advantage of the small satellite lower cost, with respect to conventional spacecraft, and its higher flexibility. We have developed a test platform as a proving ground for this network, by integrating a satellite software defined radio on an unmanned air vehicle, creating a system of systems, and several tests have been run successfully, over land. As soon as the satellite is fully operational, we will start to move towards a cooperative network of autonomous vehicles and small satellites, with application in maritime operations, both in-situ and remote sensing.

  11. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army (United States)


    Figure 3). However, a 2016 Department of Defense (DoD) report explained that in 2013 “China launched an object into space on a ballistic trajectory with...well as other non-kinetic counter- space capabilities.42 The USCC report also provided detailed analysis of Chinese developments of co-orbital...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the

  12. Thin-route rural communications using Intelsat satellites (United States)

    Jennings, R. D.; McManamon, P. M.

    Application requirements exist and are growing in developing countries for telecommunications services that can be supplied best by use of satellite technology. Many of these requirements can be satisfied with one or two telephone circuits per earth station location. In many areas of the world, the only satellite capacity available to support these thin-route service requirements is in the Intelsat system. Small earth stations, suited economically and sized to provide the required thin-route service capacity, have not been common in the Intelsat system. However, Intelsat is recognizing the need for thin-route services and the opportunities that will develop for providing these services using small earth stations in the Intelsat system. This paper explores the potential advantages of continuously-variable-slope delta modulation (CVSD) voice encoding and the technical parameters of small earth stations suited for thin-route services, as well as the developments within Intelsat for responding to these service needs.

  13. Optimization of communication network topology for navigation sharing among distributed satellites (United States)

    Dang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yulin


    Navigation sharing among distributed satellites is quite important for coordinated motion and collision avoidance. This paper proposes optimization methods of the communication network topology to achieve navigation sharing. The whole communication network constructing by inter-satellite links are considered as a topology graph. The aim of this paper is to find the communication network topology with minimum communication connections' number (MCCN) in different conditions. It has found that the communication capacity and the number of channels are two key parameters affecting the results. The model of MCCN topology for navigation sharing is established and corresponding method is designed. Two main scenarios, viz., homogeneous case and heterogeneous case, are considered. For the homogeneous case where each member has the same communication capacity, it designs a construction method (Algorithm 1) to find the MCCN topology. For the heterogeneous case, it introduces a modified genetic algorithm (Algorithm 2) to find the MCCN topology. When considering the fact that the number of channels is limited, the Algorithm 2 is further modified by adding a penalized term in the fitness function. The effectiveness of these algorithms is all proved in theoretical. Three examples are further tested to illustrate the methods developed in this paper.

  14. Considerations and Architectures for Inter-Satellite Communications in Distributed Spacecraft Systems (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard; Horne, William; Israel, David; Kwadrat, Carl; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    This paper will identify the important characteristics and requirements necessary for inter-satellite communications in distributed spacecraft systems and present analysis results focusing on architectural and protocol comparisons. Emerging spacecraft systems plan to deploy multiple satellites in various "distributed" configurations ranging from close proximity formation flying to widely separated constellations. Distributed spacecraft configurations provide advantages for science exploration and operations since many activities useful for missions may be better served by distributing them between spacecraft. For example, many scientific observations can be enhanced through spatially separated platforms, such as for deep space interferometry. operating multiple distributed spacecraft as a mission requires coordination that may be best provided through inter-satellite communications. For example, several future distributed spacecraft systems envision autonomous operations requiring relative navigational calculations and coordinated attitude and position corrections. To conduct these operations, data must be exchanged between spacecraft. Direct cross-links between satellites provides an efficient and practical method for transferring data and commands. Unlike existing "bent-pipe" relay networks supporting space missions, no standard or widely-used method exists for cross-link communications. Consequently, to support these future missions, the characteristics necessary for inter-satellite communications need to be examined. At first glance, all of the missions look extremely different. Some missions call for tens to hundreds of nano-satellites in constant communications in close proximity to each other. Other missions call for a handful of satellites communicating very slowly over thousands to hundreds of thousands of kilometers. The paper will first classify distributed spacecraft missions to help guide the evaluation and definition of cross-link architectures and

  15. The use of global ionospheric irregularity models for satellite communications (United States)

    Pope, J. H.


    Scintillation data obtained in the VHF region were used by Fremouw to develop a global scintillation model. An attempt has been made in the present study to improve this model in several respects. One of these is to modify the high latitude term in the model to better represent data obtained in the northern high latitude regions. Another improvement is the extention of the frequency region of validity to the L band and microwave regions. This attempt is based on certain theoretical considerations regarding the effects of distribution in irregularity sizes. Recent satellite in situ measurements indicate that the ionospheric irregularity description is functionally different from that assumed in the past. These satellite measurements are used in connection with the theoretical development to improve the model.

  16. An ocean scatter propagation model for aeronautical satellite communication applications (United States)

    Moreland, K. W.


    In this paper an ocean scattering propagation model, developed for aircraft-to-satellite (aeronautical) applications, is described. The purpose of the propagation model is to characterize the behavior of sea reflected multipath as a function of physical propagation path parameters. An accurate validation against the theoretical far field solution for a perfectly conducting sinusoidal surface is provided. Simulation results for typical L band aeronautical applications with low complexity antennas are presented.

  17. Massive information sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication (United States)

    Yi, Longteng; Li, Cong; Liu, Naijin


    With the development of big data and information globalization, the requirements of massive information transmitting and sharing among data centers are expanding, especially among those data centers which are extremely far away from each other. In the above field, conventional optical fiber transmission faces many problems such as complex networking, poor security, long node switching delay, high lease and maintain cost and low migration flexibility. Besides, in the near future, data centers may tend to be built in the remote Polar Regions or on the sea for natural cooling. For the above situation, sharing the massive information among global data centers based on satellite laser communication is proposed in this paper. This proposal includes advantage analysis, research of restraining atmosphere interference, etc. At last, by comparison with conventional technology, the research result shows that massive information transmitting and sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication has far reaching application potential.

  18. The impact of customer-contractor interactions on spacecraft innovation: Insights from communication satellite history (United States)

    Szajnfarber, Zoe; Stringfellow, Margaret V.; Weigel, Annalisa L.


    This paper captures a first detailed attempt to quantitatively analyze the innovation history of the space sector. Building on a communication satellite innovation metric and a spacecraft innovation framework developed as part of an ongoing project, this paper presents a preliminary model of global communication satellite innovation. In addition to innovation being a function of the rate of performance normalized by price, innovation was found to be strongly influenced by characteristics of the customer-contractor contractual relationship. Specifically, Department of Defense contracts tend to result in a lower level of innovation on average as compared to other customers. Also, particular customer-contractor pairs perform differently and exhibit a second order relationship in time.

  19. Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications: Towards a typology of state actor responses (United States)

    Housen-Couriel, Deborah


    Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications are a relatively new phenomenon, yet have quickly come to the forefront of concern for the sustainability of satellite systems due to the vulnerabilities that such threats may exploit and negatively impact. These vulnerabilities are mission-critical: they include launch systems, communications, telemetry, tracking and command, and mission completion. They and other aspects of satellite communications depend heavily on secure and resilient cyber capabilities for all stages of the satellite's lifespan. Because of the inherently global nature of both satellite and cyberspace activities, these capabilities rely significantly on international cooperation for setting a baseline of agreed legal norms that protect satellites and satellite communications. This critical cooperation is relevant during all mission phases, from planning to final wrap-up. Under optimal circumstances, the norms and standards protecting satellites and satellite transmissions are developed and enforced by those nation-state actors that are committed to system operability and overall mission sustainability for those satellites launched under their aegis and responsibility. However, when breaches of international law do occur in the form of hostile cyber events that cause damage to satellite communications, a range of measures should be available to the victim state, provided by the appropriate legal regime or regimes. This article proposes that a comprehensive and integrative multi-stakeholder review be undertaken in the near future of the measures available under international law for responding to hostile acts directed at satellite systems and communications, in a manner that takes into account both existing regimes of international law reviewed herein, as well as considerations of cybersecurity. These measures will depend upon the characterization of hostile interference with satellite transmissions in accordance with a proposed typology of

  20. Performance of a low data rate speech codec for land-mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Gersho, Allen; Jedrey, Thomas C.


    In an effort to foster the development of new technologies for the emerging land mobile satellite communications services, JPL funded two development contracts in 1984: one to the Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara and the other to the Georgia Inst. of Technology, to develop algorithms and real time hardware for near toll quality speech compression at 4800 bits per second. Both universities have developed and delivered speech codecs to JPL, and the UCSB codec was extensively tested by JPL in a variety of experimental setups. The basic UCSB speech codec algorithms and the test results of the various experiments performed with this codec are presented.

  1. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 1: Theoretical development and application to yearly predictions for selected cities in the United States (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.


    A rain attenuation prediction model is described for use in calculating satellite communication link availability for any specific location in the world that is characterized by an extended record of rainfall. Such a formalism is necessary for the accurate assessment of such availability predictions in the case of the small user-terminal concept of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project. The model employs the theory of extreme value statistics to generate the necessary statistical rainrate parameters from rain data in the form compiled by the National Weather Service. These location dependent rain statistics are then applied to a rain attenuation model to obtain a yearly prediction of the occurrence of attenuation on any satellite link at that location. The predictions of this model are compared to those of the Crane Two-Component Rain Model and some empirical data and found to be very good. The model is then used to calculate rain attenuation statistics at 59 locations in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) for the 20 GHz downlinks and 30 GHz uplinks of the proposed ACTS system. The flexibility of this modeling formalism is such that it allows a complete and unified treatment of the temporal aspects of rain attenuation that leads to the design of an optimum stochastic power control algorithm, the purpose of which is to efficiently counter such rain fades on a satellite link.

  2. Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking. Executive Summary (United States)


    Board Task Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking.” As a result, the Chairman of the Defense Science Board established a...Force on Military Satellite Communication and Tactical Networking Executive Summary This report is a...product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense

  3. Using satellite communications for a mobile computer network (United States)

    Wyman, Douglas J.


    The topics discussed include the following: patrol car automation, mobile computer network, network requirements, network design overview, MCN mobile network software, MCN hub operation, mobile satellite software, hub satellite software, the benefits of patrol car automation, the benefits of satellite mobile computing, and national law enforcement satellite.

  4. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.


    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  5. Conditions for Developing Communicative Competence (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena


    Introduction. Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Materials and Methods. The meaning of the key concepts of "communicative competence" and "opportunities" is studied within the search for conditions to develop. Conclusion. The theoretical findings…

  6. Communications and Development: Two Views. (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1977


    Two views on current international communication are presented--that of an American academician, and that of an Indian journalist. John Lent traces the rise of development journalism and development communication from the point of view of those who believe that individual freedom of expression should be treated as an inviolable right. Narinder…

  7. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.


    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  8. A systems approach to the commercialization of space communications technology - The NASA/JPL Mobile Satellite Program (United States)

    Weber, William J., III; Gray, Valerie W.; Jackson, Byron; Steele, Laura C.


    This paper discusss the systems approach taken by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the commercialization of land-mobile satellite services (LMSS) in the United States. As the lead center for NASA's Mobile Satellite Program, JPL was involved in identifying and addressing many of the key barriers to commercialization of mobile satellite communications, including technical, economic, regulatory and institutional risks, or uncertainties. The systems engineering approach described here was used to mitigate these risks. The result was the development and implementation of the JPL Mobile Satellite Experiment Project. This Project included not only technology development, but also studies to support NASA in the definition of the regulatory, market, and investment environments within which LMSS would evolve and eventually operate, as well as initiatives to mitigate their associated commercialization risks. The end result of these government-led endeavors was the acceleration of the introduction of commercial mobile satellite services, both nationally and internationally.

  9. Mit castor satellite: Design, implementation, and testing of the communication system (United States)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; McCormack, Matthew Michael; Munoz, Michael; Parra, Spencer; Miller, David W.


    Cathode Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Reposition (CASTOR) is an orbital manoeuvre and transfer micro-satellite bus developed at MIT Space System Laboratory. The technical objective of the mission is achieving 1 km/s of delta-V over a 1 year mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This will be accomplished using a novel electric propulsion system, the Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT), which enables high efficiency orbital changes of the ESPA-ring class satellite. CASTOR is capable of improving rapid access to space capabilities by providing an orbital transfer platform with a very high performance to mass ratio, thus greatly reducing launch costs and allowing for highly efficient orbital manoeuvre. Furthermore, CASTOR is highly scalable and modular, allowing it to be adapted to a wide range of scales and applications. CASTOR is developed as part of the University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) funded by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In order to accomplish CASTOR mission objective, a highly optimized, scalable, light weight, and low cost communication system needed to be developed. These constraints imply the development of trade studies to select the final communication system architecture able to maximize the amount of data transmitted, while guaranteeing reliability, redundancy and limited mass, power consumption, and cost. A special attention is also required to guarantee a reliable communication system in cases of tumbling, or in case of strong Doppler shift which is inevitable due to the high delta-V capabilities of the vehicle. In order to accomplish all the mission requirements, different features have been introduced in the design of the communication system for this mission. Specifically, customized patch antennas have been realized, and a customized communication protocol has been designed and implemented. The communication subsystem has been validated through an intense testing campaign which included software tests in the laboratory, hardware

  10. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.


    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  11. High throughput satellites in 5G and MIMO interference limited communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Neria Ana


    Full Text Available Classically, thermal noise has been the workhorse of satellite communications due to the long distances to be covered between the satellite and the user terminal (UT. Lately, LDPC (Low-Density Parity-Check codes allow the noise threshold to be set very close to the Shannon limit for the memory-less satellite channel; thus, solving the noise problem that turbo codes were not able to solve. However, recently, the high target rates in next generation 5G wireless terrestrial system are pushing the required spectral efficiency in Satellite Communications; therefore, shifting the SatCom paradigm towards an interference limited one. This paper revisits the 5G scene and the role of next generation satellite communications, with a special focus on high throughput satellites (HTS together with the future accompanying MIMO interference mitigation techniques.

  12. An Evaluation of Protocol Enhancing Proxies and File Transport Protocols for Satellite Communication (United States)

    Finch, Patrick Eugene; Sullivan, Donald; Ivancic, William D.


    NASA is utilizing Global Hawk aircraft in high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. Communications with the onboard research equipment and sensors (the science payload) is via Ku-Band radio utilizing satellites in geostationary orbits. All payload communications use standard Internet Protocols and routing, and much of the data to be transferred is comprised of very large files. The science community is interested in fully utilizing these communication links to retrieve data as quickly and reliably as possible. A test bed was developed at NASA Ames to evaluate modern transport protocols as well as Protocol Enhancing Proxies (PEPs) to determine what tools best fit the needs of the science community. This paper describes the test bed used, the protocols, the PEPs that were evaluated, the particular tests performed and the results and conclusions.

  13. Communicating results | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Much of the training is conducted using the Communications Toolkit for Researchers, available in English, French, and Spanish on the IDRC website. IDRC funds a number of activities focused on building research communication skills. For instance, IDRC and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation co-fund ...

  14. High-speed and Long-reach Hybrid AMI-WDM-PI Inter-satellite Communication System (United States)

    Shatnawi, Abdallah Ahmad; Bin Mohd Warip, Mohd Nazri


    In the current context of high-altitude platform communication system, inter-satellite communication is remarkable and highly effective. The present work aims to develop an integrated data transmission system incorporating alternate mark inversion, wavelength-division multiplexing, and polarization interleaving scheme for transmitting data of eight channels, each carrying 20 Gbps data over inter-satellite link of 5,000 km. The performance of the integrated data transmission of 160 Gbps data up to 5,000 km will be evaluated by means of signal-to-noise ratio, total received power, and eye diagram.

  15. Communications Satellite Systems Conference, 9th, San Diego, CA, March 7-11, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers (United States)

    The Shuttle-to-Geostationary Orbital Transfer by mid-level thrust is considered along with multibeam antenna concepts for global communications, the antenna pointing systems for large communication satellites, the connection phase of multidestination protocols for broadcast satellites, and an experiment in high-speed international packet switching. Attention is given to a dynamic switch matrix for the TDMA satellite switching system, the characterization of 16 bit microprocessors for space use, in-orbit operation and test of Intelsat V satellites, the first operational communications system via satellite in Europe, the Arab satellite communications systems, second generation business satellite systems for Europe, and a high performance Ku-band satellite for the 1980's. Other topics investigated are related to Ku-band terminal design tradeoffs, progress in the definition of the Italian satellite for domestic telecommunications, future global satellite systems for Intelsat, and satellite refuelling in orbit.

  16. Renewable Energy SCADA/Training Using NASA's Advanced Technology Communication Satellite (United States)

    Kalu, A.; Emrich, C.; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, Roberto (Technical Monitor)


    The lack of electrical energy in the rural communities of developing countries is well known, as is the economic unfeasibility of providing much needed energy to these regions via electric grids. Renewable energy (RE) can provide an economic advantage over conventional forms in meeting some of these energy needs. The use of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) arrangement via satellite could enable experts at remote locations to provide technical assistance to local trainees while they acquire a measure of proficiency with a newly installed RE system through hands-on training programs using the same communications link. Upon full mastery of the technologies, indigenous personnel could also employ similar SCADA arrangements to remotely monitor and control their constellation of RE systems. Two separate ACTS technology verification experiments (TVEs) have demonstrated that the portability of the Ultra Small Aperture Terminal (USAT) and the versatility of NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), as well as the advantages of Ka band satellites, can be invaluable in providing energy training via distance education (DE), and for implementing renewable energy system SCADA. What has not been tested is the capabilities of these technologies for a simultaneous implementation of renewable energy DE and SCADA. Such concurrent implementations will be useful for preparing trainees in developing countries for their eventual SCADA operations. The project described in this correspondence is the first effort, to our knowledge, in this specific TVE. The setup for this experiment consists of a one-Watt USAT located at Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) connected to two satellite modems tuned to different frequencies to establish two duplex ACTS Ka-band communication channels. A short training program on operation and maintenance of the system will be delivered while simultaneously monitoring and controlling the hybrid using the same satellite

  17. Design of Discrete Time Radio Receiver for the Demodulation of Power-Separated Co-Channel Satellite Communication Signals (United States)


    Root Cosine TWTA Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal VCM Variable Coding and Modulation VoIP Voice over Internet...For example, this technique has found primary application in the point-to-multi-point communications of very small aperture terminal ( VSAT ) high-capacity communications satellite, and the proliferation of Very Small Aperture Terminal ( VSAT ) networks [6]. The developments of

  18. Communication and development. Obstacles in implementing development programmes. (United States)

    Rodrigo, M L


    In developing countries communication is an important part of development, but will not generate development itself. In agricultural development in Third World countries 2 models are used: the innovation diffusion model and the package program model. These methods did not meet the needs of the small farmer, since they focused on single crop production. Most of these services do not spend time diagnosing the needs of individual farmers and give standard recommendations that do not suit many clients. Irrigation development projects require special communications skills, and in some cases in Mexico and Peru there were poor communications between farmers and the technical experts. Some argue that a strong state irrigation bureaucracy is needed to build and maintain a complex system, but others state farmer participation and cooperation as mandatory. In the health education area, the mass media is in question on its role as an educator. The confusion caused by advertising of Western medicine and miracle healings can be a major obstacle to health education. In family planning programs in these countries failures have been due to poor communication strategies that were built on false assumptions. The use of mass media including radio, television, and satellite has had some successes and failures in literacy programs. The communication factors that cause failures in these various programs are the lack of understanding and insight of the planners on the needs of their clients. Poorly developed messages, improper channels, and top down methods also cause these poor results.

  19. A Framework for Developing Artificial Intelligence for Autonomous Satellite Operations (United States)

    Anderson, Jason L.; Kurfess, Franz J.; Puig-Suari, Jordi


    In the world of educational satellites, student teams manually conduct operations daily. Educational satellites typically travel in a Low Earth Orbit allowing communication for approximately thirty minutes each day. Manual operations during these times is manageable for student teams as the required manpower is minimal. The international Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO), however, promises satellite contact upwards of sixteen hours per day by connecting earth stations globally through the Internet. This large increase in satellite communication time makes manual student operations unreasonable and alternatives must be explored. This paper introduces a framework to conduct autonomous satellite operations using different AI methodologies. This paper additionally demonstrates the framework's usability by introducing a sample rule-based implementation for Cal Poly's CubeSat, CP3.

  20. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.


    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  1. LTE-based Satellite Communications in LEO Mega-Constellations


    Guidotti, A.; Vanelli-Coralli, A.; Foggi, T.; Colavolpe, G.; Caus, M.; Bas, J.; Cioni, S.; Modenini, A.


    The integration of satellite and terrestrial networks is a promising solution for extending broadband coverage to areas not connected to a terrestrial infrastructure, as also demonstrated by recent commercial and standardisation endeavours. However, the large delays and Doppler shifts over the satellite channel pose severe technical challenges to traditional terrestrial systems, as LTE or 5G. In this paper, two architectures are proposed for a LEO mega-constellation realising a satellite-enab...

  2. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Microwave and Optical Communications (United States)

    Israel, David J.


    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available. In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  3. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Optical and Microwave Communications (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Shaw, Harry


    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available.In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  4. Evaluating the use of satellite communications in the government of Canada (United States)

    Macumber, Howard L.; Hoch, Oswald

    The Canadian Government Telecommunications Agency (GTA) has recently introduced the Government Satellite Network (GSN) for data, voice, and image communications. Three major field trials of this network have been undertaken, two involving time division multiple access (TDMA) and the third involving a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system. It was found that telecommunication delays experienced with single hop satellite communications had minimal effect but double hop systems seriously interfered with voice communications. The quality of transmitted facsimile images were equal or superior to those transmitted over terrestrial lines. Data transmission quality varied from excellent to unacceptable under moderate line loading. The SCPC system was used in trials involving the Canadian Coast Guard and the Air Administration. In an Air Administrative application, users were unable to differentiate between transmission over satellite and terrestrial channels. A demonstration has been established to enable government departments to evaluate satellite communications applications, and to verify essential aspects of system functionality and performance.

