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Sample records for developing rat testis

  1. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    A histochemical avidin-biotin technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms showed pronounced alterations in the cellular localization of two alpha 1-acid glycoprotein lectin-like receptors during cell differentiation in the developing rat testis. The binding of alpha 1-acid...

  2. Development of heterotopic transplantation of the testis with the epididymis to evaluate an aspect of testicular immunology in rats.

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    Kai Yi

    Full Text Available Transplantation of testicular cells and tissues has been studied for the investigation of immunology of the testis, which is an immunologically privileged organ. However, reports of transplant of the testis at organ level have been extremely limited because of technical difficulties of the orthotopic testis transplantation (OTT in experimental animals. In the present study, we developed a new and simple model of the heterotopic testis transplantation (HTT, which is donor testis transplantation into the cervical region of recipients, in a syngeneic model in rats [donor Lewis (LEW graft to LEW recipient]. The duration of HTT was significantly shorter and success rate higher than that of OTT. To histologically evaluate HTT, the local immune responses were compared among the syngeneic model, an acute rejection allogeneic model [donor Augustus Copenhagen Irish (ACI graft to LEW recipient] and a chronic rejection allogeneic model (donor F344 graft to LEW recipient at postoperative day 3. We found that allogeneic ACI grafts resulted in mild and not severe orchitic lesions, whereas immune responses of allogeneic F344 grafts seemed intact and were not significantly different from those of syngeneic LEW grafts. These results suggest that our new operative procedure will be useful in future for the investigation of the testicular immunology.

  3. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

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    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  4. Leydig cells in the testis of the rat : heterogeneity, development and similarities with macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Molenaar (Rinkje)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractLeydig cells are present in the interstitium of the testis and are responsible for the steroid production of the testis. This production is regulated by the pituitary hormone LH and there are indications that it is also under the influence of local factors. Heterogeneity of cell

  5. Expression and action of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, and TGFbeta3) during embryonic rat testis development.

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    Cupp, A S; Kim, G; Skinner, M K

    1999-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) during seminiferous cord formation and embryonic testis development. The expression pattern of mRNA for TGFbeta isoforms was evaluated during testis development through a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) procedure. Expression of mRNA for TGFbeta1 was highest at postnatal day 0 (P0) and P10. In contrast, TGFbeta2 was high at embryonic day 15 (E15), declined at E16, and showed a transient increase at P0 through P3 of testis development. Interestingly, expression of mRNA for TGFbeta3 was high during embryonic development and then declined after P3. Immunohistochemical localization of TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 demonstrated expression in Sertoli cells at E14 and in the seminiferous cords at P0. Selective interstitial cells expressed high concentrations of TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 in P0 testis. TGFbeta3 was expressed in selective cells at the junction of the E14 testis and mesonephros. The cells expressing TGFbeta3 in the testis appeared to be preperitubular cells that resided around the seminiferous cords. TGFbeta3 was localized to gonocytes in P0 testis. TGFbeta1 was found to have no influence on seminiferous cord formation in embryonic organ cultures of E13 testis. In contrast, growth of both E13 and E14 embryonic organ cultures was inhibited by TGFbeta1 and resulted in reduced testis size (40% of controls) with fewer cords present. A P0 testis cell culture and thymidine incorporation assay were used to directly examine the effects of recombinant TGFbeta1. TGFbeta1 alone had no influence on thymidine incorporation in P0 testis cell cultures when compared to controls. Interestingly, TGFbeta1 inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF), and 10% calf serum stimulated P0 testis cell growth but not FSH-stimulated growth. Therefore, TGFbeta1 appears to inhibit testis growth in both the embryonic and early postnatal periods. The hormonal

  6. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

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    Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Guminska, Anna; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES) and zearalenone (ZEA) on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E). Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d.) with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or ZEA (4 or 40 mug) or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B), preleptotene spermatocytes (PL), leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA) and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  7. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

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    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  8. Prevention of H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damages of Rat Testis by Thymus algeriensis.

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    Guesmi, Fatma; Beghalem, Hamida; Tyagi, Amit K; Ali, Manel Ben; Mouhoub, Ramla Ben; Bellamine, Houda; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the effects of Thymus algeriensis (TEO) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity on body and testis weight, testis sperm count, testis lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Rats were treated with low (LD) and high dose (HD) of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of TEO (150 mg/kg). The results exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and testis weight, in total sperm number decrease (P<0.05), sperm motility and percentage of sperm viability, leading to complete arrest, in sperm flagellar beat frequency by the gavage of 1 mmol/L H2O2 compared to controls. The administration of H2O2 resulted in a significant reduction in testis GSH, GPx, CAT, SOD, and GST activity and significant increase (P<0.05) in MDA concentration compared with the untreated control animals. TEO pre-treatment protected testis from the H2O2 generated oxidative stress. These results were confirmed by histological architecture examinations. H2O2 has the ability to alter the sperm function, characteristics and development of testis. However, TEO is an efficient natural agent, which can prevent the testis from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rats. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis

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    Nan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation. In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8-19 spermatids in the rat testis is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES, respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis.

  10. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two different doses of obestatin (10-9 M and 10-8 M) were used alone and in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in fasting and fed conditions in two age groups.

  11. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro. Hizbullah, Sarwat Jahan* and Shakeel Ahmed. Reproductive physiology lab, Department of Animal sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Pakistan. Accepted 10 March, 2011. In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) ...

  12. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...... and the aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis....

  13. Characteristics of A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes in the vitamin A-deficient rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M.; Gaemers, I. C.; van der Burg, M. J.; Tanke, H. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    The proliferative activity and other characteristics of germ cells in the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rat testis were investigated. In the VAD testis, A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were found. The A spermatogonia in the VAD testis showed a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of

  14. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

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    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  15. Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced risks on oxidative stress and elements in kidney and testis of rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.

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    Özorak, Alper; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Yüksel, Murat; Özçelik, Derviş; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan; Çetin, Hasan; Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Kose, Seyit Ali

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of both Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on oxidative stress and trace element levels in the kidney and testis of growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. Thirty-two rats and their 96 newborn offspring were equally divided into four different groups, namely, control, 2.45 GHz, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 2.45 GHz, 900 MHz, and 1,800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during pregnancy and growth. During the fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks of the experiment, kidney and testis samples were taken from decapitated rats. Results from the fourth week showed that the level of lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis and the copper, zinc, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant status (TAS) values in the kidney decreased in the EMR groups, while iron concentrations in the kidney as well as vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations in the testis increased in the EMR groups. Results for fifth-week samples showed that iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations in the kidney increased in the EMR groups, while the GSH and TAS levels decreased. The sixth week results showed that iron concentrations in the kidney and the extent of lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis increased in the EMR groups, while copper, TAS, and GSH concentrations decreased. There were no statistically significant differences in kidney chromium, magnesium, and manganese concentrations among the four groups. In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats.

  16. Thyroid Hormone Role and Economy in the Developing Testis.

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    Hernandez, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) exhibit pleiotropic regulatory effects on growth, development, and metabolism, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the developing testis is an important target for them. Testicular development is highly dependent on TH status. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect testis size and the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells, with consequences for steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. These observations suggest that an appropriate content of TH and by implication TH action in the testis, whether the result of systemic hormonal levels or regulatory mechanisms at the local level, is critical for normal testicular and reproductive function. The available evidence indicates the presence in the developing testis of a number of transporters, deiodinases and receptors that could play a role in the timely delivery of TH action on testicular cells. These include the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA), the MCT8 transporter, the TH-activating deiodinase DIO2, and the TH-inactivating deiodinase DIO3, all of which appear to modulate testicular TH economy and testis outcomes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  18. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

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    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  19. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

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    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  20. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  1. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

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    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  2. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

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    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  3. Protective effect of ginger on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in testis of rats.

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    Zahedi, Afshin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khaki, Arash; Ahmadnejad, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  4. Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats

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    Afshin Zahedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I (n=10, gentamicin control (group II, ginger control (group III and gentamicin + ginger (group IV each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05.However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  5. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

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    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  6. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

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    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  7. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement......Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...... with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...

  8. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis damaged by carbon tetrachloride: A genetic and histological study. Medhat R. Rehan, Amina M. G. Zedan, Samah A. El-Hashash, Mona A. Farid, Gehan A. El-Shafie ...

  9. Regulation of androgen receptor mRNA and protein in the rat testis by testosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen); J.M.S. Bartlett (John); J. Bolt-de Vries (Joan); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.F. Weinbauer (G.); E. Nieschlag (Eberhard); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), an agent that destroys Leydig cells. Within 5 days after EDS treatment, the levels of testosterone (T) in the circulation and in the testis were decreased to very low values, which makes it possible to

  10. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  11. Isolation and characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid-responsive genes in the rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, I. C.; van Pelt, A. M.; Themmen, A. P.; de rooij, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    By way of differential screening of testis cDNA libraries from vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats before and after administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), genes, the transcription of which was influenced by ATRA, were isolated. Most clones with an increased transcription encoded different

  12. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  13. Rat Testis Damage Caused by Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles After Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanhua; Wang, Dong; Li, Qingzhao; Deng, Hongliang; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Guoying; Sun, Miao

    2016-03-01

    Lead sulfide nanoparticals (PbS NPs) is an important semiconductor material due to its unique physical and chemical properties, but its potential health hazard to reproductive system is not clear. In the current study, we systematically explored the reproductive toxicity of PbS NPs in rats by measuring the body weight and testicular coefficient, testing serum testosterone levels, and studying the sperm survival rate and sperm abnormality rate. Furthermore, in order to study the toxic mechanism we performed lead contents measurements in testis, and investigated the pathology in testis. Our results confirmed that PbS NPs showed high reproductive toxicity due to PbS NPs in rats' testicular tissue by the establishment of PbS NPs chronic exposure model.

  14. tration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the seminiferous tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats, though ... of QU on the malc reproductive system and the few available ones lack ... 8 rats each. Each experimental animal (Groups 1-7) had intra- muscular QU ( IOmg/kg body weight per day, 5 times a week), with the exception of group 1 animals which had it for only 7.

  15. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens on rat testis damage by CCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L. In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis. Methods To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats. First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil. Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO, Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and DNA damages. Results Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p  reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats. Conclusion From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

  16. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... testicular components, absolute testis weight and body weight in boars. There is evidence in literature that the volume percentage occupied by the spermatogenetic tissues increased with age, body weight and testis weight in boars (Allrich et al., 1983; Harder et al., 1995). These reports seem to indicate that ...

  17. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, Douglas B.; Bao Wenjun; Goetz, Amber K.; Blystone, Chad R.; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Strader, Lillian F.; Wood, Carmen R.; Best, Deborah S.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Rockett, John C.; Dix, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides

  18. Expression of orexin B and its receptor 2 in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Assisi, Loredana; Langella, Emilia; Tafuri, Simona; Mirabella, Nicola; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    The peptides orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) deriving from a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, by proteolytic cleavage, bind the two G-coupled OX 1 and OX 2 receptors. While OX 1 selectively binds OxA, OX 2 shows similar affinity for both orexins. Firstly discovered in the hypothalamus, orexins and their receptors have been found in other brain regions as well as in peripheral tissues of mammals, thus resulting involved in the regulation of a broad variety of physiological functions. While the functional localization of OxA and OX 1 in the mammalian genital tract has been already described, the expression of OxB and OX 2 and their potential role in the reproductive functions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the presence of OxB and OX 2 in the rat testis by immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The results definitely demonstrated the localization of OxB and OX 2 in pachytene and second spermatocytes as well as in spermatids at all stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The expression of both OX 2 mRNA and protein in the rat testis was also established by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The analysis of the molecular mechanism of action of OxB in the rat testis showed that OxB, in contrast with OxA, is unable to promote steroidogenesis. These results translate into the regulation of diverse biological actions by OxA and OxB in the male gonad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The short term effects of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuluğ, Esin; Türedi, Sibel; Karagüzel, Ersagun; Kutlu, Omer; Menteşe, Ahmet; Alver, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify changes taking place in the rat testis at the 24th hour of reperfusion following testicular torsion and to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (RSV), a powerful antioxidant, in preventing these changes using novel biochemical parameters and histopathology. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Sham-operated (S), torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+RSV groups. In the T/D group, testicular ischemia was achieved by rotating the left testis 720° clockwise for 4h. In the T/D+RSV group, 20mg/kg RSV was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before detorsion. All rats were sacrificed 24h after detorsion. Serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and histopathological damage score were analyzed. Serum MDA, IMA, TOS, and OSI levels rose significantly in the T/D group. Serum MDA and IMA values were lower in the T/D+RES groups, but not significantly. OSI and TOS values were lower in the T/D+RES group, and the difference was significant. TAS values decreased significantly in the T/D group and rose in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Ipsilateral tissue MDA values were significantly elevated in the T/D group and decreased in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Apoptosis and histopathological damage increased significantly in the T/D group and decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. In the contralateral testis, apoptosis increased significantly in the T/D group. It decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. Our findings show that RSV had a protective effect against oxidative damage induced with a testicular T/D model, especially at the antiapoptotic and histopathological level. OSI may be a good guide to the clinical status of testicular T/D. © 2014.

  20. Survey of Growth Hormone Effects on Methotrexate Side Effects in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khaki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent that used for the treatment of a variety of tumors and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was planed to see the role of human growth hormone (hGH on testis recovery after treatment with MTX in rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the fifty male wistar rat were selected and randomly divided into five groups; control (n=10 and test (n=40. Hormone grope was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day, drug group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week, protective group was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day plus1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week and treatment group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for two consequence week with 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for14 consequence day, however the control group just received vehicle (IP. In 14 and 28 day the testis tissue of rat in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis then prepared for analysis. The statically analysis was ANOVA test. Results: This study was confirmed MTX had destructive effects in testis germinal cells and rate of spermatogenesis was decreased (P<0.05 as compared with control group, and HGh had treatment effects in degenerative seminiferous epithelium and improve spermatogenesis (P<0.05 as compared in other groups.Conclusion: Since in our study hGH had recovery effect on spermatogenesis cycle after treatment with MTX, and it can not have useful effect if only prescript in chemotherapy period than consequently hGH inducement is suitable for sperm health ability parameters after chemotherapy in patient.

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds exposure and testis development in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbowona, Biola F.; Mustapha, Olajide A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades, there is substantial evidence that male reproductive function is deteriorating in humans and wildlife and this is associated with unintentional exposure to widely used synthetic chemicals. Subsequently, much has been done to show that certain chemicals in the environment adversely interfere with the developing fetal gonads of the laboratory animals. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated treatment-induced reproductive problems in offspring exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) which are similar to those observed in wildlife and human population. Few EDC studies have demonstrated that there are certain periods of gestation when the developing fetus is highly sensitive and at risk of small endocrine changes. Similar observations have been made in the sewage sludge model, however, while animal studies have been insightful in providing valuable information about the range of effects that can be attributed to in utero exposure to EDCs, varying levels of maternal doses administered in different studies exaggerated extrapolation of these results to human. Thus the EDC concentration representative of fetal exposure levels is uncertain because of the complexities of its nature. So far, the level of fetal exposure can only be roughly estimated. There is substantial evidence from animal data to prove that EDCs can adversely affect reproductive development and function in male and more has accumulated on the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. This paper therefore, reviews previous studies to highlight the extent to which testis development can be disrupted during fetal life. PMID:29255381

  2. Valproic acid induces histologic changes and decreases androgen receptor levels of testis and epididymis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valproic acid (VPA, an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported. Objective: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each. Treated rats were injected with 500 mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally, VPA for 10 consecutive days. At the end of every experimental day, all reproductive parameters including histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining and protein expression of AR by Immuno-Western blot in testis and epididymis were examined. Results: VPA-treated rats showed dramatically changes in testicular and epididymal histopathologies compared to control group. The multinucleated giant cells and sloughing of germ cells were observed on day 6. The germ cell disintegration and increased intercellular spaces of seminiferous tubular epithelium appeared in days 7-10 of VPA treatment. Additionally, extensive multinucleated giant cells and complete exfoliation were clearly found from days 8-10. Such exfoliated germ cells were clearly seen in its epididymal lumen at day 10. The increasing rate of sperm concentration was approximately 32.31% of that in control group at day 10 (p=0.03. Moreover, the protein expressions of testicular and epididymal AR (% intensity/ 80 μg protein lysate was decreased in VPA-treated rats compared with control. Conclusion: VPA treatment induces histologic changes of germ cell epithelium in seminiferous tubules and decreases the expression of testicular and epididymal androgen receptors

  3. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor actions in the embryonic testis influences normal cord development and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Dirks, Kristen A; Skinner, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine factors with roles in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during normal and pathologic processes. Previously, PDGF and its receptor (PDGFR) have been shown to be present in perinatal, peripubertal, and adult rat testes. The role of PDGF in embryonic testicular cord formation is not known. The hypothesis tested is that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed during cord formation and that inhibition of their action influences normal cord formation during embryonic testis development. Embryonic Day (E) 13 gonadal organ cultures were used. Organs were cultured for 3 days and treated daily with vehicle or a PDGFR-specific tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor (i.e., the tyrphostin AG1295 or AG1296). Vehicle-treated testes formed normal cords, whereas tyrphostin-treated testes formed "swollen cords," a phenomenon characterized by a significant decrease in the number of cords per testis area and increased cord diameter due to fusion of cords. Expression of PDGF and PDGFR in E13, E14, E16, Postnatal Day (P) 0, and P20 testes was examined. Messenger RNAs for PDGF-A and -B and PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors were expressed in isolated testes during all developmental periods examined. Immunoreactivity for PDGF was present throughout the testicular compartment at E14, restricted primarily to testicular cords at E16, and present in cells of the testicular cords with a stronger immunoreactivity in certain interstitial cell types of P0 testis. PDGFR beta-receptor immunoreactivity was primarily localized to the mesonephros of E14 organs and the testicular interstitium of E16 and P0 testes. Tyrphostins did not affect apoptotic cell number in the testis. PDGF had no effect on cell growth in P0 testis cultures. The results show that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed in embryonic testis during cord formation in a tissue-specific manner. Inhibition of PDGF actions does not inhibit cord formation but does alter normal cord development and

  4. Developmental expression of p97/VCP (Valosin-containing protein and Jab1/CSN5 in the rat testis and epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Huseyin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS is a key player in regulating many cellular processes via proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Recently published data show that Jab1/CSN5 interacts with p97/VCP and controls the ubiquitination status of proteins bound to p97/VCP in mouse and human cells. However, coexpression of p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 in the developing rat testis and epididymis has not previously been studied. Methods Testicular and epididymal tissues from 5-, 15-, 30-, and 60-day-old rats were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Colocalisation of proteins was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results In the 5-day-old rat testis, p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 were specifically expressed in gonocytes. The expression of p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 significantly increased at day 15 and was found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and spermatocytes. In 30- and 60-day-old rat testes, p97/VCP indicated moderate to strong expression in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, round and elongating spermatids. However, moderate to weak expression was observed in spermatocytes. Jab1/CSN5 showed strong expression in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, while relatively moderate expression was observed in round and elongating spermatids in 30- and 60-day-old rat testes. In contrast, in the epididymis, the expression of both proteins gradually increased from 5 to 60 days of age. After rats reached 2 weeks of age, the expression of both proteins was mostly restricted to the basal and principal cells of the caput epididymis. Conclusions Our study suggests that p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 could be an important part of the UPS in the developing rat testis and epididymis and that both proteins may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and epididymal epithelial functions.

  5. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  6. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Ahmed Zahran, Ahmed M; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Abdo Kodous, Ahmad S

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation. Rats were divided into groups including C group (control rats), R (irradiated) group (rats irradiated with γ-radiation), Vehicle (V) group (rats administered with dimethylsulfoxide "DMSO"), H group (rats administered with H only), HR and RH groups (rats treated with H before and after exposure to γ-radiation, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA: the end product of lipid peroxidation "LPO") and xanthine oxidase (XO: it generates reactive oxygen species "ROS") in testes homogenate as well as nitric oxide (NO: as ROS) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. The apoptotic markers including DNA-fragmentation (DNAF) in testes homogenate and calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in testes homogenate, while reduced glutathione "GSH" in nuclear matrix were determined. Also histopathological examination for testes tissues through electron microscope was studied. Exposure of rats to γ-radiation (R group) increased the levels of MDA, NO, DNAF, Ca 2+ and XO activity, while it decreased GSH level, SOD and CAT activities as compared to the C groups; γ-radiation increased oxidative stress (OS), LPO, apoptosis and induced testes injuries. These results are in agreement with the histopathological examination. In contrast, treatment with H before or after exposure to

  7. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... to paracetamol. Investigations of the gross anatomy of the testis as well as Leydig cells number and rate of gonocyte apoptosis after the 3?days of ex vivo differentiation showed no significant effect of the analgesics tested compared with controls. These data indicate therefore that mild analgesics specifically...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  8. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  9. A Short-Term Exposure to Tributyltin Blocks Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tributyltin (TBT is widely used as an antifouling agent that may cause reproductive toxicity. The mechanism of TBT on Leydig cell development is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a brief exposure to low doses of TBT permanently affects Leydig cell development and to clarify the underlying mechanism.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and gavaged normal saline (control, 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/day TBT for a consecutive 10 days, respectively. At the end of TBT treatment, all rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS to eliminate all of adult Leydig cells. Leydig cells began a developmental regeneration process on post-EDS day 35. The Leydig cell regeneration was evaluated by measuring serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels on post-EDS day 7, 35, and 56, the expression levels of Leydig cell genes, Leydig cell morphology and number and proliferation on post-EDS day 56.Results: TBT significantly reduced serum testosterone levels on post-EDS day 35 and 56 and increased serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels on post-EDS day 56 at ≥1 mg/kg/day. Immunohistochemical staining showed that there were fewer regenerated Leydig cells in the TBT-treated testis on post-EDS day 56. Further study demonstrated that the mRNA or protein levels of Leydig (Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3 and Sertoli cells (Fshr, Dhh, and Sox9 were significantly down-regulated in the TBT-treated testes when compared to the control. Immunofluorescent staining showed that TBT inhibited Leydig cell proliferation as judged by the reduced number of proliferating cyclin nuclear antigen-positive Leydig cells on post-EDS day 35.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that a short-term TBT exposure blocked Leydig cell developmental regeneration process via down

  10. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  11. Subcellular distribution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Imai, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in the testis was studied by single oral administration of [3,4,5,6- 3 H]-phthalic acid di-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHP- 3 H) or phthalic acid di-(2-ethyl[1- 3 H]hexyl) ester ( 3 H-DEHP) to 8-week-old male rats. Autoradiographs and electron microscopic autoradiographs were prepared from the testis, liver and kidney at 6 and 24 hr after administration and distribution of radioactive materials in the tissues were observed. In the autoradiographic specimen at 6 hr after administration of DEHP 3 H-labeled at phthalic acid moiety (DEHP- 3 H), many grains were observed in the testis, mainly at the basal area of seminiferous tubules at the stages IX to I of the spermatogenic cycle. Electron microscopic autoradiographs taken at the same time revealed that localization of grains were in the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of Sertoli cells. A few grains were also present at the Golgi apparatus and lysosome of Sertoli cells, and at the interfaces between the Sertoli cells or between Sertoli cells and spermatocytes, and in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes. Autoradiographs of the liver revealed grains in the centrilobular hepatocytes, localized at mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes. In the kidney, the radioactivity was localized at the brush border of the tubular cells in the pars recta of proximal tubules. In the 24-hr specimen, the grain density in the seminiferous tubules obviously decreased. On the other hand, by autoradiography with DEHP 3 H-labeled at the alcohol ( 3 H-DEHP), only a few grains were observed in autoradiographs of the testes at 6 hr after administration. No grains were noted in autoradiographs of the liver and kidney with 3 H-DEHP. The results showed that the phthalic acid ester was splitted rapidly in the body and only the phthalic acid moiety distributed into the cells. (author)

  12. Signaling by TGF-betas in tubule cultures of adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Hui; Galuska, Sebastian P; Kudipudi, Pradeep Kumar; Riaz, Mohammad Assad; Loveland, Kate L; Konrad, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1. In contrast, BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) do not signal via the high-affinity type I and type II TGFβ receptors, TBR1 or TBR2. Furthermore, treatment of tubule cultures with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 had profound significant stimulatory effects on secretion of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) through utilization of TGF-β and BMP receptors. Specific inhibitors for either TBR1 or BMP receptors yielded nearly complete inhibition of TGF-β signaling. The TBR1-TBR2 signalosome was detected with Duolink upon stimulation with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2, predominantly in spermatogenic cells of the adult rat testis, particularly in elongated spermatids. In summary, this examination of intact rat testicular tubules demonstrated for the first time that TGF-βs signal mainly through TBR1 and TBR2 but also use BMP receptors, including for secretion of PAI-1. Whereas ALK2 participates in the TGF-β1-induced TBR1-TBR2 signalosome, ALK3 and ALK6 are involved in signaling of TGF-β2. Detection of the TBR1-TBR2 signalosome in late spermiogenic cells indicates a post-meiotic activity.

  13. Multi-residue analysis of free and conjugated hormones and endocrine disruptors in rat testis by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouech, Charlène; Tournier, Mikaël; Quignot, Nadia; Kiss, Agneta; Wiest, Laure; Lafay, Florent; Flament-Waton, Marie-Magdeleine; Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are suspected to be responsible for many disorders of the human reproductive system. To establish a causality relationship between exposure to endocrine disruptors and disease, experiments on animals must be performed with improved or new analytical tools. Therefore, a simple, rapid, and effective multi-residue method was developed for the determination of four steroid hormones (i.e., testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol), glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of estrone and estradiol and four endocrine disruptors in rat testis (i.e., bisphenol A, atrazine, and active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin). The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was then developed to quantify these compounds at ultra-trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The QuEChERS extraction was optimized with regard to the acetonitrile/water ratio used in the extraction step, the choice of the cleanup method and the acetonitrile/hexane ratio used in the cleanup step. The optimized extraction method exhibited recoveries between 89% and 108% for all tested compounds except the conjugates (31% to 58%). The detection limits of all compounds were below 20 ng g(-1) of wet weight of testis. The method was subsequently applied to determine the levels of hormones and EDCs in seven rat testis samples.

  14. Effect of modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill () on Tip60-mediated apoptosis in testis of male rats after microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Xiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Ya-Jing; Fang, Hong; Xu, Shao-Qiang; Dong, Jing; Wei, Li-Zhao; Luo, Shao-Bo; Shen, Chuan-Yun; Zhang, Qi-Long; Xie, Ya-Lan

    2017-10-24

    To investigate the effect of a modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill (, WZYZP) on the male rats' testis after microwave radiation, as well as its potential mechanism. Forty-five male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, the radiation group, and the WZYZP group. The rats in the radiation group and WZYZP group were exposed to microwave radiation for 15 min once, while the rats in the control group were not exposed to any radiation. The rats in the WZYZP group were given a modified of WZYZP by gavage daily for 7 days. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Histopathological alterations of the testis were observed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Tat-interactive protein, 60kD (Tip60) and p53 expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis index (AI) in the radiation group was higher than that of the WZYZP group and control group on day 1 (D1), day 7 (D7) day 14 (D14) after radiation (Pradiation group, the partial seminiferous tubules were collapsed, basement membranes of the seminiferous epithelia became detached. WZYZP could restore the morphological changes. There was no expression of Tip60 among the three groups on D7 and D14. The expression of p53 was higher in the radiation group than in the control group (Pradiation on D7 and D14 (Peffects may partly result from its ability to intervene in Tip60 mediated apoptosis.

  15. Study of spermatogenesis fetal testis exposed noise stress during and after natal period in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryamalsadat; Hemadi, Masoud; Saki, Ghasem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2013-10-01

    Noise stress is dangerous natural contaminant that produces harmful physiological, psychological and morphological outcomes to the body. So this study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of noise stress on the parenchyma of testis. Healthy mature females rats (n = 20) were mated with the mature male rats and then randomly allocated equally either to experimental or control groups. Experimental group has given daily noise stress up to birth their child. In the second step, the child's pregnant rats of experimental group were distributed to three subgroups as follow: group I (without exposure to noise stress), group II (exposure to noise for 8 weeks) and group III (exposure to noise for 14 weeks) for morphometric analysis of their child's testicles by sacrificing of them at weeks 14. In general, the testes of non-exposed group were grown larger than ones in the noise exposed groups. Moreover, the testes of the experimental group 1 were larger than the other experimental groups. Indeed, the rate of atrophic seminiferous tubules and jumbled appearance of the interstitial space were more observed in the noise stress exposed group than non-exposed ones. In addition, seminiferous tubules analysis revealed that the characteristics of interstitial space cells and epithelial germinative cells of the seminiferous tubules in the control group were better than the noise exposed groups. It seems that the noise stress has negative influences on the fertility of male based on enhancing of the apoptotic process induced by pathogenesis stress and suppressing the kinetics spermatogenesis.

  16. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time. 30 male mature SD rats were used, kept in individual cages, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum, divided into 3 groups (G; c, a and b received placebo and oral doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of TT, SID for 8weeks .Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. Testicular weigh with and without epididymis was recorded then histopathologic slides prepared with H&E and Masson trichrome, and focused on seminiferous tube diameter, epithelial layer thickness, interstitial space length, testicular capsule thickness. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Data statistically analyzed by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  17. Changes in rat testis morphology and androgen receptor expression around the age of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Meseeh, Nabila A; El-Shaarawy, Ehab A A; AlDomairy, Ahmed F; Sehly, Reem A Abou

    2016-05-01

    Androgens are the keystone in fertility and intact sexual functions in males. It exerts its actions via androgen receptors extensively present in testicular cells, only its presence in germ cells is controversial. The alteration of androgen receptors in different testicular cells is usually accompanied by different sexual disorders. On the other hand, many sexual disorders are treated with androgens. Puberty, being the juncture of hormonal blossom, is an important stage to evaluate the evolution of testicular cells including androgen receptors. The aim of the work was to investigate the morphological and androgen receptor changes in different testicular cells during puberty in the rat testis using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out on 45 male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley). The rats were divided into three age groups; group I (prepubertal) 21 days old, group II (peripubertal) 35 days and group III (postpubertal) 90 days old. The rat testes were examined histologically and immuneohistochemically. Cells and androgen receptors were counted using Leica Qwin 500 image analyzer computer system. Data were analyzed using univariate ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Histological examination of the different ages showed developmental changes of different testicular cells. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of AR in spermatogenic cells in pubertal and postpubertal groups and partially in prepubertal group. AR was clearly expressed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells in the three groups. The maximum expression in Sertoli cells was at 90 days while that of Leydig cells was at the age of 35 days. Androgen receptors should not be excluded as an effective factor on germ cells through its direct action on AR, clearly expressed in spermatogenic cells and its surge at the age of puberty. Studies and treatments should respect the AR expected levels according to age in other testicular cells as well. Sertoli cells show a linear

  18. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-02-01

    Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40-120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3-3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in vitro. Two types of

  19. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Methods: Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1, sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40–120 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). Results: ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3–3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in

  20. An examination of the characteristics, concentration, and distribution of androgen receptor in rat testis during sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In these studies a nuclear exchange assay was established in rat testis in which exchange after 86 hours at 4 degree C was greater than 85% complete and receptor was stable. Receptor concentration per DNA measured by exchange declined between 15 and 25 days of age in the rat testis, then increased 4-fold during sexual maturation. Proliferation of germ cells which had low receptor concentration appeared to account for the early decline in testicular receptor concentration, whereas increase in receptor number per Sertoli cell between 25 and 35 days of age contributed to the later increase. Detailed studies showed that other possible explanations for changes in receptor number were not likely. Androgen receptor dynamics in testicular cells showed rapid, specific uptake of [ 3 H]-testosterone that was easily blocked by unlabeled testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not as well as by the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide

  1. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  2. TGF-β superfamily signaling in testis formation and early male germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Julia C; Wakitani, Shoichi; Loveland, Kate L

    2015-09-01

    The TGF-β ligand superfamily contains at least 40 members, many of which are produced and act within the mammalian testis to facilitate formation of sperm. Their progressive expression at key stages and in specific cell types determines the fertility of adult males, influencing testis development and controlling germline differentiation. BMPs are essential for the interactive instructions between multiple cell types in the early embryo that drive initial specification of gamete precursors. In the nascent foetal testis, several ligands including Nodal, TGF-βs, Activins and BMPs, serve as key masculinizing switches by regulating male germline pluripotency, somatic and germline proliferation, and testicular vascularization and architecture. In postnatal life, local production of these factors determine adult testis size by regulating Sertoli cell multiplication and differentiation, in addition to specifying germline differentiation and multiplication. Because TGF-β superfamily signaling is integral to testis formation, it affects processes that underlie testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer, and its potential to contribute to subfertility is beginning to be understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of aluminum exposure on superoxide and peroxide handling capacities by liver, kidney, testis and temporal cortex in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, T V Balasai; Mallipeddi, Kalyani; Bondili, J S; Nayak, Prasunpriya

    2012-10-01

    Oxidant imbalance is one of the causative mechanisms of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated aluminum-induced oxidant imbalance in non-neuronal tissues (liver, kidney and testis) and temporal cortex in rats. The differences in adaptations to superoxide and peroxide handling capacities (SPHC) of studied organs due to aluminum insult were also evaluated. Male Wistar rats were exposed to aluminum (10 mg/Kg body wt/day) for 4 weeks through orogastric intubation. Liver showed significant decrease in reduced glutathione level, while significant alteration in lipid peroxidation was observed in temporal cortex in aluminium-exposed animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly altered in liver and temporal cortex and catalase activity significantly reduced in the liver due to aluminum exposure, while glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were altered in all the tested organs. Among the organs, glutathione-independent SPHC was relatively higher in liver and kidney, while glutathione-dependent SPHC was relatively higher in testis and temporal cortex. As compared to control, aluminum-exposed rats demonstrated reduction in glutathione-dependent SPHC in temporal cortex and increment of the same in testis, while increment in glutathione-independent SPHC was observed in liver. In conclusion, aluminum-induced alteration in oxidant handling capacity could be the cause of oxidative stress both in the neuronal and non-neuronal tissues.