  5. US development and commercialization of a North American mobile satellite service (United States)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Gray, Valerie; Freibaum, Jerry


    U.S. policies promoting applications and commercialization of space technology for the 'benefit of mankind,' and emphasis on international competitiveness, formed the basis of NASA's Mobile Satellite (MSAT) R&D and user experiments program to develop a commercial U.S. Mobile Satellite Service. Exemplifying this philosophy, the MSAT program targets the reduction of technical, regulatory, market, and financial risks that inhibit commercialization. The program strategy includes industry and user involvement in developing and demonstrating advanced technologies, regulatory advocacy, and financial incentives to industry. Approximately two decades of NASA's satellite communications development and demonstrations have contributed to the emergence of a new multi-billion dollar industry for land, aeronautical, and maritime mobile communications via satellite. NASA's R&D efforts are now evolving from the development of 'enabling' ground technologies for VHF, UHF, and L-Band mobile terminals, to Ka-Band terminals offering additional mobility and user convenience.

  6. Personal Development and Communication courses

    CERN Multimedia


    Please find below the list of courses in the field of Personal Development and Communication which are scheduled before the end of July.     In addition, the following courses are scheduled in French:   For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or HR-LD at

  7. Personal Development and Communication courses

    CERN Multimedia


    Please find below the list of courses in the field of Personal Development and Communication which are scheduled before the end of July.     For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or HR-LD at

  8. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.


    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  9. Educational Experiments with the Communications Technology Satellite: A Memo from Evaluators to Planners. (United States)

    Daniel, J. S.; And Others

    A series of educational experiments are being conducted in Canada on the Communications Technology Satellite. The description of these experiments reveals a diversity not previously encountered in educational applications of satellite systems. In evaluating these experiments, the authors adopted Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product model in…

  10. Participatory Development Communication

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Without this critical link in the information chain, I believed that there could be no real success in furthering the development process. Thus two years ago, ..... Consequently, the mass media cannot act as agents of change, since they transmit the western message, and the capitalist and conservative ideology. This paradigm ...

  11. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)? (United States)

    Freidell, James E.


    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  12. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available For modelling of ADS-B messages transmition with the help of low-orbit satellite complex Іrіdіumdifferent models of communication channel "Aircraft-to-Satellites-to-Ground Stations" were built using NetCrackerProfessіonal 4.1 software. Influence of aircraft and satellites amount on average link utilization and message travellingtime was studied for telecommunication channels with intersatellite link and bent-pipe architecture. The effect ofcommunication channel "saturation" during simultaneous data transmission through a satellite communicationchannel from many planes was investigated.

  14. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations (United States)

    Leroy, B. E.

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  15. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.


    Deep charging, in contrast to surface charging, focuses on electron penetration deep into insulating materials applied over conductors. A classic example of this scenario is an insulated wire. Deep charging can pose a threat to material integrity, and to sensitive electronics, when it gives rise to an electrostatic discharge or arc. With the advent of Electric Orbit Raising, which requires spiraling through Earth's radiation belts, satellites are subjected to high energy electron environments which they normally would not encounter. Beyond Earth orbit, missions to Jupiter and Saturn face deep charging concerns due to the high energy radiation environments. While predictions can be made about charging in insulating materials, it is difficult to extend those predictions to complicated geometries, such as the case of an insulating coating around a small wire, or a non-uniform silicone grouting on a bus bar. Therefore, to conclusively determine the susceptibility of a system to arcs from deep charging, experimental investigations must be carried out. This paper will describe the evaluation carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. Specifically, deep charging evaluations of solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, will be discussed. The results of each evaluation will be benchmarked against control sample tests, as well as typical power system levels, to show no significant deep charging threat existed for this set of samples under the conditions tested.


    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).


  17. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit... (United States)


    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations... the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft...

  18. Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.

  19. Structural Analysis of Communication Development. (United States)

    Conville, Richard L.

    This paper discusses the question of the legitimacy of applying structural analysis to actual human behavior and illustrates its legitimacy by using the reasoning in an essay by Paul Ricoeur. It then asks if the principles of communication development (obliqueness, exchange, and dying) derived from Helen Keller's experience of communication…

  20. Communications Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manages the timely and relevant development of a wide range of IDRC information and communications products, incl. program brochures, fact sheets, webpages, presentations, speeches, newsletters, social media content, and others, to promote IDRC and to enhance the dissemination of research results and impact.

  1. Mission studies on constellation of LEO satellites with remote-sensing and communication payloads (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ray; Hwang, Feng-Tai; Hsueh, Chuang-Wei


    Revisiting time and global coverage are two major requirements for most of the remote sensing satellites. Constellation of satellites can get the benefit of short revisit time and global coverage. Typically, remote sensing satellites prefer to choose Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) because of fixed revisiting time and Sun beta angle. The system design and mission operation will be simple and straightforward. However, if we focus on providing remote sensing and store-and-forward communication services for low latitude countries, Sun Synchronous Orbit will not be the best choice because we need more satellites to cover the communication service gap in low latitude region. Sometimes the design drivers for remote sensing payloads are conflicted with the communication payloads. For example, lower orbit altitude is better for remote sensing payload performance, but the communication service zone will be smaller and we need more satellites to provide all time communication service. The current studies focus on how to provide remote sensing and communication services for low latitude countries. A cost effective approach for the mission, i.e. constellation of microsatellites, will be evaluated in this paper.

  2. Modulation Classification of Satellite Communication Signals Using Cumulants and Neural Networks (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Evans, Michael; Downey, Joseph


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s future communication architecture is evaluating cognitive technologies and increased system intelligence. These technologies are expected to reduce the operational complexity of the network, increase science data return, and reduce interference to self and others. In order to increase situational awareness, signal classification algorithms could be applied to identify users and distinguish sources of interference. A significant amount of previous work has been done in the area of automatic signal classification for military and commercial applications. As a preliminary step, we seek to develop a system with the ability to discern signals typically encountered in satellite communication. Proposed is an automatic modulation classifier which utilizes higher order statistics (cumulants) and an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio. These features are extracted from baseband symbols and then processed by a neural network for classification. The modulation types considered are phase-shift keying (PSK), amplitude and phase-shift keying (APSK),and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Physical layer properties specific to the Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite- Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard, such as pilots and variable ring ratios, are also considered. This paper will provide simulation results of a candidate modulation classifier, and performance will be evaluated over a range of signal-to-noise ratios, frequency offsets, and nonlinear amplifier distortions.

  3. Developing status of satellite remote sensing and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Liu Dechang


    This paper has discussed the latest development of satellite remote sensing in sensor resolutions, satellite motion models, load forms, data processing and its application. The authors consider that sensor resolutions of satellite remote sensing have increased largely. Valid integration of multisensors is a new idea and technology of satellite remote sensing in the 21st century, and post-remote sensing application technology is the important part of deeply applying remote sensing information and has great practical significance. (authors)

  4. Design and Implementation of a Lunar Communications Satellite and Server for the 2012 SISO Smackdown (United States)

    Bulgatz, Dennis; Heater, Daniel; O'Neal, Daniel A.; Norris, Bryan; Schricker, Bradley C.


    Last year, the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) inaugurated the now annual High Level Architecture (HLA) Smackdown at the Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). A primary objective of the Smackdown event is to provide college students with hands-on experience in the High Level Architecture (HLA). The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) fielded teams in 2011 and 2012. Both the 2011 and 2012 smackdown scenarios were a lunar resupply mission. The 2012 UAHuntsville fielded four federates: a communications network Federate called Lunar Communications and Navigation Satellite Service (LCANServ) for sending and receiving messages, a Lunar Satellite Constellation (LCANSat) to put in place radios needed by the communications network for Line-Of-Sight communication calculations, and 3D graphical displays of the orbiting satellites and a 3D visualization of the lunar surface activities. This paper concentrates on the first two federates by describing the functions, algorithms, the modular FOM, experiences, lessons learned and recommendations for future Smackdown events.

  5. An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS) (United States)

    Hayase, Joshua Y.


    Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

  6. Evolving earth-based and in-situ satellite network architectures for Mars communications and navigation support (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Weinberg, Aaron; McOmber, Robert


    Results of on-going studies to develop navigation/telecommunications network concepts to support future robotic and human missions to Mars are presented. The performance and connectivity improvements provided by the relay network will permit use of simpler, lower performance, and less costly telecom subsystems for the in-situ mission exploration elements. Orbiting relay satellites can serve as effective navigation aids by supporting earth-based tracking as well as providing Mars-centered radiometric data for mission elements approaching, in orbit, or on the surface of Mars. The relay satellite orbits may be selected to optimize navigation aid support and communication coverage for specific mission sets.

  7. Development of CINEMA Mission Uplink Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Yoon


    Full Text Available Triplet Ionospheric Observatory (TRIO CubeSatforIon, Neutral, Electron MAgneticfields (CINEMA is a CubeSat with the weight 3 kg that will be operated in the orbit conditions of about 800 km altitude and 90° inclination angle, using the S-band and ultra-high frequency (UHF-band communication frequencies. Regarding the communication antenna loaded on the satellite, the two patch antennas has the downlink function in the S-band, whereas the two whip antennas has the function to receive the command sent by the ground station to the satellite in the UHF-band. The uplink ground station that communicates through the UHF-band with the CINEMA satellite was established at Kyung Hee University. The system is mainly composed of a terminal node controller, a transceiver, and a helical antenna. The gain of the helical antenna established at the Kyung Hee University ground station was 9.8 dBi. The output of the transceiver was set to be 5 W (6.9 dB for the communication test. Through the far-field test of the established system, it was verified that the Roman characters, figures and symbols were converted into packets and transmitted to the satellite receiver in the communication speed of 9,600 bps.

  8. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.


    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  9. Satellite communication performance evaluation: Computational techniques based on moments (United States)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.


    Computational techniques that efficiently compute bit error probabilities when only moments of the various interference random variables are available are presented. The approach taken is a generalization of the well known Gauss-Quadrature rules used for numerically evaluating single or multiple integrals. In what follows, basic algorithms are developed. Some of its properties and generalizations are shown and its many potential applications are described. Some typical interference scenarios for which the results are particularly applicable include: intentional jamming, adjacent and cochannel interferences; radar pulses (RFI); multipath; and intersymbol interference. While the examples presented stress evaluation of bit error probilities in uncoded digital communication systems, the moment techniques can also be applied to the evaluation of other parameters, such as computational cutoff rate under both normal and mismatched receiver cases in coded systems. Another important application is the determination of the probability distributions of the output of a discrete time dynamical system. This type of model occurs widely in control systems, queueing systems, and synchronization systems (e.g., discrete phase locked loops).

  10. Small-angle stability analysis of a linear control system for a high power communication satellite (United States)

    Omalley, T. A.


    A small angle stability analysis is presented for one particular configuration of a high power communication satellite having a linear control system. Both the central body and the solar array are treated as rigid bodies. The control system studied consists of three-axis control of the central body and one-axis control of the solar array rotation relative to the central body. The results yield preliminary indications of the relation of stability to satellite inertias and control gains.

  11. Technology programs and related policies - Impacts on communications satellite business ventures (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.


    The DOMSAT II stochastic communication satellite business venture financial planning simulation model is described. The specification of business scenarios and the results of several analyses are presented. In particular, the impacts of NASA on-orbit propulsion and power technology programs are described. The effects of insurance rates and self-insurance and of the use of the Space Shuttle and Ariane transportation systems on a typical fixed satellite service business venture are discussed.

  12. Wideband autonomous cognitive radios for networked satellites communications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is growing recognition that success in a variety of space mission types can be greatly enhanced by making current communication transceivers and networks...

  13. Intelligent Media Access Protocol for SDR-Based Satellite Communications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a communications channel, the space environment between a spacecraft and an Earth ground station can potentially cause the loss of a data link or at least degrade...

  14. Improved Coast Guard Communications Using Commercial Satellites and WWW Technology (United States)


    Information collection and distribution are essential components of most Coast Guard missions. However, information needs have typically outpaced the ability of the installed communications systems to meet those needs. This mismatch leads to reduced ...

  15. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.


    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  16. Application and design of inexpensive small earth terminals for satellite communications (United States)

    Hossein Sharifi, M.; Pourmand, B.

    Different applications of miniearth terminals (MET) for various satellite communication networks are discussed, and then the steps that must be taken to design a reliable satellite system using METs are specified. The main emphasis of the paper is on the various applications of the METs, selection of access method, modulation scheme, power requirement, and performance analysis. Depending on the application, the miniearth terminals may be designed to be used in the networks with any of the following access techniques: SCPC, MC-TDMA, TDM, satellite switch TDMA, random multiple access or some forms of hybrid demand assignment multiple access methods constituted of frequency time or spatial separation.

  17. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, C.; Mensa, M.; Kanevsky, V.A.


    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  18. Sky Satellites: The Marine Corps’ Solution to its Over-the-Horizon Communication Problem (United States)


    tactical level. That alternative should be Sky Satellite ( SkySat ) radio assets. SkySat radio assets should be used as the primary means of tactical...experimenting with SkySat communications. SkySat communications are basically 7 satellites deployed in the realm of near space. The Air Force defines...near space as 65,000 feet to 325,000 feet above earth.3 The SkySat composition thus far has been a hydrogen balloon similar to a weather balloon with

  19. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM (United States)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.


    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  20. Study of on-board digital FDM-demultiplexing for mobile SCPC satellite communications. I, II (United States)

    Goeckler, Heinz G.; Eyssele, Helmut


    The paper examines three different approaches to FDM demultiplexing, applying digital signal processing, to be used on board a future satellite for mobile communications: the single-stage method (SSM), the polyphase method (PPM), and the hierarchical multistage method (HMM). Basic approaches to FDM demultiplexing are developed for real input and complex output signals, with special attention given to the FDM demultiplexer front end. The SSM of demultiplexing is treated for the odd channel allocation scheme, where all L = L(0) slots can be used; the PPM is treated for the odd and even channel allocation schemes; and the HMM is treated for the odd channel allocation, which is the most appropriate for this approach. A comparison of the three approaches is made.

  1. Simple Signal Detection Algorithm for 4+12+16 APSK in Satellite and Space Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoon Lee


    Full Text Available A 4+12+16 amplitude phase shift keying (APSK modulation outperforms other 32-APSK modulations in a nonlinear additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel because of its intrinsic robustness against AM/AM and AM/PM distortions caused by the nonlinear characteristics of a high-power amplifier. Thus, this modulation scheme has been adopted in the digital video broadcasting-satellite2 European standard. And it has been considered for high rate transmission of telemetry data on deep space communications in consultative committee for space data systems which provides a forum for discussion of common problems in the development and operation of space data systems. In this paper, we present an improved bits-to-symbol mapping scheme with a better bit error rate for a 4+12+16 APSK signal in a nonlinear AWGN channel and propose a simple signal detection algorithm for the 4+12+16 APSK from the presented bit mapping.

  2. Variability in early communicative development. (United States)

    Fenson, L; Dale, P S; Reznick, J S; Bates, E; Thal, D J; Pethick, S J


    Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.

  3. Design of an Image Motion Compenstaion (IMC Algorithm for Image Registration of the Communication, Ocean, Meteorolotical Satellite (COMS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek Seo Jung


    Full Text Available This paper presents an Image Motion Compensation (IMC algorithm for the Korea's Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS-1. An IMC algorithm is a priority component of image registration in Image Navigation and Registration (INR system to locate and register radiometric image data. Due to various perturbations, a satellite has orbit and attitude errors with respect to a reference motion. These errors cause depointing of the imager aiming direction, and in consequence cause image distortions. To correct the depointing of the imager aiming direction, a compensation algorithm is designed by adapting different equations from those used for the GOES satellites. The capability of the algorithm is compared with that of existing algorithm applied to the GOES's INR system. The algorithm developed in this paper improves pointing accuracy by 40%, and efficiently compensates the depointings of the imager aiming direction.

  4. Europe at the crossroads: The future of its satellite communications industry (United States)

    Bartholome, Pierre; Battrick, B.


    Ways of adapting the European Space Agency's role to the new industrial environment of satellite communications, which is characterized by the disappearance of traditional monopolies and the introduction of competition, are presented. As far as ESA is concerned, it is found that a general consensus exists to recommend that the agency should take a much wider view of its role as a research and development (R&D) organization. It should no longer restrict its field of activity to space technology only, but should take a more global approach. More emphasis should be placed on the development of complete communications systems and of commercial applications. European industry indeed feels very strongly that it is not getting from ESA the support it needs to match the performance of its foreign competitors on the world markets. It can only succeed commercially in the fierce competition with the U.S. and Japan if a substantial R&D program is defined and funded at European level, as required by the magnitude of the financial effort necessary. It is concluded that anything the agency untertakes in the future to redress the situation would produce much greater dividends if it were part of a coherent plan where all the European partners play their role in a cooperative spirit. It is recommended that the European Commission should, as a matter of urgency, take steps to institute a concertation mechanism involving all major players with a view to defining and developing a coherent strategy for Europe.

  5. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.


    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  6. Optimization of Power Allocation for Multiusers in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wang


    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-spot-beam satellite communication systems have played a key role in global seamless communication. However, satellite power resources are scarce and expensive, due to the limitations of satellite platform. Therefore, this paper proposes optimizing the power allocation of each user in order to improve the power utilization efficiency. Initially the capacity allocated to each user is calculated according to the satellite link budget equations, which can be achieved in the practical satellite communication systems. The problem of power allocation is then formulated as a convex optimization, taking account of a trade-off between the maximization of the total system capacity and the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Finally, an iterative algorithm based on the duality theory is proposed to obtain the optimal solution to the optimization. Compared with the traditional uniform resource allocation or proportional resource allocation algorithms, the proposed optimal power allocation algorithm improves the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with both the numbers of the spot beams and users. As a result, the proposed power allocation algorithm is easy to be implemented in practice.

  7. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof, DN 2907; the... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2907] Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating...

  8. 78 FR 21629 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-854] Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of Consent Order; Termination of the Investigation... importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason...

  9. Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Radio-Based Satellite Communications (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo Victor R.; Paffenroth, Randy; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Mortensen, Dale J.


    Previous research on cognitive radios has addressed the performance of various machine-learning and optimization techniques for decision making of terrestrial link properties. In this paper, we present our recent investigations with respect to reinforcement learning that potentially can be employed by future cognitive radios installed onboard satellite communications systems specifically tasked with radio resource management. This work analyzes the performance of learning, reasoning, and decision making while considering multiple objectives for time-varying communications channels, as well as different cross-layer requirements. Based on the urgent demand for increased bandwidth, which is being addressed by the next generation of high-throughput satellites, the performance of cognitive radio is assessed considering links between a geostationary satellite and a fixed ground station operating at Ka-band (26 GHz). Simulation results show multiple objective performance improvements of more than 3.5 times for clear sky conditions and 6.8 times for rain conditions.

  10. Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Radio Based Satellite Communications (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Paffenroth, Randy; Wyglinski, Alexander; Hackett, Timothy; Bilen, Sven; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale John


    Previous research on cognitive radios has addressed the performance of various machine learning and optimization techniques for decision making of terrestrial link properties. In this paper, we present our recent investigations with respect to reinforcement learning that potentially can be employed by future cognitive radios installed onboard satellite communications systems specifically tasked with radio resource management. This work analyzes the performance of learning, reasoning, and decision making while considering multiple objectives for time-varying communications channels, as well as different crosslayer requirements. Based on the urgent demand for increased bandwidth, which is being addressed by the next generation of high-throughput satellites, the performance of cognitive radio is assessed considering links between a geostationary satellite and a fixed ground station operating at Ka-band (26 GHz). Simulation results show multiple objective performance improvements of more than 3:5 times for clear sky conditions and 6:8 times for rain conditions.

  11. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.


    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  12. Disruption of satellite-to-ground station communication links by nuclear fireballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.D.


    Diffraction around nuclear fireballs near the line of sight for satellite-to-ground communication links is calculated numerically. The geometry allows assumption of geometric optics and plane-wave signals. The fireball is modeled as an opaque disk normal to the line of sight. The effect of disk shape and edge taper is considered. 13 figures, 1 table

  13. Communication and Control in the Canadian North: The Role of Interactive Satellites. (United States)

    Valaskakis, Gail G.

    In 1972 the Canadian government launched its first domestic communications satellite, Anik A, which relays direct broadcast television and telephone messages to northern communities. The impact of television on Inuit life has raised issues and concerns pertaining to native language broadcasting, media access and control, and cultural identity…

  14. Summary of the CTS Transient Event Counter data after one year of operation. [Communication Technology Satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Gore, J. V.


    The environmental charging of satellite surfaces during geomagnetic substorms is the apparent cause of a significant number of anomalous events occurring on geosynchronous satellites since the early 1970's. Electromagnetic pulses produced in connection with the differential charging of insulators can couple into the spacecraft harness and cause electronic switching anomalies. An investigation conducted to determine the response of the spacecraft surfaces to substorm particle fluxes makes use of a harness transient detector. The harness transient detector, called the Transient Event Counter (TEC) was built and integrated into the Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). A description of the TEC and its operational characteristics is given and the obtained data are discussed. The data show that the satellite surfaces appear to be charged to the point that discharges occur and that the discharge-induced transients couple into the wire harnesses.

  15. Implementation of a Parameterized Interacting Multiple Model Filter on an FPGA for Satellite Communications (United States)

    Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Ferreira, Paulo Victor R.; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Reinhart, Richard C.