  4. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO 2 -induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO 2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO 2 -treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and

  5. Inhibition of in vitro human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production in testis and of ovulation in the rat by charcoal-treated rat testicular extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Bellabarba, G.A.; Bishop, W.; Rojas, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previously, the authors described the presence of a factor obtained from rat testis that was found to inhibit human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) binding to gonadal receptors. In the present study, similarly prepared testicular extract was tested for its effects on in vitro hCG-stimulated testosterone production by isolated testis interstitial cells and for its effect on spontaneous ovulation in the rat. Incubation of interstitial cells with charcoal-treated extract significantly inhibited the steroidogenic response to hCG in a dose-related manner. This inhibition was also apparent after heating the extract for 10 min at 100 0 C. A single i.p. injection of testicular extract inhibited spontaneous ovulation in the rat. This effect was also observed after heating the extract for 10 min at 100 0 C. It is concluded that the aqueous testicular extract contains a factor able to antagonize the physiological events mediated by luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG, and that this factor is consistent with the presence of an LH/hCG-binding inhibitory activity in rat testis

  6. The cytoprotective peptide humanin is induced and neutralizes Bax after pro-apoptotic stress in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y; Lue, Y-H; Swerdloff, R; Lee, K-W; Cobb, L J; Cohen, P; Wang, C

    2013-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the mitochondria-derived cytoprotective peptide humanin (HN), when administered intratesticularly to rats, rescues germ cells from apoptosis secondary to testicular stress of hormonal deprivation induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-A). To decipher the cellular mechanisms of HN action in the amelioration of GnRH-A-induced germ cell apoptosis, adult male rats received the following treatments for 5 days: (i) daily intratesticular (IT) injections with saline (control); (ii) a single subcutaneous injection of GnRH-A on Day 1 and daily IT injection of saline; (iii) daily IT injection of synthetic HN; and (iv) GnRH-A injection on Day 1 and daily IT injection of HN (GnRH-A+HN). HN alone had no effect on germ cell apoptosis. GnRH-A increased germ cell apoptosis and BAX in the testicular mitochondrial fractions. Synthetic HN decreased germ cell apoptosis induced by GnRH-A and BAX in the mitochondria. We deduced that the cytoprotective action of synthetic HN on GnRH-A-induced germ cell apoptosis was mediated by attenuating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and increasing STAT3 phosphorylation. The effect of synthetic HN on the expression of endogenous rat HN in the testis was studied using rat HN specific antibody. GnRH-A treatment increased, but concomitant treatment with synthetic HN reduced endogenous rat HN expression in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions in testis. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the increased rat HN was physically associated with BAX in the cytosolic testicular fractions after GnRH-A treatment. Double-immunofluorescence staining confirmed the co-localization of BAX and rat HN in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells and spermatocytes after GnRH-A treatment. We conclude that the cytoprotective effect of exogenously administered synthetic HN is mediated by interactions of endogenous rat HN with BAX in the cytoplasm preventing the entry of BAX to the mitochondria

  7. Ultrastructural localization of silver in rat testis and organ distribution of radioactive silver in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, E; Rungby, J; Baatrup, E

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of silver after a single intravenous injection (2 micrograms Ag g-1 body weight) was studied in the testes of Wistar rats 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after dosing with radiolabelled 110AgNo3 (2 micrograms Ag and 1.2 kBq g-1 body weight). Also, the temporal accumulation of silver during...

  8. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of gamma rays on rat testis tissue according to the morphological parameters and immunohistochemistry: radioprotective role of silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Mohsen; Anjamshoa, Maryam; Jafari, Parnia; Masoumi, Hossien; Ahadi, Reza; Fatehi, Daryoush

    2017-06-01

    To determine the radioprotective effects of Silymarin in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with γ-rays. The present experimental study was performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from December 2009 to March 2010. The study was performed on 40 rats, which were randomly and equally divided into four groups: 1) control group: neither received Silymarin nor irradiated with γ-rays; 2) γ-irradiation group: testis region exposed to 2Gy of γ-rays; 3) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 100 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays; 4) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 200 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays. After animal experiments and preparing the tissue sections, different histological and histomorphological parameters of seminiferous tubules and the biological characteristics of Leydig cells were evaluated applying quantitative assessment, Johnson scoring, and Leydig cell apoptosis assay by TUNEL method. The data were analyzed applying ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, using SPSS software (V.19). Irradiation of 2 Gy γ-rays to the testis of the rats significantly affected the frequency of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, spermatozoa, seminiferous tube and lumen diameters, thickness of the epithelium, Leydig cell nuclear diameter and volume, epithelium height, and apoptotic cells (p<0.05). However, administration of Silymarin improved the mentioned parameters specifically in 200 mg/kg of dosage. Silymarin could act as a potent radioprotector and it can be used in modulation as well as improvement to radiation therapy to prevent male reproductive function, specifically seminiferous tubules in an animal model; however, its molecular mechanism is still not clear and needs more molecular researches.

  10. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Jannatifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. Objective: This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. Materials and Methods: 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term and group B (long-term received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control without any treatment, and group D (vehicle received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919, group A (43.4 ±. 120, and long term (40.6 ±. 299 immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusion: This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats.

  11. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

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    khadijeh bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.

  12. The Effects of Trifluralin on LH, FSH and Testosterone Hormone Levels and Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

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    Mehrdad Shariati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trifluralin is a herbicide and used in agriculture widely. It enters plants throughdeveloping roots and stops plant cells from division and elongation (meristemic inhibitor.Extensive application of trifluralin to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agriculture,horticulture and horn garden, leads to environmental pollution and its entrance into the food chaincould have determined effects on human and other species. In this research the effects of trifluralinon reproductive parameters of the male rats including serum luteinizing hormone (LH, folliclestimulatinghormone (FSH, testosterone levels, and changes in testicular tissue and body weightwere investigated.Materials and Methods: For this purpose male rats were randomly divided in 5 groups, to includecontrol, sham (received normal saline as a solvent, and three experimental groups which received500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg oral trifluralin respectively. After 16 days, body and testis weight weremeasured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for measurement of LH, FSH andtestosterone levels. To evaluate histological changes, testes were removed and weighed and, afterobtaining tissue section, stained by HE.Results: Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels showed significant decrease in experimentalgroups (p<0.05. There was significant decrease in the number of germinal and somatic cells intestis in experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in body and testis weight inexperimental groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of trifluralin could decrease gonadotropinsand testosterone hormone levels and also this herbicide could have hazardous effects on testistissue.

  13. Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, Gaber E; Bashandy, Samir A; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl(2))-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl(2), iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl(2)+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl(2) (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (PSpirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl(2)-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl(2)-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl(2)-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl(2)-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted.

  14. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i ) control, ii ) HgCl2, iii ) S. platensis and iv ) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (PSpirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  15. Loss and recovery of androgen receptor protein expression in the adult rat testis following androgen withdrawal by ethane dimethanesulfonate.

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    Boycho Nikolov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are especially important for the maintenance of spermatogenesis in adulthood and the experimental withdrawal of testosterone (T production by ethane dimenthanesulfonate (EDS is a valuable tool for studying androgen-dependent events of spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific changes in immunoexpression of androgen receptor (AR in the testis in relation to degeneration and regeneration of Leydig cell (LC population and seminiferous epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for AR and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD as well as TUNEL assay for apoptosis were performed on testicular sections of control and EDS-treated rats. Serum LH and T levels were measured by RIA. Our results revealed a total loss of AR immunoexpression from the nuclei of Sertoli (SCs, LCs and peritubular cells during the first week after EDS administration and that coincided with severe drop in T levels. Two weeks after EDS administration, the AR expression was recovered in these cells but normal stage-specificity in SCs was replaced by uniform intensity of AR immunostaining at all the stages of the spermatogenic cycle. The stage-specific pattern of androgen expression in SCs with a maximum at stages VII-VIII appeared 5 weeks after treatment. LC immunoreactivity for 3beta-HSD at different time points after EDS administration correlated with values of T concentration. The maximal germ cell apoptosis on day 7 was followed by total loss of elongated spermatids 2 weeks after EDS treatment. Regeneration of seminiferous epithelium 3 weeks after EDS administration and onwards occurred in tandem with the development of new LC population indicated by the appearance of 3beta-HSD-positive cells and gradual increase in T production. The specific changes in AR after EDS including their loss and recovery in Sertoli cells paralleled with degenerative and regenerative events in Leydig and germ cell populations, confirming close functional

  16. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal...

  17. Carnitine partially protects the rat testis against the late damage produced by doxorubicin administered during pre-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R E L; Okada, F K; Stumpp, T; Vendramini, V; Miraglia, S M

    2014-11-01

    Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, is widely included in chemotherapy protocols to combat childhood cancer. Carnitine, an important quaternary amine, is present in testis and epididymis and is involved in sperm maturation; it has been used in infertility treatment. In a previous study, our group observed that L-carnitine given before etoposide, another chemotherapeutic drug, reduces the spermatogenic damage and protects germ cells against apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the antiapoptotic and cytoprotective actions of L-carnitine in long- and mid-term basis, on the seminiferous epithelium of doxorubicin-treated pre-pubertal rats. Forty-eight 30-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: sham-control; doxorubicin; carnitine; carnitine/doxorubicin (L-carnitine injected 1 h before doxorubicin). The rats were submitted to euthanasia at 64 and 100 days of age and their testes were collected for biometric, morphometric, and histopathological analyses. The numerical density of apoptotic germ cells was obtained (TUNEL method). In adult phase (100 days), the following spermatic parameters were analyzed: mature spermatid (19 step) count and sperm daily production per testis; sperm number and transit time through the epididymal caput/corpus and cauda; frequency of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (from epididymal fluid), as well as sperm DNA integrity (Comet assay). The testicular and spermatic parameters at both ages were improved in rats treated with carnitine before doxorubicin. At 64 days, the TUNEL-positive germ cell frequency was lower in the carnitine/doxorubicin-treated rats comparatively to the doxorubicin-treated rats. At 100 days of age, the sperm DNA fragmentation was also lower in the previously carnitine-treated rats, as evidenced by the analysis of three parameters. Carnitine reduced the late testicular and spermatic damages caused by doxorubicin, probably providing a partial cytoprotection against the deleterious action of doxorubicin

  18. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...

  19. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    1986-03-05

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.

  20. Effect of immunization against prostate- and testis-expressed (PATE) proteins on sperm function and fecundity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    Evaluating the immunocontraceptive potential of sperm-bound proteins is an active area of investigation. In this study, we analyzed the role of prostate- and testes-expressed (PATE) and PATE-F proteins in sperm function. Capacitation was measured as a function of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm membrane proteins. Ionophore-induced acrosome reaction was assessed by measuring the fluorescence intensity of calcium-bound Fluo 3-AM and sperm-bound PNA-FITC in a flow cytometer. Rat spermatozoa subjected to capacitation and acrosome reaction in vitro displayed changes in the PATE and PATE-F protein localization on their surface, indicating the role of these proteins in sperm function. Capacitation and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction in vitro were inhibited in spermatozoa pre-incubated with antiserum raised in rabbit against PATE or PATE-F. Male rats were immunized with PATE proteins to assess their role in sperm function and fecundity. Antibody titer in the serum, testicular, and epididymal fluid was measured by ELISA. The motility parameters were recorded using CASA. High antibody titer was observed in serum, epididymal, and testicular fluid in rats immunized with PATE or PATE-F protein. Immunization did not cause any structural damage and inflammation in the testis and epididymis. PATE and PATE-F antisera obtained from the immunized rats inhibited acrosome reaction. Motility parameters, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fecundity were compromised in PATE-F-immunized rats, whereas the same were not affected in rats immunized with PATE. These results suggest that PATE-F might play an important role in sperm function and fecundity and can be explored further to determine its immunocontraceptive potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Arctium lappa on Cadmium-Induced Damage to the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predes, Fabricia de Souza; Diamante, M A S; Foglio, M A; Dolder, H

    2016-10-01

    The protective role of Arctium lappa (AL) on the testes of rats acutely exposed to cadmium (Cd) was tested. The rats were randomly divided into a control group (C-group) and three major experimental groups, which were further subdivided into minor groups (n = 6) according to the experimental period (7 or 56 days). The C-group was subdivided into C-7 and C-56 [receiving a single saline solution, intraperitoneal (i.p.), on the first day]; the AL-group, AL-7, and AL-56, received AL extract (300 mg/kg/daily); the Cd group, Cd-7 and Cd-56, received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on the first day; the CdAL group, CdAL-7 and CdAL-56, received the same Cd dose, followed by AL extract. Water or AL extract was administered daily by gavage. After either 7 or 56 days, the testis and accessory glands were removed after whole-body perfusion. Exposure to Cd and CdAL decreased the weight of the testis and epididymis, the gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubular (ST) diameter, and ST volumetric proportion, and increased the volumetric proportion of interstitium after 56 days. In the epididymis caput, the tubular volumetric proportion decreased along with an increase of interstitial volumetric proportion and epithelium height after 56 days. The alterations observed were less severe only after 7 days. A progressive testicular damage resulted mainly in tubules lined only by Sertoli cells. The sperm number and cell debris decreased in the epididymis. We demonstrated that the testicular damage induced by single acute i.p. exposure to Cd occurred despite the daily oral intake of AL extract.

  2. QUANTITATIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF TESTIS AND SEMEN QUALITY PARAMETERS CHANGES CAUSED BY PERORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DIAZINON IN RATS

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    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the quantitative and structural changes in the rat testis and changes of semen quality after a diazinon administration. METHODS: Rats received diazinon (99% purity in thier drinking water (40 mg.l-1 with free access. Age of rats at the beginning of the experiment was 30 days and experiment lasted for next 90 days. The histological samples were evaluated by histological and morphometric methods in light microscopy and the samples of semen were evaluated with CASA method. RESULTS: Disintergation of cellular associations in the seminiferous epithelium, germ cells evacuation into the tubule lumen and thier necrosis were mostly observed. Rarely vacuolisation and cracks of epithelium and fibrotisation of interstitial tissue were noted. Morphometric methods have shown extension of epithelium (P subcellular structures and their functions may be damaged which can lead to subfertility. Further investigation of diazinon is needed for verification of our hypothesis.doi:10.5219/188

  3. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

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    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME ((R-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid, is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g were randomized into four groups (I–IV. Group I (control received 1 mL of distilled water, while animals in Groups II, III and IV received 6.75, 13.5 and 27 mg/kg body weight HPME, respectively, for 21 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in renal and hepatic function biomarkers (urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, AST in the plasma of treated animals compared to control. Levels of testicular antioxidants, ascorbic acid and glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly after 21 days of HPME administration in a dose-dependent manner. The testicular malondialdehyde level increased significantly in the HPME-treated rats relative to the control. A significant decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase was also observed in HPME-treated animals. Testicular histology revealed severe interstitial edema and sections of seminiferous tubules with necrotic and eroded germinal epithelium in the HPME-treated rats. Overall, data from this study suggest that HPME altered hepatic and renal function and induced oxidative stress and morphological changes in the testis of rats.

  4. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  5. Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining the apoptosis of testis in rats after cigarette smoke inhalation

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    Lijuan He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of differences in smoke concentration and exposure duration in Sprague Dawley rats to determine variation in type and severity of the testis apoptosis were evaluated. The daily dosages were 10, 20 and 30 non-filter cigarettes for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Mainstream smoke exposure suppressed body weight gain in all regimens. A dose-related increase in plasma nicotine concentration was observed in smoke-exposed groups for 4, 6, 8 and 12 week regimens. Histopathological examination of the exposed groups showed disturbances in the stages of spermatogenesis, tubules atrophying and these appeared to be dose-related. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 immunostaining was detected both in Sertoli cells and germ cells in smoke-exposure groups. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells of testicular cells was observed after 6 weeks of cigarette exposure. The results indicate that cigarette exposure concentration and duration have interaction effect to induce apoptosis in the rat testes.

  6. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  7. Expression profiling of rainbow trout testis development identifies evolutionary conserved genes involved in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquerré Diane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is a late developmental process that involves a coordinated expression program in germ cells and a permanent communication between the testicular somatic cells and the germ-line. Current knowledge regarding molecular factors driving male germ cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates is still limited and mainly based on existing data from rodents and human. Fish with a marked reproductive cycle and a germ cell development in synchronous cysts have proven to be choice models to study precise stages of the spermatogenetic development and the germ cell-somatic cell communication network. In this study we used 9K cDNA microarrays to investigate the expression profiles underlying testis maturation during the male reproductive cycle of the trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results Using total testis samples at various developmental stages and isolated spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, 3379 differentially expressed trout cDNAs were identified and their gene activation or repression patterns throughout the reproductive cycle were reported. We also performed a tissue-profiling analysis and highlighted many genes for which expression signals were restricted to the testes or gonads from both sexes. The search for orthologous genes in genome-sequenced fish species and the use of their mammalian orthologs allowed us to provide accurate annotations for trout cDNAs. The analysis of the GeneOntology terms therefore validated and broadened our interpretation of expression clusters by highlighting enriched functions that are consistent with known sequential events during male gametogenesis. Furthermore, we compared expression profiles of trout and mouse orthologs and identified a complement of genes for which expression during spermatogenesis was maintained throughout evolution. Conclusion A comprehensive study of gene expression and associated functions during testis maturation and germ cell differentiation in

  8. The Type 3 Deiodinase is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Martinez, M. (Elena); A. Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); J. Stohn, J. (Patrizia); W. Donnelly, W. (William); W. Croteau, W. (Walburga); P. Peeters, P. (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); D.L. St Germain (Donald); A. Hernandez (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little

  9. The effects of different endocrine disruptors defining compound-specific alterations of gene expression profiles in the developing testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Casas, Pedro P.; Mizrak, Sefika C.; López-Fernández, Luis A.; Paz, María; de Rooij, Dirk G.; del Mazo, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contaminants considered endocrine disruptors have been shown to affect testis development and function but the mechanisms of action are not clear. We now have analyzed the effects on the transcriptome in testes of mice exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (9.2; 46.3 or 92.7

  10. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  12. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old) served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old). The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection thro...

  13. Obestatin modulates ghrelin's effects on the basal and stimulated testosterone secretion by the testis of rat: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, T; Jahan, S; Razak, S; Almajwal, A; Abulmeaty, M; Wazir, H; Majeed, A

    2017-03-31

    The functional antagonism between obestatin and ghrelin in the testis is under investigation. We investigated the ability of obestatin to counteract the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on basal and stimulated testosterone (T) secretion in vitro. Testicular strips from adult rats were incubated with 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml of obestatin alone, ghrelin alone and obestatin + ghrelin. Obestatin modulation of stimulated T secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml obestatin, ghrelin and obestatin + ghrelin in the absence and presence of 10 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). T concentrations in the hCG treated groups were significantly (P<0.0001) higher than those in the control groups. Obestatin caused a significant increase in basal T secretion in a dose-dependent manner; however, obestatin at the both 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml significantly (P<0.0001) increased hCG-stimulated T secretion. In contrast, ghrelin in a dose-dependent manner significantly (P<0.001) decreased both basal and hCG-induced T secretion by testicular slices. Obestatin opposed the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on T secretion under both basal and hCG-stimulated conditions at all doses tested. In conclusions, administration of obestatin was able to antagonize the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on testosterone secretion in vitro.

  14. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 22). Effects of 2- and 4-week administration of theobromine on the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, H; Fujioka, M; Kohchi, M; Tateishi, Y; Matsuoka, N

    2000-10-01

    The effects of theobromine, a xanthine derivative, on the testis were compared between rats dosed for 2 and 4 weeks to determine whether a 2-week dosing period is long enough to detect toxicity. Theobromine was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 2 weeks starting at the age of 6 or 8 weeks, and for 4 weeks from the age of 6 weeks. Histopathological examination of reproductive organs revealed toxic findings in the testis at 500 mg/kg after 2 weeks of dosing at both ages, and at 250 and 500 mg/kg after 4 weeks of dosing. The primary findings were degeneration/necrosis and desquamation of spermatids and spermatocytes, vacuolization of seminiferous tubules, and multinucleated giant cell formation. These findings were present mainly in stages I-VI and XII-XIV. From these results, it is concluded that the toxic effects of theobromine on the testis can be detected by repeated dosing for 2 weeks as well as for 4 weeks.

  15. Responses of testis, epididymis, and sperm of pubertal rats exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Forcados, Gilead E; Anao, Osemudiamen O; Agbowo, Agatha; Patlolla, Anita K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the response of testes, epididymides and sperm in pubertal Wistar rats following exposure to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for 5 days. The results showed that administration of (f-MWCNTs) significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in both testes and sperm compared with control group. Moreover, the significant decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione level was accompanied with significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in both testes and sperm of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats. The spermiogram of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats indicated significant decrease in epididymal sperm number, sperm progressive motility, testicular sperm number and daily sperm production with elevated sperm abnormalities when compared with the control. Exposure to (f-MWCNTs) decreased plasma testosterone level and produced marked morphological changes including decreased geminal epithelium, edema, congestion, reduced spermatogenic cells and focal areas of tubular degeneration in the testes. The lumen of the epididymides contained reduced sperm cells and there was mild to severe hyperplasia epithelial cells lining the duct of the epididymis. Collectively, pubertal exposure of male rats to (f-MWCNTs) elicited oxidative stress response resulting in marked testicular and epididymides dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterizing Transcriptional Networks in Male Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum that Regulate Testis Development over a Complete Reproductive Cycle.

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    Paulina A Bahamonde

    Full Text Available Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum. To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada in May (spawning, August (post-spawning, October (recrudescence, January (developing and March (pre-spawning. Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58 were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts

  17. Teucrium polium hexane extract downregulated androgen receptor in testis and decreased fertility index in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, Aaa; Al-Khateeb, E; Abbas, M A

    2017-12-01

    Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in folk medicine. Among several uses, T. polium is used to treat male fertility problems. This research was conducted to study the effect of T. polium on spermatogenesis, testosterone level, androgen receptor expression, and fertility in male rats. Administration of hexane extract for 6 days to aging rats increased testosterone level. When administered for 60 days, T. polium hexane extract downregulated androgen receptors, decreased sperm count without producing histological changes in different stages of spermatogenesis. Also, fertility index decreased without making teratogenic effects when treated males were mated with untreated females on the 55th day of extract administration. Therefore, the downregulation of androgen receptor could be due to the continued elevation in testosterone level over time. In conclusion, this study suggests that the prolonged use of T. polium in folk medicine may negatively affect male fertility.

  18. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression...... was restricted to the cytoplasm/plasma membrane of spermatogonia and was most prevalent at mid-gestation, infancy and from puberty onwards. Phosphorylated (p)FGFR was detected in pre-spermatogonia at mid-gestation and in spermatogonia during puberty and in the adult testis. Throughout normal human testis...

  19. Ghrelin attenuates heat-induced degenerative effects in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad

    2011-02-25

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of ghrelin in prevention of deleterious effects of heat stress in rat testicular tissue. Forty five adult male rats were scheduled for this study and were divided equally into three groups: heat-saline, heat-ghrelin and control-saline. The scrota of heated-designed rats were immersed once in water bath at 43 °C for 15 min. Immediately upon heating, 2 nmol of ghrelin were given subcutaneously to heat-ghrelin animals every other day up to day 60 and physiological saline to the other two groups using the same method. The animals were sacrificed at 10, 30 and 60 days after heat treatment and their testes were taken for later photomicrograph and immunohistochemical analysis. Testicular histopathology revealed a significant reduction in the means of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nucleus diameters as well as germinal epithelium height on day 10 in both heated groups. Furthermore, other testicular components including miotic index, spermatogenesis rate, presence of spermatocytes and volume densities were dramatically decreased following heat exposure. Notably, ghrelin caused a partial recovery in all of the above-mentioned parameters and accelerated testicular regeneration process by day 30 compared to the heat-saline group (P0.05). However, immunohistochemistry evaluation for in situ detection of Bcl-2 protein did not exhibit any germ cells-positive of this factor among groups at different experimental days. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate for the first time the novel evidences of ghrelin ability in attenuation of heat-induced testicular damage and also that ghrelin therapy may be useful as a suppressor of degenerative effects following testicular hyperthermia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Protective Effects of Acetyl L-Carnitine on Testis Gonadotoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats

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    Neslihan Coşkun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin, an effective antineoplastic agent, damages normal cells in a manner related to chemotherapy. Acetyl L-carnitine protects cells against mitochondrial and nuclear damage induced by chemotherapy. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of acetyl L-carnitine on cisplatin-induced gonadotoxicity in testicular structures. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four Groups (n=6: Group 1 (control was administered saline; Group 2 was administered acetyl L-carnitine; Group 3 was administered cisplatin; and Group 4 was pre-treated with acetyl L-carnitine before cisplatin administration. After 72hr of treatment with cisplatin, the rats were sacrificed, and the testicular tissues were removed. Morphometric, histomorphologic and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Results: At the end of the experiment, Group 3 was characterised by statistically significant weight loss, a degenerative appearance of the seminiferous tubules in the peripheral region, separation of spermatogenic cell series from the tubular wall, cellular debris in the lumen and central interstitial oedema. Sperm morphology appeared to be abnormal. Tubular diameter and wall thickness decreased, and the number of TUNEL- and active caspase-positive cells increased compared with the other Groups. The histological findings in Group 4 were better than those in Group 3. Conclusion: It was concluded that the prophylactic use of acetyl L-carnitine protects against cisplatin-induced testicular tissue damage.

  1. Localization of tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([3H] AF 1890) in rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilderbrandt-Stark, H.E.; Mills, J.W.; Fawcett, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)- 1 H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([ 3 H]AF 1890) was localized within rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiographic techniques. Ligated seminiferous tubule preparations were exposed in vitro to 80 microCi of [ 3 H]AF 1890 in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled AF 1890 for 30 min at 31 degrees C. Autoradiographs showed a generalized distribution of silver grains over the seminiferous epithelium, in the tubular lumen, and in the interstitial spaces. In addition, clusters of grains were concentrated over the seminiferous epithelium in regions of spermatid heads and tails and in the basal portion of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, and over Leydig cells in the interstitial space. The generalized distribution was reduced and the grain clusters eliminated by incubation in an excess of unlabeled AF 1890. [ 3 H]inulin was used to assess the effectiveness of the tubular ligation because inulin does not normally penetrate the blood-testis barrier. This extracellular marker was not localized in the tubular lumen or in the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, the labeling observed with [ 3 H]AF 1890 indicates that this compound crosses the blood-testis barrier

  2. Structural Changes of the Testis and Changes in Semen Quality Parameters Caused by Intraperitoneal and Peroral Administration of Selenium in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Cabaj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the structural changes in the testis and semen quality parameters of rat after a singleintraperitoneal and repeated peroral selenium administration. Rats were killed 36 hours following the intraperitonealadministration of selenium selenite (2 mg.kg-1 b.w.; 98% purity and after 90 days of the peroral repeatedadministration of selenium in drinking water (5 mg.l-1. Testis samples were evaluated by histological andmorphometrical methods in light microscopy. Evaluation of semen samples were examined with CASA method. 36hours after the selenium i.p. administration, damage of cellular associations, release of necrotised epithelial cells totubule lumen and fibrotisation and extension of interstitium were observed. Morphometry methods have shown thereduction of seminiferous epithelium volume (P<0.001, extension of interstitium (P<0.001 and increased area ofintraepithelial spaces (P<0.01. In p.o. group similar but more intense changes were noted; in addition, occasionalldegeneration of seminiferous tubuli and rarely total damage in histoarchitecture of seminiferous epithelium wereobserved. CASA analysis revealed significant decrease in all parameters except the concentration of spermatozoa.Additionally, we suppose that p.o. dose 5 mg.l-1 sodium selenite in drinking water is minimum lethal dose level foryoung rats. Selenium after i.p. and p.o. administration causes damage of seminiferous epithelium and interstitium. Itleads to changes in relative proportion of functional tissues of the testis. Reduced spermatogenesis and harmfuleffects in semen parameters are characteristic especially for peroral repeated (subchronic administration. Thesechanges are time- and dose-dependent. In both dosage methods subfertility or infertility can appear.

  3. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial...

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm2 radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P<0.05. Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P<0.05. Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment.

  5. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Launaea Acanthodes on the Hormones of Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Testis Histological Changes in Male Diabetic Rats

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    Samaneh Tafakkor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes impairs the reproduction with gonadal damage and changes in sex hormone secretion. Due to the antioxidant and hypoglycemia properties of Launaea acanthodes the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Launaea acanthodes on the hormones of pituitary-gonad axis and testis histological changes in male diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 32 male rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic treated with aqueous extract of Launaea acanthodes (100 and 200 mg/kg. The diabetes was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Aqueous extract of Launaea acanthodes was intraperitoneally injected into the experimental diabetic groups, alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of injection period, serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrogen, LH and FSH were measured by ELISA method. Then, the testis sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Results: Compared to the diabetic control group serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrogen, LH, FSH, also the average diameter and the average thickness of germinal epithelium seminiferous tubules in diabetic groups treated with concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg Launaea acanthodes extract dose-dependently increased (p<0.05. Conclusion: Administration of Launaea acanthodes extract increases the activity of pituitary-gonad axis in male diabetic rats and also it has protective effect against testicular damage induced by diabetes.

  6. Necrosis is the dominant cell death pathway in uropathogenic Escherichia coli elicited epididymo-orchitis and is responsible for damage of rat testis.