    In a communications channel, the space environment between a spacecraft and an Earth ground station can potentially cause the loss of a data link or at least degrade its performance due to atmospheric effects, shadowing, multipath, or other impairments. In adaptive and coded modulation, the signal power level at the receiver can be used in order to choose a modulation-coding technique that maximizes throughput while meeting bit error rate (BER) and other performance requirements. It is the goal of this research to implement a generalized interacting multiple model (IMM) filter based on Kalman filters for improved received power estimation on software-dened radio (SDR) technology for satellite communications applications. The IMM filter has been implemented in Verilog consisting of a customizable bank of Kalman filters for choosing between performance and resource utilization. Each Kalman filter can be implemented using either solely a Schur complement module (for high area efficiency) or with Schur complement, matrix multiplication, and matrix addition modules (for high performance). These modules were simulated and synthesized for the Virtex II platform on the JPL Radio Experimenter Development System (EDS) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The results for simulation, synthesis, and hardware testing are presented.

  16. On-orbit evaluation of satellite-ground laser communication experiment using small optical transponder (SOTA) equipment -Optical Antenna (United States)

    Munemasa, Yasushi; Akioka, Maki; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo; Toyoshima, Morio


    Recently, the sensors ability of remote sensing satellites are offering much better resolution, higher quality, etc. [1] The gathered data size by the satellite has become larger. However, generally, downlink transfer capacity from the satellite to a ground station using RF (Radio Frequency) communication is limited, due to the internal balance of resources (power consumption, size capacity, mass, placement, etc.) in the satellite, and allocation of bandwidth by frequency regulation arrangement.

  17. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand (United States)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat


    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  18. 30/20 GHz communications satellite multibeam antenna (United States)

    Scott, W. G.; Luh, H. S.; Smoll, A. E.; Matthews, E. W.

    A 20 GHz downlink satellite antenna design is described. The aperture simultaneously radiates 18 fixed, 0.3 deg width pencil beams directed at 18 cities distributed over CONUS for Trunking Service. All beams use the same trunk frequency allocation for 18 reuses of the band. The same aperture also radiates six additional 0.3 deg spot beams for Customer Premises Service (CPS) for TDMA beam hopping operation to small terminals anywhere in CONUS. Each CPS beam scans one sector of CONUS and all six beams are frequency reused in a CPS band. Offset dual reflector optics are used with a feed array and multiport beam forming network (BFN). For so many frequency reuses, sidelobes per beam must be 30 to 40 dB down over CONUS. Novel dual reflector optics were devised with shaped surfaces providing low aberrations for all beam positions over CONUS (+ or - 12 BW by + or - 5 BW). Scan loss under 1 dB is calculated with nearly constant sidelobes. For each beam position, a 7-element cluster of feeds is activated in the feed array with coefficients adjusted by the BFN to maintain low sidelobes and thus high beam isolation for frequency reuse.

  19. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite. [antenna coverage (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.


    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a cooperative experimental program of the United States and Canadian governments. The CTS uses a high-power transponder at the frequencies of 14/12 GHz for two-way television and voice communication. The United States and Canada have agreed to share equally in the use of CTS. The U.S. program includes a variety of societal experiments. The ground stations for these experiments are located from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The satellite communications capabilities and the antenna coverage for the U.S. are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the U.S. societal experiments in the areas of education, health care, and community and special services; nine separate experiments are discussed.

  20. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues (United States)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.


    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  1. Application of the advanced communications technology satellite for teleradiology and telemedicine (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Rowberg, Alan H.


    The authors have an in-kind grant from NASA to investigate the application of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the JPL developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. This experiment involves the transmission of medical imagery (CT, MR, CR, US and digitized radiographs including mammograms), between the ACTS/AMT and the University of Washington. This is accomplished by locating the AMT experiment van in various locations throughout Washington state, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Hawaii. The medical images are transmitted from the ACTS to the downlink at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, consisting of AMT equipment and the high burst rate-link evaluation terminal (HBR-LET). These images are then routed from LeRC to the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSoM) through the Internet and public switched Integrated Serviced Digital Network (ISDN). Once images arrive in the UW Radiology Department, they are reviewed using both video monitor softcopy and laser-printed hardcopy. Compressed video teleconferencing and transmission of real-time ultrasound video between the AMT van and the UWSoM are also tested. Image quality comparisons are made using both subjective diagnostic criteria and quantitative engineering analysis. Evaluation is performed during various weather conditions (including rain to assess rain fade compensation algorithms). Compression techniques also are tested to evaluate their effects on image quality, allowing further evaluation of portable teleradiology/telemedicine at lower data rates and providing useful information for additional applications (e.g., smaller remote units, shipboard, emergency disaster, etc.). The medical images received at the UWSoM over the ACTS are directly evaluated against the original digital images. The project demonstrates that a portable satellite-land connection can provide subspecialty consultation and education for rural and remote

  2. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    He holds a doctorate in educational technology and has authored three other books on development communication: Participatory Development Communication: A West African Agenda ( IDRC /Southbound 1996), L'appui au développement communautaire : Une expérience de communication en Afrique rurale de l'Ouest ...

  3. Offset-QPSK modulation for maritime satellite communications (United States)

    Lee, Lin-Nan; Rhodes, Smith A.

    Consideration is given to design trade-offs and performance limitations of offset-QPSK (O-QPSK) modulation in a power- and bandwidth-limited nonlinear channel in a mobile environment. Computer simulations and hardware tests show that O-QPSK with a class-C HPA is a viable alternative to a QPSK with a class-A HPA if filters are properly selected. For the Inmarsat-B channel, a square-root Nyquist filter with 60-percent rolloff factor is found to be appropriate. It also can be applied to the high-rate voice channel for aeronautical mobile communications, where coded data will be transmitted in a 17.5-kHz SCPC channel. The degradation in both cases is only about 0.3 to 0.6 dB. This seems to be a good tradeoff for the substantial cost saving which may be obtained by using a class-C HPA.

  4. A high capacity mobile communications satellite system for the first generation MSS (United States)

    Wiedeman, R. A.

    A low-cost high-capacity dual-band mobile communications satellite system using existing equipment is proposed for the first generation MSS. Cost effectiveness and the requirements of beam optimization and passive intermodulation avoidance dictated the choice of two single band satellites for separate UHF and L-band coverage of North America. Similar designs for the two satellites, based on the Intelsat V and Insat/Arabsat configurations, will achieve over 6000 5-kHz SCPC, communications channels for the system. The 12 beam UHF and 17 beam L-band satellites achieve up to a three-fold frequency reuse of the FCC allocated MSS frequency spectrum. Spacecraft design features include separate 9.1 m antennas for sending and receiving, SAW filters for channel noise attenuation, an integrated bipropellant propulsion system, and a 3.8 kW 10-year electrical power subsystem with a solar array. The satellites are compatible with the STS, Ariane, and other expendable boosters.

  5. Improved analysis of 2.5 Gbps-inter-satellite link (ISL) in inter-satellite optical-wireless communication (IsOWC) system (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Naresh


    Inter-satellite optical-wireless communication systems (IsOWC), one of the important applications of FSO/WSO technology, will be deployed in space in the near future. The IsOWC systems provide a high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost alternative to present microwave satellite systems. In this paper, we have reported the improved investigation through implementation of a square root module using OPTISYSTEM™ simulator to establish an inter-satellite link (ISL) between two satellites estranged by a distance of 1000 Km at data rate of 2.5 Gbps which is not reported in previous investigated work.

  6. Participatory Development Communication: A West African Agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C.V. Rajasunderam works for the International Communication Group at Ryerson Polytechnic University. His professional interest and experience involve research and training in development communication. Before arriving in Canada, he was a senior communicator at the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation, and later a ...

  7. Senior Communications Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The position is responsible for managing the's public relations functions and developing and managing key communication, knowledge sharing and editorial strategies, and is the senior communication resource position for all communication efforts, supporting the core team, partners and ...

  8. EHF Satellite Communications on the Move: Experimental Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schodorf, J


    ...) terminal developed to work with LDR MILSTAR. The experiments were designed to measure characteristics of the EHF SOTM propagation channel, yield insight into the performance of an automatic repeat request error control protocol, and assess...

  9. Dual Fine Tracking Control of a Satellite Laser Communication Uplink

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Louis A


    .... The system dynamics and FTCS are modeled and evaluated in MATLAB and SIMULINK. An optimal controller is developed to mitigate these disturbances and provide tracking errors commensurate with a bit error rate (BER...

  10. Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems (United States)

    Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.


    A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

  11. [Mobile hospital -real time mobile telehealthcare system with ultrasound and CT van using high-speed satellite communication-]. (United States)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Miyashita, Toyohisa; Murase, Sumio; Kanda, Hirohito; Karaki, Yoshiaki; Yagi, Kazuo; Ohue, Toru


    A real-time telescreening system is developed to detect early diseases for rural area residents using two types of mobile vans with a portable satellite station. The system consists of a satellite communication system with 1.5Mbps of the JCSAT-1B satellite, a spiral CT van, an ultrasound imaging van with two video conference system, a DICOM server and a multicast communication unit. The video image and examination image data are transmitted from the van to hospitals and the university simultaneously. Physician in the hospital observes and interprets exam images from the van and watches the video images of the position of ultrasound transducer on screenee in the van. After the observation images, physician explains a results of the examination by the video conference system. Seventy lung CT screening and 203 ultrasound screening were done from March to June 2002. The trial of this real time screening suggested that rural residents are given better healthcare without visit to the hospital. And it will open the gateway to reduce the medical cost and medical divide between city area and rural area.

  12. Proceedings of the Twentieth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX XX) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop (United States)

    Golshan, Nassar (Editor)


    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) Meeting and associated Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop convene yearly to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications (satcom)industry, academia, and government with an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation have peer discussion of work in progress, disseminate propagation results, and interact with the satcom industry. NAPEX XX, in Fairbanks, Alaska, June 4-5, 1996, had three sessions: (1) "ACTS Propagation Study: Background, Objectives, and Outcomes," covered results from thirteen station-years of Ka-band experiments; (2) "Propagation Studies for Mobile and Personal Satellite Applications," provided the latest developments in measurement, modeling, and dissemination of propagation phenomena of interest to the mobile, personal, and aeronautical satcom industry; and (3)"Propagation Research Topics," covered a range of topics including space/ground optical propagation experiments, propagation databases, the NASA Propagation Web Site, and revision plans for the NASA propagation effects handbooks. The ACTS Miniworkshop, June 6, 1996, covered ACTS status, engineering support for ACTS propagation terminals, and the ACTS Propagation Data Center. A plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  13. Information and Communication Technology for Rural Development


    Ankur Mani Tripathi; Abhishek Kumar Singh; Arvind Kumar


    Due to the lack of knowledge and use of ICT in rural areas, development is at a very low rate. Some improvement and advancement in the technologies provided by the government but there is no more effect in the development of rural areas. Information and communication technologies are developing day by day but are lessapplicable in rural areas. Lack of communication and resources are the cause of undeveloped. Main problem are in rural areas are electricity, communication, transportation and la...

  14. Director, Communications | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Control. Puts in place the mechanisms required to increase and maintain the quality of the Centre's communications products and ensures that they are in compliance with the rules laid down by Treasury Board and by the Official Languages Act.

  15. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  16. Electromagnetic Modeling of the Propagation Characteristics of Satellite Communications Through Composite Precipitation Layers, Part1: Mathematical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Rizzo


    Full Text Available A systematic and general formulation of a Propagation Simulation Program (PSP is developed for the coherent field of microwave and millimeter wave carrier signals traversing intermediate layered precipitation media, taking into account the random behavior of particle size, orientation, shape and concentration distributions.  Based on a rigorous solution of the volumetric multiple-scattering integral equations, the formalism offers the capability of treating the potential transmission impairments on satellite-earth links and radar remote sensing generated by composite atmospheric layers of precipitation in conjunction with the finite polarization isolation of dual-polarized transmitting and receiving antennas. A multi-layered formulation is employed which encompasses an ensemble of discrete particles comprising an arbitrary mixture of ice crystals, melting snow and raindrops that may exist simultaneously along satellite-earth communication paths.

  17. A digital multicarrier demodulator with fast synchronisation for mobile SCPC satellite communications (United States)

    Alberty, Thomas; Hespelt, Volker; Goeckler, Heinz

    The demodulator part of an on-board multicarrier demodulator for the return up-link of a mobile satellite communication system, operating in SCPC mode, is described. Two transmission modes are considered: continuous mode for voice and data transmission and packet mode for short data packets. The transmission rate is 9.6 kbit/s using QPSK modulation. The use of parameter estimation techniques and sophisticated frequency, phase and timing control loops guarantee fast and reliable acquisition and good tracking performance.

  18. .Net Gadgeteer Application Development Using Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla SLADKÁ


    Full Text Available The article describes the application development on Microsoft platform .NET Gadgeteer, which is part of the .NET Micro Framework. Application development is introduced to applications using ethernet network communication and wireless communication between developments boards connected with the sensor modules.

  19. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.


    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The failure in developemental endeavours in the rural areas of Africa does not stem substantially from the lack of funds. Rather, other factors conspire to make rural development a difficult task. One of these factors is communication. This paper examines the role of communication in the process of rural development.

  1. Towards inclusion? Developing teacher skills for communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main finding is that trainees have an opportunity to develop skills for communication with children who are deaf or hard of hearing from practical activities undertaken in the classroom and during teaching practice. However, these provisions are not sufficient to enable trainees develop skills for communication with that ...

  2. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Information and Communication Technologies for Development in the Middle East : Exploration. This project seeks to foster an inclusive knowledge society by building capacity to apply information and communication technology (ICT) to human, social and economic development in the Middle ... Royal Scientific Society.

  3. Participatory Development Communication: A West African Agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two years ago, the International Development Research Centre created CIME, a development communication program that reflects the interrelations between Communication at the grassroots level, the exchange of Information, two-way Media, and nonformal Education. This book presents the conceptual framework that led ...

  4. Communications Officer | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... co-ordinating website content, preparing, in a timely manner, focussed, highly readable written materials, ensuring consistent and effective style for all GHRI communications products to maximize visibility and “branding”. The ability to work autonomously, efficiently and in a flexible manner within the GHRI team is crucial.

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  6. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  7. Developing Communication Skills of EFL Teacher Trainees


    Akpınar, Kadriye Dilek


    Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’...

  8. Making Satellite Precipitation Data Work for the Developing World (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, A. S.; Hossain, F.


    The traditional approach to measuring precipitation by placing a probe on the ground will likely never be adequate or affordable in most parts of the world. Fortunately, satellites today provide a continuous global bird's-eye view (above ground) at any given location.However, the usefulness of such precipitation products for hydrological applications depends on their error characteristics and how intelligently we can harness the implications of uncertainty for surface hydrology. Satellite precipitation data is most useful where there exists little to none conventional measurements. As a result, the conventional method of comparing satellite estimate against in-situ records to 'harness' the uncertainty is unrealistic and impractical. As a community tasked with the job of making satellite precipitation 'work' for applications in most parts of the world, there is now a need think outside the box. The manuscript aims to describe a method that will 'truly' work in the developing world. The proposed manuscript aims to provide a broad view summary of our work on making hydrologically merged precipitation data work in the Middle East, Europe, Asia and Mediterranean regions. The aim will be to appeal to a broad range of water managers, climate decision makers and policy and planners in the developing world. The merged precipitation data has already been created for 2002-2010 and will be made freely available to BAMS readers through our ftp site. Globally selected study regions for developing and validating error variance regression model and satellite rainfall products merging scheme

  9. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.


    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  10. The Atlas family - Evolving and growing to meet communications satellite needs (United States)

    Dunbar, D. R.; Waterman, R. C.; White, R. C.; Henley, M. W.


    The evolution of the Atlas family to meet the changing needs of the communication satellite community is discussed. Attention is given to Atlas enhancements and how they can be used to improve launch service cost effectiveness on current and future satellite designs through the decade. The December 1991 launch of the first Atlas II demonstrated the mission design flexibility and precision of the new inertial navigation unit, which features a state-of-the-art ring laser gyro navigation system and a new solid-state flight computer. This system gives Atlas the most accurate orbital placement capability in the world today. The Atlas family's payload performance has been enhanced by up to 8 percent. The options available with an Atlas launch are discussed.

  11. Design and Evaluation of 10-Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link for Improved Performance (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Nagpal, Shaina


    Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) systems can be chosen over existing microwave satellite systems for deploying in space in the future due to their high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost. However, the IsOWC system suffers from various attenuations due to weather conditions, turbulence or scintillations which limit its performance and decreases its availability. So, in order to improve the performance, IsOWC system using directly modulated laser source is proposed in this work. The system is designed and evaluated to be suitable for high data rate transmissions up to 10 Gbps. The performance of the system is investigated in order to reduce the cost and complexity of link and improving the quality of information signal. Further the proposed IsOWC system is analysed using BER analyser, power meter and oscilloscope Visualizer.

  12. Communications, Computers and Automation for Development. (United States)

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; And Others

    This paper includes three articles dealing with the application of science and technology to national development. In part, the first article attempts to answer the following questions: 1) what will be the costs and effects of communication technology in the coming decade; 2) how can the elements of communication systems be examined in terms of…

  13. Developing Evaluation and Communication Capacity in Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will result in a trained cadre of regional mentors who are able to facilitate advanced methodologies in both evaluation and communications. Participating flagship project teams will develop their evaluation and communication skills, and gain opportunities for policy and practice change. More will be learned about practical ...

  14. Developing Communicative Strategies and Grammar Exercises. (United States)

    Drozdzial, Krystyna

    Procedures used in foreign language teaching are discussed from the point of view of developing communicative strategies in students. Literature on communicative competence is reviewed and the implications for foreign language instruction are discussed. It is shown that: (1) from the very beginning of language instruction, the classroom setting,…

  15. Analysis of Development Plans from Communications Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Shahghasemi


    Full Text Available The movement towards the goals of "Vision plan 1404" needs the perception of the requirements to prepare plans for achieving the favorite objectives of development. With the advent of the information age, the rules of development policy-making strongly have changed in the world and also unique opportunities areprovided by variables of communications for countries that have been in early stages of development. Based on this, considering the communications in macro-level and in the political, social, economic and cultural development plans is important and necessary. This requires a review and pathology of previous plans and evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses for preparing of more comprehensive future plans. Themain question of this study is: what is the approach of development plans to communications section after Islamic revolution?  Which aspects of communications are considered, and what aspects are ignored?  This study analyzes five development plans after the revolution, by using of qualitative content analysis. Results show that in all five-year plans the focus was on hardware and quantitative dimensions of communication development and media, but qualitative and content aspects, such as the right to universal access to information, freedom to obtain and disseminate information within the constitution, freedom of speech and press, a move towards the information society and knowledge-based, also other dimensions of communications such as human, traditional and social communication has been less considered. In the fourth development plan that is "knowledge" – centered, new fields of communications has been studied comprehensively in comparison to other plans. According to these approaches and new scientific and experimental perspectives, this paper suggests further engagement in communications necessity for development policy-making.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sustainable development involves the broad public participation including the national, regional and local authorities, business and industry, civil society, all major groups – women, children and youth, all workers, trade unions and families. Not only organizations but also employees have a role to play in applying sustainable development in their jobs because their decisions taken every day have an environmental impact. Communication within organization is used as a means to coordinate information exchange and to establish effective coordination of activities between the members of organization. Internet, e-mail, mobile phones, satellite and wireless have had an effect on the way in which information is exchanged and on how people communicate not only in their day-to-day life but also within in the organizations they belong to. New communication technologies have increased the possibilities for a better access to information for employees and made possible to have their voices heard from their colleagues to superior levels, offering the possibility of a two-way communication and creating the potential for greater understanding and dialogue between them. Besides increasing profits, saving time and costs, the use of e-communication within organizations, offer the convenience of combating environmental damage through cutting back on paper and ink usage

  17. Quality Communication For human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor Zaragoza


    Full Text Available In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instruments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.”

  18. Development of the European Small Geostationary Satellite SGEO (United States)

    Lübberstedt, H.; Schneider, A.; Schuff, H.; Miesner, Th.; Winkler, A.


    The SGEO product portfolio, ranging from Satellite platform delivery up to in-orbit delivery of a turnkey system including satellite and ground control station, is designed for applications ranging from TV Broadcast to multimedia applications, Internet access, mobile or fixed services in a wide range of frequency bands. Furthermore, Data Relay missions such as the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) as well as other institutional missions are targeted. Key design features of the SGEO platform are high flexibility and modularity in order to accommodate a very wide range of future missions, a short development time below two years and the objective to build the system based on ITAR free subsystems and components. The system will provide a long lifetime of up to 15 years in orbit operations with high reliability. SGEO is the first European satellite to perform all orbit control tasks solely by electrical propulsion (EP). This design provides high mass efficiency and the capability for direct injection into geostationary orbit without chemical propulsion (CP). Optionally, an Apogee Engine Module based on CP will provide the perigee raising manoeuvres in case of a launch into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). This approach allows an ideal choice out of a wide range of launcher candidates in dependence of the required payload capacity. SGEO will offer to the market a versatile and high performance satellite system with low investment risk for the customer and a short development time. This paper provides an overview of the SGEO system key features and the current status of the SGEO programme.

  19. The Place of Libraries in Development Communication | Quadri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper looks at the concept of development vis-avis development communication. The objectives of development communication was also discussed. The roles the libraries can play to promote development communication in a developing economy such as Nigeria were highlighted.

  20. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.


    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  1. A Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) and the Small Satellite Market Development Environment (United States)

    Boudreaux, Mark; Montgomery, Edward; Cacas, Joseph


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administr ation at Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center in Huntsville Alabama USA, are jointly developing a new class of science and technology mission small satellites. The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATell ite (FASTSAT) was designed and developed using a new collaborative and best practices approach. The FASTSAT development, along with the new class of low cost vehicles currently being developed, would allow performance of 30 kg payload mass missions for a cost of less than 10 million US dollars.