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    Yongning Lu

    Full Text Available Male infertility is a frequent medical condition, compromising approximately one in twenty men, with infections of the reproductive tract constituting a major etiological factor. Bacterial epididymo-orchitis results in acute inflammation most often caused by ascending canalicular infections from the urethra via the continuous male excurrent ductal system. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC represent a relevant pathogen in urogenital tract infections. To explore how bacteria can cause damage and cell loss and thus impair fertility, an in vivo epididymo-orchitis model was employed in rats by injecting UPEC strain CFT073 into the vas deference in close proximity to the epididymis. Seven days post infection bacteria were found predominantly in the testicular interstitial space. UPEC infection resulted in severe impairment of spermatogenesis by germ cell loss, damage of testicular somatic cells, a decrease in sperm numbers and a significant increase in TUNEL (+ cells. Activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-3/-6 (intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-1 (pyroptosis pathway and the presence of 180 bp DNA fragments, all of which serve as indicators of the classical apoptotic pathway, were not observed in infected testis. Notably, electron microscopical examination revealed degenerative features of Sertoli cells (SC in UPEC infected testis. Furthermore, the passive release of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1, as an indication of necrosis, was observed in vivo in infected testis. Thus, necrosis appears to be the dominant cell death pathway in UPEC infected testis. Substantial necrotic changes seen in Sertoli cells will contribute to impaired spermatogenesis by loss of function in supporting the dependent germ cells.

  7. α-lipoic acid inhibits oxidative stress in testis and attenuates testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during embryonic period

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    P. Prathima

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probable protective effect of α-lipoic acid against testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during the embryonic period. Time-mated pregnant rats were exposed to carbimazole from the embryonic days 9–21. After completion of the gestation period, all the rats were allowed to deliver pups and weaned. At postnatal day 100, F1 male pups were assessed for the selected reproductive endpoints. Gestational exposure to carbimazole decreased the reproductive organ indices, testicular daily sperm count, epididymal sperm variables viz., sperm count, viable sperm, motile sperm and HOS-tail coiled sperms. Significant decrease in the activity levels of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and expression of StAR mRNA levels with a significant increase in the total cholesterol levels were observed in the testis of experimental rats over the controls. These events were also accompanied by a significant reduction in the serum testosterone levels in CBZ exposed rats, indicating reduced steroidogenesis. In addition, the deterioration of the testicular architecture and reduced fertility ability were noticed in the carbimazole exposed rats. Significant reduction in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione content with a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation were observed in the testis of carbimazole exposed rats over the controls. Conversely, supplementation of α-lipoic acid (70 mg/Kg bodyweight ameliorated the male reproductive health in rats exposed to carbimazole during the embryonic period as evidenced by enhanced reproductive organ weights, selected sperm variables, testicular steroidogenesis, and testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To conclude, diminished testicular antioxidant balance associated with reduced spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis might be responsible

  8. EB1 regulates tubulin and actin cytoskeletal networks at the sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in male rats: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elizabeth I; Mok, Ka-Wai; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-02-01

    During spermatogenesis, developing germ cells are transported across the seminiferous epithelium. Studies propose that because microtubules (MTs) serve as the tracks for transporting cell organelles, they may also serve a similar function in the transport of developing germ cells. Polarized MTs may provide the tracks along which polarized actin microfilaments, which act as vehicles to transport cargo, such as preleptotene spermatocytes through the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and spermatids across the epithelium. Yet the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these events remain unknown. Using an established in vitro Sertoli cell system to study BTB function, we demonstrated herein that a MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1 (EB1) regulates the MT- and also the actin-based cytoskeleton of the Sertoli cell BTB in the rat. EB1 serves as a coordinator between the two cytoskeletons by regulating MT polymerization and actin filament bundling to modulate germ cell transport at the Sertoli cell BTB. A knockdown of EB1 by RNA interference was found to perturb the tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, as evidenced by mislocalization of junctional proteins critical for barrier function to facilitate spermatocyte transport, which was likely achieved by two coordinated events. First, EB1 knockdown resulted in changes in MT polymerization, thereby perturbing MT organization in Sertoli cells in which polarized MT no longer stretched properly across the cell cytosol to serve as the tracks. Second, EB1 knockdown perturbed actin organization via its effects on the branched actin polymerization-inducing protein called Arp3 (actin-related protein 3), perturbing microfilament bundling capability based on a biochemical assay, thereby causing microfilament truncation and misorganization, disrupting the function of the vehicle. This reduced actin microfilament bundling capability thus perturbed TJ-protein distribution and localization at the BTB, destabilizing the TJ barrier, leading

  9. Effects of environmental Bisphenol A exposures on germ cell development and Leydig cell function in the human fetal testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Matilionyte, Gabriele; Kilcoyne, Karen; N’Tumba-Byn, Thierry; Messiaen, Sébastien; Deceuninck, Yoann; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Benachi, Alexandra; Livera, Gabriel; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Mitchell, Rod; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    Background Using an organotypic culture system termed human Fetal Testis Assay (hFeTA) we previously showed that 0.01 μM BPA decreases basal, but not LH-stimulated, testosterone secreted by the first trimester human fetal testis. The present study was conducted to determine the potential for a long-term antiandrogenic effect of BPA using a xenograft model, and also to study the effect of BPA on germ cell development using both the hFETA and xenograft models. Methods Using the hFeTA system, first trimester testes were cultured for 3 days with 0.01 to 10 μM BPA. For xenografts, adult castrate male nude mice were injected with hCG and grafted with first trimester testes. Host mice received 10 μM BPA (~ 500 μg/kg/day) in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Plasma levels of total and unconjugated BPA were 0.10 μM and 0.038 μM respectively. Mice grafted with second trimester testes received 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day BPA by oral gavage for 5 weeks. Results With first trimester human testes, using the hFeTA model, 10 μM BPA increased germ cell apoptosis. In xenografts, germ cell density was also reduced by BPA exposure. Importantly, BPA exposure significantly decreased the percentage of germ cells expressing the pluripotency marker AP-2γ, whilst the percentage of those expressing the pre-spermatogonial marker MAGE-A4 significantly increased. BPA exposure did not affect hCG-stimulated androgen production in first and second trimester xenografts as evaluated by both plasma testosterone level and seminal vesicle weight in host mice. Conclusions Exposure to BPA at environmentally relevant concentrations impairs germ cell development in first trimester human fetal testis, whilst gonadotrophin-stimulated testosterone production was unaffected in both first and second trimester testis. Studies using first trimester human fetal testis demonstrate the complementarity of the FeTA and xenograft models for determining the respective short-term and long term effects of environmental

  10. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B; Nielsen, Ana R; Nielsen, John E; Graem, Niels; Juul, Anders; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3 expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression was restricted to the cytoplasm/plasma membrane of spermatogonia and was most prevalent at mid-gestation, infancy and from puberty onwards. Phosphorylated (p)FGFR was detected in pre-spermatogonia at mid-gestation and in spermatogonia during puberty and in the adult testis. Throughout normal human testis development, expression of FGFR3 did not directly correlate with proliferation markers. In preinvasive CIS cells and in TGCTs, including classical seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, FGFR3IIIc was detected only in a small number of cells, with a heterogeneous expression pattern. FGFR3 is an excellent marker for human pre-/spermatogonia throughout development. Signalling through this receptor is likely associated with spermatogonial survival rather than proliferation. FGFR3 is not expressed in gonocytes and may not be essential to the aetiology of TGCTs stemming from CIS.

  11. Therapeutic and fertility restoration effects of Ionidium suffruticosum on sub-fertile male albino Wistar rats: effects on testis and caudal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenniappan, Kuppusamy; Murugan, Kadarkari

    2017-12-01

    Ionidium suffruticosum (L.) Ging (Violaceae) is an important medicinal plant widely used as a herbal traditional medicine in Ayurveda for the treatment of infertility. Currently, little pharmacological information is available on its male fertility properties following prolonged use. To investigate I. suffruticosum leaf extracts for male fertility parameters. The ethanol lyophilized fraction was administered orally on carbendazim-induced sub-fertility rats (250 mg/kg body weight for 28 days). The effects of fractions on rat's fertility parameters i.e., body and testes weight, sperm motility, sperm vitality, epididymal sperm counts, its morphology, enzyme and antioxidant stress and histopathology were studied and compared with clomiphene citrate. The sub-fertile male rats treated with I. suffruticosum leaf extract increased the body weight of 7 g, testis weight of 97 mg, increased cauda epididymal sperm counts of 34.2 × 10 6 sperm/mL, motility of sperm 46% and vitality 28% also increased and normal sperm morphology also improved up to 32%. The carbendazim-treated group showed loss in body weight of 33 g, testis weight of 851 mg, decreased epididymal sperm counts of 15 × 10 6 sperm/mL, with sluggish motility and a highly significant fall in the live sperms of about 57%. The leaf fraction of I. suffructicosum increased the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, sperm counts, lessened sperm agglutination, and increased testicular oxidative biomarkers, SOD, and CAT. This study therefore supports the usage of I. suffructicosum in traditional medicine for infertility.

  12. The Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens Seed on the Changes of Testis Tissue, Sperm Parameters in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Farah Farokhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: For treating hypercholesterolemic in traditional medicine, Anethum graveolens seeds are used that reduce blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on the changes of testis tissue, sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6: control, hypercholesterolemic, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 300 mg/kg/day, healthy+alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day. After treatment for 45 days, rats were weighed and after the dissection, sperm samples were collected from the tail epididymal and sperm parameters were studied. The testicular specimens were transferred to formalin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey's post- hoc tests and significant level (p<0.05 was considered. Results: In this research, in the hypercholesterolemic rats, the testicular weight was increased, but the diameter of the semnifer tubes, tubal differentiation and spermiogenese, and sperm viability were decreased compared to control (p<0.05, but in hypercholesterolemic treatment with Anethum graveolens seed these parameters were improved. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Anethum graveolens seed has positive effects on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  13. Development of the adult-type Leydig cell population in the rat is affected by neonatal thyroid hormone levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van Haaster, L. H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of neonatal-prepubertal changes in thyroid hormone levels on the early phases of adult-type Leydig cell development in the rat testis. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water, while hyperthyroidism was induced by daily

  14. Gene expression analysis of the rat testis after treatment with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate using cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijima, Kazuyasu; Toyosawa, Kaoru; Yasuba, Masashi; Matsuoka, Nobuo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Mori, Chisato

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on gene expression in rat testis, 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single oral dose of 20 or 2000 mg/kg and euthanized 3, 6, 24, or 72 h thereafter. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were significantly increased in the testis at 24 and 72 h after the exposure to 2000 mg/kg of DEHP. On cDNA microarray analysis, in addition to apoptosis-related genes, genes associated with atrophy, APEX nuclease, MutS homologue (E. coli), testosterone-repressed-prostatic-message-2 (TRPM-2), connective tissue growth factor, collagen alpha 2 type V, and cell adhesion kinase were differentially expressed. To investigate the relationship between histopathological alteration and gene expression, we selected genes associated with apoptosis and analyzed their expression by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With 20 mg/kg of DEHP treatment, bcl-2, key gene related to apoptosis, was increased. Up-regulation of bcl-2, inhibitor of Apaf-1/caspase-9/caspase-2 cascade of apoptosis, may be related to the fact that no morphological apoptotic change was induced after dosing of 20 mg/kg DEHP. With 2000 mg/kg of DEHP treatment, the apoptotic activator cascade, Fas/FasL, FADD/caspase-8/caspase-3 cascade, and Apaf-1/caspase-9/caspase-2 cascade were increased and bcl-2 was decreased. Thus, these gene regulations might lead the cells into apoptosis in the case of high exposure to DEHP. In contrast, FADD/caspase-10/caspase-6 cascade and caspase-11/caspase-3 cascade were not increased. These results indicate that the cascades of FADD/caspase-10/caspase-6 and caspase-11/caspase-3 are not related to apoptosis with DEHP treatment

  15. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  16. Effect of telmisartan and insulin on endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of Sirt1 in testis of type 1 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HUANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the regulation effect of insulin and telmisartan on the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS and the expression of silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1 in the testes of type 1 diabetic rats, and explore the protective effect and mechanism of insulin and telmisartan on the testicular tissue of diabetic rats. Methods  Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A, n=8, diabetic control group (group B, n=8, diabetic treated with insulin group (group C, n=8 and diabetic treated with telmisartan group (group D, n=8. Diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats in group C were subcutaneously injected with protamine-zinc insulin once a day, and in group D were given telmisartan once a day by gavage. Only at the end of the eighth week can specimens be taken. And then some tasks were performed such as calculating the testicular weight and testis index, accounting the quantity and activity rate of sperm, detecting the testosterone levels and mRNA expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, glucose regulated protein (GRP-78, cysteine aspartic acid specific protease 12 (caspase-12 and Sirt1. Results  The levels of testosterone, testes weight, sperm counts and motility significantly decreased in group B than in group A (P0.05. The mRNA expression levels of testicular CHOP, GRP-78 and caspase-12 significantly decreased (P0.05. Conclusion  Insulin and telmisartan may play a protective role on testicular tissues by down-regulating the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and up-regulating the expression of Sirt1. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.03

  17. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...... with highly proliferating germ cells, whereas GAGE proteins have a more general function in germ cells unrelated to any specific developmental stage. The recognition of differential cellular expression of GAGE, MAGE-A1, NY-ESO-1 and OCT4 may help define biologically distinct germ cell subpopulations....... cells and the staining intensity of all three CTAs peaked during the second trimester and gradually decreased towards birth in both male and female germ cells. In oocytes, MAGE-A1 expression terminated around birth, whereas NY-ESO-1 expression persisted through the neonatal stage and GAGE expression...

  18. Human-specific subcellular compartmentalization of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) granules during germ cell development and spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Fernandes, Maria; He, Nannan; Wang, Fang; Van Iperen, Liesbeth; Eguizabal, Cristina; Matorras, Roberto; Roelen, Bernard A J; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the dynamics of expression of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) proteins in the germline during human fetal development and spermatogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4 were expressed in a sex-specific fashion in human germ cells (GC) during

  19. Protective effect of DA-9401 in finasteride-induced apoptosis in rat testis: inositol requiring kinase 1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni KK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiran Kumar Soni,1,* Yu Seob Shin,1,* Bo Ram Choi,1 Keshab Kumar Karna,1 Hye Kyung Kim,2 Sung Won Lee,3 Chul Young Kim,4 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center of Medical Device of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, 3Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University Medical School, Seoul, 4College of Pharmacy, Hangyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Finasteride is used to treat male pattern baldness and benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study investigated the toxicity of finasteride and recovery by DA-9401 using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Forty adult male SD rats were assigned to four groups: control (CTR, finasteride 1 mg/kg/day (F, finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 100 mg/kg/day (F + DA 100 and finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 200 mg/kg/day (F + DA 200. Treatments were by oral delivery once daily for 90 consecutive days. The gross anatomical parameters assessed included: genital organ weight; vas deferens sperm count and sperm motility; testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and malondialdehyde levels; and histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase enzyme mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining of testis for spermatogenic cell density, Johnsen’s score and apoptosis. Testicular tissue was also used for evaluating endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and apoptotic proteins. Epididymis weight, seminal vesicle weight, prostate weight, penile weight and vas deferens sperm motility showed significant differences between the F group and the CTR, F + DA 100 and F + DA 200 groups. There was no significant change in the testosterone level. DHT level decreased significantly in the F group compared with the CTR

  20. The undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cells...... and increases the risk of infertility and malignancy. Clinical management aims to preserve spermatogenesis and prevent the increased risk of seminoma. Examination to document the testicular position will guide the need for imaging, medical management and the surgical approach to orchidopexy....

  1. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  2. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice on kidney, liver, heart and testis histopathological changes, and the tissues lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in lead acetate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, D S; Sağlam, Y S; Yildirim, S; Aksu, T

    2017-10-31

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) contains relevant amounts of active biological compounds which alleviate the detrimental effects of chronic heavy metal exposure. This study investigated the protective potential of PJ against lead-induced oxidative stress. A total of forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups. The animals were fed a standard pellet diet and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10 for each group): control, lead asetat (2000 ppm), low-treated PJ- a daily dose of 2.000 ppm lead plus 30µl pomegranate juice (included 1.050 µmol total polyphenols, gallic acid equivalent), and high-treated PJ- a daily dose of 2.000 ppm lead plus 60µl pomegranate juice (included 2.100 µmol total polyphenols, gallic acid equivalent). The treatments were delivered for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, the tissues samples (kidney, liver, heart and testis) were collected. Tissue lead (Pb) and mineral amounts (copper, zinc, and iron), tissues lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant status, and tissues histopathological changes were determined. The results showed that the highest rate lead loading was in the kidney and the testis. Pomegranate juice was decreased the lead levels of soft tissues examined; increased Zn amounts in tissues of which the lead accumulation was higher (kidney and the testis); decreased the copper, zinc and the iron levels of the liver and heart tissues, without creating a weakness in antioxidant capacity of these tissues, restricted the oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation, improved both of the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalaz (CAT), and the level of glutathione (GSH) in all the tissues examined in lead-treated groups. As histopathological findings, the cellular damage induced by lead in the tissues of the kidney, liver and the heart were observed to have been partially prevented by PJ treatment. The protective effect of PJ was more

  3. In utero betamethasone affects 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and inhibin-α immunoexpression during testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, G; Viotti, H; Lombide, P; Sanguinetti, G; Pino, C; Cavestany, D; Sloboda, D M; Martin, G B

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal glucocorticoids, commonly used in women at risk of preterm delivery, can predispose the newborn to disease in later life. Since male reproductive function is likely to reflect testis development during fetal life, we studied the effects of prenatal glucocorticoids on two key intra-testicular factors that play roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and inhibin-α. Pregnant sheep (n=42) were treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) or saline (control) at 104, 111 and 118 days of gestation (DG). Testicular tissue was sampled from fetuses at 121 and 132DG, and from lambs at 45 and 90 postnatal days (PD). Within the betamethasone treated group, 3β-HSD immunostaining area was greater at 121DG than at 90PD (P=0.04), but the intensity of immunostaining was higher at 90PD than at 121DG (P=0.04), 132DG (P=0.04) and 45PD (P=0.03). Control animals showed no changes in 3β-HSD area or intensity of immunostaining. No significant differences were observed between treated and control animals in immunostaining area, but immunostaining was more intense in the treated group than in the control group at 90PD (P=0.03). For inhibin-α, the proportion of immunostaining area declined in treated offspring from 121DG to 45PD, in contrast to control values, but recovered fully by 90PD, concomitantly with the onset of spermatogenesis. In conclusion, prenatal betamethasone increased the postnatal testicular expression of inhibin-α but reduced the expression of 3β-HSD. These effects could compromise androgen-mediated testicular development and therefore adult capacity for spermatogenesis.

  4. NuMA in rat testis--evidence for roles in proliferative activity and meiotic cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taimen, Pekka; Parvinen, Martti; Osborn, Mary; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-08-15

    NuMA is a well-characterized organizer of the mitotic spindle, which is believed to play a structural role in interphase nucleus. We studied the expression of NuMA in rat seminiferous epithelium in detail. Different stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium were identified using transillumination. Corresponding areas were microdissected and analysed using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, or immunoblotting. NuMA was expressed in Sertoli cells, proliferating type A and B spermatogonia, and early spermatids but it was absent in late spermatids and mature spermatozoa. Interestingly, NuMA-positive primary spermatocytes lost their nuclear NuMA at the beginning of long-lasting prophase of the first meiotic division. A strong expression was again observed at the end of the prophase and finally, a redistribution of NuMA into pole regions of the meiotic spindle was observed in first and second meiotic divisions. In immunoblotting, a single 250-kDa protein present in all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle was detected. Our results show that NuMA is not essential for the organization of nuclear structure in all cell types and suggest that its presence is more likely connected to the proliferation phase of the cells. They also suggest that NuMA may play an important role in meiotic cell division.

  5. PRKRA Localizes to Nuage Structures and the Ectoplasmic Specialization and Tubulobulbar Complexes in Rat and Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC contains dsRNA binding proteins, including PRKRA, TRBP, and Dicer. RISC localizes to P-bodies. The nuage of the spermatogenic cells has function similar to the P-bodies. We study whether PRKRA localizes to nuage of spermatogenic cells of rat and mouse. PRKRA localized to four types of nuage structures, including aggregates of 60–90 nm particles, irregularly-shaped perinuclear granules, and intermitochondrial cement of pachytene spermatocytes, and chromatoid bodies of round spermatids. In addition, PRKRA is associated with dense material surrounding tubulobulbar complexes and with the ectoplasmic specialization. The results suggest that PRKRA functions in the nuage as an element of RNA silencing system and plays unknown role in the ectoplasmic specialization and at the tubulobulbar complexes of Sertoli cells attaching the head of late spermatids.

  6. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  7. Investigation of the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol on testicular damage in rats with experimentally induced testis torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvanc, Ercan; Tuglu, Devrim; Ozan, Tunc; Kisa, Ucler; Balci, Mahi; Batislam, Ertan; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.

  8. LOCOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN UNDERNOURISHED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRAMSBERGEN, A; WESTERGA, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of undernutrition on the development of locomotion were studied in fourteen rats. Mothers received about 40% of normal quantities of standard laboratory food from the 5th day of gestation until weaning at the 21st day after birth. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of locomotion

  9. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelodar, Gholamali; Nazifi, Saeed; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2013-09-01

    Radio frequency wave (RFW) generated by base transceiver station (BTS) has been reported to make deleterious effects on reproduction, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFW generated by BTS on oxidative stress in testis and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: sham, sham+vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage), RFW (exposed to 900 MHz RFW) 'sham' and 'RFW' animals were given the vehicle, i.e., distilled water and the RFW+vitamin C group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW). At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). In the treated group, vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared with the test group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in testis and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  10. Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) feeding does not result in reproductive toxicity in the pre-pubertal rats testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rodents, diets supplemented with pure soy isoflavones have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract. Few studies have examined the potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate (SPI), the major soy component in soy-based infant formula, as opposed to pure isoflavones. In the ...

  11. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-03-26

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males? | El Gohary | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Based on embryological process of testicular development and testicular descent, agentic absent testis cannot exist. Therefore we strongly recommend to re-scope all patients who were initially diagnosed as absent testis to look for a hidden testis at the initial site of development and along the line of descent.

  13. Loss of Function of the Nuclear Receptor NR2F2, Encoding COUP-TF2, Causes Testis Development and Cardiac Defects in 46,XX Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashamboo, Anu; Eozenou, Caroline; Jorgensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence from murine studies suggests that mammalian sex determination is the outcome of an imbalance between mutually antagonistic male and female regulatory networks that canalize development down one pathway while actively repressing the other. However, in contrast to testis formation......, the gene regulatory pathways governing mammalian ovary development have remained elusive. We performed exome or Sanger sequencing on 79 46,XX SRY-negative individuals with either unexplained virilization or with testicular/ovotesticular disorders/differences of sex development (TDSD/OTDSD). We identified...... with congenital heart disease (CHD), one child with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and two children with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES). The three children had androgen production, virilization of external genitalia, and biochemical or histological evidence of testicular...

  14. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian

  15. Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors among under-fives seen at Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Ifakara, Tanzania. ... The male sexual differentiation and development is important for the normal reproductive life span. Similarly, risk of carcinoma of testis will be prevented, if early diagnosis of ...

  16. Effect of cadmium on CNS function and development in rat offspring: effect of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was designed to study the effect of vitamin E ( 500 mg /kg diet on the central nervous system function and landmarks development in offspring of rats whoser mothers treated with cadmium (50mg/L of drinking water during lactation. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in righting reflex , olfactory discrimination tests in pups (aged one week and in the onset of movement test in weaned pups. The results indicated a significant reduction in motor activity in the open field, cliff avoidance, click response and weight in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increased in negative geotaxic in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride did not affect significantly on landmarks development ( opening of eyes and ears , appearance of teeth and hair with the exception of a significant increase in descending time of testis and a significant decrease in appearance time of vaginal opening . Administration of vitamin E caused a significant increase in motor activity in the open field. and significant reduction in the onset of movement test, negative geotaxic and weight of weaned pups and in descending time of testis . It is concluded from this study that vitamin E caused positive effects on central nervous system and some landmarks development in pups whose their mothers treated with cadmium chloride.

  17. Steroidogenic Enzyme Histochemistry In The Testis Of Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. Key words: carica papaya seed extract; ...

  18. Descent of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M.; Thorup, Jørgen M.; Beasley, Spencer W.

    changes in the management of both congenital and acquired cryptorchidism, such as the widespread use of laparoscopy for impalpable testes inside the abdominal cavity, are fully described. Evidence for the benefits of orchidopexy within the first year of life is reviewed, and an individual chapter is also......This book provides a state of the art overview of all aspects of testicular descent and cryptorchidism, including the mechanisms of descent and the causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of undescended testis. The advances in understanding that have been achieved over the past two decades...

  19. Molecular Cloning, mRNA Expression, and Localization of the G-protein Subunit Galphaq in Sheep Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ, a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. However, no data is available on its status in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression pattern of the GNAQ in the testis and epididymis of sheep by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and cellular localization of GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa. Our results also indicated that GNAQ exists in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, while GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was localized to Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatid, principal cells, and epididymis interstitial cells. The concentrations of GNAQ mRNA and protein in the caput and cauda epididymis were significantly greater than those observed in the corpus epididymis (p<0.01 and testis (p<0.05. Our results indicated that GNAQ exists at high concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, suggesting that GNAQ may play an important role in gonad development and sperm maturation.

  20. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the development and proliferation of testicular cells in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlalla, Mohamed Babo; Wei, Quanwei; Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Mehfooz, Asif; Mao, Dagan; Shi, Fangxiong

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20-70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption. In addition there were changes in serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histomorphology showed a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter in hyper-T compared to the other groups. Leydig cell numbers showed a significant elevation in hyper-T but not in hypo-T groups. Immunostaining indicated that TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors α/β (TRαβ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have the roles in testicular development. Our findings suggest that hyper- and hypo-thyroidism regulate testicular cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in prepubertal rats, indicating that expression of TSHR, TRαβ and PCNA may be regulated by thyroid hormones that are involved in testicular development; and that the administration of T4 to the hypo-T+T4 group leads to an improvement in the testicular condition. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Motor development after vestibular deprivation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisler, HC; Gramsbergen, A

    This review summarizes the postural development in the rat and the influences of vestibular deprivation from the 5th postnatal day on this development. Vestibular deprivation leads to a delay in motor development. Most probably this delay is caused by a delay in the development of postural control,

  2. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  3. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  4. Perineal Ektopik Testis: Nadir Bir Konjenital Anomali

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Gönülalan, Umut; Öztürk, Bülent; Koşan, Tevfik Murat

    2013-01-01

    Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy

  5. Efek Mangiferin terhadap Toksisitas Doksorubisin pada Testis Tikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraja Dwiyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan doksorubisin (DOX sebagai antikanker dapat menyebabkan efek samping di organ lainseperti testis akibat peningkatan stres oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek antioksidanmangiferin yang terkandung dalam Mangifera indica untuk mengurangi toksisitas testis. Sebanyak 24 ekortikus jantan sprague dawley, dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Kelompok normal mendapatkan injeksi NaCl0,9%, kelompok kontrol negatif mendapatkan DOX total 15mg/kgBB; kelompok DOX mendapat mangiferin30mg/kgBB dan mangiferin 60mg/kgBB. Setelah 7 minggu, tikus dimatikan dan testis dikumpulkan untukanalisis parameter stres oksidatif biokimia yaitu kadar malonedyaldehide (MDA, aktivitas superoxidedysmutase (SOD, perubahan histologi dan apoptosis kaspase-9 dan kaspase-12. Pemberian mangiferindosis 30mg/kgBB dan 60mg/kgBB selama 7 minggu dapat mengurangi kerusakan sel spermatogenik dansel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis, menurunkan kadar MDA dan menurunkan ekspresi kaspase-9 padakelompok yang diberikan DOX dan mangiferin. Perbaikan parameter tersebut mengindikasikan mangiferinmempunyai efek proteksi terhadap kerusakan sel spematogenik dan sel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis tikusyang diberikan DOX. Kata kunci: toksisitas doksorubisin, stres oksidatif, apoptosis, mangiferin, testis.   Mangiferin Effects against Doxorubicin Toxicity in Rat Testis Abstract The use of doxorubicin (DOX as an anti-cancer agent might cause side effects to other organs suchas testicle due to increased oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect ofmangiferin inside Mangifera indica for lowering testicle toxicity. A total of 24 sprague dawley male rats wasdivided into 4 groups. The normal group was injected with 0.9% of NaCl, the negative control group receivedDOX with dosage of 15 mg/BW while DOX treated group received mangiferin with dosage of 30 mg/BW and60 mg/BW. After 7 weeks, all rats were killed and testicles from every rats were

  6. Differential regulation of leucine-rich primary response gene 1 (LRPR1) mRNA expression in rat testis and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Slegtenhorst-Eegdeman; M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); M. Parvinen; J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn immature rat Sertoli cells, leucine-rich primary response gene 1 (LRPR1) represents a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-responsive gene; the function of the encoded protein is not yet known. LRPR1 mRNA expression is up-regulated very rapidly and

  7. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Nitzan; Quinn, Alexander; O'Neill, Helen C; Koopman, Peter; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-01-01

    During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  8. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Gonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES, which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  9. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of xenotransplantation of newborn pig testis organ culture on tests histophysiology in animals and men with radiation lesion of sexual system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovich, Yi.Yi.; Turchin, Yi.S.; Chajkovs'ka, L.V.; Luchits'kij, Je.V.

    1997-01-01

    To study histophysiological changes in rat testis during hypogonadism development and after xenotransplantation (XT) of newborn pig testis organ culture as well as to analyze some results of XT application when treating the patients who took part in Chernobyl accident clean-up and have sexual function disturbance. During six months after the irradiation, the signs of spermatogenic epithelium destruction, reduction of spermatogenesis activity and that of Lyedig's cells accompanied by a low blood plasma testosterone level were observed. Organ culture xenotransplantation was performed 1 month after the irradiation and during the next 3 month it activated germinative and hormonal function in the rats. Statistically significant elevation of blood plasma testosterone level was observed in the men who took part in Chernobyl accident clean-up and had disturbances of copulative and germinative functions 1 and 3 months after XT. in 6 months it was considerably higher than before the treatment

  11. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  12. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, T.R.; Rajtsina, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  13. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  14. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gribbins, Kevin M.; Freeborn, Layla R.; Sever, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus. Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus, which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural ...

  15. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Freeborn, Layla R; Sever, David M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus . Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus , which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis. Three notable differences between the spermatids of P. platurus and those of other snakes is a round and shorter epinuclear lucent zone, enlarged caudal nuclear shoulders, and more prominent 3 and 8 peripheral fibers in the principal and endpieces. Also, the midpiece is much longer in P. platurus and is similar to that reported for all snakes studied to date. Other features of chromatin condensation and morphology of the acrosome complex are similar to what has been observed in A. piscivorus and other squamates. Though the spermatids in P. platurus appear to be quite similar to other snakes and lizards studied to date, some differences in subcellular details are still observed. Analysis of developing spermatids in P. platurus and other snakes could reveals morphologically conserved traits between different species along with subtle changes that could help determine phylogenetic relationships once a suitable number of species have been examined for ophidians and other squamates.

  16. Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus (Squamata: Elapidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M.; Freeborn, Layla R.; Sever, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus. Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus, which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis. Three notable differences between the spermatids of P. platurus and those of other snakes is a round and shorter epinuclear lucent zone, enlarged caudal nuclear shoulders, and more prominent 3 and 8 peripheral fibers in the principal and endpieces. Also, the midpiece is much longer in P. platurus and is similar to that reported for all snakes studied to date. Other features of chromatin condensation and morphology of the acrosome complex are similar to what has been observed in A. piscivorus and other squamates. Though the spermatids in P. platurus appear to be quite similar to other snakes and lizards studied to date, some differences in subcellular details are still observed. Analysis of developing spermatids in P. platurus and other snakes could reveals morphologically conserved traits between different species along with subtle changes that could help determine phylogenetic relationships once a suitable number of species have been examined for ophidians and other squamates. PMID:28144497

  17. The effects of electromagnetic pulse on the protein levels of tight junction associated-proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, LianBo; Chen, Chen; Ding, GuiRong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, MengYao

    2011-08-01

    To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups. The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin, actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting. ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin. ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05); however, actin was unaffected. ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05). ZO-1, occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), but actin showed no significant change. Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins, particularly ZO-1, in the organs of adult male rats, which may induce changes in barrier structure and function. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perineal Ectopic Testis: A Rare Congenital Anomally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 138-141

  19. Perineal Ectopic Testis: A Rare Congenital Anomally

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Umut Gonulalan; Bulent Ozturk; Tevfik Murat Kosan

    2013-01-01

    Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000): 138-141

  20. Testis. Strategy for the management of seminoma testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, J.C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Many years of experience demonstrate the marked radiocurability of seminoma testis with modest radiation dosage, and accordingly large volumes may be radiated without damage to surrounding normal structures. While several histological types of seminoma are described (classical, anaplastic, or spermatocytic) our treatment strategy is identical

  1. Histopathological and Morphometric Evaluation in the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Rats Submitted To A Recovery Period after Treatment with Anabolic Steroid, Alcohol and/or Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ribeiro de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frequently, reproductive toxic substances such as androgenic anabolic steroids, alcohol and nicotine are used in association by adolescents and adults, in an indiscriminate manner. This study investigated the testicular and epididymal tissue of adult rats submitted to a recovery period after treatment with anabolic steroid, alcohol and /or nicotine. Materials and Methods: The animals (n=42 were divided into three control groups simulating the drugs administration routes (CI: distilled water, oral; CII: saline solution, subcutaneous; CIII: water and saline solution and groups treated with a testosterone esters mixture (T: 7.5 mg/kg body weight - b.w., subcutaneous, alcohol (AL: 3.5 g/kg b.w. of ethanol 25%, oral, nicotine (N: 2.0 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous, and co-administration of these three substances (T/AL/N. After 15 consecutive days of treatment (once a day, the animals were kept for 30 days in recovery. At the end of this period, the testes and epididymides were collected, weighed and processed for histological and morphometric analysis by light microscope. Results: All groups treated with toxic substances presented histopathological changes in testes and epididymis after the recovery period. There was a significant decrease (p [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(3.000: 92-98

  2. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on the Body Weight, Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats Undergoing Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sharifi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is used as an anti cancer medicine in chemotherapy. This is an alkalizing medicine and causes the binding of DNA strands, breaking of DNA and control of protein synthesis and RNA. The side effects of this medicine include lack of appetite, nausea, reduction in activity of sexual lymph nodes, causing amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Ginger includes many compounds, some of which are shogaols, gingerols, pyrogallols and sesquiterpenes. Ginger has anti nauseating, anti cancer, anti oxidant effects and eliminates free radicals. This medicine is used along with cyclophosphamide to reduce its destructive side effects in the body. Methods: For 21 days, the rats were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and rendered unconscious. Their testes were removed and tissue samples were provided from their testes. Results: The results showed that cyclophosphamide alone reduces body weight, testes weight and spermatogenesis as compared to the control group. In other experimental groups that were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide, increased dosage of ginger increased the body weight, the testes weight and spermatogenesis in comparison to the other experimental groups. Conclusion: It seems that compounds present in ginger are anti tumoral and control the production of active metabolites. Therefore, if administered together with Cyclophosphamide, it can be useful and effective in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  3. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  4. Human-specific subcellular compartmentalization of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) granules during germ cell development and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Fernandes, Maria; He, Nannan; Wang, Fang; Van Iperen, Liesbeth; Eguizabal, Cristina; Matorras, Roberto; Roelen, Bernard A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2018-02-01

    What is the dynamics of expression of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) proteins in the germline during human fetal development and spermatogenesis? PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4 were expressed in a sex-specific fashion in human germ cells (GC) during development and adulthood. PIWILs showed a mutually exclusive pattern of subcellular localization. PIWILs were present in the intermitochondrial cement and a single large granule in meiotic GC and their expression was different from that observed in mice, highlighting species-differences. In mice, PIWIL proteins play prominent roles in male infertility. PIWIL mouse mutants show either post-meiotic arrest at the round spermatid stage (PIWIL1) or arrest at the zygotene-pachytene stage of meiosis I (PIWIL2 and PIWIL4) in males, while females remain fertile. Recent studies have reported a robust piRNA pool in human fetal ovary. This is a qualitative analysis of PIWILs expression in paraffin-embedded fetal human male (N = 8), female gonads (N = 6) and adult testes (N = 5), and bioinformatics analysis of online available single-cell transcriptomics data of human fetal germ cells (n = 242). Human fetal gonads from elective abortion without medical indication and adult testes biopsies were donated for research with informed consent. Samples were fixed, paraffin-embedded and analyzed by immunofluorescence to study the temporal and cellular localization of PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4. PIWIL1, PIWIL2 and PIWIL4 showed a mutually exclusive pattern of subcellular localization, particularly in female oocytes. To our surprise, PIWIL1 immunostaining revealed the presence of a single dense paranuclear body, resembling the chromatoid body of haploid spermatocytes, in meiotic oocytes. Moreover, in contrast to mice, PIWIL4, but not PIWIL2, localized to the intermitochondrial cement. PIWIL3 was not expressed in GC during development. The upregulation of PIWIL transcripts correlated with the transcription of markers

  5. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  6. The effect of hypothyroidism on Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation and hormone levels during testicular development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; de Jong, F. H.; Docter, R.; de rooij, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we show that 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) treatment of Wistar rats from birth up to day 26 p.p. retards the morphological differentiation of Sertoli cells, and prolongs the proliferation of these cells up to day 30. Sertoli cell numbers per testis, determined at day 36, were increased

  7. Regulation of Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) Dynamics, Role of Actin-, and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Tang, Elizabeth I; Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2018-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. We focus on the role of two actin nucleation protein complexes, namely, the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex and formin 1 (or the formin 1/spire 1 complex) known to induce actin nucleation, respectively, by conferring plasticity to actin cytoskeleton. We also focus on the MT plus (+)-end tracking protein (+TIP) EB1 (end-binding protein 1) which is known to confer MT stabilization. Furthermore, we discuss in particular how the interactions of these proteins modulate BTB dynamics during spermatogenesis. These findings also yield a novel hypothetical concept regarding the molecular mechanism that modulates BTB function.

  8. Diethylstilbestrol regulates mouse gubernaculum testis cell proliferation via PLC-Ca2+-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ping, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hong; Duan, Shou-Xin; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system, but the mechanism remains unclear. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were pretreated with phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 and then treated with DES. The results demonstrated that U-73122 impaired DES-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in gubernaculum testis cells and inhibited DES-induced proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells. Mechanistically, we found that U-73122 inhibited DES-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in gubernaculum testis cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated by PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB pathway. Environmental estrogens remain a serious threat to male reproductive health, and it is important to understand the mechanism by which EEs affect the male productive system. Here we explore potential mechanisms how the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells are regulated by diethylstilbestrol. Our findings provide the first evidence that PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB signalling pathway mediates the nongenomic effects of diethylstilbestrol on gubernaculum testis cells. These findings provide new insight into the role of diethylstilbestrol in the aetiology of male reproductive dysfunction and will help develop better approaches for the prevention and therapy of male reproductive malformation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucht, H.

    1983-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly. The screening (and examination) program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation. The analysis shows that, for a diagnostic accuracy of 1 and a participation of 100%, the quantifyable cost of a yearly performed special screening is higher than the quantifyable cost savings achieved. A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. (orig.)

  10. [Laparoscopy for the undescended testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broto, J; Marhuenda, C; Gil-Vernet, J M; Asensio, M; Lloret, J; Boix Ochoa, J

    1997-07-01

    The authors show their experience in the use of the laparoscopic approach in 18 cases of unilateral exploratory anorchia. They highlight the advantages that this method offers in efficiency, speed, security and minimal aggression compared with conventional exploration of the inguinal channel in the search of the undetectable testis. In the 18 cases studied through the insertion of 5 mm lense in the umbilical area, it was established that a testicular hypoplasia was present in 8 cases. In another 5 cases testicular agenesia was diagnosed, and in the remaining 5, intraabdominal testis were found. In four of these testicles, a laparoscopic approach helped in their correct placement and also in the removal of the fifth in a patient with recurrent leukemia.

  11. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  12. Statin Drugs Markedly Inhibit Testosterone Production by Rat Leydig Cells In Vitro: Implications for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statin drugs lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. During drug development it was shown that statins inhibit production of cholesterol in the testis. We evaluated testosterone production in vitro, using highly purified rat ...

  13. Estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity of genistein in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, C; Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Rando, G; Ciana, P; Maggi, A; La Sala, G; De Felici, M; Di Lorenzo, D

    2009-04-01

    Here we show that genistein, through an estrogen receptor-mediated action, modulates gene expression in the mouse testis throughout development. Genistein passed from the lactating mother to the suckling offspring at levels sufficient to activate gene expression in the testis of the pups. Testis are already responsive to genistein as well as to estradiol at day 14.5 of fetal development. Activation of luciferase correlates with an activation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results show that genistein affects reproductive organs of male mice at all developmental ages.

  14. Pengaruh Iodium dan Selenium terhadap Jumlah Sel Spermatogonium dan Struktur Histologis Tubulus Seminiferus Testis Tikus Wistar Hipotiroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatin Broto Sukandar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available   PENGARUH IODIUM DAN SELENIUM TERHADAP JUMLAH SEL SPERMATOGONIUM DAN STRUKTUR HISTOLOGIS TUBULUS SEMINIFERUS TESTIS TIKUS WISTAR HIPOTIROID Iodine and Selenium Effect on Spermatogonia Cell Numbers and Histologist Structure of Seminiferous Tubules Testis Hypothyroid Wistar Rats ABSTRACT Background. Thyroid hormones are proven to have a direct effect on sexual development and reproductive function. Hypothyroidism in men cause decreased libido, impotence, and oligospermie. Thyroid disorders associated with abnormal testicular morphology and function. Selenium was closely related to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4 was first known as the antioxidant enzymes is selenoenzyme which is dominant in testis allegedly important for spermatogenesis. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate spermatogonia cell numbers and the histological structure of seminiferous tubules of hypothyroid rats as a result of the intervention with iodine and selenium. Method. An experimental study with post-test only control group design. Fifty hypothyroidism male Wistar rats induced by Propylthiouracil (PTU for four week were divided into three groups through simple random sampling. Group I treated with iodine, group II treated with iodine + selenium and group III is control group. Sampling to determine groups by randomization. Blood sample was taken and then Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH blood level was measured using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Whereas, spermatogonia cell numbers and the histological structure of seminiferous tubules was measured using Hematoxylin Eosin (HE histologist. Anova test was used to compare the data obtained from treated and control groups of TSH blood level and spermatogonia cell numbers. Data of seminiferous tubules histological structure were analyzed by comparing between groups. Result. TSH blood level in group I (3.5 ± 4.9 μIU/mL, group II (1.9 ± 1.5 μIU/mL, and group III (13.5 ± 8.3 μIU/mL was

  15. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  16. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... of cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  17. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  18. Expression of PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor during rat gonadal development in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Ghosh, Pamela; Roy, Sib Sankar

    2011-01-01

    PITX2, a multifunctional Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, plays obligatory role during development of organs like heart, brain and pituitary. It regulates differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Although we earlier reported the Pitx2/PITX2 expression in gonad, but the expression pattern of its different isoforms in mammalian gonads especially during development is still not known. As PITX2 participates in the development of multiple organs and different homeobox genes have been shown to control gonadal functions, we wanted to investigate the role of PITX2 in gonadal development and its function. The objective of our study was to know the expression profile of different Pitx2/PITX2 isoforms and its localization throughout the development of gonads. Here we show the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Pitx2/PITX2 and its localization throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages of rat gonads. Pitx2/PITX2 expression profile reveals the differential and dimorphic expression pattern of its two isoforms PITX2B2 and-Cβ throughout the embryonic development stages and also in the postnatal stages, where it becomes more prominent. This is the first report where PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor shows isoform-specific sexually dimorphic expression. In addition, PITX2 localization was found in the embryonic ovarian primordial germ cell clusters and germ cells inside the testicular cords and also in somatic cells. In adults, ovarian granulosa and theca cells as well as germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules in testis express PITX2. All the evidences suggest that the differential expression of PITX2 might be associated with sex-specific embryonic and postnatal gonadal development and the physiological processes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues in experimental hypothyroidism: the role of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Ayyildiz, M; Kafali, E; Koyuncuoglu, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency on the lipid peroxidation in the testis and kidney tissues of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. The experimental Groups were formed as follows: 1 - Control; 2 - Sham-Hypothyroidism; 3 - Hypothyroidism (intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg/day PTU for 4 weeks); 4 - Hypothyroidism + 3 mg/kg/day zinc supplementation (4 weeks); 5 - Hypothyroidism + zinc deficiency (4 weeks). The examination of the study results revealed that hypothyroidism in testis and kidney tissues increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels (phypothyroidism, however, reduced the increased MDA amount and elevated GSH levels (phypothyroidism, on the other hand, was found to produce the opposite results (phypothyroidism caused lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues. Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism made lipid peroxidation more evident, while zinc supplementation significantly inhibited the increased oxidative stress by activating the antioxidant system (Tab. 1, Ref. 24).

  20. Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erçöçen, Ali Riza; Soejima, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yenidünya, Sibel; Kikuchi, Yuji; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. In each group, surgical procedures were performed bilaterally, i.e. ten testes in each group, as follows: sham-operated controls (group 1), undescended testes (group 2), high division of the spermatic vessels (group 3), vascular induction with immediate division of spermatic vessels (group 4), and with delayed division of spermatic vessels (group 5). Evaluations were done by measuring the testicular weight and volume, testicular blood flow, and testicular biopsy scores and by microangiography. A moderate to severe decrease in testicular weight and volume in all experimental groups was observed compared with the sham-operated controls (group 1), but this was significantly less in groups 2 and 5. High division of the spermatic vessels in groups 3 and 4 resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the testicular blood flow, but this did not occur in group 5. Microangiographically, an impaired vascular supply from the deferential artery in group 3 and insufficient revascularization from the fasciovascular carrier in group 4 were observed. However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged

  1. Genomic organization, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the rat Pate gene cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angireddy Rajesh

    Full Text Available The cysteine rich prostate and testis expressed (Pate proteins identified till date are thought to resemble the three fingered protein/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor proteins. In this study, for the first time, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Pate gene cluster and also determine the expression pattern. The rat Pate genes are clustered on chromosome 8 and their predicted proteins retained the ten cysteine signature characteristic to TFP/Ly-6 protein family. PATE and PATE-F three dimensional protein structure was found to be similar to that of the toxin bucandin. Though Pate gene expression is thought to be prostate and testis specific, we observed that rat Pate genes are also expressed in seminal vesicle and epididymis and in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract. In the developing rats (20-60 day old, expression of Pate genes seem to be androgen dependent in the epididymis and testis. In the adult rat, androgen ablation resulted in down regulation of the majority of Pate genes in the epididymides. PATE and PATE-F proteins were found to be expressed abundantly in the male reproductive tract of rats and on the sperm. Recombinant PATE protein exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas PATE-F did not exhibit any antibacterial activity. Pate expression was induced in the epididymides when challenged with LPS. Based on our results, we conclude that rat PATE proteins may contribute to the reproductive and defense functions.

  2. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis.

  3. Expression of immunoglobulin gene with classical V-(D)-J rearrangement in mouse testis and epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Li; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Pei; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2009-04-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules have thus far been found only to be produced by differentiated B lymphocytes. As we know, immune privilege in the normal adult mouse testis exists to make these privileged sites generally free of patrolling immune cells and Igs. However, in this study, the expression of Ig in normal adult mouse testis and epididymis was detected. First, by IHC, a strong pattern of Ig expression was detected in the spermatogenic cells of adult mouse testis at different development stages. Second, by Western blot analysis, different strong bands of Igs in mouse testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cell extract were recognized using specific antibodies against IgG. More importantly, by ISH and cell sorting-related RT-PCR, rearranged Ig gamma chain and kappa chain transcripts were expressed in testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cells. These results suggested that Ig in testis and epididymis was mainly produced by adult mouse testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cells.

  4. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  5. Investigation of radio-sensitive period of the male gonad in the foetus and newborn of rat and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    After a presentation of the different steps of germ line development, and a description of the different effects and consequences of ionizing radiations from a general point of view and in the peculiar case of testis development (DNA damage, stopping of the cellular cycle, apoptosis, DNA methylation), this research thesis reports an experimental work in the field of reproductive physiology performed on foetus and newborns of rats and mice. Results give information on early testis radio-sensitivity for rodents. The unusual response of gonocytes with respect to DNA radio-induced damages seems related to the protection of the genome integrity of the germ line [fr

  6. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  7. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    , Rps18, Rps29, Sdha, Tbp and Ubc) across several juvenile and adult rat tissues (liver, adrenal, prostate, fat pad, testis and ovaries), both under normal conditions and following exposure to various chemicals during development. Employing NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, we found Hprt and Sdha...

  8. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Effects of clothianidin exposure on sperm quality, testicular apoptosis and fatty acid composition in developing male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ramazan; Türk, Gaffari; Yılmaz, Ökkeş; Etem, Ebru; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Baydaş, Gıyasettin; Naziroğlu, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is one of the latest members of the synthetic organic insecticides, the neonicotinoids. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate if daily oral administration of CTD at low doses for 90 days has any deleterious effects on reproductive functions of developing male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each, assigned as control rats, or rats treated with 2 (CTD-2), 8 (CTD-8) or 32 (CTD-32) mg CTD/kg body weight by oral gavage. The significant decreases of the absolute weights of right cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles, and body weight were detected in the animals exposed to CTD administration at 32 mg/kgBW/day. Epididymal sperm concentration decreased significantly in CTD-32 group and the abnormal sperm rates increased in CTD-8 and CTD-32 groups when compared to control group. The testosterone level was significantly decreased in CTD-32 group when compared to control group. The administration of all CTD doses resulted in a significant decrease in the level of GSH. The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly increased in the germinal epithelium of testis of rats exposed to CTD at 32 mg/kgBW/day. In groups CTD-8 and CTD-32, only docosapentaenoic, arachidonic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids were significantly elevated when compared to control. The ratios of 20:4/18:2 and 18:1n-9/18:0 were decreased when rats exposed to CTD. Sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in CTD-32 group, but not CTD-2 and CTD-8. It is concluded that low doses of CTD exposure during critical stages of sexual maturation had moderate detrimental effects on reproductive organ system and more severe effects are likely to be observed at higher dose levels. In addition, the reproductive system may be more sensitive to exposure of CTD even earlier in development (prenatal and early postnatal), and therefore it could be expected that more severe effects could also be observed at the NOAEL dose levels, if dosing had occurred in utero or early

  10. Autoradiography of 90Sr in developing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, I.; Jonsen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution patterns of 90 Sr in five littermate, 8-day-old Wistar rats were studied by whole body autoradiography. Rats were killed 15 min, 1, 4, 24, and 72 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the isotope. Immediately after administration, 90 Sr was distributed throughout most of the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissue deposits had practically disappeared after 4 h. In the hard tissues of the body 90 Sr accumulated up to 24-72 h. Fifteen minutes after injection the uptake of 90 Sr in the enamel of the teeth was highest in the occlusal and incisal regions. 90 Sr gradually accumulated throughout the enamel and after 72 h its distribution in this layer was fairly uniform. Immediately after injection a narrow zone of radioactivity appeared in the dentin near the pulp. This zone broadened with time towards the dentinoenamel junction and included the intire dentin layer 72 h after injection. Initially, the uptake of 90 Sr was higher in the dentin than in the enamel, particularly in the cervical areas of the crown. This difference became less apparent with time. There was good correlation between the uptake in the teeth and bones, supporting the use of teeth as indicators of the 90 Sr body burden. (author)

  11. The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Naive Single live cells (% ) 0 5 10 15 B cells T cells Neutrophils Dendritic cells Macrophages NK cells NKT cells Age-matched naive 1.5 year post-SCI...antigenic sperm and sperm cell -containing compartments within the testis. We also demonstrated that once failed, the BTB remains permeable, essentially...through mature) as well as sperm precursor/stem cells from the immune system. We reported that a contusive injury to the rat spinal cord causes a

  12. Lactase gene expression during early development of rat small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rings, E. H.; de Boer, P. A.; Moorman, A. F.; van Beers, E. H.; Dekker, J.; Montgomery, R. K.; Grand, R. J.; Büller, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Expression of lactase messenger (m) RNA and protein in rat small intestine during fetal and postnatal development was analyzed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lactase mRNA was first identified at 18 days of development, and lactase protein was first detected at day 20. Lactase

  13. Post-natal development of the African Bush Rat, Aethomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-natal development of the African Bush Rat, Aethomys chrysophilus. P.M. Brooks. Abstract. This is the first detailed study of the post-natal development of Aethomys chrysophilus. Physical measurements were taken from 37 litters consisting of 116 young, and the behaviour of 37 young from 12 litters was observed.

  14. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  15. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  16. Muc5ac Mucin Expression During Rat Skin Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, V.; Segal-Eiras, A.; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days...

  17. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  18. L-Alanyl-Glutamine dipeptide pretreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis Pré-tratamento com o dipeptídeo L-Alanil-glutamina atenua a lesão por isquemia e reperfusão no testículo do rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Vasconcelos Leitão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide (L-Ala-Gln pre-treatment on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury after unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion in a comparative controlled experiment. METHODS: Forty-eight rats (150-200 g randomly distributed into 4 groups (n=12, and distributed in 2 subgroups (n=6 each, were treated with saline 2.0 ml (G-1, G-3 or L-Ala-Gln 20%, 0.75g/kg dissolved in saline (total volume 2.0 ml administered in the left saphenous vein 30 minutes before ischemia. Anesthetized rats were subjected to I/R induced by torsion (720° of the right spermatic cord lasting 1h (G-1, G-2 or 3 hours (G-3, G4. Anesthesia was again applied at the end of ischemia time (T-0 for testis detorsion and 6 hours later (T-6 for orchiectomy. All operations were performed on the right testes through transverse scrotal incisions. Right orchiectomy was carried out at the end of ischemia (T-0, and 6 hours later (T-6 to evaluate the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in the testis. RESULTS: Pretreatment with L-Ala-Gln reduced MDA contents in rat testis at the end of ischemia lasting 3 hours. There was significant increase of GSH levels in T-6 time-point after 1 hour of ischemia. GSH levels also increased in T-0 and T-6 time-points in rats subjected to ischemia for 3 hours. CONCLUSION: L-Ala-Gln administered before torsion/detorsion of the spermatic cord decreases lipid peroxidation during ischemia and protects the testis from oxidative stress by upregulating GSH levels during reperfusion.OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito do pré-tratamento com o dipeptídeo L-alanil-glutamina (L-Ala-Gln sobre a lesão de isquemia e reperfusão (I/R, induzida por torção/destorção do testículo em um experimento controlado e comparativo. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito ratos (150-200 g divididos em quatro grupos (n=12 e distribuídos em dois subgrupos (n = 6 cada, foram tratados com 2,0 ml de solução salina (G-1, G-3 ou L

  19. Tunica vaginalis hydrocele of reposited testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Manish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica vaginalis hydrocele (TVH is a relatively common entity. The procedure of testicular reposition in a subcutaneous pouch following severe scrotal avulsion injury is also a standard line of care. Though, the occurrence of TVH in such a reposited testis is extremely rare clinical presentation. We herein report a case of 55-year male patient who presented with swelling over medial aspect of left upper thigh which was diagnosed as TVH of reposited testis on detailed assessment. The patient was managed on the usual lines of management protocols of TVH with successful outcome.

  20. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2013, 9:79–80. Keywords: absent testis, undescended testis, vanishing testis. Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Correspondence to Mohamed Amin ElGohary, FRCS, Al Noor Hospital,. PO Box 48481, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Tel: + 971 506 225 532; fax: + 971 249 44470; e-mail: amingoh@gmail.com.

  1. Characterization of a Novel Lysozyme-Like 4 Gene in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Muneswararao, Katakam; Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the class of c-type lysozymes and are not well characterized in many species including the rat. In this study, using in silico and molecular biology techniques, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Lyzl4 gene and also determine the expression pattern of Lyzl1, Lyzl3 and Lyzl6. The rat Lyzl genes were found to be distributed on three chromosomes and all of them retained the characteristic eight cysteine signature of c-type lysozyme. Homology modeling of rat LYZL4 indicated that its structure is similar to that of the mouse SLLP1. In the male reproductive tract of rat, Lyzl gene expression was confined to the testis. Lyzl1 and Lyzl4 were found to be expressed in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract, whereas Lyzl3 and Lyzl6 were not. Lyzl expression in the developing (10–60 day old) rats was androgen dependent in the testis. Immunodetection using antibodies against rat LYZL4 revealed the presence of LYZL4 protein in the germinal layer of the testes and on the sperm tail. Recombinant LYZL4 did not exhibit antibacterial, muramidase and isopeptidase activities characteristic to c-type lysozyme. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time we report the characterization of Lyzl genes in the rat. Results of our study indicate that rat LYZL proteins may have an important role in male reproductive tract function. PMID:22110709

  2. Effect of continuous irradiation with low dose X-rays on the reproductive complications in male diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongguang; Xu Songbai; Li Pengwu; Wang Zhicheng; Lin Chenghe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of 75 mGy irradiation on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and antioxidant capacity of serum and testis and hormone levels in male rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ) to develop diabetes. The diabetic rats were irradiated with 75 mGy X-rays every other day for 4 weeks. Their survival rate and body weight were recorded 12 weeks after development of diabetes. The apeptosis percentage of germ cells was measured with flow cytometry and TUNEL method. The changes of anti-oxidation and gonadal hormone levels in serum and testis were measured with kits. Results: After the rats suffered from diabetes for 12 weeks, the survival rate in DM group was 25% (6/24), 100% in normal control group (16116). The survival rate in 75 mGy + DM group (9/16,56.25%) was obviously higher than that in the DM group (χ 2 = 4.00,P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of apaptotic spermatogenic cells in the diabetic rats was significantly larger than those in the normal control and irradiation groups (F = 5.496, P < 0.05). MDA and NO levels in serum and testis of diabetic rats were higher in varying degrees than that in the normal control, while the serum and testis MDA content in the 75 mGy + DM group were lower than those in the DM group especially in the testis (F = 10.644, P < 0.01). 75 mGy X-ray irradiation decreased NO content in the diabetic rats serum significantly (F = 14.379, P < 0.05) and increased NOS activity and TS, FSH level (F = 9.676, 43.194 and 5.282, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Conclusions: LDR could decrease the MDA level and NO content, and increase the antioxidant enzyme activity and TS and FSH levels in testis and serum of diabetic rats. (authors)

  3. Disrupted social development enhances the motivation for cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarendse, Petra J J; Limpens, Jules H W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Early social experiences are of major importance for behavioural development. In particular, social play behaviour during post-weaning development is thought to facilitate the attainment of social, emotional and cognitive capacities. Conversely, social insults during development can cause long-lasting behavioural impairments and increase the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lack of social experiences during the juvenile and early adolescent stage, when social play behaviour is highly abundant, alters cocaine self-administration in rats. Rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21 to 42 followed by re-socialization until adulthood. Cocaine self-administration was then assessed under a fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Next, cue, cocaine and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was determined following extinction of self-administration. Early social isolation resulted in an enhanced acquisition of self-administration of a low dose (0.083 mg/infusion) of cocaine, but the sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement, assessed using a dose-response analysis, was not altered in isolated rats. Moreover, isolated rats displayed an increased motivation for cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking was not affected by early social isolation. Early social isolation causes a long-lasting increase in the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Thus, aberrations in post-weaning social development, such as the absence of social play, enhance the vulnerability for drug addiction later in life.

  4. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  5. Inhibition of NOS-NO System Prevents Autoimmune Orchitis Development in Rats: Relevance of NO Released by Testicular Macrophages in Germ Cell Apoptosis and Testosterone Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Jarazo Dietrich

    Full Text Available Although the testis is considered an immunoprivileged organ it can orchestrate immune responses against pathological insults such as infection and trauma. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO is a model of chronic inflammation whose main histopathological features it shares with human orchitis. In EAO an increased number of macrophages infiltrate the interstitium concomitantly with progressive germ cell degeneration and impaired steroidogenesis. Up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO-NO synthase (NOS system occurs, macrophages being the main producers of NO.The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NO-NOS system in orchitis development and determine the involvement of NO released by testicular macrophages on germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion.EAO was induced in rats by immunization with testicular homogenate and adjuvants (E group and a group of untreated normal rats (N was also studied. Blockage of NOS by i.p. injection of E rats with a competitive inhibitor of NOS, L-NAME (8mg/kg, significantly reduced the incidence and severity of orchitis and lowered testicular nitrite content. L-NAME reduced germ cell apoptosis and restored intratesticular testosterone levels, without variations in serum LH. Co-culture of N testicular fragments with testicular macrophages obtained from EAO rats significantly increased germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion, whereas addition of L-NAME lowered both effects and reduced nitrite content. Incubation of testicular fragments from N rats with a NO donor DETA-NOnoate (DETA-NO induced germ cell apoptosis through external and internal apoptotic pathways, an effect prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC. DETA-NO inhibited testosterone released from Leydig cells, whereas NAC (from 2.5 to 15 mM did not prevent this effect.We demonstrated that NO-NOS system is involved in the impairment of testicular function in orchitis. NO secreted mainly by testicular macrophages could promote oxidative stress

  6. Development of rat embryonic spinal ganglion cells in damaged nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E S; Isaeva, E N; Korzhevskii, D E

    2014-09-01

    The development of dissociated cells from rat embryonic spinal ganglion after transplantation to damaged nerve of adult animals was studied using immunohistochemical differentiation markers of neural and glial cells. The cell suspension obtained after dissociation of rat embryonic spinal ganglia (embryonic day 15) was injected into the proximal segment of crushed sciatic nerve. The nerve was damaged by ligation for 40 sec. Progenitor cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) before transplantation. BrdU-immunopositive cells were detected in the nerve trunks of recipients on days 1, 21, and 28 after transplantation. Dissociated cells of rat embryonic spinal ganglion (embryonic day 15) survived for at least 4 weeks after transplantation to the nerve and differentiate into NeuN-immunopositive neurons with morphological properties of sensory neurons and satellite cells containing S100 protein.

  7. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  8. Effects of hindlimb unloading on neuromuscular development of neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstorf, B. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L.; Reiser, P. M.; Sedlak, F. R.; Wong-Riley, M. T.; Riley, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9 days. To control for isolation from the dam, the remaining five littermates were removed on the same schedule but not suspended. Another litter of 10 rats housed in the same room provided a vivarium control. Fibers were typed by myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and immunostaining for embryonic, slow, fast IIA and fast IIB isomyosins. The percentage of multiple innervation and the complexity of singly-innervated motor terminal endings were assessed in silver/cholinesterase stained sections. Unique to the soleus, unloading accelerated production of fast IIA myosin, delayed expression of slow myosin and retarded increases in standardized muscle weight and fiber size. Loss of multiple innervation was not delayed. However, fewer than normal motor nerve endings achieved complexity. Suspended rats continued unloaded hindlimb movements. These findings suggest that motor neurons resolve multiple innervation through nerve impulse activity, whereas the postsynaptic element (muscle fiber) controls endplate size, which regulates motor terminal arborization. Unexpectedly, in the EDL of unloaded rats, transition from embryonic to fast myosin expression was retarded. Suspension-related foot drop, which stretches and chronically loads EDL, may have prevented fast fiber differentiation. These results demonstrate that neuromuscular development of both weightbearing and non-weightbearing muscles in rats is dependent upon and modulated by hindlimb loading.