  2. Technological research of differential phase shift keying receiver in the satellite-to-ground laser communication (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Yanan; Liu, Liren


    Laser communication links between satellite and ground remains a bottleneck problem that has not been solved in free space communication network now. Atmospheric disturbances have badly influenced the wave-front of signal light and destroyed the integrality of optical phase, so the bit error rate (BER) is increased at the receiving terminal in the space-to-ground laser communication. With conventional coherent reception, the contrast of coherent light increased dramatically, and transmission efficiency of Space to ground laser communication decreased. Receiving technology based on differential phase shift keying (DPSK) is proposed here to overcome the effects of atmosphere here. Differential phase shift keying without the integrality and compensation of the optical phases, is suited for high rate space to ground communication links due to its immunity of the wavefront of a beam passing atmosphere. A Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer is used for differential delay which is equal to the one bit period. The differential data information can be obtained from the optical phase changes. Differential phase modulation technique can be a promising optical receiving technology.

  3. Developing Communication Skills of EFL Teacher Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Dilek Akpınar


    Full Text Available Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’ ideas who did not take the course. This paper describes both the significance of effective communication skills and the benefits of the course for developing teacher trainees’ effective communication skills. The implementations and suggestions for teacher education has also been discussed.

  4. A Code Phase Division Multiple Access (CPDMA) technique for VSAT satellite communications (United States)

    Bruno, R.; Mcomber, R.; Weinberg, A.


    A reference concept and implementation relevant to the application of Code Phase Division Multiple Access (CPDMA) to a high capacity satellite communication system providing 16 Kbps single hop channels between Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT's) is described. The description includes a potential implementation of an onboard CPDMA bulk demodulator/converter utilizing programmable charge coupled device (CCD) technology projected to be available in the early 1990's. A high level description of the system architecture and operations, identification of key functional and performance requirements of the system elements, and analysis results of end-to-end system performance relative to key figures of merit such as spectral efficiency are also provided.

  5. All-digital multicarrier demodulators for on-board processing satellites in mobile communication systems (United States)

    Yim, Wan Hung

    Economical operation of future satellite systems for mobile communications can only be fulfilled by using dedicated on-board processing satellites, which would allow both cheap earth terminals and lower space segment costs. With on-board modems and codecs, the up-link and down-link can be optimized separately. An attractive scheme is to use frequency-division multiple access/single chanel per carrier (FDMA/SCPC) on the up-link and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the down-link. This scheme allows mobile terminals to transmit a narrow band, low power signal, resulting in smaller dishes and high power amplifiers (HPA's) with lower output power. On the up-link, there are hundreds to thousands of FDM channels to be demodulated on-board. The most promising approach is the use of all-digital multicarrier demodulators (MCD's), where analog and digital hardware are efficiently shared among channels, and digital signal processing (DSP) is used at an early stage to take advantage of very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation. A MCD consists of a channellizer for separation of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) channels, followed by individual modulators for each channel. Major research areas in MCD's are in multirate DSP, and the optimal estimation for synchronization, which form the basis of the thesis. Complex signal theories are central to the development of structured approaches for the sampling and processing of bandpass signals, which are the foundations in both channellizer and demodulator design. In multirate DSP, polyphase theories replace many ad-hoc, tedious and error-prone design procedures. For example, a polyphase-matrix deep space network frequency and timing system (DFT) channellizer includes all efficient filter bank techniques as special cases. Also, a polyphase-lattice filter is derived, not only for sampling rate conversion, but also capable of sampling phase variation, which is required for symbol timing adjustment in all

  6. Prediction Method for Rain Rate and Rain Propagation Attenuation for K-Band Satellite Communications Links in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baso Maruddani


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction method using hidden Markov model (HMM for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation for K-band satellite communication link at tropical area. As is well known, the K-band frequency is susceptible of being affected by atmospheric condition, especially in rainy condition. The wavelength of K-band frequency which approaches to the size of rain droplet causes the signal strength is easily attenuated and absorbed by the rain droplet. In order to keep the quality of system performance for K-band satellite communication link, therefore a special attention has to be paid for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation. Thus, a prediction method for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation based on HMM is developed to process the measurement data. The measured and predicted data are then compared with the ITU-R recommendation. From the result, it is shown that the measured and predicted data show similarity with the model of ITU-R P.837-5 recommendation for rain rate and the model of ITU-R P.618-10 recommendation for rain propagation attenuation. Meanwhile, statistical data for measured and predicted data such as fade duration and interfade duration have insignificant discrepancy with the model of ITU-R P.1623-1 recommendation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla A. Isakova


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article outlines the concepts of communicative competence and cross-cultural communication. The authors highlight their place in higher education institutions based on a case-study of Tyumen region (Russia. The increased interest in the process of cross-cultural communication determines the relevance of the research.. Materials and Methods: during the research process the authors used descriptive method, observation and learning with consulting of relevant literature. The methodological basis of the research is a philosophical concept of the relationship between culture and morality, communication, inter-ethnic and ecological culture and others. Results: this communicative education system should be continuous, comprehensive, interdisciplinary and integrated to promote personal development of students with differentiation depending on professional orientation. Teaching should be consistent with cultural traditions and ethical values as the basis of person’s physical and mental health, knowledge of the world and their pl ace in it. Discussion and Conclusions: the development of communicative competence takes place in the educational process. The communication will be successful in the new changed reality of professional activity. The research of verbal and nonverbal communication is useful for commercial and government institutions. It is necessary to study the communicative process in the educational environment promoting personal development of the students. The conditions of integration processes demonstrate some significant changes. The main priorities of modern higher education are full-fledged formation and development of the student’s abilities. It is possible to assume that communicative competence will be the link and the basis of the interaction of all educational forms. The article touches upon the philosophical, literary and cultural problems; the topic determines the choice of Integration of Education.

  8. Satellite Attitude Sensing Model and Their S/w Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Shin Kim


    Full Text Available We have developed an attitude sensing S/W system, one of modules of Mission Analysis System(MAS, which simulates attitude sensing data as almost the same as the real sensor of a satellite in orbit. When attitude elements(¥á,¥ä of a satellite and positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun are given, the S/W system calculates look angles and dihedral angles of each celestial bodies relative to the rotations axis of the satellite. It consists of two sub-modules : One is ephemeris service module which consider the perturbations of four planets(Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn for positions of Sun and Moon and 4 x 4 earth gravitational potential terms for a satellite's position. The other is attitude simulation module which generates attitude sensing data. Varying the rotational axis of a satellite and it's orbital elements, we simulated the generating attitude sensing data with this S/W system and discussed their results.

  9. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.


    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  10. A Fault tolerant Control Supervisory System development Procedurefor Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    The paper presents a stepwise procedure to develop a fault tolerant control system for small satellites. The procedure is illustrated through implementation on the AAUSAT-II spacecraft. As it is shown the presented procedure requires expertise from several disciplines that are nevertheless...

  11. An improved super-exponential algorithm for blind equalization of satellite SIMO communication systems (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Bing; Gao, Wei; Tan, Weifeng


    Blind equalization is an effective way to suppress the inter-symbol interference (ISI), which is caused by multipath fading communication channels. An improved robust super-exponential method (ISEM) is proposed here and extended to single-input multioutput (SIMO) models which are commonly used in satellite communication systems. The method, combining super-exponential method (SEM) and minimum description length (MDL), makes the equalization achieve good results even when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low. ISEM estimates the noise power of the received signal and then equalizes it by reducing the noise affection. Compared with robust super-exponential method (RSEM) in [1], the presented method has better performance but less computation.

  12. Review of the VSAT acts experiments at the center for satellite & hybrid communication networks (United States)

    Friedman, Daniel; Gupta, Sonjai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Ephremides, Anthony


    This paper describes experiments conducted over ACTS and the associated T1 VSAT terminal. The experiments were motivated by the commercial potential of low-cost receive-only satellite terminals that can operate in a hybrid network environment, and by the desire to demonstrate frame relay technology over satellite networks. A custom unit termed Frame Relay Access Switch (FRACS) was developed by COMSAT Laboratories for these experiments; the preparation and conduct of these experiments involved a total of twenty people from the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado, and COMSAT Laboratories, from late 1992 through 1995.

  13. Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design (United States)

    Slywezak, Richard A.


    This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

  14. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance (United States)

    Coney, T. A.


    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  15. International Conference on Digital Satellite Communications, 6th, Phoenix, AZ, September 19-23, 1983, Proceedings (United States)


    Aspects of transmission and interference analysis are discussed, taking into account laboratory hardware simulation measurements of 120-Mbit/s QPSK/TDMA transmission performance in the Intelsat V system, a transmission analysis for the Intelsat VI 120 Mbit/s TDMA system, the monitoring and equalization of in-service QPSK/TDMA links by means of burst-mode channel impulse response measurement, and an investigation of 9.6-kbit/s data transmission via a PCM link at 64 kbit/s with and without link errors. Other topics explored are related to field tests, specialized services and networks, operational aspects, integration with terrestrial networks, modem design, TV and audio coding, networks, TDMA systems and technology, SS/TDMA, on-board processing, and error control. Attention is given to business services, verification tests of a prototype Intelsat TDMA/DSI terminal, a second-generation SCPC system for business satellite communications, an integrated digital satellite communication system, and an international video TDMA concept.

  16. Journal of Development and Communication Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Development and Communications Studies (JDCS), published online and in print by Development Media Consulting, is a biannual academic, peer ... civil society, politicians and the public, research recommendations for the benefit of social development in Malawi and Africa, foremost, and the world, second.

  17. Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Development and Communications Studies (JDCS), published online and in print by Development Media Consulting, is a biannual academic, peer ... civil society, politicians and the public, research recommendations for the benefit of social development in Malawi and Africa, foremost, and the world, second.

  18. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development activities and the rapid evolution of computers over the last decade have resulted in a broad variety of capabilities to support most security system communication and display needs. The major task in selecting a system is becoming familiar with these capabilities and finding the best match to a specific need

  19. Language and communication development in Down syndrome. (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne E; Price, Johanna; Malkin, Cheryl


    Although there is considerable variability, most individuals with Down syndrome have mental retardation and speech and language deficits, particularly in language production and syntax and poor speech intelligibility. This article describes research findings in the language and communication development of individuals with Down syndrome, first briefly describing the physical and cognitive phenotype of Down syndrome, and two communication related domains-hearing and oral motor skills. Next, we describe language development in Down syndrome, focusing on communication behaviors in the prelinguistic period, then the development of language in children and adolescents, and finally language development in adults and the aging period. We describe language development in individuals with Down syndrome across four domains: phonology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics. Wethen suggest strategies for intervention and directions for research relating to individuals with Down syndrome. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; McDougal, P. J.


    The role of satellites in the proposed Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is examined. ISDN is to be a unified global network providing international telecommunication services. The delay time connected with satellite communications is considered. The advantages of using satellites in ISDN are: (1) the digital services available with satellites (time-division multiple access, intermediate data rate, and Intelsat business services); (2) satellite networking features; (3) flexibility; and (4) global interconnectivity. It is noted that with the use of powerful transmitters on satellites, the growth of small earth stations, and developments in band switching and intersatellite links that satellites are applicable to ISDN.

  1. The Use of a Satellite Communications System for Command and Control of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surrogate Unmanned Aerial System Research Aircraft (United States)

    Howell, Charles T.; Jones, Frank; Hutchinson, Brian; Joyce, Claude; Nelson, Skip; Melum, Mike


    The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft which has served for several years as a platform for unmanned systems research and development. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and a Research Systems Operator (RSO) that allows for flight operations almost any-where in the national airspace system (NAS) without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be remotely controlled from a modular, transportable ground control station (GCS) like a true UAS. Ground control of the aircraft is accomplished by the use of data links that allow the two-way passage of the required data to control the aircraft and provide the GCS with situational awareness. The original UAS Surrogate data-link system was composed of redundant very high frequency (VHF) data radio modems with a maximum range of approximately 40 nautical miles. A new requirement was developed to extend this range beyond visual range (BVR). This new requirement led to the development of a satellite communications system that provided the means to command and control the UAS Surrogate at ranges beyond the limits of the VHF data links. The system makes use of the Globalstar low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications system. This paper will provide details of the development, implementation, and flight testing of the satellite data communications system on the UAS Surrogate research aircraft.

  2. Theoretical analysis and experimental study of constraint boundary conditions for acquiring the beacon in satellite-ground laser communications (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing


    Acquisition and recognition for the beacon is the core technology of establishing the satellite optical link. In order to acquire the beacon correctly, the beacon image should be recognized firstly, excluding the influence of the background light. In this processing, many factors will influence the recognition precision of the beacon. This paper studies the constraint boundary conditions for acquiring the beacon from the perspective of theory and experiment, and as satellite-ground laser communications, an approach for obtaining the adaptive segmentation method is also proposed. Finally, the long distance laser communication experiment (11.16 km) verifies the validity of this method and the tracking error with the method is the least compared with the traditional approaches. The method helps to greatly improve the tracking precision in the satellite-ground laser communications.

  3. Developing the Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) (United States)

    Huffman, G. J.; Bolvin, D. T.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K.; Joyce, R.; Kidd, C.; Sorooshian, S.; Xie, P.; Yoo, S.-H.


    The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) will provide the Day-1 algorithm for computing combined precipitation estimates as part of GPM. The focus is assembling the best time series of (nearly) global precipitation from the international constellation of precipitation-relevant satellites and global surface precipitation gauge analyses. It is planned that the time series will encompass both the TRMM and GPM eras, and that the coverage will be extended to fully global as algorithms are developed that provide skill in the difficult high-latitude environment. IMERG is being developed as a unified U.S. algorithm that takes advantage of strengths in the three groups that are contributing expertise: 1) the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), which addresses inter-satellite calibration of precipitation estimates and monthly scale combination of satellite and gauge analyses; 2) the CPC Morphing algorithm with Kalman Filtering (K-CMORPH), which provides quality-weighted time interpolation of precipitation patterns following storm motion; and 3) the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks using a Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), which provides a neural-network-based scheme for generating microwave-calibrated precipitation estimates from geosynchronous infrared brightness temperatures. In this talk we summarize the code-level integration on which IMERG is based, including the important issues that drive the design and implementation, plans for testing and starting to run the system, and current status. One concept being pioneered by the IMERG team is that combination datasets should be computed multiple times at different latencies to serve the needs of different groups of users. Although reprocessing all of the latency "runs" complicates the reprocessing scenario, experience demonstrates that it is essential for the users. Fortunately, the IMERG team has worked with the

  4. News Agencies and Global Communication: Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they play in international communication. It argues that most of these roles have some consequences undesirable to the Third World Nations. Instead of facilitating the development of the poor nations of the world, the study reveals that the major news agencies by their worldwide operations are impeding the development of ...

  5. Developing a Framework for Communication Management Competencies (United States)

    Jeffrey, Lynn Maud; Brunton, Margaret Ann


    Using a hierarchical needs assessment model developed by Hunt we identified the essential competencies of communication management practitioners for the purpose of curriculum development and selection. We found that the underlying values of the profession were embodied in two superordinate goals. Six major competencies were identified, which were…

  6. Developing Evaluation Capacity in Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The nuanced ways in which information and communication technologies (ICTs) interact with developing country societies necessitate thoughtful, systematic evaluation of their effects, grounded in the concepts of utility, outcome and ownership. This grant will allow Developing Evaluation Capacity in ICT4D (DECI) to train ...

  7. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis. (United States)

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L


    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.

  8. Using Transmission Control Protocol in the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communication Experiment - the Next Test (United States)

    Hsu, E.


    Ths paper describes a future Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) test which was planned as a part of the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communications Experiment. The TCP test portion of the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Satellite Communications Experiment intends to examine the correlation between the underlying assumptions of come TCP algorithms and the performance shortfalls observed when the algorithms are used in a stellite-based environment, and to make experimental changes to existing TCP variants to study the effects of the modifications.

  9. Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks - Experimenting with Thinking Approach in Danish as Second Language ClassroomSession on Innovations in the classroom, a presentation. Abstract for the conference Creativity & Thinking Skills in Learning, teaching & Management. Riga 19...... and systematically analyse language as a functional system, where language user is choosing between many different elements for different purposes in their communication. The Thinking Approach to language teaching is used with the aim to develop both language and thinking skills of learners, and is seen...... as an systematic approach to development of the creativity and problem solving skills of the language learners. At the same time we believe, that in the process of using the approach in the language classroom, also the communicative competence is getting forced. The video observation method has been used...

  10. Electromagnetic Modeling of the Propagation Characteristics of Satellite Communications Through Composite Precipitation Layers, Part II: Results of Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Rizzo


    Full Text Available A versatile Propagation Simulation Program (PSP is developed to assess the degrading effects caused by the concurrent occurrences of an arbitrary mixture of ice plates and needles, melting snow and raindrops which may impede the reliability of dual-polarized satellite communications systems carrying independent channels on a single radio path. Specifically, results are presented for the Cross Polarization Discrimination (XPD due to ice and rain, differential attenuation, Da, and differential phase shift, Df, due to rain and average specific attenuation, a, and phase shift, f , due to the melting layer at hitherto unconsidered frequencies. The inclusion of an ice-cloud medium is found to possess significant effects on rain-induced XPD even for low ice concentrations, particularly at low fade levels. The relative contribution of the melting layer on rain-induced attenuation is extensively studied for frequencies from 1 to 100 GHz and rain rates below 20 mm/h.

  11. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 2: Advanced techniques. The linear channel (United States)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.


    A theory is presented for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the linear satellite channel. The underlying principle used is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum-likelihood decision rule. The application of the performance prediction tools, e.g., channel cutoff rate and bit error probability transfer function bounds to these modulation/demodulation techniques.

  12. Simulation of an on-board hierarchical multistage digital FDM demultiplexer for mobile SCPC satellite communications (United States)

    Eyssele, Helmut; Goeckler, Heinz


    Focus is placed on the finite-precision time-domain simulation of the hierarchical multistage method for the demultiplexing of an FDM signal composed of L = 32 slot signals. This approach is based on the processing of complex signals by linear-phase FIR filters, where at any stage of processing the respective signals are always oversampled by a factor of two. The FDM demultiplexer is part of a multicarrier demodulator to be used in the return link (from the mobile vehicle to the earth station) of a future satellite digital communication system. The simulation results fully confirm previously predicted system performance by modelling the distortions (spectral foldover and quantization noise) inherent in the system.

  13. Low earth orbit mobile communication satellite systems: A two-year history since WARC-92 (United States)

    Dumont, Patrick


    Mobile communication satellite systems have regularly made the headlines of space industry publications in the 1990s. This paper adopts a new perspective—how the systems evolve over time—to describe the main technical features of the two main types: -big LEO systems with voice capabilities: Iridium, Globalstar, Odyssey, Inmarsat P21 -little LEO non-voice systems: Orbcomm, Starsys. This approach reveals the considerable changes, even upheavals, that have affected the design of system components. The apparent stability in the designs is due to outside observers gradually and perhaps unquestioningly perceiving the changes. People's capacity to forget, compounded by the attraction of innovation, may also have a lot to do with it. We present the likely causes of these changes: regulatory environment, market forces, financial arrangements, being at the early design stage, etc. We also analyze the effects of these forces on the systems, and deduce the general trends.

  14. Design, construction and testing of the Communications Technology Satellite protection against spacecraft charging (United States)

    Gore, J. V.


    Detailed discussions are presented of the measures taken on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS or Hermes) which provide protection against the effects of spacecraft charging. These measures include: a comprehensive grounding philosophy and implementation; provision of command and data line transmitters and receivers for transient noise immunity; and a fairly restrictive EMI specification. Ground tests were made on materials and the impact of these tests on the CTS spacecraft is described. Hermes, launched on 17 January 1976 on a 2914 Delta vehicle, has successfully completed 10 months of operations. Anomalies observed are being assessed in relation to spacecraft charging, but no definite correlations have yet been established. A list of conclusions with regard to the CTS experience is given and recommendations for future spacecraft are also listed.

  15. A Multibeam Dual-Band Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antenna Array for Satellite Communication on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu


    Full Text Available The design and simulation of a 10 × 8 multibeam dual-band orthogonal linearly polarized antenna array operating at Ku-band are presented for transmit-receive applications. By using patches with different coupling methods as elements, both perpendicular polarization in 12.25–12.75 GHz band and horizontal polarization in 14.0–14.5 GHz band are realized in a shared antenna aperture. A microstrip Rotman lens is employed as the beamforming network with 7 input ports, which can generate a corresponding number of beams to cover −30°–30° with 5 dB beamwidth along one dimension. This type of multibeam orthogonal linearly polarized planar antenna is a good candidate for satellite communication (SatCom.

  16. Design and Operation of an IR-CAGE For Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Communication Satellite (United States)

    Wuersching, C.


    A specific infrared radiation device was designed and manufactured for infrared simulation on a communication satellite. For the thermal vacuum test of this satellite, radiation fields with different sizes, shapes and radiation intensities were required to deliver additional heating power onto the space- craft panels. Five of the six sides of the cube- shaped satellite had to be equipped with flat IR- frames so that a cage surrounding the S/C had to be designed. The following features of the IR-cage were re- quired: A lightweight, but still rigid construction of the frame with space-proofed materials; using of standard components for cost reasons; radiation intensities of 400 to 1100 W/m2; a computer-based system for individual control of the heating circuits; a user friendly and safe handling of the operation panel and the recording of all operational parame- ter. The mechanical construction was realised by using aluminium profiles. The standard components al- lowed completing the mechanical set-up within a short time. After some investigation concerning the heating devices it was decided to use heating strips for the radiation fields of low intensity and com- mercial IR-quartz radiators for fields with higher intensity. A special suspension for the heating strips was designed to keep them under defined tension. The power supplies for the heating circuits were computer-controlled. The software allowed the individual power setting of each heater. Addition- ally an automatic mode for controlling the heaters by a reference thermocouple was foreseen. Beside design features of the cage, this paper will also describe the heater concept and the control system, and it will have a look at QA relevant mat- ters.

  17. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications (United States)

    Farr, William H.


    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  18. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence through Online Exchanges (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy M.


    Based on Byram's (1997) definition of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and on specific types of discourse analysis proposed by Kramsch and Thorne (2002) and Ware and Kramsch (2005), this article explores how online exchanges can play a role in second language learners' development of pragmatic competence and ICC. With data obtained…

  19. Developing a Multicultural Mass Communication Course. (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy; And Others


    Maintains that perspectives of cultural diversity and gender are appropriate for courses in mass communication and society. Describes the academic techniques (a focus on culture and media studies) and the instructional techniques of such a course developed at Stanford University. Notes the need to deal with zero-sum perceptions of such endeavors…

  20. Major development communication paradigms and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that could either ...

  1. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to foster an inclusive knowledge society by building capacity to apply information and communication technology (ICT) to human, social and economic development in the Middle East, specifically Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine (West Bank and Gaza), Syria and Yemen. The project will focus on the areas of ...

  2. Developing Concepts of Ordinary and Extraordinary Communication (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A.; Wellman, Henry M.


    We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether…

  3. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared


    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  4. Communication in Drug Development: "Translating" Scientific Discovery. (United States)

    Settleman, Jeff; Cohen, Robert L


    The discovery and development of new medicines that promote human health and potentially extend natural life remains a remarkably challenging endeavor. In this Commentary, we identify key elements of communication required to successfully translate promising biological findings to novel approved drug therapies and discuss the attendant challenges and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that ...

  6. Development of IT-based data communication network technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seok Boong; Jeong, K. I.; Yoo, Y. R.


    - Developing broadband high-reliability real-time communications technology for NPP - Developing reliability and performance validation technology for communications network - Developing security technology for NPP communications network - Developing field communications network for harsh environment of NPP - International standard registration(Oct. 28, 2009, IEC 61500

  7. Using Satellite Technology to Increase Professional Communications Among Teachers: a Report of Experiments Conducted by the National Education Association. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    The National Education Association (NEA) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Library of Medicine, The Alaska Broadcasting Commission, and the Pacific PEACESAT Network, conducted four satellite experiments designed to improve professional communication among teachers. These programs were the Satellite…

  8. Dynamic rain fade compensation techniques for the advanced communications technology satellite (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.


    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above the 30/20 GHz Ka band necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory. The ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model discerns climatological variations on the order of 0.5 deg in latitude and longitude in the continental U.S. The time-dependent portion of the model gives precise availability predictions for the 'spot beam' links of ACTS. However, the structure of the dynamic portion of the model, which yields performance parameters such as fade duration probabilities, is isomorphic to the state-variable approach of stochastic control theory and is amenable to the design of such statistical fade processing schemes which can be made specific to the particular climatological location at which they are employed.

  9. Communication development of children with cochlear implantant


    Beznosková, Michaela


    This diploma work is devoted to the development of the communication of children with cochlear implantant. The first part (Issue) engages in problems of auditory defects and their diagnosis, which is important for the right and timeous compensation of the auditory defect. Another chapter is devoted to cochlear implantions, choice of acceptable candidates with intention to children. In the following parts the work is aimed at comunication and development of the speech. Big attention is devoted...

  10. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 3: Advanced techniques. The nonlinear channel (United States)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.


    A theory for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the nonlinear satellite channel is presented. The underlying principle used throughout is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum likelihood decision rule and aproximations to it. The bit error probability transfer function bounds developed in great detail in Part 4 is applied to these modulation/demodulation techniques. The effects of the various degrees of receiver mismatch are considered both theoretically and by numerous illustrative examples.

  11. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidler Franz


    Full Text Available Abstract In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.

  12. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald Wallner


    Full Text Available In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila M. Andryukhina


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article is concerned with the topical problem of extending intercultural communicative competence in the educational process. Materials and Methods: the authors made a theoretical and empirical analysis of domestic and foreign research and analytical reports prepared in the framework of international projects, the activity of non-governmental organisations, in particular the activities of Sverdlovsk regiona l public organisation “Friends of France”. Results: it is proven that intercultural competence cannot be fully developed by traditional forms of education, and even the existing current innovative experience in this area is insufficient. The integration of education becomes a crucial factor. The article describes the creative educational practices of such integration as the conditions for broadening intercultural communicative competence. The basic characteristics of creative practices are described. Сreative practices being integrated fo rm a creative platform. Discussion and Conclusions: the system of conditions and means for broadening intercultural communicative competence is in constant development. The authors propose to consider the communicative competence as a system of creative practices transformed in the course of elaboration into creative platforms, expanding in the process of intercultural dialogue. This is a promising way to achieve the comprehensive result – completeness of integrated multi-component structure of the intercultural co mmunicative competence.

  14. Development of a New Radiation Sensor for Satellite Missions (United States)

    Ritter, Birgit; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hauslage, Jens; Marsalek, Karel; Aeckerlein, Joachim; M, Hartmut

    The RAMIS (RAdiation Measurements In Space) experiment aims to measure cosmic radiation with energy deposition ranging from minimal ionizing protons up to relativistic iron nuclei. The radiation detector principle uses two silicon detectors, each with an active area of 0.5cm² that are arranged in a telescope configuration. The experiment will fly in 2016 on the first mission of the newly developed DLR (German Aerospace Center) Compact Satellite, which intends to provide an easy accessible platform for scientific research within DLR as well as for international partners and their experiments. As the satellite will orbit Earth at an altitude of about 600 km on a polar orbit, valuable insights are gained not only in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) component of the radiation field and in solar energetic particles (SEPs) in case of solar events. Also the trapped radiation in the horns of the electron belts around Earth can be studied in detail. Particle fluxes will be monitored and energy deposition spectra recorded from which linear energy transfer spectra will be generated. These spectra give an estimate for the quality of the radiation field. The RAMIS experiment consists of two modules, i.e. two small silicon detector telescopes, with one module being located outside on top of the satellite, while the other one is placed inside next to the primary payload of the satellite, the Eu:CROPIS experiment. Eu:CROPIS is a combined self-sustained biological life support system under Moon and Mars gravity, which uses Euglena as oxygen suppliers, biofilter for wastewater treatment and detoxification, and urine as primary fertilizer. In addition to its scientific output RAMIS will provide dosimetric monitoring for Eu:CROPIS and serve as a radiation exposure information system for the satellite bus. Furthermore the obtained data can be used for benchmarking and improvement of radiation belt models as well as of shielding models by combining the results of both modules. The RAMIS

  15. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1 (United States)


    The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

  16. Detection of centers of tropical cyclones using Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite data (United States)

    Lee, Juhyun; Im, Jungho; Park, Seohui; Yoo, Cheolhee


    Tropical cyclones are one of major natural disasters, which results in huge damages to human and society. Analyzing behaviors and characteristics of tropical cyclones is essential for mitigating the damages by tropical cyclones. In particular, it is important to keep track of the centers of tropical cyclones. Cyclone center and track information (called Best Track) provided by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are widely used for the reference data of tropical cyclone centers. However, JTWC uses multiple resources including numerical modeling, geostationary satellite data, and in situ measurements to determine the best track in a subjective way and makes it available to the public 6 months later after an event occurred. Thus, the best track data cannot be operationally used to identify the centers of tropical cyclones in real time. In this study, we proposed an automated approach for identifying the centers of tropical cyclones using only Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) Meteorological Imager (MI) sensor derived data. It contains 5 bands—VIS (0.67µm), SWIR (3.7µm), WV (6.7µm), IR1 (10.8µm), and IR2 (12.0µm). We used IR1 band images to extract brightness temperatures of cloud tops over Western North Pacific between 2011 and 2012. The Angle deviation between brightness temperature-based gradient direction in a moving window and the reference angle toward the center of the window was extracted. Then, a spatial analysis index called circular variance was adopted to identify the centers of tropical cyclones based on the angle deviation. Finally, the locations of the minimum circular variance indexes were identified as the centers of tropical cyclones. While the proposed method has comparable performance for detecting cyclone centers in case of organized cloud convections when compared with the best track data, it identified the cyclone centers distant ( 2 degrees) from the best track centers for unorganized convections.

  17. Some effects of Space Weather in a 4GHz communication satellite link over the Brazilian Region (United States)

    Soares, A.

    This work concerns a study of some effects of Space Weather in a C-band Satellite Link between Rio de Janeiro (22o57'S, 43o11'W) and Vitoria (20o10SS, 40o10SW), in the SouthEast of Brazil, from October 2000 to nowadays. An automatic acquisition system was developed to register the spectrum of the used frequencies and, since January 2002, this system has also registered the data corruption over a known information embedded in the link. As a result of this monitoring now we can know some useful things about the interference caused by geophisical phenomena like Plasma Bubbles.

  18. Advanced communication methods developed for nuclear data communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Railesha; Tiwari, S.S.; Panday, Lokesh; Suri, Nitin; Takle, Tarun Rao; Jain, Sanjeev; Gupta, Rishi; Sharma, Dipeeka; Takle, Rahul Rao; Gautam, Rajeev; Bhargava, Vishal; Arora, Himanshu; Agarwal, Ankur; Rupesh; Chawla, Mohit; Sethi, Amardeep Singh; Gupta, Mukesh; Gupta, Ankit; Verma, Neha; Sood, Nitin; Singh, Sunil; Agarwal, Chandresh


    We conducted various experiments and tested data communications methods that may be useful for various applications in nuclear industries. We explored the following areas. I. Scientific data communication among scientists within the laboratory and inter-laboratory data exchange. 2.Data from sensors from remote and wired sensors. 3.Data from multiple sensors with small zone. 4.Data from single or multiple sensors from distances above 100 m and less than 10 km. No any single data communication method was found to be the best solution for nuclear applications and multiple modes of communication were found to be advantageous than any single mode of data communication. Network of computers in the control room and in between laboratories connected with optical fiber or an isolated Ethernet coaxial LAN was found to be optimum. Information from multiple analog process sensors in smaller zones like reactor building and laboratories on 12C LAN and short-range wireless LAN were found to be advantageous. Within the laboratory sensor data network of 12C was found to be cost effective and wireless LAN was comparatively expansive. Within a room infrared optical LAN and FSK wireless LAN were found to be highly useful in making the sensors free from wires. Direct sensor interface on FSK wireless link were found to be fast accurate, cost effective over large distance data communication. Such links are the only way to communicate from sea boy and balloons hardware. 1-wire communication network of Dallas Semiconductor USA for weather station data communication Computer to computer communication using optical LAN links has been tried, temperature pressure, humidity, ionizing radiation, generator RPM and voltage and various other analog signals were also transported o FSK optical and wireless links. Multiple sensors needed a dedicated data acquisition system and wireless LAN for data telemetry. (author)

  19. Detection of Convective Initiation Using Meteorological Imager Onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Based on Machine Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han


    Full Text Available As convective clouds in Northeast Asia are accompanied by various hazards related with heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, it is very important to detect convective initiation (CI in the region in order to mitigate damage by such hazards. In this study, a novel approach for CI detection using images from Meteorological Imager (MI, a payload of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, was developed by improving the criteria of the interest fields of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Areas (RDCA derivation algorithm, an official CI detection algorithm for Multi-functional Transport SATellite-2 (MTSAT-2, based on three machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT, random forest (RF, and support vector machines (SVM. CI was defined as clouds within a 16 × 16 km window with the first detection of lightning occurrence at the center. A total of nine interest fields derived from visible, water vapor, and two thermal infrared images of MI obtained 15–75 min before the lightning occurrence were used as input variables for CI detection. RF produced slightly higher performance (probability of detection (POD of 75.5% and false alarm rate (FAR of 46.2% than DT (POD of 70.7% and FAR of 46.6% for detection of CI caused by migrating frontal cyclones and unstable atmosphere. SVM resulted in relatively poor performance with very high FAR ~83.3%. The averaged lead times of CI detection based on the DT and RF models were 36.8 and 37.7 min, respectively. This implies that CI over Northeast Asia can be forecasted ~30–45 min in advance using COMS MI data.

  20. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia? (United States)

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal


    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  1. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Multibeam Antenna On-Orbit Performance (United States)


    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) was launched in September 1993. ACTS introduced several new technologies, including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at extremely short wavelengths never before used in communications. This antenna, which has both fixed and rapidly reconfigurable high-energy spot beams (150 miles in diameter), serves users equipped with small antenna terminals. Extensive structural and thermal analyses have been performed for simulating the ACTS MBA on-orbit performance. The results show that the reflector surfaces (mainly the front subreflector), antenna support assembly, and metallic surfaces on the spacecraft body will be distorted because of the thermal effects of varying solar heating, which degrade the ACTS MBA performance. Since ACTS was launched, a number of evaluations have been performed to assess MBA performance in the space environment. For example, the on-orbit performance measurements found systematic environmental disturbances to the MBA beam pointing. These disturbances were found to be imposed by the attitude control system, antenna and spacecraft mechanical alignments, and on-orbit thermal effects. As a result, the MBA may not always exactly cover the intended service area. In addition, the on-orbit measurements showed that antenna pointing accuracy is the performance parameter most sensitive to thermal distortions on the front subreflector surface and antenna support assemblies. Several compensation approaches were tested and evaluated to restore on-orbit pointing stability. A combination of autotrack (75 percent of the time) and Earth sensor control (25 percent of the time) was found to be the best way to compensate for antenna pointing error during orbit. This approach greatly minimizes the effects of thermal distortions on antenna beam pointing.

  2. Satellite telecommunications in the civil environment (United States)

    Prince, W. T. T.


    It is pointed out that, in connection with the ever-increasing demand for international circuits, satellite telecommunications has become a major electronics growth area over the past decade. More countries, particularly those in the Third World are joining the Intelsat (International Satellite) network. Plans are being implemented for the provision of major regional satellite systems such as the European Communication Satellite (ECS) by Eutelsat (an organization of European telephone authorities) and Arabsat by the Arab Satellite Communications Organization. Attention is given to details regarding ground stations, the provision of maritime satellite communications to ships at sea, future developments, aspects of direct broadcasting, and new applications. A major breakthrough in satellite communications during the 1980s is likely to be in the field of business systems in developed countries.

  3. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite (United States)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.


    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  4. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian


    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  5. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang


    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  6. Developing Tomorrows Space War Fighter: The Argument for Contracting Out Satellite Operations (United States)


    task. As a 2008 Council on Foreign Relations special report states, “ Satellites ’ predictable orbits make them vulnerable to a variety of offensive...that a pilot flies a plane. The actual process of maintaining a satellite on orbit is much different. A satellite is repositioned, reconfigured...November–December 2015 | 83 Developing Tomorrow’s Space War Fighter The Argument for Contracting Out Satellite Operations Maj Sean C. Temple, USAF

  7. On board processing for future satellite communications systems: Comparison of FDM, TDM and hybrid accessing schemes (United States)

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.


    Several satellite uplink and downlink accessing schemes for customer premises service are compared. Four conceptual system designs are presented: satellite-routed frequency division multiple access (FDMA), satellite-switched time division multiple access (TDMA), processor-routed TDMA, and frequency-routed TDMA, operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The designs are compared on the basis of estimated satellite weight, system capacity, power consumption, and cost. The systems are analyzed for fixed multibeam coverage of the continental United States. Analysis shows that the system capacity is limited by the available satellite resources and by the terminal size and cost.

  8. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard


    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  9. Design and development status of ETS-7, an RVD and space robot experiment satellite (United States)

    Oda, M.; Inagaki, T.; Nishida, M.; Kibe, K.; Yamagata, F.


    ETS-7 (Engineering Test Satellite #7) is an experimental satellite for the in-orbit experiment of the Rendezvous Docking (RVD) and the space robot (RBT) technologies. ETS-7 is a set of two satellites, a chaser satellite and a target satellite. Both satellites will be launched together by NASDA's H-2 rocket into a low earth orbit. Development of ETS-7 started in 1990. Basic design and EM (Engineering Model) development are in progress now in 1994. The satellite will be launched in mid 1997 and the above in-orbit experiments will be conducted for 1.5 years. Design of ETS-7 RBT experiment system and development status are described in this paper.

  10. Design challenges of a tunable laser interrogator for geo-stationary communication satellites (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Honniball, Arthur; McCue, Raymond; Todd, Michael; O'Dowd, John A.; Sheils, David; Voudouris, Liberis; Farnan, Martin; Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Philipp; Lemke, Norbert; Roner, Markus


    Recently optical sensing solutions based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology have been proposed for temperature monitoring in telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geo-stationary orbit. Developing radiation hardened optical interrogators designed to be used with FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers offer the capabilities of multiplexing multiple sensors on the same fiber and reducing the overall weight by removing the copper wiring harnesses associated with electrical sensors. Here we propose the use of a tunable laser based optical interrogator that uses a semiconductor MG-Y type laser that has no moving parts and sweeps across the C-band wavelength range providing optical power to FBG sensors and optical wavelength references such as athermal Etalons and Gas Cells to guarantee stable operation of the interrogator over its targeted life time in radiation exposed environments. The MG-Y laser was calibrated so it remains in a stable operation mode which ensures that no mode hops occur due to aging of the laser, and/or thermal or radiation effects. The key optical components including tunable laser, references and FBGs were tested for radiation tolerances by emulating the conditions on a geo-stationary satellite including a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) radiation level of up to 100 krad for interrogator components and 25 Mrad for FBGs. Different tunable laser control, and signal processing algorithms have been designed and developed to fit within specific available radiation hardened FPGAs to guarantee operation of a single interrogator module providing at least 1 sample per second measurement capability across a temperature range of -20°C to +65°C using femtosecond inscribed FBGs (fs-FBG), a polarization switch is used to mitigate for the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDFS) induced from fs-FBG which could be in the order of a hybrid sensor bus (HSB) engineering model system developed in the

  11. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems (United States)

    Jackson, Dan


    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  12. A design proposal of a certain missile tactical command system based on Beidou satellite communication and GPS positioning techniques (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Hao, Yongsheng; Miao, Jian; Zhang, Jianmao


    This paper introduced a design proposal of tactical command system that applied to a kind of anti-tank missile carriers. The tactical command system was made up of embedded computer system based on PC104 bus, Linux operating system, digital military map, Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments. The geographic coordinates was measured by the GPS receiver, the positioning data, commands and information were transmitted real-time between tactical command systems, tactical command systems and command center, by the Beidou satellite communication systems. The Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments were integrated to an independent module, exchanging data with embedded computer through RS232 serial ports and USB ports. The decision support system software based on information fusion, calculates positioning data, geography information and battle field information synthetically, shows the position of allies and the position of enemy on the military map, and assesses the various threats of different enemy objects, educes a situation assessment and threat assessment.

  13. Developing Cross-Cultural Communication Skills through Business Communication Simulation. (United States)

    Baird, John W.; Stull, James B.

    This paper discusses the growing trend toward businesses in United States becoming multinational corporations, particularly in the Latin American countries. Specific attention is given to the skills needed by the organizational communicator in order to function in those settings. The paper presents a cross-cultural business simulation designed to…

  14. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.


    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  15. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  16. Development of dual imaging optical sensor (DIOS) for small satellites (United States)

    Choi, Young-Wan; Kang, Myung-Seok; Jeong, Sung-Keun; Yun, Ji-Ho; Yang, Seung-Uk; Kim, Jongun; Kim, Ee-Eul


    The mission of DIOS program is to provide the function of large-swathwidth or in-track stereo imaging with compact electro-optical cameras. Optimized from its predecessor SAC (Small-sized Aperture Camera), DIOS consists of two cameras, each with an aperture of 120 mm diameter, 10 m GSD, and 50 km swath width in the spectral range of 520 ~ 890 nm. DIOS is developed to produce high quality images: MTF of more than 12 %; SNR of more than 100. DIOS can be configured to have cameras side-by-side, providing a swathwidth up to 100 km for a mission of large swathwidth. DIOS will be configured with installation of slanted two cameras for the mission of in-track stereo imaging to produce digital elevation model. In this paper, Dual Imaging Optical Sensor (DIOS) will be introduced with design approach and performance measure. Even though developed for micro satellites, the presentation of development status and test results will demonstrate the potential capability that DISO can provide for world-wide remote sensing groups: short development period, cost-effectiveness, wide application ranges, and high performance.