  9. Developmental regulation of {beta}-hexosaminidase {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit gene expression in the rat reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasler, J.M.; Wakamatsu, N.; Gravel, R.A.; Benoit, G. [McGill-Montreal Chilrden`s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    {beta}-Hexosaminidase is an essential lysosomal enzyme whose absence in man results in a group of disorders, the G{sub M2} gangliosidoses. Enzyme activity for {beta}-hexosaminidase is many fold higher in the epididymis than in other tissues, is present in sperm and is postulated to be required for mammalian fertilization. To better understand how {beta}-hexosaminidase is regulated in the reproductive system, we quantitated the mRNA expression of the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits (Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta}) of the enzyme in the developing rat testis and epididymis. Hex {alpha} mRNA was differentially expressed and abundant in adult rat testis and epididymis, 13- and 2-fold brain levels, respectively. In contrast, Hex {beta} mRNA levels in the testis and epididymis were .3- and 5-fold brain levels. Within the epididymis both Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNA concentrations were highest in the corpus, 1.5-fold and 9-fold initial segment values, respectively. During testis development from 7-91 days of age, testis levels of Hex {alpha} mRNA increased 10-fold and coincided with the appearance of spermatocytes and spermatids in the epithelium. In isolated male germ cells, Hex {alpha} expression was most abundant in haploid round spermatids. Hex {alpha} mRNA was undetectable after hypophysectomy and returned to normal after testosterone administration and the return of advanced germ cells to the testis. Hex {beta} mRNA was expressed at constant low levels throughout testis development. In the caput-corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis Hex {alpha} mRNA levels increased 2-fold between 14 and 91 days; during the same developmental period epididymal Hex {beta} mRNA levels increased dramatically, by 10-20 fold. In summary, Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNAs are differentially and developmentally expressed at high levels in the rat testis and epididymis and augur for an important role for {beta}-hexosaminidase in normal male reproductive function.

  10. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naga Raju, G.J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-01-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal

  11. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  12. Mutations in MAP3K1 cause 46,XY disorders of sex development and implicate a common signal transduction pathway in human testis determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Alexander; Loke, Johnny; Le Caignec, Cedric; White, Stefan; Chin, Lisa; Friedman, Andrew; Warr, Nicholas; Willan, John; Brauer, David; Farmer, Charles; Brooks, Eric; Oddoux, Carole; Riley, Bridget; Shajahan, Shahin; Camerino, Giovanna; Homfray, Tessa; Crosby, Andrew H; Couper, Jenny; David, Albert; Greenfield, Andy; Sinclair, Andrew; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-12-10

    Investigations of humans with disorders of sex development (DSDs) resulted in the discovery of many of the now-known mammalian sex-determining genes, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1, and WNT4. Here, the locus for an autosomal sex-determining gene was mapped via linkage analysis in two families with 46,XY DSD to the long arm of chromosome 5 with a combined, multipoint parametric LOD score of 6.21. A splice-acceptor mutation (c.634-8T>A) in MAP3K1 segregated with the phenotype in the first family and disrupted RNA splicing. Mutations were demonstrated in the second family (p.Gly616Arg) and in two of 11 sporadic cases (p.Leu189Pro, p.Leu189Arg)-18% prevalence in this cohort of sporadic cases. In cultured primary lymphoblastoid cells from family 1 and the two sporadic cases, these mutations altered the phosphorylation of the downstream targets, p38 and ERK1/2, and enhanced binding of RHOA to the MAP3K1 complex. Map3k1 within the syntenic region was expressed in the embryonic mouse gonad prior to, and after, sex determination. Thus, mutations in MAP3K1 that result in 46,XY DSD with partial or complete gonadal dysgenesis implicate this pathway in normal human sex determination. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ferretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, Western blotting (WB and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.Conclusion:  Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development

  14. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, V; Segal-Eiras, Á; Barbeito, C G; Croce, M V

    2015-02-20

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.   Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.

  15. Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood. PMID:23750695

  16. The structural and functional state of hemomicrocirculatory bed and parenchyma of the testis in varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes play a key role in the development of male infertility. Aim. To study the structural features of the bloodstream and testicular parenchyma in terms of varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes. Meyhods and results. In 23 testicular preparations taken from men of mature age convoluted seminiferous tubules diameter, number of cells of spermatogenic epithelium and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume were studied using macro- and microscopic morphometric methods. It was established that in varicocele testis volume, diameter of convoluted seminiferous tubules and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume significantly reduced. Conclusion. This indicates the presence of circulatory hypoxia of testicles, which leads to a decrease in the volume of interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei by 31%, thereby reducing their functional properties.

  17. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Rat Condylar Chondrocytes during Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li Ting; Xie, Yin Yin; Wei, Li; Zhou, Qi; Shen, Xing; Gao, Yi Ming; Jiang, Xin Quan

    To investigate differentially expressed proteins in rat mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) chondrocytes caused by initial mastication for short postnatal periods. Four groups of protein samples were extracted from primary cultured rat MCC chondrocytes, harvested from eigthy postnatal SD rats aged 1,7,14 and 28 days, with twenty in each group. Total proteins were labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) reagents. Two-dimensional nano-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight/ time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry analysis with iTRAQ technique were performed. All data were analysed by MASCOT software with the SWISSPROT protein database. Furthermore, bioinformatics and statistical analysis were performed to classify their cellular components, biological processes, molecular functions and metabolic pathway by the PANTHER database. In total, 137 differentially expressed proteins were identified during MCC growth and were assigned to one or more cellular components. According to the PANTHER analysis, a significant proportion of proteins are involved in the metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, developmental process and response to stimulus. The most extensive molecular function was 43% in catalytic activity. In addition, it was found that proteins in MCC chondrocytes change markedly on the growth stage of eruption of the teeth. This study provides an integrated perspective of molecular mechanisms regulating early normal postnatal growth and development of rat MCC at the protein level.

  18. Ontogenetic development of nutrient transporters in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, E M; Diamond, J

    1992-11-01

    We measured intestinal brush-border uptakes of three sugars and three amino acids, plus intestinal morphometric parameters, in rats from the day of birth until adulthood. Rates of body weight gain had pronounced peaks in the suckling phase and again during weaning, separated by a dip at the onset of weaning. These two peaks coincided with peaks or plateaus in intestinal growth and in glucose (Glc) and proline (Pro) uptake capacities, which may provide the basis for high rates of body growth. Pro uptake declined relative to Glc uptake upon weaning, reflecting decreasing protein needs for growth and decreasing protein intake relative to carbohydrate intake. Fructose (Frc) and lysine uptake increased steeply on weaning, whereas galactose uptake declined relative to that of Glc. Rats prevented from normal weaning by being maintained on dry milk were generally similar to normal rats weaned onto chow. Notably, their Frc uptake still rose steeply on weaning despite low dietary Frc levels, suggesting hard-wired regulation of Frc transporter development. Our in vitro uptakes are similar to modern in vivo values in the same strain of rats. Nutrient uptake capacities exceed normal dietary intakes by only a modest safety margin.

  19. Phantom testis syndrome: prevalence, phenomenology and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Kliesch, Sabine; Evers, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Chronic phantom pain has been found in up to 78% of limb amputees and is a major complication of limb amputation. Less is known about phantom phenomena after the amputation of other, i.e. visceral, parts of the body. In a retrospective design, we identified 539 patients in whom one testis was removed between 1995 and 2005. The operative technique was a unilateral standard radical inguinal orchiectomy. The underlying pathology in all cases was a testicular germ cell tumour. All patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence of phantom testis pain (pain felt in the removed testis), phantom testis sensations (non-painful sensations as if the removed testis was still intact) and hallucinations (illusionary perceptions on the removed testis). Furthermore, we asked about the occurrence and clinical presentation of pain before and after surgery and about pre-operative testicular pain. Out of 238 respondents, 125 patients (53%) reported any kind of phantom experience. The prevalence of phantom testis pain was 25% (60/238), non-painful phantom sensations 16% (37/238) and male gonad hallucinations 12% (28/238). Patients with phantom symptoms reported pre-operative pain in the removed testis more often than patients without phantom symptoms. This study presents first data on the clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of the phantom testis syndrome after surgical removal of one testis.

  20. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  1. Protein restriction during intrauterine and lactation periods: effects on testicular development in pre-puberty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current study investigates the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on the testis of immature rats. Female Wistar rats were mated and, after confirming pregnancy, they were divided into two groups: undernourished group (UG fed on a diet with casein 8%, and control group (CG fed on a diet with casein 17 %, during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring from the two experimental groups were fed on normal diet up to 35 days old when they were euthanized. Body and testicular weights decreased in UG when compared to those in CG. Volumetric density of seminiferous tubules was higher in CG whilst intertubular space increased in UG. The number of lumenated seminiferous tubules was higher in CG than in UG. Tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelium height and total length of seminiferous tubules were lower in UG. Round spermatids were frequently found in seminiferous tubules cross-section of CG. On the other hand, spermatocytes I in prophases was the germ cell commonly found in seminiferous tubules cross-sections of UG. Undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation period of the male Wistar rats altered the morphometric testicular parameters related to tubular compartment and delayed the onset of spermatogenesis.

  2. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  3. An update of the macaque testis proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of rhesus macaque is a draft version with many errors and is lack of Y chromosome annotation. In the present dataset, we reanalyzed the previously published macaque testis proteome. We searched for refined protein sequences, potential Y chromosome proteins and transcripts predicted proteins in addition to the latest Ensembl protein sequences of macaque. A total of 74,433 peptides corresponding to 9247 protein groups were identified, and the data are supplied in this paper. The updated version of macaque testis proteome provided evidences for predicted genes or transcripts at the peptide level. It can be used for further in-depth proteogenomic annotation of macaque genome and is useful for studying the mechanisms of macaque spermatogenesis.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource.Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165.This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis morphology during these phases. This study will pave

  5. Developmentally distinct in vivo effects of FSH on proliferation and apoptosis during testis maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachem, Sarah J; Ruwanpura, Saleela M; Ziolkowski, Jessica; Ague, Jacquelyn M; Skinner, Michael K; Loveland, Kate L

    2005-09-01

    The critical influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on male fertility relates both to its impact on Sertoli cell proliferation in perinatal life and to its influence on the synthesis of Sertoli cell-derived products essential for germ cell survival and function in the developing adult testis. The nature and timing of this shift of germ cells to their reliance on specific Sertoli cell-derived products are not defined. Based on existing data, it is apparent that the dominant function of FSH shifts between 9 and 18 day postpartum (dpp) during the first wave of spermatogenesis from driving Sertoli cell proliferation to support germ cells. To enable comprehensive analysis of the impact of acute in vivo FSH suppression on Sertoli and germ cell development, FSH was selectively suppressed in Sprague-Dawley rats by passive immunisation for 2 days and/or 4 days prior to testis collection at 3, 9 and 18 dpp. The 3 dpp samples displayed no measurable changes, while 4 days of FSH suppression decreased Sertoli cell proliferation and numbers in 9 dpp, but not 18 dpp, animals. In contrast, germ cell numbers were unaffected at 9 dpp but decreased at 18 dpp following FSH suppression, with a corresponding increase in germ cell apoptosis measured at 18 dpp. Sixty transcripts were measured as changed at 18 dpp in response to 4 days of FSH suppression, as assessed using Affymetrix microarrays. Some of these are known as Sertoli cell-derived FSH-responsive genes (e.g. StAR, cathepsin L, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3), while others encode proteins involved in cell cycle and survival regulation (e.g. cyclin D1, scavenger receptor class B 1). These data demonstrate that FSH differentially affects Sertoli and germ cells in an age-dependent manner in vivo, promoting Sertoli cell mitosis at day 9, and supporting germ cell viability at day 18. This model has enabled identification of candidate genes that contribute to the FSH-mediated pathway by which Sertoli cells

  6. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, William; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Sadowska, Mariola; Huso, David; Neal, Ashley; Ahearn, Aaron; Bryant, Joseph; Gallo, Robert C.; Lewis, George K.; Reitz, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4 + and CD8 + effector/memory (CD45RC - CD62L - ) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC + CD62L + ) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  7. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was demonstrable hydatid cyst (protoscoleces and germinative layer) in testes of five rabbits from Group A, but in one rabbit, both testes were normal. In Group B, three out of four rabbits developed peritoneal hydatidosis. The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier ...

  8. Testicular germ cell cancer despite previous local radiotherapy to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, K-P; Lauke, H; Michl, U; Winter, E; Loy, V

    2002-06-01

    Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN, also carcinoma in situ of the testis) is the uniform precursor of testicular germ cell cancer. Local radiotherapy to the testis with dosages of 18-20 Gy has been found to safely eradicate TIN and germ cells, too. Thus, the general assumption is that the development of invasive germ cell tumours can be prevented by this radiotherapy. Herein, we report two patients with one-sided testicular tumour and biopsy-proven contralateral TIN. Both of them developed germ cell neoplasms in the remaining testis although local radiotherapy with 20 Gy had been applied to the testis. One patient developed pure seminoma 7 years after completion of radiotherapy, the other developed a combined tumour consisting of embryonal carcinoma and seminoma after 5 years. Treatment consisted of orchiectomy in each of the cases. Histologically, both had TIN in the testicular tissue surrounding the new growths. Pathogenetically, a small fraction of radioresistent TIN cells overcoming irradiation and progressing to full-blown germ cell cancer in the later course may be the histogenetic clue to explain these unexpected events. Other explanations, though less probable, could be technical radiotherapeutic failure due to targeting problems and a pre-existing radioresistent germ cell tumour in the irradiated testicle.

  9. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Herlihy, Amy S; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumours of young adults are derived from a pre-invasive intratubular lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS). In a recent genome-wide gene expression screening using cDNA microarrays, we found PDPN over-expressed in CIS compared to normal adult testis. PDPN encodes podoplanin (Aggrus...... gonocytes and immature Sertoli cells, similar to the expression pattern of M2A antigen, a previously identified marker for CIS and seminoma. This reinforced our previous proposal that M2A (D2-40) antigen was identical to gp36 (podoplanin, Aggrus, T1A-2). Our findings also suggest that podoplanin has...

  10. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  11. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  12. Intestinal lactase synthesis during postnatal development in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, M.M.; Montgomery, R.K.; Grand, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of the developmental decline in intestinal lactase activity at the weaning, the authors examined lactase synthesis in suckling and adult rats. Lactase was purified to homogeneity from pooled intestines of newborn rats and used to raise a monospecific antibody. Using this antibody, they developed a quantitative immunoprecipitation assay for lactase. Intestinal microvillus membrane proteins were labeled in 15-day and adult rats by intraluminal pulse-chase with TH-leucine, and newly synthesized lactase quantified by immunoprecipitation. When lactase synthesis was expressed as the quantity of microvillus membrane lactase synthesized relative to total microvillus membrane protein synthesized, a significantly greater proportion of TH-leucine incorporation into lactase was demonstrated in the suckling animals. No structural differences between newly synthesized suckling and adult lactase were observed when they were compared by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. These data suggest that a change in the rate of lactase synthesis plays a role in the postweaning decline in enzyme activity.

  13. Path integration in place cells of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerknes, Tale L; Dagslott, Nenitha C; Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt

    2018-02-13

    Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex rely on self-motion information and path integration for spatially confined firing. Place cells can be observed in young rats as soon as they leave their nest at around 2.5 wk of postnatal life. In contrast, the regularly spaced firing of grid cells develops only after weaning, during the fourth week. In the present study, we sought to determine whether place cells are able to integrate self-motion information before maturation of the grid-cell system. Place cells were recorded on a 200-cm linear track while preweaning, postweaning, and adult rats ran on successive trials from a start wall to a box at the end of a linear track. The position of the start wall was altered in the middle of the trial sequence. When recordings were made in complete darkness, place cells maintained fields at a fixed distance from the start wall regardless of the age of the animal. When lights were on, place fields were determined primarily by external landmarks, except at the very beginning of the track. This shift was observed in both young and adult animals. The results suggest that preweaning rats are able to calculate distances based on information from self-motion before the grid-cell system has matured to its full extent. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Development of diabetes-induced acidosis in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Andrey V; Henderson, Desmond; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesized that the retina of diabetic animals would be unusually acidic due to increased glycolytic metabolism. Acidosis in tumors and isolated retina has been shown to lead to increased VEGF. To test the hypothesis we have measured the transretinal distribution of extracellular H(+) concentration (H(+)-profiles) in retinae of control and diabetic dark-adapted intact Long-Evans rats with ion-selective electrodes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Intact rat retinae are normally more acidic than blood with a peak of [H(+)]o in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that averages 30 nM higher than H(+) in the choroid. Profiles in diabetic animals were similar in shape, but diabetic retinae began to be considerably more acidic after 5 weeks of diabetes. In retinae of 1-3 month diabetics the difference between the ONL and choroid was almost twice as great as in controls. At later times, up to 6 months, some diabetics still demonstrated abnormally high levels of [H(+)]o, but others were even less acidic than controls, so that the average level of acidosis was not different. Greater variability in H(+)-profiles (both between animals and between profiles recorded in one animal) distinguished the diabetic retinae from controls. Within animals, this variability was not random, but exhibited regions of higher and lower H(+). We conclude that retinal acidosis begins to develop at an early stage of diabetes (1-3 months) in rats. However, it does not progress, and the acidity of diabetic rat retina was diminished at later stages (3-6 months). Also the diabetes-induced acidosis has a strongly expressed local character. As result, the diabetic retinas show much wider variability in [H(+)] distribution than controls. pH influences metabolic and neural processes, and these results suggest that local acidosis could play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient Hypothyroidism: Dual Effect on Adult-Type Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell Development

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    Eddy Rijntjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient neonatal 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism affects Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers in the developing testis, resulting in increased adult testis size. The hypothyroid condition was thought to be responsible, an assumption questioned by studies showing that uninterrupted fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism did not affect adult testis size. Here, we investigated effects of transient hypothyroidism on Leydig and Sertoli cell development, employing a perinatal iodide-deficient diet in combination with sodium perchlorate. This hypothyroidism inducing diet was continued until days 1, 7, 14, or 28 postpartum (pp respectively, when the rats were switched to a euthyroid diet and followed up to adulthood. Continuous euthyroid and hypothyroid, and neonatal PTU-treated rats switched to the euthyroid diet at 28 days pp, were included for comparison. No effects on formation of the adult-type Leydig cell population or on Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation were observed when the diet switched at/or before day 14 pp. However, when the diet was discontinued at day 28 pp, Leydig cell development was delayed similarly to what was observed in chronic hypothyroid rats. Surprisingly, Sertoli cell proliferation was 6- to 8-fold increased 2 days after the diet switch and remained elevated the next days. In adulthood, Sertoli cell number per seminiferous tubule cross-section and consequently testis weight was increased in this group. These observations implicate that increased adult testis size in transiently hypothyroid rats is not caused by the hypothyroid condition per se, but originates from augmented Sertoli cell proliferation as a consequence of rapid normalization of thyroid hormone concentrations.

  16. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  17. Developing a Speaker Identification System for the DARPA RATS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plchot, O; Matsoukas, S; Matejka, P

    2013-01-01

    present results using multiple SID systems differing mainly in the algorithm used for voice activity detection (VAD) and feature extraction. We show that (a) unsupervised VAD performs as well supervised methods in terms of downstream SID performance, (b) noise-robust feature extraction methods......This paper describes the speaker identification (SID) system developed by the Patrol team for the first phase of the DARPA RATS (Robust Automatic Transcription of Speech) program, which seeks to advance state of the art detection capabilities on audio from highly degraded communication channels. We...

  18. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased

  19. The gut microbiota and developmental programming of the testis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al-Asmakh

    Full Text Available Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ-free (GF mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT, which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis.

  20. Expressed sequence tags from Peromyscus testis and placenta tissue: Analysis, annotation, and utility for mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullard-Dillard Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice of the genus Peromyscus are found in nearly every habitat from Alaska to Central America and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They provide an evolutionary outgroup to the Mus/Rattus lineage and serve as an intermediary between that lineage and humans. Although Peromyscus has been studied extensively under both field and laboratory conditions, research has been limited by the lack of molecular resources. Genes associated with reproduction typically evolve rapidly and thus are excellent sources of evolutionary information. In this study we describe the generation of two cDNA libraries, one from placenta and one from testis, characterize the resulting ESTs, and describe their utility for mapping the Peromyscus genome. Results The 5' ends of 1,510 placenta and 4,798 testis clones were sequenced. Low quality sequences were removed and after clustering and contig assembly, 904 unique placenta and 2,002 unique testis sequences remained. Average lengths of placenta and testis ESTs were 711 bp and 826 bp, respectively. Approximately 82% of all ESTs were identified using the BLASTX algorithm to Mus and Rattus, and 34 – 54% of all ESTs could be assigned to a biological process gene ontology category in either Mus or Rattus. Because the Peromyscus genome organization resembles the Rattus genome more closely than Mus we examined the distribution of the Peromyscus ESTs across the rat genome finding markers on all rat chromosomes except the Y. Approximately 40% of all ESTs were specific to only one location in the Mus genome and spanned introns of an appropriate size for sequencing and SNP detection. Of the primers that were tried 54% provided useful assays for genotyping on interspecific backcross and whole-genome radiation hybrid cell panels. Conclusion The 2,906 Peromyscus placenta and testis ESTs described here significantly expands the molecular resources available for the genus. These ESTs allow for specific PCR amplification

  1. Tumor in undescended intrapelvic testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahsaini, Mustapha; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2013-04-26

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease. The incidence of testicular cancer in undescended testicles is of 3 to 48 times greater than in the general population. In the developed countries, the existence of undescended testicles in the adult population is rare, due to systematic practice of elective orchidopexy before the second year of life and orchiectomy in post adolescent males with undescended testicles. Despite these prevention measures, there are still some isolated cases of intra-abdominal testicular tumors in adults. We report a case of testicular cancer in cryptorchid testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. We report a case of a 46 year old fertile man with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism who presented with a palpable left supraclavicular mass and absence of the right testicle. On investigations an intrapelvic testis tumor was diagnosed. Laparotomy and complete excision was carried out. The possible association between the undescended testis and cancer transformations is briefly discussed. Testicular cancer in undescended testicles should not be ignored. Only early diagnosis and lower of testis in scrotumprevent such clinical forms.

  2. Ectopic Splenic Tissue in the Testis: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic SplENic tiSSUE iN thE tEStiS associated with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias4. Brasch et al. reported a case involving the right testis5. Ultrasonography, scintigraphy (with technetium-99m) and single positron emission computerized tomography are considered the best diagnostic tools for this condition2,3.

  3. Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The hypertrophied testis can predict the status of the impalpable contralateral one. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of contralateral testicular hypertrophy for predicting the presence or absence of impalpable undescended testis (UDT) in Egyptian boys. Patients and methods: This study was ...

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spermatogenesis-related gene 8 (SRG8). Materials and methods. Data-mining of UniGene database. In this study, the DDD tool was used according to the database instructions. Nine testis-derived cDNA libraries. Keywords. digital differential display; testis; real-time PCR; Northern blot. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No.

  5. Management of supernumerary testis: a rare case of polyorchidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supernumeracy testis is frequently associated with undescended testis, testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, and hydrocele. Management is controversial with some advocating for orchidectomy due to concerns of malignancy. The family was educated about the risk for malignancy and the importance of regular follow-up and ...

  6. Fibronectin distribution during the development of fetal rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Weaver, A C

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin distribution during fetal rat skin development has been studied immunocytochemically at the light and electron microscope level from 16 days of gestation to birth. The dermal-epidermal junction, the dermis, and connective tissue around developing muscle were shown by light microscopy...... to be heavily stained throughout this period. The development of hair follicles from about 18 days onward was not associated with any consistent change in fibronectin distribution. The heavy staining of the upper dermis was associated with a high density of mesenchymal cells, and immunoelectron microscopy...... revealed fibronectin on the surface of many of these cells and in association with the surrounding fine collagen fibrils. At the dermal-epidermal junction, both follicular and interfollicular, fibronectin was localized mainly in the plasma membrane and lamina lucida regions of the basement membrane...

  7. [Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the development and growth of rat embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Zhu, Q

    1999-07-01

    Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the development and growth of rat embryos were studied. Serious vitamin A deficiency markedly reduce body weight, body length and tail length, and induce incomplete development of skeleton and induce pathological change of brain and kidney of rat fetus. It was concluded that the development and growth of the embryos was affected and the brain and the kidney of fetus were damaged in serious vitamin A deficient rats.

  8. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C Pong

    Full Text Available Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation.Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25% into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus.Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P < 0.001 for both but there were no significant changes in cranial cross-sectional area (Spearman, P = 0.35, cortical gray matter stiffness (Spearman, P = 0.24 and caudate-putamen (Spearman, P = 0.11 stiffness. No significant changes in the size of brain structures were observed in the controls.This study showed that although brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was severely compressed, their brain tissue stiffness did not change significantly. These results are in contrast with

  9. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  10. [Metastasis of germ cell tumors of the testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Goldschmidt, E

    1991-01-01

    The development of metastases from germ cell tumours of the testis is studied in terms of its histopathological, ontogenetic, anatomical and evolutive aspects. The treatment of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and pure seminomas is analysed separately. The prognostic factors defined by the risk of failure of treatment are described and the medical and surgical strategies or combinations of both modalities are proposed for each stage of these cancers. The major points and novelties include: the usual histological polymorphism of these tumours. The markers include alpha-foetoprotein and HCG. Combination chemotherapy, essentially the EBP sequence, is the treatment for non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. In the case of failure, toxic sequences can be used followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. In the case of persistent lesions (lung, mediastinum, liver, retroperitoneum), salvage surgery may be useful. Metastatic seminomas are treated by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, depending on their stage.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  12. Effects of strobe light stimulation on postnatal developing rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-A; Jeong, Eojin; Kim, In-Beom; Lee, Hwa-Young

    2014-03-01

    The nature and intensity of visual stimuli have changed in recent years because of television and other dynamic light sources. Although light stimuli accompanied by contrast and strength changes are thought to have an influence on visual system development, little information is available on the effects of dynamic light stimuli such as a strobe light on visual system development. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate changes caused by dynamic light stimuli during retinal development. This study used 80 Sprague-Dawley rats. From eye opening (postnatal day 14), half of the rats were maintained on a daily 12-h light/dark cycle (control group) and the remaining animals were raised under a 12-h strobe light (2 Hz)/dark cycle (strobe light-reared group). Morphological analyses and electroretinogram (ERG) were performed at postnatal weeks 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10. Among retinal neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR, dopaminergic amacrine cells) cells showed marked plastic changes, such as variations in numbers and soma sizes. In whole-mount preparations at 6, 8, and 10 weeks, type I TH-IR cells showed a decreased number and larger somata, while type II TH-IR cells showed an increased number in strobe-reared animals. Functional assessment by scotopic ERG showed that a-wave and b-wave amplitudes increased at 6 and 8 weeks in strobe-reared animals. These results show that exposure to a strobe light during development causes changes in TH-IR cell number and morphology, leading to a disturbance in normal visual functions.

  13. [The effects of strontium in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Fan, M

    1997-05-01

    Effects of strontium at a high level in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone were studied. The results showed that Sr2+ concentration from 5 to 500 mg/L in drinking water could increase the contents of strontium in blood serum, urine, femur, mixilla and tooth in Wistar rats exposed to Sr2+ for 12 weeks with an obvious dose-response relationship. In addition, strontium at over 50 mg/L could decrease the contents of calcium in bone, increase the contents of calcium in tooth and bone density, and decrease the levels of calcium in blood serum except female rats at the 12th week. Effects of Sr2+ on body weight, body length, AKP activity of serum, calcium content of urine and breaking load of bended femur for rats were not found. However, there are differences in the effects of strontium on growth and development of bone between male and female rats. At the 12th week the content of calcium in blood serum decreased in male rats but increased in female rats in exposed groups. At the 4th and 8th weeks, urine Hop/Cr in male rats increased but it remained normal level in female rats. Sr2+ increased the bone density of mixilla in male rats but it did not increase that of femur in female rats. It is suggested that such changes may be a result of the differences in endocritic regulation and metabolic process between two sexes.

  14. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Michelle; MacLeod, David J; Walker, Marion; Smith, Lee B; Sharpe, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during t...

  15. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis

  16. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  17. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  18. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Jorgensen, Joan S; Kim, Youngha

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of developmental gene expression, but their contribution to fetal gonad development is not well understood. We have identified the evolutionarily conserved gonadal microRNAs miR-202-5p and miR-202-3p as having a potential role in regulating mouse embryonic gonad...... differentiation. These microRNAs are expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern as the primordial XY gonad differentiates into a testis, with strong expression in Sertoli cells. In vivo, ectopic expression of pri-miR-202 in XX gonads did not result in molecular changes to the ovarian determination pathway...... findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development....

  19. Expression of the GM2 activator protein in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Chen, I-Li

    2017-12-01

    The GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP), revealed by Li et al. in 1973 in human liver, was initially identified as a protein cofactor that stimulated β-hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze N-acetylgalactosamine from GM2 ganglioside. This cofactor was found to be missing in human variant AB Tay-Sachs disease. Over the years, the GM2-AP has also been shown to be involved in kidney vesicular transport, lipid presentation by CD1 molecule to T-cells, and interaction of human sperm with zona pellucida. Since the expression of the GM2-AP via mRNA detection in mouse tissues was found to be the highest in testis, we became interested in the localization of the GM2-AP at cellular level in mouse testis during spermatogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy, we found that the GM2-AP was predominantly localized in the basal cytoplasm and the attenuated processes of Sertoli cells. The stained structure appeared to be lysosomes. The most interesting finding was the association of the GM2-AP with the acrosomal apparatus in early spermatids. A modest to intense staining was observed in some acrosomal granules and acrosomal caps. The GM2-AP seemed to disappear from acrosomal caps in the later stage of spermatids, in which the nucleus became elongated and condensed. These results suggest that the GM2-AP may be involved in the normal functions of Sertoli cells and play important roles during the development of acrosomal caps in the early spermatids. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  1. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post......-conception) and adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker...

  2. Excitability of isolated hearts from rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Paulo Alberto Paes; de Galvão, Kleber Magalhães; Mateus, Evandro Fallaci

    2002-04-01

    After birth, cardiac myocytes undergo substantial growth and differentiation that affect their stimulation threshold. Cells from younger animals have a higher stimulation threshold than cells from adults. The aim of this work was to compare the excitability of isolated hearts of rats during postnatal development by measuring the stimulation threshold at several pulse durations. Stimulation threshold of isolated hearts were measured at eight different pulse durations between 0.1 to 20 msec. For each heart, a strength-duration curve was constructed and data were fitted using both Weiss-Lapicque and Blair models. Analysis of variance showed significant age-dependent differences in both rheobase field (E(reob)) and chronaxie (c). E(reob) decreased while c increased during development (E(reob) was 0.21, 0.16, 0.13, 0.10, and 0.09 V/cm and c was 2.0, 2.2, 2.3, 2.7, and 3.2 msec for rats aged 1, 2, 4, 8, and 20 weeks, respectively). There was a decrease in the threshold field with heart weight between 0.1 and 0.7 g, whereas the threshold was almost constant in the range from 0.7 to 2.0 g. Estimation of the energy density needed to defibrillate the heart was performed and appeared to be higher for younger than for adult animals. Hearts from younger animals have higher stimulation threshold than those from adults. This probably is due to changes in the cellular threshold as a result of maturation. The smaller excitability of younger hearts can have consequences with regard to the energy levels required for younger patients.