  17. Use of CCSDS and OSI Protocols on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Chirieleison, Don


    Although ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) provides an almost error-free channel during much of the day and under most conditions, there are times when it is not suitable for reliably error-free data communications when operating in the uncoded mode. Because coded operation is not always available to every earth station, measures must be taken in the end system to maintain adequate throughput when transferring data under adverse conditions. The most effective approach that we tested to improve performance was the addition of an 'outer' Reed-Solomon code through use of CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) GOS 2 (a forward error correcting code). This addition can benefit all users of an ACTS channel including those applications that do not require totally reliable transport, but it is somewhat expensive because additional hardware is needed. Although we could not characterize the link noise statistically (it appeared to resemble uncorrelated white noise, the type that block codes are least effective in correcting), we did find that CCSDS GOS 2 gave an essentially error-free link at BER's (bit error rate) as high as 6x10(exp -4). For users that demand reliable transport, an ARQ (Automatic Repeat Queuing) protocol such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) or TP4 (Transport Protocol, Class 4) will probably be used. In this category, it comes as no surprise that the best choice of the protocol suites tested over ACTS was TP4 using CCSDS GOS 2. TP4 behaves very well over an error-free link which GOS 2 provides up to a point. Without forward error correction, however, TP4 service begins to degrade in the 10(exp -7)-10(exp -6) range and by 4x10(exp -6), it barely gives any throughput at all. If Congestion Avoidance is used in TP4, the degradation is even more pronounced. Fortunately, as demonstrated here, this effect can be more than compensated for by choosing the Selective Acknowledgment option. In fact, this option can enable TP4 to

  18. Satellite power system. Concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Reference System description emphasizes technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies. Supporting information has been developed according to a guideline of implementing two 5 GW SPS systems per year for 30 years beginning with an initial operational data of 2000 and with SPS's being added at the rate of two per year (10 GW/year) until 2030. The Reference System concept, which features gallium--aluminum--arsenide (GaAlAs) and silicon solar cell options, is described in detail. The concept utilizes a planar solar array (about 55 km/sup 2/) built on a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic structure. The silicon array uses a concentration ratio of one (no concentration), whereas the GaAlAs array uses a concentration ratio of two. A one-kilometer diameter phased array microwave antenna is mounted on one end. The antenna uses klystrons as power amplifiers with slotted waveguides as radiating elements. The satellite is constructed in geosynchronous orbit in a six-month period. The ground receiving stations (rectenna) are completed during the same time period. The other two major components of an SPS program are (1) the construction bases in space and launch and mission control bases on earth and (2) fleets of various transportation vehicles that support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites. These transportation vehicles include Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV), Personnel Launch Vehicles (PLV), Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicles (COTV), and Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicles (POTV). The earth launch site chosen is the Kennedy Space Center, pending further study.

  19. Processor Units Reduce Satellite Construction Costs (United States)


    As part of the effort to build the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), Marshall Space Flight Center developed a low-cost telemetry unit which is used to facilitate communication between a satellite and its receiving station. Huntsville, Alabama-based Orbital Telemetry Inc. has licensed the NASA technology and is offering to install the cost-cutting units on commercial satellites.

  20. Izviđanje satelitskih komunikacija u funkciji savremenih operacija / Reconnaissance of satellite communications in contemporary operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Đukanović


    Full Text Available Raspoloživi vojni resursi u bilo kojoj kategoriji nisu kritični u mirnodopskom periodu, jer se dimenzionišu za ratno naprezanje određenog nivoa. Međutim, u uslovima izvođenja borbenih dejstava postoje ekstremi u zahtevima za angažovanjem, koje sistemi ne mogu da izdrže. Takav slučaj je kod satelitskih komunikacija. U radu su prezentovane taktičko-tehničke i dinamičke osobine komercijalnih (INMARSAT, INTELSAT, IRIDIJUM.. i vojnih (DSCS, FLEET-SATCOM, NATO, SKYNET.. satelitskih sistema, koje su bitne za uspešno vođenje elektronskog rata. Takođe, dat je pregled raspoloživih korisničkih servisa savremenih satelitskih sistema (Internet provajding video-konferencije, prenos multimedija uživo, fax, e-mail, voice. Nova generacija širokopojasnih satelita, koja se pušta u rad tokom ove godine omogućiće globalni roming navedenih servisa INMARSAT satelitskom sistemu koji se sve češće koristi u vojne svrhe. U perspektivi je da se usluge koje pružaju satelitski sistemi (komunikacioni, navigacioni, izviđački meteorološki.. stave na raspolaganje nižim taktičkim jedinicama vazduhoplovima, pa čak i svakom vojniku ponaosob. Poznavanje satelitskih sistema potencijalnog agresora pruža mogućnost da se odrede ranjive tačke samog sistema sa aspekta izviđanja i ometanja. / Available military resources in any category are not critical in peace since they are tailored for military use under extreme conditions. However, some systems such as satellite communications, cannot meet extreme requirements during combat actions. The paper presents tactical and technical specifications and dynamic characteristics of commercial (INMARSAT. INTELSAT, IRIDIJUM,.. and military (DSCS, FLEET-SATCOM, NATO, SKYNET,.. satellite systems which are important for electronic warfare. The paper also gives available user services of contemporary satellite systems (Internet providing, videoconferences, live multi-media, fax, e-mail, voice. A new generation of

  1. Radiation-hard mid-power booster optical fiber amplifiers for high-speed digital and analogue satellite laser communication links (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Stevens, G.; Henwood-Moroney, L.; Hosking, P.; Robertson, A.


    Optical laser communications (OLC) has been identified as the technology to enable high-data rate, secure links between and within satellites, as well as between satellites and ground stations with decreased mass, size, and electrical power compared to traditional RF technology.

  2. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn


    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  3. Development of the Integrated Communication Model (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo


    Human communication is a critical issue in personal life. It also should be the indispensable core element of general education curriculum in universities and colleges. Based on literature analysis and the author's clinical observation, the importance of human communication, functions of model, and often seen human communication models were…

  4. Graduate Training for Communication and Social Development. (United States)

    Chicago Univ., IL. Communication Lab.

    The Communication Laboratory, established in 1971, was brought into existence by the world population crisis. Two specializations of the program include: 1) the production of materials for interpersonal and mass media programs that are designed to induce a desired change through persuasive communication, and, 2) research in communication as a…

  5. Performance verification of adaptive optics for satellite-to-ground coherent optical communications at large zenith angle. (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Rui, Daoman; Xian, Hao


    Although there is an urgent demand, it is still a tremendous challenge to use the coherent optical communication technology to the satellite-to-ground data transmission system especially at large zenith angle due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is a considerable scheme to solve the problem. In this paper, we integrate the adaptive optics (AO) to the coherent laser communications and the performances of mixing efficiency as well as bit-error-rate (BER) at different zenith angles are studied. The analytical results show that the increasing of zenith angle can severely decrease the performances of the coherent detection, and increase the BER to higher than 10 -3 , which is unacceptable. The simulative results of coherent detection with AO compensation indicate that the larger mixing efficiency and lower BER can be performed by the coherent receiver with a high-mode AO compensation. The experiment of correcting the atmospheric turbulence wavefront distortion using a 249-element AO system at large zenith angles is carried out. The result demonstrates that the AO system has a significant improvement on satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication system at large zenith angle. It also indicates that the 249-element AO system can only meet the needs of coherent communication systems at zenith angle smaller than 65̊ for the 1.8m telescope under weak and moderate turbulence.

  6. Political and legal implications of developing and operating a satellite power system (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.


    A number of political and legal implications of developing and operating a satellite power system (SPS) are identified and studied in this report. These include the vulnerability of SPS to actions of adversaries, communications impacts, the legality of an SPS in orbit including on-orbit military protection, alleviation of political concerns about deployment and operation of SPS, programmatic planning for SPS and the interaction of SPS with federal regulatory agencies and major departments. In comparing SPS to terrestrial power stations, it is seen that the political problems are neither clearly larger nor clearly smaller--they are clearly different and they are international in nature. If SPS is to become a reality these problems must be dealt with. Five major issues are identified. These must be resolved in order to obtain international acceptance of SPS. However, this study has found no insurmountable obstacles that would clearly prohibit the deployment, operation and protection of an SPS fleet.

  7. OSI-compatible protocols for mobile-satellite communications: The AMSS experience (United States)

    Moher, Michael


    The protocol structure of the international aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS) is reviewed with emphasis on those aspects of protocol performance, validation, and conformance which are peculiar to mobile services. This is in part an analysis of what can be learned from the AMSS experience with protocols which is relevant to the design of other mobile satellite data networks, e.g., land mobile.

  8. Communicative Competence: Existing Concepts and Prospects for Further Development (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena


    Communicative competence is set out to be of the eight key competences which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission 2004, p. 3). The success of the sustainable development of communicative competence requires existing concepts of communicative competence…

  9. Proceedings of the Twenty-First NASA Propagation Experiments Meeting (NAPEX XXI) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser (Editor)


    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) meeting is convened each year to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications industry, academia and government who have an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation are invited to NAPEX meetings for discussions and exchange of information. The reports delivered at this meeting by program managers and investigators present recent activities and future plans. This forum provides an opportunity for peer discussion of work in progress, timely dissemination of propagation results, and close interaction with the satellite communications industry. NAPEX XXI took place in El Segundo, California on June 11-12, 1997 and consisted of three sessions. Session 1, entitled "ACTS Propagation Study Results & Outcome " covered the results of 20 station-years of Ka-band radio-wave propagation experiments. Session 11, 'Ka-band Propagation Studies and Models,' provided the latest developments in modeling, and analysis of experimental results about radio wave propagation phenomena for design of Ka-band satellite communications systems. Session 111, 'Propagation Research Topics,' covered a diverse range of propagation topics of interest to the space community, including overviews of handbooks and databases on radio wave propagation. The ACTS Propagation Studies miniworkshop was held on June 13, 1997 and consisted of a technical session in the morning and a plenary session in the afternoon. The morning session covered updates on the status of the ACTS Project & Propagation Program, engineering support for ACTS Propagation Terminals, and the Data Center. The plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  10. Development of Innovative Technology to Expand Precipitation Observations in Satellite Precipitation Validation in Under-developed Data-sparse Regions (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Steinson, M.


    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of precipitation and surface weather conditions in general is critical for a variety of research studies and applications. Surface precipitation observations provide important reference information for evaluating satellite (e.g., GPM) precipitation estimates. High quality surface observations of precipitation, temperature, moisture, and winds are important for applications such as agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and hazardous weather early warning systems. In many regions of the World, surface weather station and precipitation gauge networks are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation including tipping bucket and weighing-type precipitation gauges in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to improve the number of observations (temporally and spatially) for the evaluation of satellite precipitation estimates in data-sparse regions and to improve the quality of applications for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. One important aspect of this initiative is to make the data open to the community. The weather station instrumentation have been developed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. An initial pilot project have been implemented in the country of Zambia. This effort could be expanded to other data sparse regions around the globe. The presentation will provide an overview and demonstration of 3D printed weather station development and initial evaluation of observed

  11. Development of Communication Technologies in Turkey: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Penpece


    Full Text Available Communication is a system that senders have possibility to send message to receiver in general meaning. It is considered that as a modern Turkish economy should use communication systems largely. It is critically important to show Turkey’s usage of communication technologies as a country that keeps up with new developments in the world. Communication tools that examined in this study are postal services, newspaper and magazines, fixed-line telephone and mobile phone, internet. According to examined period it is resulted that the usage of communication tools increased. It is observed that some communication tools usage decreased caused by different factors in some terms.

  12. Design and implementation of the next generation Landsat satellite communications system (United States)

    Mah, Grant R.; O'Brien, Michael; Garon, Howard; Mott, Claire; Ames, Alan; Dearth, Ken


    The next generation Landsat satellite, Landsat 8 (L8), also known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), uses a highly spectrally efficient modulation and data formatting approach to provide large amounts of downlink (D/L) bandwidth in a limited X-Band spectrum allocation. In addition to purely data throughput and bandwidth considerations, there were a number of additional constraints based on operational considerations for prevention of interference with the NASA Deep-Space Network (DSN) band just above the L8 D/L band, minimization of jitter contributions to prevent impacts to instrument performance, and the need to provide an interface to the Landsat International Cooperator (IC) community. A series of trade studies were conducted to consider either X- or Ka-Band, modulation type, and antenna coverage type, prior to the release of the request for proposal (RFP) for the spacecraft. Through use of the spectrally efficient rate-7/8 Low-Density Parity-Check error-correction coding and novel filtering, an XBand frequency plan was developed that balances all the constraints and considerations, while providing world-class link performance, fitting 384 Mbits/sec of data into the 375 MHz X-Band allocation with bit-error rates better than 10-12 using an earth-coverage antenna.

  13. Communicating about Communication: Fostering the Development of the Communication Discipline in Russia. (United States)

    Mast, Yulia; Keyton, Joann

    Despite American domination of the social science study of communication, communication instruction is growing throughout the world. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, American scholars initiated activities to introduce Russian scholars to the communication discipline. This paper explores that journey by describing the history of the…

  14. Developing Evaluation and Communication Capacity in Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One of IDRC's main goals is ensuring that high-quality research contributes to change in policy and practice. Meeting that objective can be challenging, given the complex interactions among stakeholders, researchers, and communicators. Evaluation and communication are essential to ensuring that research has an impact ...

  15. 2009 The Place of Libraries in Development Communication By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feedback to the government. ii) Provision of horizontal and vertical (interactive) communication linkage at all levels of society and communication channels through which people have the capability to communicate with one another in order to accomplish co- ordination necessary for human and material development.

  16. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira


    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  17. Evaluating IMU communication skills training programme: assessment tool development. (United States)

    Yeap, R; Beevi, Z; Lukman, H


    This article describes the development of four assessment tools designed to evaluate the communication skills training (CST) programme at the International Medical University (IMU). The tools measure pre-clinical students' 1) perceived competency in basic interpersonal skills, 2) attitude towards patient-centred communication, 3) conceptual knowledge on doctor-patient communication, and 4) acceptance of the CST programme.

  18. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: New developments and emerging applications (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen


    The China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed and operated well with over 25 launched satellites in 2017, including fifteen Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites, five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites and five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites. Together with the United States' GPS, European Union's Galileo and Russia's GLONASS as well as other regional augmentation systems, e.g., Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) and Japan Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), more emerging applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the coming years. The papers in this issue of Advances in Space Research present new advances in the system, techniques and emerging applications of BDS/GNSS+. These papers were from an open call and a special call for participants at the 8th China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC 2017) held on May 23-25, 2017, Shanghai, China. This conference series provides a good platform for academic and technique exchanges as well as collaboration in satellite navigation. CSNC 2017 was well attend with more than 3000 participants and over 800 papers in 12 sessions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela STĂNESCU


    Full Text Available The present paper examines the main principles governing the development of speaking skills in learners of English at all levels, through the optic of the Communicative Approach. Dwelling on the importance of teacher and student attitudes towards classroom communication, of ensuring an adequate class atmosphere and context for mea ningful communication, the present author goes on to discuss the most relevant and productive fluency-building activities and techniques meant to train students for meaningful self-expression and communication.

  20. Proceedings of the Twentieth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 20) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser (Editor)


    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) Meeting is convened each year to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications (satcom) industry, academia, and government who have an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation are invited to NAPEX meetings for discussions and exchange of information. The reports delivered at these meetings by program managers and investigators present recent activities and future plans. This forum provides an opportunity for peer discussion of work in progress, timely dissemination of propagation results, and close interaction with the satcom industry.

  1. Spacecraft charging investigation for the CTS project. [electric insulator surface tests by electron bombardment for Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Gore, V.


    Results to date are presented for a program of analytical and experimental investigations to assess the impact of discharge pulses from spacecraft surfaces in the joint Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). All insulator surfaces tested experienced visible discharges when subjected to an electron beam with energy greater than 10 keV. Discharge rate was found to be a function of current flux. The deployable solar array sample experienced discharges under bombardment from the cell or kapton side. There was no measurable cell performance degradation due to the discharges.

  2. The Design and Analysis Program for the Development of LEO Satellite Electrical Power Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kon Lee


    Full Text Available The design and analysis of satellite power subsystem is an important driver for the mass, size, and capability of the satellite. Every other satellite subsystem is affected by the power subsystem, and in particular, important issues such as launch vehicle selection, thermal design, and structural design are largely influenced by the capabilities and limitations of the power system. This paper introduces a new electrical power subsystem design program for the rapid development of LEO satellite and shows an example of design results using other LEO satellite design data. The results shows that the proposed design program can be used the optimum sizing and the analytical prediction of the on-orbit performance of satellite electrical power subsystem.

  3. The Quality of Communication in the Context of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Ližbetinová


    Full Text Available Public administration of the Czech Republic is currently in the process of improving services by introducing systems and principles of quality management. This process is also supported by the New Strategic Framework for the Development of Public Administration of the Czech Republic for the period 2014 -2020th and the National Strategy for Quality Policy in the Czech Republic for the period 2011 to 2015th. The issue of regional development depends on functional and effective cooperation between public authorities, business portfolio and the public. Implementation of individual projects aimed at regional development cannot be successful if effective and efficient communication strategy is not implemented. The basic requirements that are required from communication links with respect to communication aims can be defined by using the principles and rules of quality management. By respecting these requirements, it is possible to provide an appropriate mix of communication tools in the strategic planning of communication events. Selecting and setting effective communication tools can be made by methods of multi-criteria evaluation of alternatives. For this objective it is possible to use the AHP method, which takes into account the specifics of the decision-making process in the conditions communication management development projects. Better communication of quality management in projects aimed at regional development can be obtained by applying these methods. The aim of the paper is the proposal of one possible solution methodologies optimal choice of communication tools in the context of strategic communication planning regional development projects.

  4. Performances des applications IP dans les systèmes de communications par satellite : cas du DVB-RCS et du DVB-S2


    Jegham , Nizar


    Despite of a number of IP satellite networks developed and deployed, only a limited number of studies and feedbacks about the performance is available. IP over satellite systems raises several constraints. One of the main reasons is the lack of adaptation of IP protocol, initially designed for terrestrial wired networks, to the large bandwidth delay product of the satellite media. Another reason is a lack of coordination between the IP protocol stack upper layer and the satellite MAC and phys...

  5. How scientists develop competence in visual communication (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This examination takes the form of an extensive multi-disciplinary integrative literature review and a series of interviews with graduate-level science students. The results are presented as a conceptual framework that lays out the components of competence in visual communication, including the communicative goals of science visuals, the characteristics of effective visuals, the skills and knowledge needed to create effective visuals and the learning experiences that promote the acquisition of these forms of skill and knowledge. This conceptual framework can be used to inform pedagogy and thus help graduate students achieve a higher level of competency in this area; it can also be used to identify aspects of acquiring competence in visual communication that need further study.

  6. Development of Fire Emissions Inventory Using Satellite Data (United States)

    There are multiple satellites observing and reporting fire imagery at various spatial and temporal resolutions and each system has inherent merits and deficiencies. In our study, data are acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) aboard the Nationa...

  7. Satellite estimates of urban development for hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    We investigate the applicability of medium resolution Landsat satellite imagery for mapping temporal changes in urban land cover in European cities for direct use in urban flood models. The overarching aim is to provide accurate and costand resource-efficient quantification of temporal changes...

  8. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project (United States)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.


    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication (United States)

    Kim, Tony


    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTR for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse (approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration. However, "NUCLEAR" is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. Communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTR. Why is there a fear of nuclear? A bomb that can level a city is a scary weapon. The first and only times the Nuclear Bomb was used in a war was on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War 2. The "Little Boy" atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the "Fat Man" on Nagasaki 3 days later on August 9th. Within the first 4 months of bombings, 90- 166 thousand people died in Hiroshima and 60-80 thousand died in Nagasaki. It is important to note for comparison that over 500 thousand people died and 5 million made homeless due to strategic bombing (approximately 150 thousand tons) of Japanese cities and war assets with conventional non-nuclear weapons between 1942- 1945. A major bombing campaign of "firebombing" of Tokyo called "Operation Meetinghouse" on March 9 and 10 consisting of 334 B-29's dropped approximately1,700 tons of bombs around 16 square mile area and over 100 thousand people have been estimated to have died. The declaration of death is very

  10. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm. (United States)

    Kothari, R


    fulfill basic needs, and to preserve cultural deversity. The development process must be politicized and controlled by the people rather than by technocrats and bureaucrats. The role of the state must be reevaluated. After World War II, the state was perceived as having the capacity to liberalize and equalize society. The state has failed to live up to this expectation. Social equality must be established through democratization. Social classes must be redefined, the inablity of the proletariat to absorb the poor must be recognized, and consumerism must be curbed. Communication is the tool which can promote the cause of human survival and human dignity and expose the agenda of the strong forces which, in reality, constitutes a global project to end humanity. This agenda is pursued by scientists and elitists around the world. Their activities and policies will doom mankind to nuclear war, or to violent conflict over resources, or to the destruction of the world's poor.

  11. The performance evaluation of a new neural network based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Liu, Dequan


    A neural-network-based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network is described. The scheme consists of two levels of management. The front end of the scheme is a derivation of Kohonen's self-organization model to configure maps for the satellite communication network dynamically. The model consists of three stages. The first stage is the pattern recognition task, in which an exemplar map that best meets the current network requirements is selected. The second stage is the analysis of the discrepancy between the chosen exemplar map and the state of the network, and the adaptive modification of the chosen exemplar map to conform closely to the network requirement (input data pattern) by means of Kohonen's self-organization. On the basis of certain performance criteria, whether a new map is generated to replace the original chosen map is decided in the third stage. A state-dependent routing algorithm, which arranges the incoming call to some proper path, is used to make the network more efficient and to lower the call block rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheme, which combines self-organization and the state-dependent routing mechanism, provides better performance in terms of call block rate than schemes that only have either the self-organization mechanism or the routing mechanism.

  12. A Novel Location-Awareness Method Using CubeSats for Locating the Spot Beam Emitters of Geostationary Communications Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Yang


    Full Text Available As more spacecraft are launched into the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO belt, the possibility of fatal collisions or unnecessary interference between spacecraft increases. In this paper, a new location-awareness method that uses CubeSats is proposed to assist with radiofrequency (RF domain verification by means of awareness and identification of the positions of the spot beam emitters of communications satellites in geostationary orbit. By flying a CubeSat (or a constellation of CubeSats through the coverage area of a spot beam, the spot beam emitter’s position is identified and the spot beam’s pattern knowledge is characterized. The geometry, the equations of motion of the spacecraft, the measurement process, and the filtering equations in a location system are addressed with respect to the location methods investigated in this study. A realistic scenario in which a CubeSat receives signals from GEO communications satellites is simulated using the Systems Tool Kit (STK. The results of the simulation and the analysis presented in this study provide a thorough verification of the performance of the location-awareness method.