  3. Oral Morphine Consumption Reduces Lens Development in Rat Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahadoran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of morphine, during pregnancy, in addition to inducing defects in the mother’s nervous system function, caused defects or delays in the formation and evolution of embryonic visual system. In the present study, changes in lens development was assessed in embryos exposed in utero to morphine. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300 g were mated with male rats and pregnancy was determined by sperm observation in vaginal smear. This day was considered as embryonic day zero (E0. The females were then divided randomly into the experimental and the control groups. The control group received tap water and the experimental group received morphine (0.05 mg/ml in their water. On embryonic day 13 ( E13, blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital sinus of all animals for plasma corticosterone detection. On embryonic day 17(E17, the animals were killed by an overdose of chloroform and the embryos were taken out surgically. The embryos were fixed in 10% formalin for 30 days. At this time, the head of the embryos were removed for tissue processing and Hematoxylin- Eosin (H&E staining. The samples were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC software. Results: Our data indicated that plasma corticosterone level was dramatically increased and the lens was thinner in the experimental group. (Although the proliferation of lens cells increased in the experiment group but that lens had delay in removing the proliferated and elongation cells with abnormal density in the lateral part of the lens in compare with control group. I have no idea what the authors are stating here. Moreover, the opening of the eyelids was delayed in the off springs of the mothers who received morphine. Conclusions: This study showed that morphine consumption during pregnancy leads to defects in fetal visual system development, particularly in the lens, and eyelids.

  4. Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, M.; Conti, M.; Geremia, R.; Ziparo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the IV European Workshop on Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis held in Capri (Italy) between the 9th and 12th April 1986. The workshop was organized in several symposia related to some of the most relevant aspects of the regulation of testicular function. Main topics were the role of cell interactions, the mechanisms of signal transduction, gene expression and metabolic response of somatic cells as well as differentiation of germ cells. One session was devoted to prostaglandins in the male reproductive system and to brief discussions on interstitial fluid and on antispermatogenic compounds. In this book only the main lectures and some selected short papers are presented. (Auth.)

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTION IN THE RAT - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY MOVEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERGA, J; GRAMSBERGEN, A

    The development of the nervous system is determined by an interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors. We investigated the possible role of proprioceptive afferent input in the development of locomotion in the rat. Kinematic analysis of locomotion in normal rats reveals a marked transition

  6. Development of the microcirculation of the secondary ossification center in rat humeral head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morini, S; Continenza, MA; Ricciardi, G; Gaudio, E; Pannarale, L

    This work investigated the origin and development of microcirculation in the rat humeral head and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a factor supporting the vascular growth and the development of the secondary ossification centers. Sixty rats aging 1, 3-4, 6-8, 11, and 21

  7. Aggressive surgical management of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Maganty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the epididymal epithelium. We present a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with left testis mass. Histopathological analysis of orchiectomy specimen was consistent with adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection revealed metastatic disease not detected on preoperative PET-CT. Prior reports have suggested poor response rates to both systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Aggressive surgical management of the retroperitoneum should be considered even in clinically node-negative patients given the paucity of other effective treatment regimens.

  8. The Development of Vestibular Connections in Rat Embryos in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Laura L.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    Existing experimental embryological data suggests that the vestibular system initially develops in a very rigid and genetically controlled manner. Nevertheless, gravity appears to be a critical factor in the normal development of the vestibular system that monitors position with respect to gravity (saccule and utricle). In fact several studies have shown that prenatal exposure to microgravity causes temporary deficits in gravity-dependent righting behaviors, and prolonged exposure to hypergravity from conception to weaning causes permanent deficits in gravity-dependent righting behaviors. Data on hypergravity and microgravity exposure suggest some changes in the otolith formation during development, in particular the size although these changes may actually vary with the species involved. In adults exposed to microgravity there is a change in the synaptic density in the otic sensory epithelia suggesting that some adaptation may occur there. However, effects have also been reported in the brainstem. Several studies have shown synaptic changes in the lateral vestibular nucleus and in the nodulus of the cerebellum after neonatal exposure to hypergravity. We report here that synaptogenesis in the medial vestibular nucleus is retarded in developing rat embryos that were exposed to microgravity from gestation days 9 to 19.

  9. Hypothyroidism modulates renal antioxidant gene expression during postnatal development and maturation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    In the present study effects of 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on renal antioxidant defence system during postnatal development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30days old) and on adult rats were reported. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05% PTU in drinking water. The activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in 30days old hypothyroid rats with respect to their respective controls, on the other hand, levels of translated products and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were decreased in hypothyroid rats of all age groups as compared to their respective control rats. SOD1 activity remained unchanged in persistent (PTU-treatment from birth to 90days old) hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid. However, a decreased activity of SOD1 was recorded in transient (PTU-treatment from birth to 30days then withdrawal till 90days old) hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. The mRNA level, protein expression and activity of SOD2 and CAT were significantly decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid rats. The activity of GPx was significantly increased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to euthyroid rats. The present study indicates modulation of antioxidant defence status of rat kidney during postnatal development and maturation by hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  11. Polyamines in spermatocytes and residual bodies of rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Fujiwara, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    strongly suggest that the small bodies correspond to the residual bodies, and agree with previous results showing localization of PAs to ribosomes in neurons and gastrointestinal epithelial cells. The accumulation of PAs in residual bodies may reflect a termination of their role in spermiogenesis...

  12. Identification of testis-relevant genes using in silico analysis from testis ESTs and cDNA microarray in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsurawat Thidathip

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. Understanding molecular mechanisms governing reproductive maturation processes requires the fundamental knowledge of integrated expression profiles in gonads of this economically important species. In P. monodon, a non-model species for which the genome sequence is not available, expressed sequence tag (EST and cDNA microarray analyses can help reveal important transcripts relevant to reproduction and facilitate functional characterization of transcripts with important roles in male reproductive development and maturation. Results In this study, a conventional testis EST library was exploited to reveal novel transcripts. A total of 4,803 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed in silico using a customizable data analysis package, ESTplus. After sequence assembly, 2,702 unique sequences comprised of 424 contigs and 2,278 singletons were identified; of these, 1,133 sequences are homologous to genes with known functions. The sequences were further characterized according to gene ontology categories (41% biological process, 24% molecular function, 35% cellular component. Through comparison with EST libraries of other tissues of P. monodon, 1,579 transcripts found only in the testis cDNA library were identified. A total of 621 ESTs have not been identified in penaeid shrimp. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed several ESTs homologous to testis-relevant genes were more preferentially expressed in testis than in ovary. Representatives of these transcripts, homologs of saposin (PmSap and Dmc1 (PmDmc1, were further characterized by RACE-PCR. The more abundant expression levels in testis than ovary of PmSap and PmDmc1 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR in juveniles and wild broodstock of P. monodon. Conclusions Without a genome sequence, a

  13. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2009-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digita...

  14. Development of obesity in Zucker obese (fafa) rat in absence of hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, M P; Vasselli, J R; Greenwood, M R

    1980-03-01

    The free-feeding, genetically obese rat is hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and hypertriglyceridemic and has increased fat cell size and number compared to its lean littermate. These experiments demonstrate that, when fafa rats are prevented from expressing hyperphagia throughout life, the complete obese "syndrome" still develops. Furthermore, life-long food restriction does not prevent increased lipoprotein lipase in the fafa rat. The data support the concept that a peripheral metabolic adaptation, probably in lipid metabolism, results in preferential shunting of dietary substrate in the restricted obese rats to adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in other tissues.

  15. Glycine receptor subunits expression in the developing rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Salceda, Rocío

    2017-09-01

    Glycine receptor (GlyR) consists of two α (1-4) and three β subunits. Considerable evidence indicates that the adult retina expresses the four types of α subunits; however, the proportion of these subunits in adult and immature retina is almost unknown. In this report we have studied mRNA and the protein expression of GlyR subunits in the retina during postnatal rat development by Real-Time qRT-PCR and western blot. mRNA and protein expression indicated a gradual increase of the α1, α3, α4 and β GlyR subunits during postnatal ages tested. The mRNA β subunit showed higher expression levels (∼3 fold) than those observed for the α1 and α3 subunits. Very interestingly, the α2 GlyR subunit had the highest expression in the retina, even in the adult. These results revealed the expression of GlyR at early postnatal ages, supporting its role in retina development. In addition, our results indicated that the adult retina expressed a high proportion of the α2 subunit, suggesting the expression of monomeric and/or heteromeric receptors. A variety of studies are needed to further characterize the role of the specific subunits in both adult and immature retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tartrazine and the developing nervous system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, T J; Brodie, R E; Spaid, S L

    1977-05-01

    Rat dams were exposed to the artificial food color tartrazine (FD&C Yellow no. 5) at dietary levels of 0, 1, and 2% during gestation and lactation. The experimental offspring were continued on the same diets for approximately 3 months after weaning. No adverse physical or behavioral effects were noted in the dams. Fetal development and postnatal viability of the offspring were also normal. The only effect on postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) was a small transient change in neuromotor clinging ability of female offspring. The limited effect of tartrazine on the CNS was further evidenced by the facts that (1) the neurobehavioral profiles of the experimental weanlings revealed no significant abnormalities, and (2) morphochemical analysis of brain tissue, as well as brain weights, revealed no abnormalities. Tartrazine did appear to exert more general signs of toxicity in the offspring--namely, depressed body weight, an apparent reduction in thymus weight, and a slight elevation of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  17. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  18. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N

    1998-01-01

    The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats....

  19. EFFECT OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES ON REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE FEMALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three triazole fungicides were evaluated for effects on female rat reproductive development. Rats were exposed via feed to propiconazole (P) (100, 500, or 2500 ppm), myclobutanil (M) (100, 500, or 2000 ppm), or triadimefon (T) (100, 500, or 1800 ppm) from gestation day 6 to postn...

  20. Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The blood-testis barrier (BTB is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs, adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs. Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives.

  1. Metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer in cryptorchid testis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampa, Mario; Battaglia, Luigi; Caprotti, Andrea; Gazzano, Giacomo; Prestianni, Pierpaolo; Muscarà, Cecilia; Vannelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Isolated testicular metastasis from colorectal cancer is considered an unusual event. In this case report we describe for the first time a metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon to a cryptorchid testis. The patient developed a painless testicular nodule three years after the diagnosis of primary sigmoid colon cancer. Recent reports have suggested that the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities in human males has increased over the past 50 years; in particular, cryptorchid testes increase the clinical risk factors for primary or metastatic testicular cancer. In conclusion, there should be awareness of the risk of metastasis of colorectal cancer to the testis in the workup of patients with testicular symptoms. Furthermore, patients with colorectal cancer and cryptorchidism should be managed with a single surgical intervention: when the primary colorectal tumor is removed, the cryptorchid testicle should also be removed to reduce the risk of late metastases.

  2. Metabolism of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Rat Testis : Expression and regulation of delta5-desaturase, delta6-desaturase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 and the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, delta and gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In mammalian cells essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are converted to longer PUFAs by alternating steps of elongation and desaturation. In contrast to other PUFA-rich tissues, the testis is continuously drained of these fatty acids, as spermatozoa are transported to the epididymis. Alteration of the germ cell lipid profile from spermatogonia to condensing spermatids and mature spermatozoa had been described prior to this work, but the male gonadal gene expression of the desaturase...

  3. Relationship between blood-retinal barrier development and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between development of blood-retinal barrier and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat. METHODS: Activity of GPx, MDA level in lens and selenium content in the eyeballs of different ages rats were determined. Besides, lanthanum hydroxide \\〖La(OH3\\〗 tracer method was used to detect development status of blood-retina barrier at different ages. RESULTS: The result showed that the enzyme activity of GPx was highest in young rats before open eyes, but then decreased gradually with age. Distribution of La(OH3 in retinal pigment epithelial layer of 20-day-old rats was significantly less than 11-day-old rats. Injecting sodium selenite to 9-day-old rats, lanthanum hydroxide increased obviously and extended to the inner layers of the retina after 48h, and the retinal pigment epithelial layer was damaged seriously; while injecting sodium selenite to 18-day-old rats with the same dose, number of lanthanum hydroxide decreased significantly and did not extend to the inner layer after 48h.Before opening eyes, the content of MDA in the lens of rats was the highest, and decreased significantly after opening eyes. The Se group was 5 times as that of the control group. Besides, in these groups of rats, selenium content in the eyeballs and MDA level in the lens were in agreement with the change of La(OH3 distribution. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that antioxidant capacity in the eyelid unopened rats is not the main reason for selenite induced cataract formation. The real reason is that blood-retina barrier development is not mature in the eyelid unopened rats.

  4. Thallium distribution in organs and brain regions of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Arzate, S; Ríos, C

    1994-05-31

    The concentration of thallium in body organs and brain regions was studied in rats as a function of the animals age from newborn to 20-days old. Thallium was analyzed at different times after a single sublethal i.p. injection of the metal (16 mg/kg). The results indicate that the brain is less permeable to thallium in the older animals, suggesting that reduced thallium transport into the brain is related to the establishment of the blood-brain barrier in the rats. Differences between weanling and newborn rats were also found in regard to regional distribution of thallium in the brain as the older animals showed a region-dependent distribution while newborn rats presented an homogeneous content of thallium among all regions.

  5. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jayoung Jeong,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, South Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea; 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+ NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+ NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%; resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after

  6. Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents. Approximately 20% of cryptorchid testicles are nonpalpable. In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present data concerning 90 patients submitted to diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testicles. Forty-six patients (51.1% had intra-abdominal gonads. In 25 testicles of 19 patients, we performed a two stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The other 27 patients underwent primary laparoscopic orchiopexy, in a total of 29 testicles. RESULTS: We obtained an overall 88% success rate with the 2 stage Fowler-Stephens approach and only 33% rate success using one stage Fowler-Stephens surgery with primary vascular ligature. There was no intraoperative complication in our group of patients. In the laparoscopic procedures, the cosmetic aspect is remarkably more favorable as compared to open surgeries. Hospital stay and convalescence were brief. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric age group, the laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible. Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.

  7. Hypothyroidism alters antioxidant defence system in rat brainstem during postnatal development and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Bhanja, Shravani

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate alterations in oxidative stress parameter [lipid peroxidation (LPx)] and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in rat brainstem in response to neonatal hypothyroidism during development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30 days old) and adulthood (90 days old). Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25 days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05 % [6-n-propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU)] in drinking water. Increased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of 7 days old hypothyroid rats, accompanied by augmented activities of SOD and GPx. In 15 and 30 days old hypothyroid rat brainstem, a significant decline in LPx was observed. Significantly increased activities of CAT and GPx were observed in 15 and 30 days PTU-treated rats. Decreased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of rats treated with PTU from birth to 30 days followed by withdrawal up to 90 days of age (transient hypothyroidism) as compared to control and persistent treatment of PTU up to 90 days of age. Activities of CAT and GPx were decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats of 90 days old with respect to control and transient hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, SOD activity was decreased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. These results suggest that the PTU-induced neonatal hypothyroidism modulates the antioxidant defence system during postnatal development and adulthood in brainstem of rats.

  8. [Immune proteasomes in the development of rat immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, Ia D; Lyupina, Iu V; Astakhova, T M; Stepanova, A A; Erokhov, P A; Abramova, E B; Sharova, N P

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the expression of LMP7 and LMP2 proteasome subunits in embryonic and early postnatal development of rat spleen and liver is investigated in comparison with the dynamics of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like proteasome activities and expression of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I molecules. The immune subunits LMP7 and LMP2 distribution in spleen and liver cells in the development process is also studied. A mutual for both organs tendency to the increase of the expression of both LMP7 subunit and LMP2 one on P21 (the 21st postnatal day) as compared to the embryonic period is discovered. However, the total proteasome level is shown to be constant. At definite development stages, the dynamics of immune subunits expression in the spleen and liver was different. In the spleen gradual enhancement of both immune subunits level being detected on P1, P18 and P21, in the liver gradual enhancement periods on E16 (the 16th embryonic day) and E18 changed to the stage of the shrink of immune subunits level on P5. This level did not reliably change till P18 and was augmented on P21. The alterations revealed were accompanied by chymotrypsin-like activity raise and caspase-like activity drop in spleen by P21 as compared with the embryonic period, which proves the enlargement of proteasome ability to form antigenic epitopes for MHC class I molecules. In the liver, both activities increased by P21 in comparison with the embryonic period. Such dynamics of caspase-like activity can be explained not only by the change of proteolytic constitutive and immune subunits, but also by additional regulatory mechanisms. Besides, it is discovered that the increment of immune subunits expression in the early spleen development is connected with the process of successive forming the white pulp by B- and T-lymphocytes enriched by immune subunits. In the liver, the growth of immune subunits level by P21 was accompanied by their expression expansion in hepatocytes, while

  9. Long-term testicular volume after orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn M; Zijp, Gerda W; Froeling, Frank M J A; van der Voort-Doedens, Laszla M; Meij-de Vries, Annebeth; Goede, Joery; Hack, Wilfried W M

    2013-07-01

    We studied long-term outcomes of orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes using ultrasound to determine testicular volume. Patients who had undergone orchiopexy for acquired undescended testis at diagnosis were recruited to assess testicular volume. Testis volume was measured by ultrasound and compared with recently developed normative values for testicular size. For young adults (older than 18 years) volumes were grouped and compared to normative values reported in the literature. In all unilateral cases testicular volume was compared with its counterpart. A total of 155 patients 5.1 to 26.6 years old (181 acquired undescended testes) were included in the study. Mean ± SD followup was 6.6 ± 3.8 years (range 1.4 to 15.5). For all patients 18 years old or younger (125 patients, 143 testes) operated testis volume was 0.1 to 12.7 ml (mean ± SD 2.5 ± 2.9), which was significantly smaller than the normative values (50th percentile) for the same age (p <0.001). Mean ± SD testis volume in young adults (38 testes) was 8.1 ± 3.7 ml, compared to a mean volume of 13.4 ml reported in the literature (p <0.001). In unilateral cases the mean volume of the testes fixed by orchiopexy differed significantly from their counterparts (3.4 ± 3.3 ml vs 4.6 ± 4.6 ml, p <0.001). The long-term volumes at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes after orchiopexy were significantly less than the normative values at all ages. In unilateral cases the volumes were also significantly less compared to the contralateral testes. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of primary vaginal hydrocoele of testis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Anwar, W.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis is a common condition which is primarily treated surgically. Many patients with Hydrocoele of testis are either not willing or are unfit for surgery. This study was done to know the safety, efficacy and out come of tetracycline induced sclerotherapy of Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults. This quasi experimental study was done in Shahina Jamil Hospital, attached with Frontier Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March 2006 to April, 2007. Thirty-seven patients with primary vaginal hydrocoele were included in the study. Aspiration and instillation of Tetracycline was done after spermatic cord block with 2% lignocaine. Procedure time, Peri and Post-procedure complications, number of injections for cure and patients satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Patients were discharged home 3 to 4 hours after the procedure and followed up after one week, one month, three months and six months. Direct admission and re-admissions were recorded. The mean age of patients was 47 years. Mean procedure time was 45 minutes. All patients were cured. Mild postoprocedure pain occurred in 12 (40%), moderate pain in 14 (46%) patients and severe pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. No patient developed haematoma or local infection. One patient (3.3%) had micturition problem. Two (6.6%) patients had minimal recurrence. One injection was sufficient for cure in all patients, 28 (93%) patients were satisfied while 2 (6.6%) patients were not satisfied with this procedure. No patient was admitted in the hospital after the procedure. Aspiration and injection of tetracycline in Primary vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults is safe, effective and very economical procedure. (author)

  11. Undescended testis: how extensive should the work up be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Altaf Hussain; Baba, Aejaz Ahsan; Gupta, Shyam Kumar; Gupta, Geetanjali; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD) from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52%) cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30%) had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18%) had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%), hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each), horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each) Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4%) and spina bifida (0.4%). On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or ultrasound findings.

  12. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shera Altaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. Results: A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52% cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30% had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18% had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%, hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each, horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4% and spina bifida (0.4%. On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Conclusion: We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or

  13. Contralateral testicular biopsy in testis cancer: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Axel

    2009-11-01

    Of all patients with unilateral testis cancer, approximately 5% harbour testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in their contralateral testicle that will progress into an invasive germ cell tumour over time. The accurate diagnosis of TIN by a random two-site surgical testis biopsy and effective therapy by local radiation has led to the concept of a contralateral screening biopsy in all patients with testis cancer. However, screening and preventive treatment are only indicated if the therapeutic outcome of the screened population is improved, and the physiological function of the affected organ is not impaired. Based on a critical review of previous reports, some drawbacks of this policy have to be considered and question the routine indication for contralateral testis biopsy: (i) all TIN-negative patients still have to undergo meticulous follow-up for metachronous testis cancer due to a false negative biopsy rate of 0.5-1.0%; (ii) local radiation of TIN results in irreversible infertility due to eradication of spermatogenesis; (iii) local radiation of TIN results in an impairment of endocrine Leydig cell function in 25% of the patients; (iv) therapeutic outcome and prognosis will not be improved in irradiated patients as compared to patients on surveillance; (v) local tumour resection for the management of metachronous testicular cancer represents an effective and viable option. Current reports do not support the strategy of contralateral testis biopsy in all patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumours. According to the recommendations of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group, a testis biopsy might be offered to high-risk patients for contralateral TIN (testicular volume <12 mL, history of cryptorchidism, age <30 years).

  14. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  15. Regulation of blood-testis barrier assembly in vivo by germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Qian; Sun, Tie-Cheng; Li, Jian; Tang, Ji-Xin; Batool, Alia; Deng, Shou-Long; Chen, Su-Ren; Cheng, C Yan; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-01-03

    The assembly of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) during postnatal development is crucial to support meiosis. However, the role of germ cells in BTB assembly remains unclear. Herein, Kit W /Kit WV mice were used as a study model. These mice were infertile, failing to establish a functional BTB to support meiosis due to c-Kit mutation. Transplantation of undifferentiated spermatogonia derived from normal mice into the testis of Kit W /Kit WV mice triggered functional BTB assembly, displaying cyclic remodeling during the epithelial cycle. Also, transplanted germ cells were capable of inducing Leydig cell testosterone production, which could enhance the expression of integral membrane protein claudin 3 in Sertoli cells. Early spermatocytes were shown to play a vital role in directing BTB assembly by expressing claudin 3, which likely created a transient adhesion structure to mediate BTB and cytoskeleton assembly in adjacent Sertoli cells. In summary, the positive modulation of germ cells on somatic cell function provides useful information regarding somatic-germ cell interactions.-Li, X.-Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X.-X., Jin, C., Wang, Y.-Q., Sun, T.-C., Li, J., Tang, J.-X., Batool, A., Deng, S.-L., Chen, S.-R., Cheng, C. Y., Liu, Y.-X. Regulation of blood-testis barrier assembly in vivo by germ cells.

  16. Tudor Domain Containing Protein TDRD12 Expresses at the Acrosome of Spermatids in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tdrd12 is one of tudor domain containing (Tdrd family members. However, the expression pattern of Tdrd12 has not been well studied. To compare the expression levels of Tdrd12 in various tissues, real time-polymerase chain reaction was performed using total RNAs from liver, small intestine, heart, brain, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, uterus, ovary, and testis. Tdrd12 mRNA was highly expressed in testis. Antibody against mouse TDRD12 were generated using amino acid residues SQRPNEKPLRLTEKKDC of TDRD12 to investigate TDRD12 localization in testis. Immunostaining assay shows that TDRD12 is mainly localized at the spermatid in the seminiferous tubules of adult testes. During postnatal development, TDRD12 is differentially expressed. TDRD12 was detected in early spermatocytes at 2 weeks and TDRD12 was localized at acrosome of the round spermatids. TDRD12 expression was not co-localized with TDRD1 which is an important component of piRNA pathway in germ cells. Our results indicate that TDRD12 may play an important role in spermatids and function as a regulator of spermatogenesis in dependent of TDRD1.

  17. Influence of age and immunization on development of gingivitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekic, P; Klausen, B; Friis-Hasché, E

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of age and antigenic priming on the development of gingivitis, 33 healthy rats were placed in contact with Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides gingivalis. On days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after inoculation, the gingival condition...... was judged clinically and histologically, and serum antibody titers against the bacteria were measured. The rats were divided into three groups: 1 month old, 3 months old, and 3 months old immunized. None of the young rats developed gingivitis during the experiment, whereas half of the adult and all...

  18. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  19. Development of rat visual system after prenatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Biesold, D.; Mares, V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pregnant for 16 or 19 days (ED 16 or 19) were irradiated with 1 Gy and killed after 24 hrs or at age 24 or 180 days. The primary influence of X-rays consists in a lethal lesion of cells located in the periventricular zone as well as some of the more differentiated cells in the brain parenchyma. After irradiation on ED 16, the acute damage was greater in the cerebral cortex and the superior colliculus (SC) than in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Irradiation on ED 19 damaged mainly the cortical part of the visual system. In adult animals the acute radiation damage results in a deficit in packing density and the total number of neurons. Animals irradiated on ED 16 revealed more pronounced changes in deep layers of the cortex (L VI) than in the superficial layers. The deficit was smaller in the SC, and in the LGN an increase in the packing density of nerve cells was found. In animals irradiated on ED 19, the deficit in neurons density occurred mainly in more superficial layers of the cortex, with a maximum deficit in layer IV. From comparison of acute and final changes it may be concluded that the damage of preneuroblastic cell populations is compensated during later embryonic development, while the damage induced in populations already at early neuroblast stage is irreversible and leads to a permanent deficit. Glia cell population is altered in a similar way as the number of neurons in regions poor in myelin, while in regions rich in myelin the number of glia cells seems to depend on changes in the number of efferent and afferent nerve fibres. (author)

  20. DDX4-EGFP transgenic rat model for the study of germline development and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassei, Kathrin; Sheng, Yi; Fayomi, Adetunji; Mital, Payal; Sukhwani, Meena; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Peters, Karen A; Althouse, Andrew; Valli, Hanna; Orwig, Kyle E

    2017-03-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. In addition, these adult tissue stem cells can be used as vehicles for germline modification in animal models and may have application for treating male infertility. To facilitate the investigation of SSCs and germ lineage development in rats, we generated a DEAD-box helicase 4 (DDX4) (VASA) promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter transgenic rat. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence confirmed that EGFP was expressed in the germ cells of the ovaries and testes and was absent in somatic cells and tissues. Germ cell transplantation demonstrated that the EGFP-positive germ cell population from DDX4-EGFP rat testes contained SSCs capable of establishing spermatogenesis in experimentally infertile mouse recipient testes. EGFP-positive germ cells could be easily isolated by fluorescence-activated cells sorting, while simultaneously removing testicular somatic cells from DDX4-EGFP rat pup testes. The EGFP-positive fraction provided an optimal cell suspension to establish rat SSC cultures that maintained long-term expression of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) and spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4), two markers of mouse SSCs that are conserved in rats. The novel DDX4-EGFP germ cell reporter rat described here combined with previously described GCS-EGFP rats, rat SSC culture and gene editing tools will improve the utility of the rat model for studying stem cells and germ lineage development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  1. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Expression and location of α-fetoprotein during rat colon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Sun, Peng; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development. METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development. PMID:19360917

  3. Differential effects of bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on human, rat and mouse fetal leydig cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry N'Tumba-Byn

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (ED have been incriminated in the current increase of male reproductive alterations. Bisphenol A (BPA is a widely used weak estrogenic environmental ED and it is debated whether BPA concentrations within the average internal exposure are toxic. In the present study we investigated the effects of 10(-12 to 10(-5 M BPA concentrations on fetal Leydig cell function, as fetal life is a critical period of sensitivity to ED effects on male reproductive function. To this aim, fetal testes from human at 6.5-10.5 gestational weeks (GW or from rat and mouse at a comparable critical period of development (14.5 days post-coitum (dpc for rat and 12.5 dpc for mouse were explanted and cultured using our validated organotypic culture system in the presence or absence of BPA for 1-3 days. BPA concentrations as low as 10(-8 M reduced testosterone secretion by human testes from day 1 of culture onwards, but not by mouse and rat testes where concentrations equal to 10(-5 M BPA were required. Similarly, 10(-8 M BPA reduced INSL3 mRNA levels only in human cultured testes. On the contrary, 10(-5 and 10(-6 M diethylstilbestrol (DES, a classical estrogenic compound, affected testosterone secretion only in rat and mouse testis cultures, but not in human testis cultures. Lastly, contrarily to the DES effect, the negative effect of BPA on testosterone produced by the mouse fetal testis was maintained after invalidation of estrogen receptor α (ERα. In conclusion, these results evidenced i a deleterious effect of BPA on fetal Leydig cells function in human for concentrations from 10(-8 M upwards, ii species-specific differences raising concerns about extrapolation of data from rodent studies to human risk assessment, iii a specific signaling pathway for BPA which differs from the DES one and which does not involve ERα.

  4. Comparative study of the effects of pre and post natal administration of a thyroid drug on testicular activity in adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadj-Bekkouche

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in growth and development of rat testes with a specific effect on the differentiation of Sertoli cells leading to a normal evolution of germ cells. In the present study, we aimed to compare the effect of induced hypothyroidism during fetal and post-natal life on the structure and function of the testis in adult. Pregnant or lactating mothers were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU during 21 days and weight gain of pups was steady until adult age. Plasma hormonal levels were determined by RIA and morphology of testis was studied on sections stained with Masson's trichrome. Pre and early post natal hypothyroidism resulted in an impairment of body development and a diminution of thyroid hormone levels of treated rats. No significant effect on testicular development has been observed when hypothyroidism is induced in fetal life while it was associated with reduction in testis weight, diameter of seminiferous tubules and hormonal levels and delay in maturation of germ cells, when induced during early post natal life.

  5. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  6. [The effect of probiotic therapy on development of experimental obesity in rats caused by monosodium glutamate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheniuk, O A; Virchenko, O V; Falalieieva, T M; Beregova, T V; Babenko, L P; Lazarenko, L M; Spivak, M Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of probiotic strains (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB) on the development of experimental obesity in rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate has been studied. It was shown that in rats of 4 months age, the injection of monosodium glutamate (4 mg/g) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days after birth elicited abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. An intermittent administration of a probiotic mixture to rats treated with monosodium prevented the development of obesity. In the group of rats treated with probiotics, anthropometric parameters (weight and body length, Lee index, body mass index) did not differ from the level of intact rats. Visceral fat mass was decreased by probiotics by 38.5% (P < 0.05) compared to rats treated with water. Probiotics improved lipid metabolism: reduced the level of VLDL by 32.2% (P < 0,05), the level of LDL by 30.6% (P < 0.05), increased HDL by 25.7% (P <0,05) compared to obese control rats. Probiotic strains restored the secretion of adipocytes hormones (leptin and adiponectin) to the normal level of intact animals. The results show the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention of obesity.

  7. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  8. Ascending testis after repair of pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele: A misunderstood operative complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Furan; Zhong, Hongji; Zhao, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Ascending testis (AT) is a rare complication after repair of an inguinal hernia/hydrocele. However, there has been some controversy concerning the AT following laparoscopic and open procedures. To review the experience of, and discuss the associated mechanisms with, testicular ascent after pediatric inguinal hernia/hydrocele surgery. A retrospective review of the medical records of male children who underwent inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair at the present hospital between January 2000 and December 2014. Those who underwent subsequent orchiopexies due to ipsilateral cryptorchidism were identified. The ATs that were misdiagnosed, caused by improper operation, and retractile testes were excluded. The Poisson distribution evaluated the incidences of subgroups. A total of 17,295 inguinal hernias and hydroceles were repaired on 12,849 males; of whom, 10 testes (0.058%) developed ATs on nine individuals postoperatively (Summary Table). The difference of AT incidences between subgroups was insignificant (P > 0.05), except for that grouped by the age at initial operation (cutoff = 1 year, P = 0.008; cutoff = 2 years, P = 0.012). During orchiopexy, extensive adhesions were found in the inguinal canal only in the two cases following open repair. The hernia sac/processus vaginalis remained intact in the canal of AT after laparoscopic repair, and partial after open herniotomy. It was generally assumed that testicular ascent after repair of an inguinal hernia/hydrocele was caused by adhesion of the spermatic cord. However, the cord was not dissected during laparoscopic procedure, so adhesion was not the major reason for AT following laparoscopic surgery. The sac/processus were partially excised during open repair, but kept intact in laparoscopic procedure. Therefore, remnants of the sac/processus might play a greater role in postoperative testicular ascent than adhesions. Furthermore, it was found that AT incidence after the repair was not higher than that in 'normal

  9. Embryo development alteration in rats treated with lapachol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maganha

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Lapachol, a naphthoquinone extracted from plants of the genus Tabebuia (family Bignoneaceae, showed multiple therapeutic activities. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with Lapachol from the 1st to the 4th (pre-implantation period and from 5th to 7th (implantation period post insemination day (PID. Mothers were sacrificed on the 5th or on the15th PID. Number of corpora lutea, preimplantation embryo, blastocysts, live and dead fetuses and resorptions were counted. There were no signs of maternal toxicity. The number and the morphology of embryos, during oviduct development (pre-implantation period, did not seem to be affected by this drug, but during the implantation period, lapachol was toxic causing the death of embryos and intrauterine growth retardation.O Lapachol é uma naftoquinona, extraída de plantas do gênero Tabebuia (família Bignoneaceae, que apresenta múltiplas atividades terapêuticas. Estudos prévios sobre o efeito do lapachol no início do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratas são controversos. No presente trabalho ratas Wistar prenhes foram tratadas com lapachol do 1º ao 4º dias pós-inseminação (período de pré-implantação e do 5º ao 7º dias (período de implantação do blastocisto. As mães foram sacrificadas no 5º o e no 15º dia pós-inseminação. Contaram-se corpos lúteos, embriões em fase de pré-implantação, blastocistos, fetos vivos e mortos e reabsorções.Fetos e placentas foram pesados. Não ocorreram indícios de toxicidade materna.O número e a morfologia dos embriões durante o desenvolvimento tubário não foi afetado pela droga, mas durante o período de implantação o lapachol foi tóxico, causando morte de embriões e retardo de crescimento intra-uterino.