  13. Next Generation Satellite Communications: Automated Doppler Shift Compensation of PSK-31 Via Software-Defined Radio (United States)


    using two kites as antennas. Later, in 1870, Loomis demonstrated ship-to-ship communications over two miles in the Chesapeake Bay under sponsorship by...and lies at the foundation of wireless communications. A recreation of Faraday’s experiment is shown in figure 1.1. Figure 1.1 Faraday’s

  14. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit... (United States)


    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth... Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA), i.e., earth stations on aircraft communicating with Fixed... GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth or downlink) and 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space or uplink) frequency...

  15. Flight Model Development of Tokyo Tech Nano-Satellite Cute-1.7 + APD II (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Nishida, Junichi; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Fujiwara, Ken; Konda, Yasumi; Yamanaka, Tomio; Tanaka, Yohei; Maeno, Masaki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Matunaga, Saburo

    The Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology has developed the nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD. The satellite was launched by JAXA M-V-8 rocket on February 22, 2006 and operated for about a month. A successor to the Cute-1.7+APD was developed and is named Cute-1.7+APD II. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and flight model development of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  16. Developement of a Fluxgate Magnetometer for the KITSAT-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hwang


    Full Text Available The magnetometer is one of the most important payloads of scientific satellites to monitor the near-earth space environment. The electromagnetic variations of the space environment can be observed with the electric and magnetic field measurements. In practice, it is well known that the measurement of magnetic fields needs less technical complexities than that of electric fields in space. Therefore the magnetometer has long been recognized as one of the basic payloads for the scientific satellites. In this paper, we discuss the scientific fluxgate magnetometer which will be on board the KITSAT-3. The main circuit design of the present magnetometer is based on that of KISAT-1 and -2 but its facilities have been re-designed to improve the resolution to about 5nT for scientific purpose. The calibration and noise level test of this circuit have been performed at the laboratory of the Tierra Tecnica company in Japan.

  17. Combining deep learning and satellite data to inform sustainable development (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.


    Methods in machine learning, and in particular deep learning, are quickly advancing, in parallel with dramatic increases in the availability of fine resolution satellite data. The combination of both offers the possibility to improve understanding of some of the poorest regions of the world, where traditional data sources are limited. This talk will cover recent applications to track poverty at the village level in Africa, spot the onset of disease outbreaks in agriculture, and identify land use patterns and crop productivity.

  18. Developing Students' Intercultural Communication Competences in Western Etiquette Teaching (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochi


    How to develop students' intercultural communication competences is a controversial issue in foreign language education in China. In this article, the author attempts to offer an answer to this issue by putting forward a proposition for developing students' intercultural communication competences in western etiquette teaching. First of all, the…

  19. Environmental Communication difficulties in the hegemonic development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Del Vecchio de Lima


    hegemonic development system. The reflexion favors the construction of a critical thought on this communication in the scope of developing countries, from the standpoint of consumption. For in such a way, a interdisciplinary bibliographical revision was done, supported on some examples that tell about actions of Environmental Communication.

  20. Developing Communicative Competence in University Language Programmes (United States)

    Šajgalíková, Helena; Breeze, Ruth


    This article deals with university language teaching in the perspective of its shift from linguistic competence towards communicative competence, and presents some aspects of the underlying process. It analyses the findings from a survey conducted within the Leonardo project "Transparency in the Acquired Language Competences" (TALC;…

  1. Your Baby's Hearing and Communicative Development Checklist (United States)

    ... YES NO Has one or two words (“Hi,” “dog,” “Dada,” or “Mama”) by first birthday YES NO ... information, contact us at: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: ( ...

  2. Information and communication technologies for development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 10, 2011 ... On December 26, 2004, as the tsunami advanced across the Indian Ocean, some people were able to monitor the progress of the deadly wave by using modern communication technologies — but tragically they had no means to warn the communities standing in harm's way. Hundreds of thousands died, ...

  3. Towards inclusion? Developing teacher skills for communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key Words: Teacher training, Communication, Deaf, Hard of hearing, inclusion. Introduction. Inclusion of children with special needs is now a dominant policy and practice worldwide. This form of education provision is being championed with a view to meeting the diverse educational needs of all children (UNESCO,. 1994.

  4. Employing Commercial Satellite Communications: Wideband Investment Options for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonds, Tim


    The Department of Defense (DoD) is considering major investments in systems that exploit information to support warfighting, and communications between users around the globe will be key to transmitting and using this information...

  5. UHF coplanar-slot antenna for aircraft-to-satellite data communications (United States)

    Myhre, R. W.


    The initiative for starting the Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR) Program came from a recognition that much of the world's weather originates in the data sparse area of the tropics which are primarily ocean. The ASDAR system consists of (1) a data acquisition and control unit to acquire, store and format these data; (2) a clock to time the data sampling and transmission periods; and (3) a transmitter and low-profile upper hemisphere coverage antenna to relay the formatted data via satellite to the National Weather Service ground stations, as shown schematically. The low-profile antenna is a conformal antenna based on the coplanar-slot approach. The antenna is circular polarized and has an on-axis gain of nearly 2.5 dB and a HPBW greater than 90 deg. The discussion covers antenna design, radiation characteristics, flight testing, and system performance.

  6. A CubeSat Mission for Mapping Spot Beams of Geostationary Communications Satellites (United States)


    time, the concept of accomplishing space missions with smaller nanosatellite -class spacecraft becomes increasingly feasible. This research focuses... nanosatellite -class spacecraft [8]. The small satellite community has been studying various missions on nanosatellite -class spacecraft, in a similar manner to...mission seeks to fly a cluster of three nanosatellites to geolocate a cooperative RF transmitter to within 100m – using RF information from ground

  7. Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi


    Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.

  8. A Methodology For Measuring Resilience in a Satellite-Based Communication Network (United States)


    components. These could be things such as the antivirus software installed, on-board redundancies for critical components, shielding from radiation, or...megawatt class lasers could damage unshielded robust satellite components in a matter of seconds. Kilowatt class lasers are also able to inflict damage...confused with Passive Defenses such as structural hardening or on-board antivirus software. These defenses will follow much the same principals as

  9. Performance Evaluation of Satellite Communication Systems Operating in the Q/V/W Bands (United States)


    Altitude, Elevation k, α R(P) γrain, Arain / China Altitude, Latitude, Elevation Frequency k, α R0.01 γrain, Arain To be tested Gibbins and...Attenuation Prediction Models Based on the Rainfall Structures (Stratified and Convective) for advanced TLC or Broadcasting Systems”, XXVIIth...Atmospheric Radiowave Propagation - A Challenge for Satellite TLC Systems”, ASMS-SPSC 2012, pp. 1-8, 5-7 September, Baiona, Spain. [Capsoni and Luini

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  11. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach? (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe


    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Improving prediction accuracy of GPS satellite clocks with periodic variation behaviour (United States)

    Heo, Youn Jeong; Cho, Jeongho; Heo, Moon Beom


    The broadcast ephemeris and IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU-P) products are primarily available for use in real-time GPS applications. The IGU orbit precision has been remarkably improved since late 2007, but its clock products have not shown acceptably high-quality prediction performance. One reason for this fact is that satellite atomic clocks in space can be easily influenced by various factors such as temperature and environment and this leads to complicated aspects like periodic variations, which are not sufficiently described by conventional models. A more reliable prediction model is thus proposed in this paper in order to be utilized particularly in describing the periodic variation behaviour satisfactorily. The proposed prediction model for satellite clocks adds cyclic terms to overcome the periodic effects and adopts delay coordinate embedding, which offers the possibility of accessing linear or nonlinear coupling characteristics like satellite behaviour. The simulation results have shown that the proposed prediction model outperforms the IGU-P solutions at least on a daily basis.

  13. Demand for satellite-provided domestic communications services up to the year 2000 (United States)

    Stevenson, S.; Poley, W.; Lekan, J.; Salzman, J. A.


    Three fixed service telecommunications demand assessment studies were completed for NASA by The Western Union Telegraph Company and the U.S. Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. They provided forecasts of the total U.S. domestic demand, from 1980 to the year 2000, for voice, data, and video services. That portion that is technically and economically suitable for transmission by satellite systems, both large trunking systems and customer premises services (CPS) systems was also estimated. In order to provide a single set of forecasts a NASA synthesis of the above studies was conducted. The services, associated forecast techniques, and data bases employed by both contractors were examined, those elements of each judged to be the most appropriate were selected, and new forecasts were made. The demand for voice, data, and video services was first forecast in fundamental units of call-seconds, bits/year, and channels, respectively. Transmission technology characteristics and capabilities were then forecast, and the fundamental demand converted to an equivalent transmission capacity. The potential demand for satellite-provided services was found to grow by a factor of 6, from 400 to 2400 equivalent 36 MHz satellite transponders over the 20-year period. About 80 percent of this was found to be more appropriate for trunking systems and 20 percent CPS.

  14. Development and field testing of satellite-linked fluorometers for marine mammals (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes telemetry data related to the development and testing of an animal-borne satellite-linked fluorometer tag, used on northern fur seals and...

  15. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_ (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.


    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  16. Didactic satellite based on Android platform for space operation demonstration and development (United States)

    Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel


    Space technology plays a pivotal role in society development. It offers new methods for telemetry, monitoring and control. However, this sector requires training, research and skills development but the lack of instruments, materials and budgets affects the ambiguity to understand satellite technology. The objective of this paper is to describe a demonstration prototype of a smart phone device for space operations study. Therefore, the first task was carried out to give a demonstration for spatial imagery and attitude determination missions through a wireless communication. The smart phone's Bluetooth was used to achieve this goal inclusive of a new method to enable real time transmission. In addition, an algorithm around a quaternion based Kalman filter was included in order to detect the reliability of the prototype's orientation. The second task was carried out to provide a demonstration for the attitude control mission using the smart phone's orientation sensor, including a new method for an autonomous guided mode. As a result, the acquisition platform showed real time measurement with good accuracy for orientation detection and image transmission. In addition, the prototype kept the balance during the demonstration based on the attitude control method.

  17. Exploring Modular Architecture for Nano Satellite and Opportunity for Developing Countries (United States)

    Rhaman, M. K.; Monowar, M. I.; Shakil, S. R.; Kafi, A. H.; Antara, R. S. I.


    SPACE Technology has the potential to provide information, infrastructure and inspiration that meets national needs in developing countries like Bangladesh. Many countries recognize this; in response they are investing in new national satellite programs to harness satellite services. Technology related to space is one example of a tool that can contribute to development both by addressing societal challenges and by advancing a nation's technological capability. To cope up with the advanced world in space technology Bangladesh seems to be highly potential country for satellite, Robotics, embedded systems and renewable energy research. BRAC University, Bangladesh is planning to launch a nano satellite with the collaboration of KIT, Japan. The proposed nano satellite project mission is to experiment about social, commercial and agricultural survey needs in Bangladesh. Each of the proposed applications of the project will improve the lives of millions of people of Bangladesh and it will be a pathfinder mission for the people of this country. Another intention of this project is to create a cheap satellite based remote sensing for developing countries as the idea of large space systems is very costly for us therefore we have decided to make a Nano-satellite.

  18. Training Teachers for Developing Communicative Skills


    Tatjana Kadunc


    A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a ...

  19. Proceedings of the Twenty-First NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX XXI) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser (Editor)


    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) meeting is convened each year to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications industry, academia and government who have an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation are invited to NAPEX meetings for discussions and exchange of information. The reports delivered at this meeting by program managers and investigators present recent activities and future plans. This forum provides an opportunity for peer discussion of work in progress, timely dissemination of propagation results, and close interaction with the satellite communications industry.

  20. Development of infrared communication in radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Choithramani, S.J.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.


    Infra-red communication has many important applications in instrumentation and control. Different types of nuclear instruments are used for radiation protection and surveillance program. The application of this mode of communication in these instruments helps in monitoring of inaccessible or high radiation field areas by avoiding undue exposure to the occupational worker. The demand for remotely controlled monitoring instruments and wireless data communication in the mobile computing environment has rapidly increased. This is due to the increasing need for on-line radiological data analysis with minimum human interventions, especially so if the monitoring is in hazardous environment. The wireless communication can be achieved using different communication methodology for short and long range communication. The infrared based communication is used for different applications for short range up to 9-10 meters. The use of this mode of communication has been implemented in some of the radiation monitoring instruments developed in house. The evaluation of data communication using this mode was conducted for the systems like Environmental Radiation Monitor (ERM) and results showed that data communication error is less than 0.1% up to 10 meter distance. (author)

  1. Medical School Hotline: Developing communication skills for leading family meetings. (United States)

    Inaba, Michiko; Bell, Christina; Tamura, Bruce; Kasuya, Richard; Masaki, Kamal


    Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawai'i Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients' families.

  2. Media and Glocal Change - Rethinking Communication for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about exploring both the potential and the limits of communication - of using communication both as a tool and as a way of articulating processes of development and social change, improving, everyday lives, and empowering people to influence their own lives and those of their fellow...

  3. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  4. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giugno


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  5. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanier Francesca


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  6. The development of multimedia communication system for electric power company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center


    It is a final report of the research project that is a development of PC-LAN based multimedia desktop conference system, which is research on the essential technologies and application and development of multimedia communication services for electric power company. This report is consisted of -Survey and study of the multimedia related technologies, -Multimedia communication protocols and network configurations, and -Design, developments of pilot model, evaluation, and applications of multimedia conference system. (author). 112 refs., 250 figs.

  7. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies (United States)

    Otsu, Yuichi; Choh, Toshio; Yamazaki, Ichiro; Kosaka, Katsuhiko; Iguchi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Isao

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electro-cardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electro-cardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  8. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies. (United States)

    Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I


    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  9. Cross-polarisation discrimination-induced interference in dual-polarised high-capacity satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Sarki Karasuwa


    Full Text Available The design of spectrally-efficient, high-throughput satellite (HTS systems with capacity approaching one terabit per second requires operating at Ka-band frequencies and above, where there are several gigahertz of allocated radio spectrum, using multiple spot beams with dual orthogonal polarisation mode. At these high frequencies, rain attenuation poses a major obstacle to the design of high-availability satellite links which are needed for the realisation of ubiquitous broadband multimedia communication services including high-speed Internet access at rural and remote locations. Furthermore, depolarisation-induced interference in such systems could have a performance-limiting impact if a co-channel cross-polar signal combines with system noise to drive the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (CNIR below an acceptable threshold. This paper employs real measurement data to investigate the impact of depolarisation-induced interference on dual-polarised HTS systems for temperate and tropical climatic regions. Scenarios that cause significant system performance degradation are analysed, including the effects of signal frequency, antenna size, and regional rainfall rate. The impact of depolarisation on system performance is quantified by the reductions in the CNIR and link availability of a dual-polarised system when compared with those of a similarly-dimensioned single-polarised system.

  10. Measuring QoS in an Aeronautical Opportunistic Network Architecture with Limited Access to a Satellite Communications Backhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martínez-Vidal


    Full Text Available We measure quality of service (QoS in a wireless network architecture of transoceanic aircraft. A distinguishing characteristic of the network scheme we analyze is that it mixes the concept of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN through the exploitation of opportunistic contacts, together with direct satellite access in a limited number of the nodes. We provide a graph sparsification technique for deriving a network model that satisfies the key properties of a real aeronautical opportunistic network while enabling scalable simulation. This reduced model allows us to analyze the impact regarding QoS of introducing Internet-like traffic in the form of outgoing data from passengers. Promoting QoS in DTNs is usually really challenging due to their long delays and scarce resources. The availability of satellite communication links offers a chance to provide an improved degree of service regarding a pure opportunistic approach, and therefore it needs to be properly measured and quantified. Our analysis focuses on several QoS indicators such as delivery time, delivery ratio, and bandwidth allocation fairness. Obtained results show significant improvements in all metric indicators regarding QoS, not usually achievable on the field of DTNs.

  11. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit... (United States)


    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations... (NPRM) seeks comment on a proposal to elevate the allocation status of Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft... with GSO space stations of the FSS on a primary basis in the 11.7-12.2 GHz band (space-to-Earth), on an...

  12. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service (United States)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren


    In the current wake of mission plans to the Moon and to Earth-Moon Libration points (EML) by several agencies and organizations, TYCHO identifies the key role of telecommunication provision for the future path of lunar exploration. It demonstrates an interesting extension to existing communication methods to the Moon and beyond by combining innovative technology with a next frontier location and the commercial space communication sector. It is evident that all communication systems will rely on direct communication to Earth ground stations. In case of EML-2 missions around HALO orbits or bases on the far side of the Moon, it has to be extended by communication links via relay stations. The innovative approach is that TYCHO provides this relay communication to those out-of-sight lunar missions as a service. TYCHO will establish a new infrastructure for future missions and even create a new market for add-on relay services. The TMA-0 satellite is TYCHO's first phase and a proposed demonstrator mission to the Earth-Moon Libration point EML-4. It demonstrates relay services needed for automated exploratory and manned missions (Moon bases) on the rim (>90°E and >90°W) and far side surface, to lunar orbits and even to EML-2 halo orbits (satellites and space stations). Its main advantage is the permanent availability of communication coverage. This will provide full access to scientific and telemetry data and furthermore to crucial medical monitoring and safety. The communication subsystem is a platform for conventional communication but also a test-bed for optical communication with high data-rate LASER links to serve the future needs of manned bases and periodic burst data-transfer from lunar poles. The operational TMA-1 satellite is a stand-alone mission integrated into existing space communication networks to provide open communication service to external lunar missions. Therefore the long-time stable libration points EML-4 and -5 are selected to guarantee an

  13. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    communications as well as for point-to-multipoint broadcasting. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Radio is perceived to be an individual's possession because of its portability. It can be ... (See Box 1.) Gsa satellites are used for point-to-point communications as ... digital modulations one uses perceptual coding using auditory masking.

  14. Developing communication skills training in 5 educational programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Ringby, Betina

    Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation...... of communication skills training in 5 healthcare educations at University College North Denmark has been a focus for a committed group of teachers. In order to encourage the implementation process, courses in facilitation has been offered to teachers from all five healthcare education programmes: nursing....... As a result of the combination of easy access to technical resources in the dedicated room and the opportunity to continuously develop the facilitation skills needed to train students, communication skills training has been integrated in the curriculum of all five healthcare educational programmes....

  15. Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness (United States)

    Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug


    The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

  16. Mass communication and development: impact depends on strategies. (United States)

    Wete, F N


    Development scholars are moving toward an emphasis on noneconomic factors (social values, social advancement, equality, individual freedom) and their interactions with labor, capital, and technology. People are now conceptualized as the agents of change, and they in turn must be convinced of the need for change. This new approach implies a need for a review of the role of mass communication in development. A central question is whether development makes possible mass communication development or do improved mass communication facilities--and the resulting increase in the flow of information--make possible economic and social development. Although there have undoubtedly been incidents in which self-serving politicians have used mass communication to oppress the masses, the mass media has the potential to be a powerful force in the education of the society, the sharing of consciousness, the creation of nationhood, and the promotion of socioeconomic development. Mass communication is, for example, vital in the development approach that accords importance to self-sufficiency at the village level. The mass media can be used in such cases to transmit information of a background nature to a group or community about their expressed needs and to disseminate innovations that may need these needs. In the final analysis, mass media's role in development depends on the media's messages reaching the target audiences. This underscores the importance of analyzing in advance who will be the recipients of a mass media campaign and encouraging community involvement in communications planning.

  17. Development of Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1; FUYO-1) and it's operational results (United States)


    Various aspects of development progress from the policy decision to the launch and early orbit phase operation of the JERS-l (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-l) are presented. The items presented are as follows: the fundamental development policy, related organizations, and the system for the development; the master schedule and the progress of the development; the outline of JERS-l including its missions, the structure and characteristics of the system, and the operation plan; satellite mission and the system design analyses; the system development, including that of subsystems and components, production and test of the system development model, the integration and test of the system PFM (Proto-Flight Model), and the modification and post-modification test of the PFM; interfaces with other programs; program control; satellite operation in the launch and early orbit operation phase and the analysis and evaluation of the operation results; and the initial examination on on-orbit failures.

  18. Training Teachers for Developing Communicative Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kadunc


    Full Text Available A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a need, however, for planning activities based on solving true, everyday problems. This should help teachers linking the newly acquired knowledge to what they already know and to their life experience. It should further help them introduce the new knowledge into solving their teaching problems. In this way teachers could be trained to monitor the process of their continuing education, to delineate their problems, find solutions, evaluate the results of the their solving problems. Such a concept of permanent education considerably enhances the professionalism of the teaching job.

  19. Retrieving the polarization information for satellite-to-ground light communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Guo, Zhongyi; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Jiao, Weiyan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang


    In this paper, we have investigated the reconstruction of the polarization states (degree of polarization (DoP) and angle of polarization (AoP)) of the incident light which passed through a 10 km atmospheric medium between the satellite and the Earth. Here, we proposed a more practical atmospheric model in which the 10 km atmospheric medium is divided into ten layers to be appropriate for the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Based on this model, the polarization retrieve (PR) method can be used for reconstructing the initial polarization information effectively, and the simulated results demonstrate that the mean errors of the retrieved DoP and AoP are very close to zero. Moreover, the results also show that although the atmospheric medium system is fixed, the Mueller matrices for the downlink and uplink are completely different, which shows that the light transmissions in the two links are irreversible in the layered atmospheric medium system. (paper)

  20. Method of Performance-Aware Security of Unicast Communication in Hybrid Satellite Networks (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhury, Ayan (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus utilizes Layered IPSEC (LES) protocol as an alternative to IPSEC for network-layer security including a modification to the Internet Key Exchange protocol. For application-level security of web browsing with acceptable end-to-end delay, the Dual-mode SSL protocol (DSSL) is used instead of SSL. The LES and DSSL protocols achieve desired end-to-end communication security while allowing the TCP and HTTP proxy servers to function correctly.