  10. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D.

    2009-01-01

    With skill and ability to control a variety of operative techniques, undescended testes can be placed in the scrotum with 90% success rate in palpable testes and 85% in abdominal testes. Long term results are related also to the variability of the disease. A hypothesis that in cryptorchid testes...... number at birth in some cryptorchid testes and Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia seen in early childhood. The hypothesis that the abnormal location of the testis exposes the testis to infertility and malignant transformation is supported by the findings of early treatment lowering the risk of both...

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  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no......) were found. Generally, the effects were most marked in the female offspring....

  12. Effect of riboflavin defficiency on dentoalveolar tissue development in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Delgadillo, Juana; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas. Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayala, Guido; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Dinámicas. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine histomorphological changes in jaw dentoalveolar tissue in a progeny of albino rats fed with diets containing different concentrations of riboflavin (B2) and equivalent concentrations of other nutrients, during gestation and lactation and until 28 days of birth. Design: Experimental, longitudinal and analytical. Setting: Alberto Guzman Barron Biochemistry and Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biologic m...

  13. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2000-01-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  14. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  15. The effect of prenatal exposure to diazepam on aspects of postnatal development and behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, N; Grimm, V E

    1982-01-01

    In the present study the effects of chronic treatment of pregnant rats with diazepam on the physical and behavioral development of their offspring were investigated. Rats that were diazepam-exposed prenatally were compared to age-matched controls in terms of the following: number of littermates; birth weight and weight gain until weaning: motor development and coordination; simple motor learning; open field activity; performance on learning tasks of varying complexity; retention of these tasks. Nulliparous Wistar rats were injected s.c. for 16 days of their pregnancy was either 2.5, 5, of 10 mg/kg diazepam or an equal volume of vehicle. Prenatal diazepam treatment did not alter litter size, birth weight, or the righting reflex, but seemed to retard early motor development transiently. Diazepam pups showed longer latencies and less rearing in the open field. There were no differences between animals exposed to drug and vehicle in simple motor learning or in acquiring a simple successive discrimination task. However, there were significant dose-dependent differences on a complex six-choice simultaneous discrimination learning task, the diazepam-exposed rats making more errors and taking more time to reach the goal. A significant difference was seen again between diazepam- and vehicle-exposed rats on the retention test 10 days later. The results indicate that diazepam administered to pregnant rats has long-range effects on the behavior of the offspring, some becoming manifest even in maturity.

  16. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  17. Sexual dimorphism in development of kidney damage in aging Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Jennifer M; Akinsiku, Oladele; Moningka, Natasha C; Jerzewski, Katie; Baylis, Chris; LeBlanc, Amanda J; Kang, Lori S; Sindler, Amy L; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2012-08-01

    Aging kidneys exhibit slowly developing injury and women are usually protected compared with men, in association with maintained renal nitric oxide. Our purpose was to test 2 hypotheses: (1) that aging intact Fischer-344 (F344) female rats exhibit less glomerular damage than similarly aged males, and (2) that loss of female ovarian hormones would lead to greater structural injury and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in aging F344 rat kidneys. We compared renal injury in F344 rats in intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen replaced young (6 month) and old (24 month) female rats with young and old intact male rats and measured renal protein abundance of NOS isoforms and oxidative stress. There was no difference in age-dependent glomerular damage between young or old intact male and female F344 rats, and neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement affected renal injury; however, tubulointerstitial injury was greater in old males than in old females. These data suggest that ovarian hormones do not influence these aspects of kidney aging in F344 rats and that the greater tubulointerstitial injury is caused by male sex. Old males had greater kidney cortex NOS3 abundance than females, and NOS1 abundance (alpha and beta isoforms) was increased in old males compared with both young males and old females. NOS abundance was preserved with age in intact females, ovariectomy did not reduce NOS1 or NOS3 protein abundance, and estrogen replacement did not uniformly elevate NOS proteins, suggesting that estrogens are not primary regulators of renal NOS abundance in this strain. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent superoxide production and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in aging male rat kidneys compared with females, which could compromise renal nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability. The kidney damage expressed in aging F344 rats is fairly mild and is not related to loss of renal cortex NOS3

  18. Environment, testicular dysgenesis and carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inge A; Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    the hormonal milieu of the developing gonad are the endocrine disrupters. A prenatal exposure to commonly used chemicals, e.g. phthalates, may result in a TDS-like phenotype in rats. Currently, this animal model is the best model for TDS. In humans the situation is much more complex, and TDS exists in a wide...

  19. Effects of amphetamine and cocaine on the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, María J; Balboa, José; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; Brenlla, Julio; González-Peteiro, Mercedes; Rodrigo, Elena; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    The present experiment deals with the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on the development and course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats. Rats were immunized at the age of eight weeks with purified myelin basic protein isolated from guinea pig brain in complete Freund's adjuvant. Drug administration and recording of EAE clinical signs was performed daily since day 1 post-immunization (PI). On day 14 and 28 PI, six rats per group were bled and sacrificed. Spinal cord was examined histologically for EAE lesions. In vivo administration of 0.5 and 1 mg/Kg of amphetamine or cocaine resulted in a dose-related enhancement of neurological and histological signs of acute EAE in comparison with control rats. Both drugs caused a reduction of latent period together with a delayed regression of neurological signs along with an increase in inflammation in the central nervous system in comparison with placebo. Human & Experimental Toxicology (2007) 26, 637-643.

  20. Free radical activity during development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, O.M.; Akerblom, H.K.; Sariola, H.; Andersson, S.M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Martin, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Hallman, M. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation was quantified by measuring expired pentane from diabetic prone BB Wistar rats of 45-90 d of age. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was manifest at the age of 71 {plus minus} 8 d. Expired pentane increased from 2.1 {plus minus} 0.7 to 5.0 {plus minus}3.0 pmol/100g/min (p <0.01) at manifestation of the disease and remained high throughout the test period. In healthy age-matched control rats it persisted low. In rats made diabetic with streptozotocin, expired pentane remained low. The changes in expired pentane suggest that the development of endogenous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity. This is not due to hyperglycemia or ketosis per se, and reflects a fundamental difference in the free radical activity between the spontaneously diabetic BB rats and the disease produced by streptozotocin. Development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity that persists after the manifestation of the disease.

  1. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is active in pancreatic development of rat embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Kai-Ming; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun

    2006-04-28

    To elucidate the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in pancreatic development of rat embryo. The mRNAs of beta-catenin, APC, cyclin D1 genes were amplified by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from embryonic pancreas in different periods and normal pancreas of rat, respectively. Protein expression of these genes in embryonic pancreas of E14.5-E18.5 was examined by immunohistochemical method. In embryonic pancreas of E14.5, the transcript amplification of beta-catenin and cyclinD1 genes was detected. In embryonic pancreas of E18.5, the transcription levels of beta-catenin and cyclinD1 genes became much higher than in other periods. But in adult rat pancreas the transcription of cyclinD1 gene could not be observed. Only until E18.5, the transcript amplification of mRNA of APC gene could be detected. Surprisingly, the transcription level of APC gene became much higher in adult rat pancreas than in embryonic pancreas. By means of immunohistochemical staining, identical results were obtained to the above by RP-PCR, except for beta-catenin protein in adult rat pancreas. Active Wnt/beta-catenin signaling occurs in rat embryonic pancreas and is probably important for pancreatic development and organ formation.

  2. Coexpression of nuclear receptors and histone methylation modifying genes in the testis: implications for endocrine disruptor modes of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods.

  3. Experiences with surgical management of undescended testis at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative risk of testicular cancer in an undescended testis is between 2.75 to 8 that of a normal male. The risk appears higher in patients with bilateral UDT and late (after age of 12) or uncorrected UDT (David & Iyekoretin,. 2008). Previous studies have estimated that an UDT increases the risk of testicular torsion by 10.

  4. Primary Plasmacytoma of The Testis with no Evidence of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmacytomas of the testis are extremely rare tumours, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We report a new case of solitary testicular plasmacytoma, with immunohistochemical studies showing monoclonal cytoplasmic production of IgG lambda light chains, ...

  5. Primary Plasmacytoma of The Testis with no Evidence of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    ABSTRACT. Plasmacytomas of the testis are extremely rare tumours, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We report a new case of solitary testicular plasmacytoma, with immunohistochemical studies showing monoclonal cytoplasmic production of IgG lambda ...

  6. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  7. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  8. Asthenoteratozoospermia in mice lacking testis expressed gene 18 (Tex18)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, L.; dev, A.; Li, M.; Meinhardt, A.; de rooij, D. G.; Mueller, Christian; Böhm, Detlef; Wolf, S.; Adham, I. M.; Wulf, G.; Engel, W.; Nayernia, K.

    2007-01-01

    Testis expressed gene 18 (Tex18) is a small gene with one exon of 240 bp, which is specifically expressed in male germ cells. The gene encodes for a protein of 80 amino acids with unknown domain. To investigate the function of (Tex18) gene, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the (Tex18)

  9. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in both children and adoles- cents representing 40% of such tumours in North America and more than 50% in Africa. The involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are generally rare and more so when it is occurring ...

  10. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose We present a classification for the nonpalpable testis (NPT) based on laparoscopic findings and suggest guidelines for the interpretation of these findings. Patients and methods From October 2002 to December 2010, 121 patients with NPT underwent laparoscopy at two tertiary centers of Pediatric surgery in Egypt.

  11. Oxytocin gene expression and action in goat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, T; Nakayama, Y; Tani, H; Tamada, H; Kawate, N; Sawada, T

    1999-08-01

    Gene expression, immunohistochemical localization, binding and effects of oxytocin (OT) on androgen production in the testis of adult goats were studied. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis we were able to detect OT gene transcripts in the goat testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both OT and neurophysin epitopes were expressed together in the intratubular regions, especially in the Sertoli cells, suggesting the production of OT in these cells. However, enzyme immunoassay found no difference in OT concentration between testicular arterial and venous plasma. Saturable, specific [3H]-OT binding sites were present in membrane fractions of the goat testis. Scatchard analysis indicated an apparent affinity of 42 +/- 7 L/nmol and binding capacity of 24 +/- 4 fmol OT bound/mg DNA. In vitro treatment of goat testes for 6 h with 100 nM OT led to a 3.5-fold increase (P conversion to DHT. These results indicate that the goat testis produces OT, which may be involved in the local control of androgen biosynthesis.

  12. Pengaruh Perbedaan Dosis Ekstrak Biji Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas terhadap Jumlah Spermatozoa, Spermatozoa Motil, Berat Testis, dan Diameter Testis pada Mencit Jantan (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakIndonesia menghadapi persoalan kependudukan dan keluarga berencana yang cukup berat, salah satu penyebabnya dikarenakan rendahnya partisipasi pria dalam penggunaan kontrasepsi. Salah satu tanaman yang bersifat antifertilitas adalah jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan dosis ekstrak biji jarak pagar terhadap jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis pada mencit jantan (Mus musculus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design terhadap mencit jantan dengan berat 20–30 gram. Sampel terdiri dari 24 ekor mencit dibagi dalam 3 kelompok P1, P2, dan P3 dengan memberikan ekstrak biji jarak pagar dengan 3 tingkatan dosis selama 36 hari. Hasil penelitian semakin tinggi dosis yang diberikan semakin rendah jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis namun secara statistik tidak terdapat pengaruh yang bermakna pada jumlah spermatozoa p=0,06 dan spermatozoa motil p=0,15 (p > 0,05 dan terdapat pengaruh bermakna pada berat testis p=0,00 dan diameter testis p= 0,00 (p< 0,05.Kesimpulannya pemberian ekstrak biji jarak pagar menurunkan jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis namun secara statistik ekstrak biji jarak pagar tidak terdapat pengaruh yang bermakna terhadap jumlah spermatozoa dan spermatozoa motil dan terdapat pengaruh bermakna terhadap berat testis dan diameter testis.Kata kunci: ekstrak biji jarak pagar, jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis, diameter testis. AbstractIndonesia faces the quite severe problem of population and family planning, one reason is because the low participation of men in the use of contraception. One antifertility plants and are found in Indonesia is jatropha (Jatropha curcas. This study aims to determine the effect of different doses of extract of Jatropha seeds on sperm count, motile of sperm, testis weight and diameter of the testis in male

  13. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Søren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T(4)), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T(4)) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T(4) deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and

  14. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T 4 ), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T 4 ) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T 4 deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and

  15. Quantitative analysis of development and aging of genital corpuscles in glans penis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Mizuho; Hoshi, Hideo; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Ishikawa, Youichi; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Murakami, Kunio; Kishi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present postnatal developmental study was to determine densities of unique genital corpuscles (GCs) in glans penis of developing and aged rats. GCs were identified as corpuscular endings consisting of highly branched and coiled axons with many varicosities, which were immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5. In addition, GCs were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, but not for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y. GCs were not found in the glans penis of 1 week old rats. Densities of GCs were low at 3 weeks, significantly increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak of density at 40 weeks, and tended to decrease at 70 and 100 weeks. Sizes of GCs were small in 3 weeks old rats, increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak-size at 40 weeks and reduced in size at 70 and 100 weeks. Considering sexual maturation of the rat, the results reveal that GCs of the rat begins to develop postnatal and reaches to the peak of their development after puberty and continues to exist until old age, in contrast to prenatal and early postnatal development of other sensory receptors of glabrous skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder to the Testis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old gentleman presented with onset of gross hematuria in September 2010. Follow-up investigations revealed T1 superficially invasive, poorly differentiated, papillary urothelial carcinoma. He subsequently had GreenLight laser for BPH and bladder neck contracture on two occasions. He developed a right hydrocele 16 months after initial presentation and during his hydrocelectomy, a rock-hard right epididymis and testicle were discovered. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma replacing nearly the entire testis with lymphovascular invasion.

  17. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    Cellular interactions in the testis and epididymis are an important prerequisite for spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, and involve a well-developed complex of intercellular junctions. Cadherins are cell surface proteins which mediate intercellular Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion and are believed...... epididymis E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin, was expressed and localized to the surface of the principal epithelial cells as shown by immunohistochemistry. These observations indicate that cadherins play an important role in the organization of the seminiferous and epididymal epithelium....

  18. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  19. Diet composition determines course of hyperphagia in developing Zucker obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Maggio, C A

    1990-12-01

    Previous observations from this laboratory indicate that, during growth, the hyperphagia of the male genetically obese Zucker rat reaches a peak or "breakpoint" and then declines. To examine the effect of dietary macronutrient content on the course of hyperphagia, groups of male lean and obese rats were maintained from 5-28 weeks of age on powdered chow, or isocaloric diets (3.6 kcal/g) containing 72% of calories as corn oil, dextrose, or soy isolate protein (n = 5 lean and obese rats/diet). On chow, hyperphagia was maintained at a level of 7-8 g above lean control intake until a "breakpoint" was reached at 17 weeks, and obese intake declined to lean control level. On the fat diet, hyperphagia was increased to 10 g/day when a breakpoint was reached at 8 weeks. On the dextrose and protein diets, hyperphagia at a level of 3-4 g/day reached breakpoints at weeks 18 and 16, respectively. On all diets, the intakes of obese rats were precisely equal to the intakes of lean control rats by weeks 19-20. These data show that the magnitude and duration of hyperphagia in the developing obese rat are influenced by diet composition. Previously, we have proposed that the obese rat's hyperphagia arises from rapid adipocyte filling. Since high-fat diets facilitate adipocyte enlargement, the early "breakpoint" of hyperphagia seen with the high-fat diet may indicate that this feeding stimulation decreases as the fat cells of the obese rat approach maximal size.

  20. Molecular characterization of a KIF3B-like kinesin gene in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei (Cephalopoda, Octopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ran; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    KIF3B is known for maintaining and assembling cilia and flagellum. To date, the function of KIF3B and its relationship with KIF3A during spermiogenesis in the cephalopod Octopus tankahkeei remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized a gene encoding a homologue of rat KIF3B in the O. tankahkeei testis and examined its temporal and spatial expression pattern during spermiogenesis. The cDNA of KIF3B was obtained with degenerate and RACE PCR and the distribution pattern of ot-kif3b were observed with RT-PCR. The morphological development during spermiogenesis was illustrated by histological and transmission electron microscopy and mRNA expression of ot-kif3b was observed by in situ hybridization. The 2,365 nucleotides cDNA consisted of a 102 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 2,208 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 736 amino acids, and a 55 bp 3' UTR. Multiple alignments revealed that the putative Ot-KIF3B shared 68, 68, 69, 68, and 67% identity with that of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio, and Xenopus laevis, respectively, along with high identities with Ot-KIF3A in fundamental structures. Ot-kif3b transcripts appeared gradually in early spermatids, increased in intermediate spermatids and maximized in drastically remodeled and final spermatids. The kif3b gene is identified and its expression pattern is demonstrated for the first time in O. tankahkeei. Compared to ot-kif3a reported by our laboratory before, our data suggested that the putative heterodimeric motor proteins Ot-KIF3A/B may be involved in intraspermatic transport and might contribute to structural changes during spermiogenesis.

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p...

  2. Maternal undernutrition does not alter Sertoli cell numbers or the expression of key developmental markers in the mid-gestation ovine fetal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luis P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal undernutrition on ovine fetal testis morphology and expression of relevant histological indicators. Maternal undernutrition, in sheep, has been reported, previously, to alter fetal ovary development, as indicated by delayed folliculogenesis and the altered expression of ovarian apoptosis-regulating gene products, at day 110 of gestation. It is not known whether or not maternal undernutrition alters the same gene products in the day 110 fetal testis. Design and methods Mature Scottish Blackface ewes were fed either 100% (Control; C or 50% (low; L of estimated metabolisable energy requirements of a pregnant ewe, from mating to day 110 of gestation. All pregnant ewes were euthanized at day 110 and a sub-set of male fetuses was randomly selected (6 C and 9 L for histology studies designed to address the effect of nutritional state on several indices of testis development. Sertoli cell numbers were measured using a stereological method and Ki67 (cell proliferation index, Bax (pro-apoptosis, Mcl-1 (anti-apoptosis, SCF and c-kit ligand (development and apoptosis gene expression was measured in Bouins-fixed fetal testis using immunohistochemistry. Results No significant differences were observed in numbers of Sertoli cells or testicular Ki67 positive cells. The latter were localised to the testicular cords and interstitium. Bax and Mcl-1 were localised specifically to the germ cells whereas c-kit was localised to both the cords and interstitium. SCF staining was very sparse. No treatment effects were observed for any of the markers examined. Conclusions These data suggest that, unlike in the fetal ovary, maternal undernutrition for the first 110 days of gestation affects neither the morphology of the fetal testis nor the expression of gene products which regulate apoptosis. It is postulated that the effects of fetal undernutrition on testis function may be expressed

  3. Immunomagnetic isolation of fetal rat gonocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham, R.; van Pelt, A. M.; de Miguel, M. P.; van Kooten, P. J.; Walther, N.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM: An efficient method to obtain highly enriched populations of viable gonocytes from rat embryos at Day 18 and Day 20 postcoitum (pc) is described. METHOD: Single-cell suspensions with high cell yield were obtained by a collagenase/ trypsin digestion of the decapsulated testis. The gonocytes

  4. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Roca-Chiapas JM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available José María De la Roca-Chiapas,1 Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero,2 Jorge Antonio Martínez-García,3 Joel Martínez-Soto,1 Víctor Manuel Ramos-Frausto,1 Leivy Patricia González-Ramírez,1 Ken Nowack4 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon-University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3General Regional Hospital of Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico; 4Envisia Learning, Inc., Santa Monica, CA, USA Abstract: Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system's ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20 by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC. The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments. Keywords: breast cancer, corticosterone, isolation condition, psychoneuroimmunology, stress

  5. A New Rat Model of Epileptic Spasms Based on Methylazoxymethanol-Induced Malformations of Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCDs can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12 or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15 or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15 of NMDA. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats with single NMDA-provoked spasms at P15, we obtain the intracranial electroencephalography and examine the pretreatment response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or vigabatrin. Rat pups prenatally exposed to MAM exhibited a significantly greater number of spasms in response to single and multiple postnatal NMDA doses than vehicle-exposed controls. Vigabatrin treatment prior to a single NMDA dose on P15 significantly suppressed spasms in MAM group rats (p < 0.05, while ACTH did not. The MAM group also showed significantly higher fast oscillation (25–100 Hz power during NMDA-induced spasms than controls (p = 0.047. This new model of MCD-based epileptic spasms with corresponding features of human spasms will be valuable for future research of the developmental epilepsy.

  6. Fffects of testosterone propionate on neonatal and prepuberal development of os penis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Kadota, A; Fukunishi, R

    1980-01-01

    Osteogenesis in the penial bone was observed in male rat: immature stromal cells of mesenchymal origin appeared in the penis on the 21st day of fetal age and developed to form mature bony structure with the bonemarrow on or before day 7 after birth; the bone was 1.41 +/- 0.12 mm in length. Neonatal castration caused maldevelopment of the penial bone, while prepuberal treatment with testosterone propionate stimulated the bony growth in castrated immature rat. These results suggest that the stromal cells in penile part of newborn male rats have already been destinated to develop into os penis by fetal exposure to androgen and they do not require androgens for further differentiation but for the bony growth after birth.

  7. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals......, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre...... density. The sensitive endpoints in male rats were TEB numbers, both in the whole gland and in the zone C, the overall‐ and the highest density. The overall density was sensitive in both male and female rats and was considered a good representative of both branching and budding of the gland. The number...

  8. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  9. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  10. [Vimentin and S100 protein in the developing rat dorsal root ganglion cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolos, Ye A; Korzhevskiy, D E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the expression of vimentin, one of the intermediate filament proteins, and S100 protein in the cells of developing dorsal root ganglion in prenatal ontogenesis in Wistar rat embryos (n=22) on 12-19 days of development and in newborn rats (n=6). Immunohistochemical staining methods were used to study the formation of rat dorsal root ganglion glial cells. Vimentin-immunopositive neural and glial progenitor cells were present in dorsal root ganglion primordia in rat embryos at 12-17 prenatal days. At the later stages (day 19 of prenatal life and day 1 of postnatal life) vimentin was found to be synthesized only by the differentiating glial cells. It was shown that at the same time, S100 protein was first detected in the glial cells of rat dorsal root ganglion. On postnatal day 1, the tendency was noted for the accumulation of S100 protein in the larger neurons, that was characteristic to mature dorsal root ganglia.

  11. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  12. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  13. The role of MRI and laparoscopy in the management of the nonpalpable testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Shuji; Nukui, Akinori; Koshimizu, Takeshi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-12-01

    Preoperative localization of nonpalpable testes will aid in planning of the surgical management. We evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the preoperative study in the management of the nonpalpable testis in the laparoscopic era. From 1997 to 2001, a total of 30 MRI evaluation was performed for 30 patients with nonpalpable testis. When the imaging study demonstrated a viable testis in the inguinal region, the patient underwent inguinal orchiopexy. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed for the patient whose testis was intraabdominal or could not be detected by imaging. Thirty-one testes from 30 patients were evaluated. The imaging studies showed 16 testes from 15 patients in the inguinal region. Fifteen testes were found in the inguinal region and one was intraabdominal during groin exploration. Four testes were pointed out to be intraabdominal by MRI and identified by laparoscopic examination. Eleven testes could not be detected by the imaging studies and they underwent laparoscopic examination. Two abdominal testes were identified. Nine patients underwent inguinal surgical exploration and had a diagnosis of inguinal vanishing testis. No gonadal tissue was identified in those specimens. The sensitivity and the specificity of our MRI studies in predicting the presence of nonpalpable testis were 90.5% and 100%, respectively. Inguinal undescended testes could be diagnosed accurately with MRI and laparoscopy was informative regarding the testis location in all cases. When no intraabdominal testis is identified laparoscopically in the patient whose testis can not be detected in the inguinal region by MRI, the testis is likely vanished. (author)

  14. Disrupted social development enhances the motivation for cocaine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Limpens, J.H.W.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917

    2014-01-01

    for behavioural development. In particular, social play behaviour during post-weaning development is thought to facilitate the attainment of social, emotional and cognitive capacities. Conversely, social insults during development can cause longlasting behavioural impairments and increase the

  15. Dynamics in cytokine responses during the development of occupational sensitization to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krop, Esmeralda J M; van de Pol, M A; Lutter, R; Heederik, D J J; Aalberse, R C; van der Zee, J S

    2010-10-01

    Occupational allergy forms an attractive model to study the development of allergic responses, as in some occupations it has a high incidence and develops quickly. In a cohort of starting laboratory animal workers, we previously found 20% sensitization to animal allergens within 2 years. We compared cellular responses of incident laboratory animal workers who developed rat-specific sensitization (cases, n = 18) during 2 years of follow-up to control animal workers matched for atopic status but without sensitization after follow-up (controls, n = 18). Practically, this is a case-control study, nested within the cohort. Rat-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera, and allergen-specific and nonspecific cytokine responses were measured in whole blood and in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Self-reported allergic symptoms were related to the presence of rat-specific IgE (P ≤ 0.01). Cases developed a rat allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-4 response during sensitization, while controls did not show an increased IL-4 response (at visit D: 33 vs 5 IL-4 producing cells/10(6) cells, P < 0.001). The IL-4 response was related to the levels of rat-specific IgE in cases (visit D: rho = 0.706, P < 0.001). By contrast, allergen-specific IL-10 and interferon γ (IFNγ) responses as well as nonspecific cytokine responses were comparable between cases and controls. This study is the first to show the development of an allergen-specific IL-4 response in adult human subjects during allergen-specific sensitization. This IL-4 response was quantitatively associated with the development of the specific IgE antibodies. Allergen-specific or nonspecific IL-10 and IFNγ responses showed no protective effect on the development of allergic sensitization.

  16. HMGB1 promotes the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Sadamura-Takenaka

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and death. Recent studies have suggested that chronic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving inflammation have not been fully elucidated.To elucidate the roles of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein with extracellular pro-inflammatory activity, in a rat model of PAH.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered monocrotaline (MCT. Concentrations of HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and localization of HMGB1 in the lung were examined over time. The protective effects of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody against MCT-induced PAH were tested.HMGB1 levels in BALF were elevated 1 week after MCT injection, and this elevation preceded increases of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and the development of PAH. In contrast, serum HMGB1 levels were elevated 4 weeks after MCT injection, at which time the rats began to die. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that HMGB1 was translocated to the extranuclear space in periarterial infiltrating cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial epithelial cells of MCT-injected rats. Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody protected rats against MCT-induced lung inflammation, thickening of the pulmonary artery wall, and elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, and significantly improved the survival of the MCT-induced PAH rats.Our results identify extracellular HMGB1 as a promoting factor for MCT-induced PAH. The blockade of HMGB1 activity improved survival of MCT-induced PAH rats, and thus might be a promising therapy for the treatment of PAH.

  17. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase expression in the developing rat liver: control at different levels in the prenatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Salvadó, J.; Boon, L.; Biharie, G.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    To study the regulation of the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (Glu-DH) in rat liver during development, the Glu-DH mRNA concentration in the liver of rats ranging in age from 14 days prenatal development to 3 months after birth was determined. This concentration increased up to two days

  18. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siermontowski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

  20. Extinction, Reacquisition, and Rapid Forgetting of Eyeblink Conditioning in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory. However, age differences in extinction and subsequent reacquisition have yet to be studied using this model. The present study examined extinction and reacquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats. In…

  1. Cortical interhemispheric responses to rhythmic stimulation are influenced by status epilepticus in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 209-210 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : status epilepticus * interhemispheric responses * developing rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Occurrence of NaK-ATPase isoforms during rat inner ear development and functional implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Kuijpers, W.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the presence of NaK-ATPase isoforms in the developing inner ear of the rat and studied the importance of functional subunit combinations in endolymph homeostasis. The findings were: (a) the combination alpha 1 beta 1 is found in epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural inner ear cells

  3. Curative effects of sodium fusidate on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, Roberto; Mangano, Katia; Quattrocchi, Cinzia

    2003-01-01

    Fusidic acid and sodium fusidate (fusidin) are antibiotics with low toxicity and powerful immunomodulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we have evaluated the effect of fusidin on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNB)-induced colitis in rats that serves as a precli...

  4. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 5057610. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : oxidative stress * developing rat brain * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  5. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  6. Influence of age and immunization on development of gingivitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekic, P; Klausen, B; Friis-Hasché, E

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of age and antigenic priming on the development of gingivitis, 33 healthy rats were placed in contact with Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides gingivalis. On days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after inoculation, the gingival condition...

  7. [Study of the possibility of hyperparathyroidism development in rats exposed to internal irradiation by iodine radioisotope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagov, R S; Chureeva, L N; Chibisova, O F; Barbarykina, G S; Petrov, V N; Podgorodnichenko, V K; Belorukova, N V

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of hyperparathyroidism development secondary to earlier internal irradiation with radioactive iodine was studied experimentally in Wistar rats. This report describes the parathyroid morphology and biochemical findings for animals irradiated with 131I at the doses of 4.5, 40, or 80 Gy. The interval between the radiation exposure of two-month-old rats and their examination for thyroid and parathyroid pathology was 14 months. Neither hypercalcemia nor hypophosphatemia was found. Moreover, the level of calcium in serum slightly decreased following 40 and 80 Gy irradiation. The increased incidence of parathyroid fibrosis and hypofunctional structure transformation were revealed.

  8. Association of cerebrovascular dysfunction with the development of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in OXYS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Natalia A; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi; Rudnitskaya, Ekaterina A; Muraleva, Natalia A; Kolosova, Nataliya G

    2018-02-09

    Cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD): the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The involvement of neurovasculature disorders in the progression of AD is now increasingly appreciated, but whether they represent initial factors or late-stage pathological changes during the disease is unclear. Using senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, which simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we evaluated contributions of cerebrovascular alterations to the disease development. At preclinical, early, and advanced stages of AD-like pathology, in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar (control) rats, we evaluated (i) the blood vessel state by histological and electron-microscopic analyses; (ii) differences in gene expression according to RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the metabolic processes and pathways associated with blood vessel function; (iii) the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. We observed a loss of hippocampal blood vessel density and ultrastructural changes of those blood vessels in OXYS rats at the early stage of AD-like pathology. There were significant alterations in the vessels and downregulation of VEGF with an increased amount of amyloid β 1-42 there at the advanced stage of the disease. According to RNA-Seq data analysis, major alterations in cerebrovascular processes of OXYS rats were associated with blood vessel development, circulatory system processes, the VEGF signaling pathway, and vascular smooth muscle contraction. At preclinical and early stages of the AD-like pathology, these processes were upregulated and then downregulated with age. At the advanced stage in OXYS rats, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with downregulation of cerebrovascular function as compared to Wistar rats. Among the 46 DEGs at the preclinical stage of the disease, 28 DEGs at the early stage, and among 85 DEGs at the advanced

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so...... as not to induce maternal toxicity or decrease the viability of offspring. In the exposed offspring, a delay in the ontogeny of the air righting reflex, a lower absolute brain weight, and impaired performance in behavioral tests for neuromotor abilities (Rotarod) and for learning and memory (Morris water maze...