  1. Communicative Competence Development in the Course of Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Abolina


    Full Text Available The paper, devoted to the communicative competence development, regards it as the key element of professional competence. Modern specialists in any sphere of professional activity need the necessary information and communication skills (i.e. the ability to use the principles of busyness communication for planning and analysis, goal-setting, choosing strategies, understanding the partners’ intentions and modifying the communication ways. The author highlights the labor market requirements to communication skills of the higher school graduates, and insists on introducing the theoretical and practical methods of communication competence development into the educational curricula. The paper specifies the aspects of perception and reflection in interpersonal contacts, and describes the group training methods with the main emphasis on such collective forms as role plays, group discussions, and training sessions. The outlines of the training program in business communication are given along with its approbation results including the improvements in students’ self-assessment, group communication, feelings, moods, activity, self-control in conflict situations, etc. 

  2. Provisions of communication between NPP operational personnel: drifts of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, S.A; Aksenov, V.R.


    At present Russia has a problem of new NPPs construction, which have to replace old one. The main goal here is provision of safety operation. Communication provision between operational personnel and variety of plant systems is one of the aspects of it. The aim of this paper is research of foreign experience in communication and operator support systems development, consideration of several modern projects based on these systems, definition drifts of development. (authors)

  3. Experience on the FMS Communication module Development for an Application to Safety- Critical Communication Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kwang Seop; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jung Heon


    The field bus has been developed for a network system which supports the real-time communication of various controls and automation equipment. It is known for Profibus in the field of a production automation environment. The Profibus standard uses open communication based on the ISO/OSI model. The Probibus standard uses layer 1, layer 2, layer 7. Layer 7 of Probibus FMS(Fieldbus Message Specification) provides a information and the user of a station. The high-level communication of the safety-grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) developed through the KNICS(Korea Nuclear I and C System) project is the FMS This paper describes the design, the configuration, and the test method of the FMS communication module

  4. The development of the AFIT Communications Laboratory and experiments for communications students (United States)

    Thompson, J. B.


    This thesis was a development of a series of experiments for an electronics communications laboratory. These experiments were designed to reinforce theoretical courses offered in the Air Force Institute of Technology Electrical Engineering Core Communications Sequence in the form of demonstrations or laboratory exercises. The experiments were developed under the criteria of investigating a significant number of analog and digital communication system concepts with a minimum amount of experimentation time. Extensive use of a spectrum analyzer was included in many of the experiments. The topics covered in the experiments include: amplitude modulation; frequency modulation; balanced modulator; single sideband modulation; phase-lock loop and frequency synthesizer; pulse amplitude modulation; pulse code modulation; delta modulation; amplitude shift keying; phase shift keying; and frequency shift keying. The results of this study indicated that many more system concepts could be included in laboratory exercises, such as spread spectrum communications time and frequency division multiplexing, and computer oriented testing and analysis.

  5. Concrete Proposals on the Development of Communicative Competence in "Communication English" Classes


    Sugawara, Kiichi


    Two years have passed since the new Course of Study was introduced to schools in Japan. This new Course of Study brought us the new English language goal of “Communication English” and “English Expression” for the purpose of developing students’ communication abilities. This drastic change was caused by inevitable pressure from both domestic and international sources. External pressure in the past forced these internal educational reforms to finally take place. The final decision, however, ha...

  6. Development strategies for the satellite flight software on-board Meteosat Third Generation (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Legendre, Cedric; Koopmann, Olliver; Ferraguto, Massimo; Wenker, Ralf; D'Angelo, Gianni


    Nowadays, satellites are becoming increasingly software dependent. Satellite Flight Software (FSW), that is to say, the application software running on the satellite main On-Board Computer (OBC), plays a relevant role in implementing complex space mission requirements. In this paper, we examine relevant technical approaches and programmatic strategies adopted for the development of the Meteosat Third Generation Satellite (MTG) FSW. To begin with, we present its layered model-based architecture, and the means for ensuring a robust and reliable interaction among the FSW components. Then, we focus on the selection of an effective software development life cycle model. In particular, by combining plan-driven and agile approaches, we can fulfill the need of having preliminary SW versions. They can be used for the elicitation of complex system-level requirements as well as for the initial satellite integration and testing activities. Another important aspect can be identified in the testing activities. Indeed, very demanding quality requirements have to be fulfilled in satellite SW applications. This manuscript proposes a test automation framework, which uses an XML-based test procedure language independent of the underlying test environment. Finally, a short overview of the MTG FSW sizing and timing budgets concludes the paper.

  7. Supporting communicative development of infants and toddlers with hearing loss. (United States)

    Blaiser, Kristina


    Newborn hearing screening has increased the number of families enrolled in early intervention during a sensitive period of communication development. The primary role of the speech-language pathologist in early intervention is to facilitate natural parent-infant interactions and support parents' feelings of confidence in communicating with their child. Feelings of self-efficacy can be increased when parents understand how hearing loss impacts their child's communication development, understand how to monitor hearing technology and hearing status, and receive consistent feedback related to their child's progress. This article reviews the evidence behind benefits of early parent-child interactions and outlines strategies and resources for speech-language pathologists to use in supporting communication development with infants and toddlers with hearing loss. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Global Software Development : - Software Architecture - Organization - Communication


    Førde, Dan Sørensen


    Our globalized world has an impact on almost any area of our lives. The globalization affecting the business running around the globe, and forces employees and managers to think of new ways of doing their business. Globalization in the software development industry increased through the 1990s and is still increasing. The Internet makes the collaboration possible and the developers do not need to be co-located to work together on a common software development project. The ...

  9. Use of negotiated rulemaking in developing technical rules for low-Earth orbit mobile satellite systems (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie A.

    Technical innovations have converged with the exploding market demand for mobile telecommunications to create the impetus for low-earth orbit (LEO) communications satellite systems. The so-called 'Little LEO's' propose use of VHF and UHF spectrum to provide position - location and data messaging services. The so-called 'Big LEO's' propose to utilize the RDSS bands to provide voice and data services. In the United States, several applications were filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to construct and operate these mobile satellite systems. To enable the prompt introduction of such new technology services, the FCC is using innovative approaches to process the applications. Traditionally, when the FCC is faced with 'mutually exclusive' applications, e.g. a grant of one would preclude a grant of the others, it uses selection mechanisms such as comparative hearings or lotteries. In the case of the LEO systems, the FCC has sought to avoid these time-consuming approaches by using negotiated rulemakings. The FCC's objective is to enable the multiple applicants and other interested parties to agree on technical and service rules which will enable the grant of all qualified applications. With regard to the VHF/UHF systems, the Advisory Committee submitted a consensus report to the FCC. The process for the systems operating in the bands above 1 GHz involved more parties and more issues but still provided the FCC useful technical information to guide the adoption of rules for the new mobile satellite service.

  10. The role of small satellites in the development of the South African space programme (United States)

    Martinez, Peter

    In the 1990s a team of scientists and engineers at Stellenbosch University built the first South African satellite to fly in space, the 64-kg Sunsat. This university-based satellite programme took advantage of the skills and facilities developed in the previous South African space programme of the 1980s and early 1990s, which had developed a much larger satellite (Greensat), but was cancelled in the mid-1990s prior to launch. Sunsat incorporated a number of novel capabilities for a microsatellite platform, and interest was shown in these technologies by other groups developing similar satellites. As the University was not the ideal environment to develop the commercial potential of these microsatellite technologies, a company called Sunspace was later established, thus creating industrial capacity in South Africa in a niche area of space technology. This new industrial capability, together with the infrastructure from the previous space programme, have created a foundation upon which to build the new South African space programme. This paper discusses the historical, current and possible future roles of small satellites in the development of the South African space programme.

  11. Study of LiTiMg-ferrite radome for the application of satellite communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Nitendar; Pourush, P.K.S.


    In this paper the characteristics of LiTiMg-ferrite radome are presented. A thin layer of LiTiMg-ferrite is used as superstrate or radome, which controls the radiation, reception, and scattering from a printed antenna or array by applying a dc magnetic bias field in the plane of the ferrite, orthogonal to the RF magnetic field. In this analysis absorbing and transmission power coefficients are calculated to obtain the power loss and transmitted power through the radome layer respectively. The absorbing power coefficient verifies the switching behavior of radome for certain range of applied external magnetic field (Ho), which depends on the resonance width parameter (ΔH) of ferrite material. By properly choosing the bias field, electromagnetic wave propagation in the ferrite layer can be made zero or negligible over a certain frequency range, resulting in switching behavior of the ferrite layer. In this communication we also show precise preparation of radome layer and present its electric and magnetic properties along with its Curie temperature, which shows the working efficiency of layer under extreme situation. This radome layer can be very useful for the sensitive and smart communication systems.

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 2 (United States)


    The results of all aspects of the early space station satellite servicing study tasks are presented. These results include identification of servicing tasks (and locations), identification of servicing mission system and detailed objectives, functional/operational requirements analyses of multiple servicing scenarios, assessment of critical servicing technology capabilities and development of an evolutionary capability plan, design and validation of selected servicing technology development missions (TDMs), identification of space station satellite servicing accommodation needs, and the cost and schedule implications of acquiring both required technology capability development and conducting the selected TDMs.

  13. Global change. Taking stock of a catastrophe. The use of satellite data for environmental protection and in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The individual contributions deal primarily with the development of the climate; they want to render environmental processes transparent. Satellite data play an important part in forecasts of climate development: only satellites permit to realize the global dimension of climate. The numerous illustrations in the form of satellite images are to aid thinking in global dimensions. The use of environment satellites is a step beyond climate research. Further contributions discuss the uses of environment satellites during nature disasters, for the detection of environmental polluters and for the analysis of forest die-back in industrialized countries or rainforest clearfelling in the Amazon region. (KW) [de

  14. Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) (United States)

    Sakoda, D.; Hiser, J. K.


    The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group (SSAG) is designing and developing a small communications satellite for launch aboard the shuttle as a complex autonomous payload (CAP). The objectives of PANSAT are three-fold. First, PANSAT will provide an ideal educational tool for the officer students at NPS supporting Space Systems Engineering and Space Systems Operations with hands-on hardware development. Second, the satellite will provide digital store-and-forward communications, or packet radio, for the amateur radio community. The third objective is to provide a low-cost, space-based platform for small experiments. PANSAT will be launched from the shuttle at a nominal altitude of 200 n.m. and an inclination of at least 37 degrees. The satellite weight is 150 lbs. Since there is no attitude control, eight dipole whip antennas will be used to provide isotropic ground coverage for communications. FM digital communications will be used with up-link and down-link on a single frequency in the amateur band of 437.25 MHz. A maximum 50 kHz of bandwidth is envisioned for the satellite. The expected lifetime of the satellite is 1 1/2 to 2 years before atmospheric reentry. The PANSAT design consists of the following: communications subsystem (COMM); computer, or data processor and sequencer (DP&S); power subsystem; structure subsystem; and experiment payload.

  15. Relating Communications Mode Choice and Teamwork Quality: Conversational versus Textual Communication in IT System and Software Development Teams (United States)

    Smith, James Robert


    This cross-sectional study explored how IT system and software development team members communicated in the workplace and whether teams that used more verbal communication (and less text-based communication) experienced higher levels of collaboration as measured using the Teamwork Quality (TWQ) scale. Although computer-mediated communication tools…

  16. Developing Instructional Materials on English Oral Communication for Nursing Schools (United States)

    Sismiati; Adnan Latief, Mohammad


    The needs survey shows that English communication skill of the students in nursing school speaking classes is not well developed. Consequently, the speaking instructional materials used in the classes need to be advanced. Yalden's (1987) Language Program Development covering Needs Analysis, Syllabus and Materials Development, Expert Validation,…

  17. Developing Spatial Sense and Communication Skills (United States)

    Richardson, Kerri; Stein, Catherine


    This article describes how spatial instruction with preservice teachers can be implemented in a middle-grades mathematics methods class. A "Reflect and Discuss" section is included for professional development study. (Contains 4 figures.)

  18. Communicative Acts of a Child with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome during Early Communicative Development (United States)

    Carvey, Jayme S.; Bernhardt, B. May


    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic developmental disorder that often shows associated language delay. However, literature on language development in RTS is very limited, particularly for the period of early communicative development, when standardized testing can be minimally informative. The purpose of the current study was to…

  19. A reference model for the development of networked organizational communication: A communication perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Isaias, P.


    Organizational communication is increasingly based on electronic networks. The growth is seldom the result of a planned organizational development of these technologies, but mostly driven by 'rapid' technology developments and best user practices. To enable organizations to understand and to steer

  20. A multiple beam antenna concept for a 30/20 GHz satellite communications system (United States)

    Forman, B. J.; Ohta, H. H.; Bronstein, L. M.


    Design and operational performance features of a NASA planned 30/30 GHz flight experiment communications system multiple-beam antenna (MBA) are described. The MBA is a shared aperture offset Cassegrain type with a main reflector diameter of 3 m and physically separated transmit and receive feeds. A planar frequency selective surface is employed which is transmissive to the receive signals and reflective to the transmit signals. Trade-offs and constraints in the MBA feed design are explored, noting the higher feed loss and complexity due to choosing variable power dividers for the beam forming network. Doublet beam coverage of the east coast of the continental U.S. is shown to be possible with a triangular lattice array of feed horns with aperture diameters and element spacings of two wavelengths. The doublet configuration requires ten times the components as a singlet array.

  1. Inter-satellite optical communications: from SILEX to next generation systems (United States)

    Laurent, Bernard; Planche, Gilles; Michel, Cyril


    The continuous growth in data rate demand, the importance of real time commanding and real time access to the information for diverse civilian and military applications as well as the in-orbit demonstration of optical communication have led to boost the interest of such systems for future applications. After a presentation of the different fields of application and their associated performances requirements, this paper presents the possible optical link candidates. Then, the architecture, the design and the performances of new optical terminal generations, which profits from SILEX experience and the use of new technologies such as SiC and APS, are detailed. This new optimised generation, highly simplified with respect to SILEX terminals and dimensioned to offer higher data rate, presents attractive mass, volume and power characteristics compatible with a simple accommodation on the host vehicle.

  2. Sustainable rural development and communicative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Langvad, Anne-Mette


    Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach that is ......Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach...

  3. The development of interpersonal communication competence at work


    Laajalahti, Anne


    [Introduction] Many researchers emphasise the importance of interpersonal communication competence in learning, in working life, and in society in general (Daly, 1998; Morreale, Osborn and Pearson, 2000). Changes in the working life (e.g., globalisation, the development of information and communication technology, the increase in abstract, conceptual, and knowledge-intensive work, and the increase in collaborative interaction) have established new challenges to interpersonal...

  4. Development of a surface isolation estimation technique suitable for application of polar orbiting satellite data (United States)

    Davis, P. A.; Penn, L. M. (Principal Investigator)


    A technique is developed for the estimation of total daily insolation on the basis of data derivable from operational polar-orbiting satellites. Although surface insolation and meteorological observations are used in the development, the algorithm is constrained in application by the infrequent daytime polar-orbiter coverage.

  5. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence across the Americas (United States)

    Ceo-DiFrancesco, Diane; Mora, Oscar; Collazos, Andrea Serna


    Foreign language telecollaboration offers innovations to enhance language instruction. Previous research has cited its use to develop linguistic skills and intercultural competence (Belz, 2003; Blake, 2013; Chun, 2015; O'Dowd, 2000; Schenker, 2014). This article reports preliminary outcomes of a pedagogical project which leveraged…

  6. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 1, 2003 ... She holds a doctorate in the psychology of learning from the University of London Institute of Education. Dr Etta has authored a number of books and articles in the areas of cognitive psychology, learning, childcare, development and nutrition, gender studies, and the environment. She is a member of British ...

  7. Developing Evaluation Capacity in Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 août 2009 ... Case study : PAN Asian Collaboration for Evidence-based e-Health Adoption and Application (PANACeA). Études. Case study : Developing evaluation capacity (DECI); building an organization's capacity to conduct use focused evaluations using a mentoring approach - LIRNEasia's CPRsouth Program ...

  8. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She holds a doctorate in the psychology of learning from the University of London Institute of Education. Dr Etta has authored a number of books and articles in the areas of cognitive psychology, learning, childcare, development and nutrition, gender studies, and the environment. She is a member of British Psychological ...

  9. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 1, 2006 ... In natural resource management research, best practice implies the participation of community members, research or development teams, and other ... in applying PDC to natural resource management practices and research, discusses the challenges and the difficulties linked to such an approach, and ...

  10. Legal English Through Movies: Development of Professional Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyushkina Elena


    Full Text Available Legal English (LE has evolved as a distinct, highly demanded part of ESP in the recent years of globalisation. Many specialised textbooks have been published lately, but the professional communication aspect lacks sufficient coverage. This article presents a project, which is a teaching manual entitled Legal English through Movies, that has grown from the author’s experience using video in the LE classroom. A general methodology of using authentic video in language teaching is briefly covered to explain why and how feature films were initially used by the author. The idea of using movies for developing law students’ professional communicative competence has shifted the emphasis from pure language training to forming professional communication skills. The applied method takes into consideration both linguistic and extra-linguistic factors of professional communication. Special attention is paid to language patterns typical of different communicative situations within various areas of legal practice along with peculiarities of cross-cultural communication. Not covering all spheres of LE teaching the results enhance education kits for such course topics as Criminal Law, Tort Law, and Civil Procedure as well as provide training materials for mastering professional skills in typical communicative situations (lawyer - client, lawyer - lawyer, etc.. The approach introduced here can be expanded to different ESP fields as well.

  11. The development of evaluation methodology for advanced interactive communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.


    Face-to-face communication is one of the essential style of communication. Trough face-to-face communication, people exchange much information at a time, both verbal and non-verbal information, which is most effective to learn each other. The authors focused on the face-to-face communication, and developed an evaluation method to quantify the effectiveness of communication. We regard conversation as an exchange of keywords. The effectiveness of conversation is valued by the amount of the keywords, and the achievement of mutual understandings. Through two people's face-to-face communication, the author quantified the shared information by measuring the change of the amount of the participants' knowledge. The participants' knowledge is counted by the words they can give. We measured the change in their shared knowledge (number of the words they gave associated to the theme). And we also quantified the discords in their understandings against their partners by measuring the discords between the knowledge that they think they share and the knowledge that they really share. Through these data, we evaluate the effectiveness of communication and analyzed the trends of mutual understanding. (authors)

  12. Information and Communication Technology: Gender Issues in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Betz Leahy


    Full Text Available As Developing Nations seek to leverage scarce resources toward the goal of achieving a developed status they must reevaluate past practices and explore available and affordable technologies. Where in-formation and communication infrastructures are weak, use of low-cost, easily distributed technologies have proven effective. Still, many developing nations have failed to incorporate a resource in great abundance, their women, to use these new technologies to greatest advantage. This paper will address the implications of women's lack of economic and educational parity, and offer examples of how the education of women through the use of information and communication technology can enhance a nation's gross domestic product (GDP.

  13. Global Navigation Satellite Systems – Perspectives on Development and Threats to System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czaplewski


    Full Text Available The rapid development of satellite navigation and timing technologies and the broad availability of user equipment and applications has dramatically changed the world over the last 20 years. It took 38 years from the launch of the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, (October 4, 1957 to the day NAVSTAR GPS became fully operational (July 17, 1995. In the next 20 years user equipment became widely available at the consumer level, and 10 global and regional satellite systems were partially or fully deployed. These highly precise signals provided free to the user have been incorporated by clever engineers into virtually every technology. At the same time interference with these signals (spoofing and jamming have become a significant day to day problem in many societies and pose a significant threat to critical infrastructure. This paper provides information on the current status and development of navigation satellite systems based on data provided by the systems' administrators. It also provides information on Loran/eLoran, a system which many nations have selected as a complement and backup for satellite navigation systems.

  14. Pedagogical Management of University Students' Communication Ability Development (United States)

    Anatolievna, Spirchagova Tatiana; Munirovna, Nasyrova Albina; Kasimovna, Vakhitova Dilyara; Mirzayanovna, Sadrieva Liliya; Anatolievna, Brodskaya Tatiana


    The development of social interaction forms emphasizes urgency and importance of the topic. The purpose of the study is to find out peculiarities of pedagogical management of university students' communication ability development. The leading approach to the research was the narrative approach which allows considering pedagogical management of…

  15. Communication and Development: The Passing of the Dominant Paradigm (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.


    Describes the dominant model of development, the factors that have led to its decline, and the emerging alternatives. Implications of this shift in thinking on the role of communication in development are discussed and suggestions for using field experiments and network analysis are proposed. (MH)

  16. Communication and Development in the People's Republic of China. (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.


    Describes the Chinese model of development, explains its five major elements (equality, rural emphasis, integration of modern and traditional ideas, decentralization, public participation and self-reliance), and discusses the role of communication in China's development process. Article is based on observations and interviews during author's visit…

  17. Graphic Communication for Development in Africa: Target Audience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving desired response from target audience is the overall goal for graphic communication in support of development initiatives. However, in Africa, responses to development messages, which are largely determined by target audience perception, are predominantly far from being desired. Therefore, this paper focuses ...

  18. Mobile satellite service in the United States (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.


    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  19. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination. (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S


    Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' taxonomy. The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided. The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon-to-be-parents; communities, community

  20. Training program developed for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication (United States)

    Cui, Sheng; Zhang, Xinliang; Ke, Changjian


    Based on the well-known simulation software VPI TransmissionMaker, a comprehensive training program for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication and optical network technology was developed by the author after detailed study of the teaching difficult and key points in the discipline. Aiming at solving practical scientific and engineering problems, the program helped our students to develop the ability of acquiring and applying knowledge by designing optical devices, optical signal processing algorithms and optical fiber communication systems. Furthermore, innovation is inspired by introducing competition mechanism among project teams. The program was validated through four years of use and achieved good results.