  10. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

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    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  11. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  12. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggers the development of periodontal disease in rats.

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    Marcela Claudino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease in diabetic patients presents higher severity and prevalence; and increased severity of ligature-induced periodontal disease has been verified in diabetic rats. However, in absence of aggressive stimuli such as ligatures, the influence of diabetes on rat periodontal tissues is incompletely explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases in rats only with diabetes induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n = 25 by intravenous administration of alloxan (42 mg/kg and were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diabetes induction. The hemimandibles were removed and submitted to radiographical and histopathological procedures. A significant reduction was observed in height of bone crest in diabetic animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, which was associated with increased numbers of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells. The histopathological analyses of diabetic rats also showed a reduction in density of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Severe caries were also detected in the diabetic group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that diabetes induction triggers, or even co-induces the onset of alterations which are typical of periodontal diseases even in the absence of aggressive factors such as ligatures. Therefore, diabetes induction renders a previously resistant host into a susceptible phenotype, and hence diabetes can be considered a very important risk factor to the development of periodontal disease.

  13. Impaired function of the blood-testis barrier during aging is preceded by a decline in cell adhesion proteins and GTPases.

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    Catriona Paul

    Full Text Available With increasing age comes many changes in the testis, including germ cell loss. Cell junctions in the testis tether both seminiferous epithelial and germ cells together and assist in the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB, which limits transport of biomolecules, ions and electrolytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment and protects post-meiotic germ cells. We hypothesize that as male rats age the proteins involved in forming the junctions decrease and that this alters the ability of the BTB to protect the germ cells. Pachytene spermatocytes were isolated from Brown Norway rat testes at 4 (young and 18 (aged months of age using STA-PUT velocity sedimentation technique. RNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix rat 230 2.0 whole rat genome microarrays. Microarray data were confirmed by q-RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blotting. Of the genes that were significantly decreased by at least 1.5 fold, 70 were involved in cell adhesion; of these, at least 20 are known to be specifically involved in junction dynamics within the seminiferous epithelium. The mRNA and protein levels of Jam2, Ocln, cdh2 (N-cadherin, ctnna (α-catenin, and cldn11 (involved in adherens junctions, among others, were decreased by approximately 50% in aged spermatocytes. In addition, the GTPases Rac1 and cdc42, involved in the recruitment of cadherins to the adherens junctions, were similarly decreased. It is therefore not surprising that with lower expression of these proteins that the BTB becomes diminished with age. We saw, using a FITC tracer, a gradual collapse of the BTB between 18 and 24 months. This provides the opportunity for harmful substances and immune cells to cross the BTB and cause the disruption of spermatogenesis that is observed with increasing age.

  14. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  15. Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats

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    Radovanović Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  16. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

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    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  17. Studies on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane following maternal ethanol ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinski, B.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the developing rat liver and on the structure and function of the postnatal rat liver plasma membrane were carried out following maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and lactation. A developmental study of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) indicated that both the activity and certain kinetic properties of the enzyme from the progeny of alcohol-fed and pair-fed mothers were similar. Fatty liver, however, developed in the alcoholic progeny only after ADH appeared on a day 19 of gestation. Further studies on structural and functional changes were then undertaken on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane. Radioligand binding studies performed using the hapatic alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor as a plasma membrane probe demonstrated a significant decrease in receptor density in the alcoholic progeny, but no changes in binding affinity. Finally, the fatty acid composition of constituent phospholipids and the cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes were determined. All these observations suggest that membrane alterations in the newborn may be partially responsible for the deleterious action(s) of maternal alcoholism at the molecular level.

  18. Fasciola hepatica: comparative effects of host resistance and parasite intra-specific interactions on size and reproductive histology in flukes from rats infected with isolates differing in triclabendazole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; Gordon, A W; Moffett, D; Edgar, H W J; Oliver, L F; McConnell, S; Shaw, L; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2011-06-10

    The efficacies of putative fasciolicides and vaccines against Fasciola hepatica are frequently monitored in clinical and field trials by determination of fluke egg output in host faeces and by worm counts in the host liver at autopsy. Less often used are parameters based on fluke size and histology, yet these can provide important indications of specific effects on the development of particular germ-line or somatic tissues, especially in relation to the timing and profligacy of egg production. In this study, F. hepatica metacercariae of two distinct isolates, the triclabendazole (TCBZ)-sensitive Cullompton isolate and the TCBZ-resistant Oberon isolate, were administered to rats as single-isolate or mixed-isolate infections. At autopsy 16 weeks later individual adult flukes were counted, measured and the reproductive organs were examined histologically. The degree of development of the testis tubules in each fluke was represented by a numerical score, based on the proportion of the histological section profiles occupied by testis tissue. The level of anti-F. hepatica antibody in the serum of each rat was determined by ELISA. It was found that Cullompton flukes were significantly larger than Oberon flukes, and that significantly more Cullompton metacercariae developed to adults than Oberon metacercariae. The Cullompton flukes showed histological evidence of aspermy and spermatogenic arrest, which was reflected in quantitatively reduced testicular development, as compared with the Oberon isolate. In Cullompton flukes, parthenogenetic egg development is implied. The size of Cullompton and Oberon flukes was significantly related to the number of adult flukes recovered, to the number of metacercariae administered, and to the percentage success of infection. The testis development score in both isolates was significantly related to the number of adult flukes recovered but not to the number of metacercariae administered, or to the percentage success of infection. Fluke

  19. Ectopic development of skeletal muscle induced by subcutaneous transplant of rat satellite cells

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    M.G. Fukushima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the ectopic development of the rat skeletal muscle originated from transplanted satellite cells. Satellite cells (10(6 cells obtained from hindlimb muscles of newborn female 2BAW Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal area of adult male rats. After 3, 7, and 14 days, the transplanted tissues (N = 4-5 were processed for histochemical analysis of peripheral nerves, inactive X-chromosome and acetylcholinesterase. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs were also labeled with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. The development of ectopic muscles was successful in 86% of the implantation sites. By day 3, the transplanted cells were organized as multinucleated fibers containing multiple clusters of nAChRs (N = 2-4, resembling those from non-innervated cultured skeletal muscle fibers. After 7 days, the transplanted cells appeared as a highly vascularized tissue formed by bundles of fibers containing peripheral nuclei. The presence of X chromatin body indicated that subcutaneously developed fibers originated from female donor satellite cells. Differently from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of adult male rat (87.9 ± 1.0 µm; N = 213, the diameter of ectopic fibers (59.1 µm; N = 213 did not obey a Gaussian distribution and had a higher coefficient of variation. After 7 and 14 days, the organization of the nAChR clusters was similar to that of clusters from adult innervated extensor digitorum longus muscle. These findings indicate the histocompatibility of rats from 2BAW colony and that satellite cells transplanted into the subcutaneous space of adult animals are able to develop and fuse to form differentiated skeletal muscle fibers.

  20. Development of motor maps in rats and their modulation by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicole A; Vuong, Jennifer; Teskey, G Campbell

    2012-09-01

    While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in rats during postnatal development and then whether their motor map expression could be altered with rearing in an enriched environment consisting of group housing and novel toys or skilled learning by training on the single pellet reaching task. All offspring had high-resolution intracortical microstimulation (ICMS)-derived motor maps using methodologies previously optimized for the adult rat. First, cortical GABA-mediated inhibition was depressed by bicuculline infusion directly into layer V of motor cortex and ICMS-responsive points were first reliably detected on postnatal day (PND) 13. Without relying on bicuculline disinhibition of cortex, motor maps emerged on PND 35 and then increased in size until PND 60 and had progressively lower movement thresholds. Second, environmental enrichment did not affect initial detection of responsive points and motor maps in non-bicuculline-treated pups on PND 35. However, motor maps were larger on PND 45 in enriched rat pups relative to pups in the standard housing condition. Rats in both conditions had similar map sizes on PNDs 60, 75, and 90. Third, reach training in rat pups resulted in an internal reorganization of the map in the hemisphere contralateral, but not ipsilateral, to the trained forelimb. The map reorganization was expressed as proportionately more distal (digit and wrist) representations on PND 45. Our data indicate that both environmental enrichment and skilled reach training experience can differentially modify expression of motor maps during development.

  1. The SSX Family of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Target Proteins for Tumor Therapy

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    Heath A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs represent an expanding class of tumor-associated proteins defined on the basis of their tissue-restricted expression to testis or ovary germline cells and frequent ectopic expression in tumor tissue. The expression of CTA in MHC class I-deficient germline cells makes these proteins particularly attractive as immunotherapeutic targets because they serve as essentially tumor-specific antigens for MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, because CTAs are expressed in many types of cancer, any therapeutic developed to target these antigens might have efficacy for multiple cancer types. Of particular interest among CTAs is the synovial sarcoma X chromosome breakpoint (SSX family of proteins, which includes ten highly homologous family members. Expression of SSX proteins in tumor tissues has been associated with advanced stages of disease and worse patient prognosis. Additionally, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SSX proteins have been demonstrated in patients with tumors of varying histological origin, which indicates that natural immune responses can be spontaneously generated to these antigens in cancer patients. The current review will describe the history and identification of this family of proteins, as well as what is known of their function, expression in normal and malignant tissues, and immunogenicity.

  2. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

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    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  3. Motor System Development Depends on Experience: A Microgravity Study of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kalb, Robert; Hillman, Dean; DeFelipe, Javier; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Animals move about their environment by sensing their surroundings and making adjustments according to need. All animals take the force of gravity into account when the brain and spinal cord undertake the planning and execution of movements. To what extent must animals learn to factor in the force of gravity when making neural calculations about movement? Are animals born knowing how to respond to gravity, or must the young nervous system learn to enter gravity into the equation? To study this issue, young rats were reared in two different gravitational environments (the one-G of Earth and the microgravity of low Earth orbit) that necessitated two different types of motor operations (movements) for optimal behavior. We inquired whether those portions of the young nervous system involved in movement, the motor system, can adapt to different gravitational levels and, if so, the cellular basis for this phenomenon. We studied two groups of rats that had been raised for 16 days in microgravity (eight or 14 days old at launch) and compared their walking and righting (ability to go from upside down to upright) and brain structure to those of control rats that developed on Earth. Flight rats were easily distinguished from the age-matched ground control rats in terms of both motor function and central nervous system structure. Mature surface righting predominated in control rats on the day of landing (R+O), while immature righting predominated in the flight rats on landing day and 30 days after landing. Some of these changes appear to be permanent. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: (1) Many aspects of motor behavior are preprogrammed into the young nervous system. In addition, several aspects of motor behavior are acquired as a function of the interaction of the developing organism and the rearing environment; (2) Widespread neuroanatomical differences between one-G- and microgravity-reared rats indicate that there is a structural basis for the adaptation

  4. Purine de novo synthesis and salvage during testicular development in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsop, J.; Watts, R.W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors determine if there is a critical stage intesticular development in the Sprague-Dawley rat as judged to be specifically susceptible to HPRT deficiency. Purine de novo synthesis activity was measured by the incorporation of C 14-formate into the testicular tissue total purines. Observations show that the metabolic fundtion of the tubule epithelium and the HPRT-deficiency acting there is sufficient to explain the lack of structural development in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

  5. Physiology of Developing Gravity Receptors and Otolith-Ocular Reflexes in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal had the long-term objective of examining the effects of microgravity on the physiology of the adult and developing mammalian gravity receptors. The grant outlined three-years of ground-based studies to examine. 1) the physiologic responses or otolith afferents in the adult rat and during postnatal development, and 2) the otolith organ contributions to the vertical vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and postural reflexes.

  6. Prenatal and postnatal thallium exposure in rats: effect on development of vasomotor reactivity in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Marrazzo, R; Berrino, L; De Santis, D; Lisa, M; Susanna, V; Montanaro, C; Fici, F; Marmo, E

    1988-01-01

    Vasomotor reactivity has been evaluated in rats exposed perinatally and postnatally to thallium sulphate (1 mg/dl in their drinking water ad libitum). Prenatal and postnatal exposure to thallium did not modify the values of the systolic arterial blood pressure on the 30th and 60th day in pups of normotensive and DOCA-hypertensive rats. The hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension and by 1-noradrenaline in pups of normotensive and DOCA-hypertensive rats, exposed or not exposed to thallium sulphate, were more intensive on the 60th than on the 30th day. Similar effects were observed for the hypotensive responses induced by 1-isoprenaline and acetylcholine. Prenatal exposure to thallium did not modify hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension on the 30th and 60th days, but it caused a decrease of hypertensive responses induced by 1-noradrenaline on the 30th and 60th days and hypotensive responses induced by 1-isoprenaline and acetylcholine exclusively on the 60th day. Postnatal exposure to thallium did not modify hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension and hypotensive responses induced by acetylcholine, but it caused a decrease of hypertensive responses induced by 1-noradrenaline on the 30th and 60th days in pups of normotensive rats and exclusively on the 60th day in pups of DOCA-hypertensive rats. Moreover, postnatal exposure to thallium caused a decrease of the hypotensive response induced by 1-isoprenaline exclusively on the 60th day. Our findings show that prenatal and postnatal exposure to thallium sulphate modifies the rat's developing vascular autonomic nervous system with a reduction of the alpha, beta-adrenergic and muscarinic vasomotor reactivity.

  7. Role of stromal derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) for spermatogenesis of busulfan-injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlarkhani, Neda; Mortezaee, Keywan; Amidi, Fardin; Kharazinejad, Ebrahim; Beyer, Cordian; Baazm, Maryam; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Pazhohan, Azar; Sobhani, Aligholi; Zendedel, Adib

    2017-10-01

    SDF-1a is a member of CXC chemokine family that plays a crucial role in stem cell migration, cell apoptosis and development. The role of intra-scrotal administration of SDF-1a in spermatogenesis of busulfan-treated rats was investigated in this study. Two injections of busulfan (15mg/kg) with a 14days interval between were given intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats. Rats were then treated for seven days with 500ng/mL SDF-1a. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed for evaluation of various cell markers for proliferation and spermatogenesis, and sperm parameters were assessed. In the SDF-1a group, there was a significant increase in testis weight, sperm count and viability. DAZL, DDX4, and TP2 showed increased expression levels in the SDF-1a group. PCNA and BrdU revealed highest expression rates in the SDF-1a group (p≤0.0001). These findings showed the protective role of SDF-1a in busulfan-induced testis injury most likely through stimulation of SSCs proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract

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    Madhoosudan A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D generally follows prediabetes (PD conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70% of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30% nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities.

  9. Assessing Autophagy in Sciatic Nerves of a Rat Model that Develops Inflammatory Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

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    Susana Brun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199 peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology and several typical features of CIDP. We have set up a series of techniques that led us to examine the failures of autophagy pathways in the sciatic nerve of these model rats and to follow the possible improvement of these defects after treatment. Based on these newly introduced methods, a novel area of investigation is now open and will allow us to more thoroughly examine important features of certain autophagy pathways occurring in sciatic nerves.

  10. The Effects of Methamphetamine on the Development of the Testes in Immature Male Rats

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    M Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methamphetamine (MAMP is a central nervous system stimulant that its consumption has increased among youths. Adolescence is considered as a critical period and the reproductive organs are developing is very sensitive so that the. In this study, the effects of methamphetamine on the development of the testes in immature male rats were evaluated. Methods: 40 immature male Wistar Rats (35-day-old male rats were divided into four groups: control and the group receiving methamphetamine: (1, 3, 5 mg/kg. The control group received saline and experimental groups received methamphetamine for 10 days (intraperitoneally and they were allowed to mature. Then, the rats were dissected. Testicularb tissue was isolated and after weighing, they were prepared to be placed in formalin. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's test. Results: Spaces created in the seminiferous tubules showed spermatogenesis disorder. The mean number of cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm in the experimental groups decreased significantly than the control group (p<0/001, this reduction was dose dependent. The average weight of the testes to the body weight in the experimental groups showed no significant difference than the control group. Conclusion: Frequent consumption of methamphetamine, even in low doses through the influence on the pituitary -gonad and the various factors involved in spermatogenesis, can disrupt the sexual maturation, which may cause reduced fertility in males.

  11. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  12. Development of Chemosensitivity in Neurons from the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) of Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Susan C.; Nichols, Nicole L.; Ritucci, Nick A.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the development of chemosensitivity during the neonatal period in rat Nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons. We determined the percentage of neurons activated by hypercapnia (15% CO2) and assessed the magnitude of the response by calculating the chemosensitivity index (CI). There were no differences in the percentage of neurons that were inhibited (9%) or activated (44.8%) by hypercapnia or in the magnitude of the activated response (CI 164±4.9%) in NTS neurons from neonatal rats of all ages. To assess the degree of intrinsic chemosensitivity in these neurons we used chemical synaptic block medium and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. Chemical synaptic block medium slightly decreased basal firing rate but did not affect the percentage of NTS neurons that responded to hypercapnia at any neonatal age. However, in neonates aged rats of any age. In summary, the response of NTS neurons from neonatal rats appears to be intrinsic and largely unchanged throughout early development. In young neonates (

  13. Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khattak, S.T.; Elahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

  14. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  15. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  16. Development of a total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis rat model to evaluate colonic metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffer, Kathleen M; Poritz, Lisa S; Yochum, Gregory S; Koltun, Walter A

    2017-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon that may require surgical intervention including proctocolectomy and either ileal pouch-anal anastomosis or in the pediatric population, low ileorectal anastomosis (IRA). Often, subsequent physiologic alteration (or colonic metaplasia) occurs in the anastomosed small bowel that includes changes in mucin content, villous blunting, and increased expression of WNT5A, a marker of colonic crypt regeneration. We developed a rat low IRA model to assess and study the development of colonic metaplasia. We subjected male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 17) to total colectomy and low IRA surgery and evaluated healing periodically by endoscopic evaluation. The ileum upstream of the anastomosis was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the mucin content was measured by high iron diamine-Alcian blue staining. Wnt5a transcripts were quantified by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction at the 8-wk study end point. Although no gross endoscopic evidence of inflammation was seen throughout the course of the study, colonic metaplasia in the small bowel was detected in 7 out of 10 (70%) rats at the study end point. In rats with colonic metaplasia, enhanced expression of Wnt5a was evident at the study end point compared to levels in the terminal ileum at the time of surgery. Within 4-8 wk, the majority of rats subjected to IRA developed colonic metaplasia defined by villous blunting, changes in mucin content, and increased expression of Wnt5a. This model provides a method to study small bowel colonic metaplasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Fu, Jianfang [Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Shun [Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Jie [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xie, Nianlin, E-mail: xienianlin@126.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Cai, Guoqing, E-mail: firstchair@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  18. Effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation and peripheral hormone levels in the prepubertal rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van den Hurk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prepubertal hypothyroidism on ovarian development in rats. Therefore, from birth up to day 40 postpartum, rats were given 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) via the drinking water of mothers and pups. At ages ranging from 12 to 40 days, ovarian weights

  19. Cytomegalovirus-enhanced development of transplant arteriosclerosis in the rat; effect of timing of infection and recipient responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van Dam, JG; Onuta, G; Klatter, FA; Grauls, G; Bruggeman, CA; Rozing, J

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is put forward as a risk factor for transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). In this article, we studied CMV-enhanced development of TA in rats in different donor/recipient combinations in relation to the timing of infection. Recipient rats transplanted with an aortic allograft (BN to

  20. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  1. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  2. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N; Rijntjes, E; van de Heijning, B J M

    2008-11-01

    A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring of hypothyroid rats. To induce hypothyroidism, dams and offspring were fed an iodide-poor diet and drinking water with 0.75% sodium perchlorate; dams starting 2 weeks prior to mating and pups either until the day of killing (chronic hypothyroidism) or only until weaning (perinatal hypothyroidism) to test for reversibility of the effects observed. Neuromotor competence, locomotor activity and cognitive function were monitored in the offspring until postnatal day 71 and were compared with age-matched control rats. Early neuromotor competence, as assessed in the grip test and balance beam test, was impaired by both chronic and perinatal hypothyroidism. The open field test, assessing locomotor activity, revealed hyperactive locomotor behavioural patterns in chronic hypothyroid animals only. The Morris water maze test, used to assess cognitive performance, showed that chronic hypothyroidism affected spatial memory in a negative manner. In contrast, perinatal hypothyroidism was found to impair spatial memory in female rats only. In general, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on development were more pronounced than the effects of perinatal hypothyroidism, suggesting the early effects of hypothyroidism on functional alterations of the developing brain to be partly reversible and to depend on developmental timing of the deficiency.

  3. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-04-09

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of telmisartan in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Min Lin,1,* Jo-Ting Tsai,2,* Chen Kuei Chang,1 Juei-Tang Cheng,3 Jia-Wei Lin11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University, 3Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Decrease of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPARδ expression has been observed after spinal cord injury (SCI. Increase of PPARδ may improve the damage in SCI. Telmisartan, the antihypertensive agent, has been mentioned to increase the expression of PPARδ. Thus, we are going to screen the effectiveness of telmisartan in SCI for the development of it in clinical application.Methods: In the present study, we used compressive SCI in rats. Telmisartan was then used to evaluate the influence in rats after SCI. Change in PPARδ expression was identified by Western blots. Also, behavioral tests were performed to check the recovery of damage.Results: Recovery of damage from SCI was observed in telmisartan-treated rats. Additionally, this action of telmisartan was inhibited by GSK0660 at the dose sufficient to block PPARδ. However, metformin at the dose enough to activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase failed to produce similar action as telmisartan. Thus, mediation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in this action of telmisartan can be rule out. Moreover, telmisartan reversed the expressions of PPARδ in rats with SCI.Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that telmisartan can improve the damage of SCI in rats through an increase in PPARδ expression. Thus, telmisartan is useful to be developed as an agent in the therapy of SCI.Keywords: PPARδ, AMPK, spinal cord injury, angiotensin receptor blocker, metformin

  5. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Wee, Sunmee; Park, Paula E; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of drug dependence have described both reductions in brain reward processes and potentiation of stress-like (or anti-reward) mechanisms, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling. Accordingly, chronic exposure to opiates often leads to the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We measured paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) in male Wistar rats allowed limited (short access group: ShA) or extended (long access group: LgA) access to heroin or cocaine self-administration, or in rats made dependent on ethanol via ethanol vapor exposure (ethanol-dependent group). In heroin self-administering animals, after transition to LgA conditions, thresholds were reduced to around 50% of levels observed at baseline, and were also significantly lower than thresholds measured in animals remaining on the ShA schedule. In contrast, thresholds in animals self-administering cocaine under either ShA (1 h) or LgA (6 h) conditions were unaltered. Similar to heroin LgA rats, ethanol-dependent rats also developed mechanical hypersensitivity after eight weeks of ethanol vapor exposure compared to non-dependent animals. Systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist MPZP significantly alleviated the hypersensitivity observed in rats dependent on heroin or ethanol. The emergence of mechanical hypersensitivity with heroin and ethanol dependence may thus represent one critical drug-associated negative emotional state driving dependence on these substances. These results also suggest a recruitment of CRF-regulated nociceptive pathways associated with escalation of intake and dependence. A greater understanding of relationships between chronic drug exposure and pain-related states may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the transition to drug addiction, as well as reveal new treatment opportunities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic trimethyltin chloride exposure and the development of kidney stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuefeng; Wu, Xin; Sui, Gang; Gong, Zhihong; Yawson, Emmanuel; Wu, Banghua; Lai, Guanchao; Ruan, Xiaolin; Gao, Hongbin; Zhou, Feng; Su, Bing; Olson, James R; Tang, Xiaojiang

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that occupational exposure to trimethyltin (TMT) is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. To further examine the association between TMT exposure and the formation of kidney stones, we conducted a 180-day animal study and exposed the randomly grouped Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to TMT in the drinking water at doses of 0, 8.2, 32.8 and 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1). Transient behavioral changes were observed in the high-dose group during the first 2 weeks of exposure. TMT exposure led to a significant dose-dependent inhibition of renal H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and an increase in urinary pH. In comparison to no kidney stones being identified in the control and the lowest dose group, 1 rat in the 32.8 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group and 3 out of 9 rats in the 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group were found to have stones in the kidney/urinary tract. Pathological analysis showed that more wide spread calcium disposition was observed in kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that the kidney stones were mainly composed of struvite with the formula: NH4MgPO4 6H2O, while calcium-containing components were also detected. Together, this study further demonstrates through animal studies that chronic exposure to a relatively low level of TMT induces nephrotoxicity and increases the risk for developing kidney stones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Unilateral nasal obstruction affects motor representation development within the face primary motor cortex in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasunori; Kato, Chiho; Uchima Koecklin, Karin Harumi; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control ( n = 36) and experimental ( n = 36) groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction after cauterization of the external nostril at 8 days of age. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed when the rats were 5, 7, 9, and 11 wk old in control and experimental groups ( n = 9 per group per time point). Repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA was used for intergroup and intragroup statistical comparisons. In the control and experimental groups, the total number of positive ICMS sites for the genioglossus and anterior digastric muscles was significantly higher at 5, 7, and 9 wk, but there was no significant difference between 9 and 11 wk of age. Moreover, the total number of positive ICMS sites was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control at each age. It is possible that nasal obstruction induced the initial changes in orofacial motor behavior in response to the altered respiratory pattern, which eventually contributed to face-M1 neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral nasal obstruction in rats during growth periods induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and altered development of the motor representation within the face primary cortex. Unilateral nasal obstruction occurring during growth periods may greatly affect not only respiratory function but also craniofacial function in rats. Nasal obstruction should be treated

  9. Peripheral Nerve Injury in Developing Rats Reorganizes Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-19

    identify by block num ber) motor cortex neuroplasticity development cerebral cortex 0 ABSTRACT (Contfnue an revered Old. It necessay nd identify by block...PAGE (Mn Dt0 "ted) . .. .. 5 27 004 , -. - % SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wign Dale, Ente,.dD - arts was present and there was an absence of a

  10. Effects of the masticatory demand on the rat mandibular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hichijo, N.; Kawai, N.; Mori, H.; Sano, R.; Ohnuki, Y.; Okumura, S.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Tanaka, E.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of masticatory loading stimulus on mandibular development is not fully clear. In this paper, experimental alterations in the daily muscle use, caused by a changed diet consistency, were continuously monitored, while adaptations in bone and cartilage were examined. It is hypothesised

  11. FUS transgenic rats develop the phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fused in Sarcoma (FUS proteinopathy is a feature of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD, and mutation of the fus gene segregates with FTLD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. To study the consequences of mutation in the fus gene, we created transgenic rats expressing the human fus gene with or without mutation. Overexpression of a mutant (R521C substitution, but not normal, human FUS induced progressive paralysis resembling ALS. Mutant FUS transgenic rats developed progressive paralysis secondary to degeneration of motor axons and displayed a substantial loss of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. This neuronal loss was accompanied by ubiquitin aggregation and glial reaction. While transgenic rats that overexpressed the wild-type human FUS were asymptomatic at young ages, they showed a deficit in spatial learning and memory and a significant loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons at advanced ages. These results suggest that mutant FUS is more toxic to neurons than normal FUS and that increased expression of normal FUS is sufficient to induce neuron death. Our FUS transgenic rats reproduced some phenotypes of ALS and FTLD and will provide a useful model for mechanistic studies of FUS-related diseases.

  12. The effect of a hyperdynamic environment on the development of the rat retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a 2 G field on the retinal development of the layers in the rat and central visual system nuclei are investigated. The thickness of the retinal layers, ganglion cells, and brains of male and female Wistar rats suspended from an 18 foot diameter centrifuge creating a 2 G field are evaluated and compared with a control group. A decrease in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of 37.1 percent, of 58.5 percent in the inner nuclear layer (INL), and of 28.8 percent in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a reduction in body weight are observed in the 2-G rats. The data reveal that the ganglion cells and visual system nuclei activity correspond well with the control data; however, the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) activity is inhibited in the 2-G rats. It is concluded that the differences in ONL and IPL are attributed to body weight reduction, but the INL and MTN are affected by the 2-G conditions.

  13. Postdependent state in rats as a model for medication development in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    Rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for alcoholism requires understanding of its underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology. Obtaining this knowledge largely relies on animal studies. Thus, choosing the appropriate animal model is one of the most critical steps in pre-clinical medication development. Among the range of animal models that have been used to investigate excessive alcohol consumption in rodents, the postdependent model stands out. It was specifically developed to test the role of negative affect as a key driving force in a perpetuating addiction cycle for alcoholism. Here, we will describe our approach to make rats dependent via chronic intermittent exposure to alcohol, discuss the validity of this model, and compare it with other commonly used animal models of alcoholism. We will summarize evidence that postdependent rats fulfill several criteria of a 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV/V-like' diagnostic system. Importantly, these animals show long-lasting excessive consumption of and increased motivation for alcohol, and evidence for loss of control over alcohol intake. Our conclusion that postdependent rats are an excellent model for medication development for alcoholism is underscored by a summary of more than two dozen pharmacological tests aimed at reversing these abnormal alcohol responses. We will end with open questions on the use of this model. In the tradition of the Sanchis-Segura and Spanagel review, we provide comic strips that illustrate the postdependent procedure and relevant phenotypes in this review. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  15. Turnover time of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in testes of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; Rommerts, F. F.; van der Tweel, I.; Wensing, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in the adult rat testis. Normal adult rats received injections of [3H]thymidine at 9:00 and 21:00 for 2, 5, or 8 days. The percentage of labeled Leydig cells, which was initially low (0.8% +/- 0.2%),

  16. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  17. Molecular cloning and subcellular localization of Tektin2-binding protein 1 (Ccdc 172) in rat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Airi; Kaneko, Takane; Inai, Tetsuichiro; Iida, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Tektins (TEKTs) are composed of a family of filament-forming proteins localized in cilia and flagella. Five types of mammalian TEKTs have been reported, all of which have been verified to be present in sperm flagella. TEKT2, which is indispensable for sperm structure, mobility, and fertilization, was present at the periphery of the outer dense fiber (ODF) in the sperm flagella. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we intended to isolate flagellar proteins that could interact with TEKT2, which resulted in the isolation of novel two genes from the mouse testis library, referred as a TEKT2-binding protein 1 (TEKT2BP1) and -protein 2 (TEKT2BP2). In this study, we characterized TEKT2BP1, which is registered as a coiled-coil domain-containing protein 172 (Ccdc172) in the latest database. RT-PCR analysis indicated that TEKT2BP1 was predominantly expressed in rat testis and that its expression was increased after 3 weeks of postnatal development. Immunocytochemical studies discovered that TEKT2BP1 localized in the middle piece of rat spermatozoa, predominantly concentrated at the mitochondria sheath of the flagella. We hypothesize that the TEKT2-TEKT2BP1 complex might be involved in the structural linkage between the ODF and mitochondria in the middle piece of the sperm flagella.

  18. Cryptorchidism and infertility in rats with targeted disruption of the Adamts16 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakila Abdul-Majeed

    Full Text Available A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin motifs16 (ADAMTS-16 is a member of a family of metalloproteinases. Using a novel zinc-finger nuclease based gene-edited rat model harboring a targeted mutation of the Adamts16 locus, we previously reported this gene to be linked to blood pressure regulation. Here we document our observation with this model that Adamts16 is essential for normal development of the testis. Absence of Adamts16 in the homozygous Adamts16mutant males resulted in cryptorchidism and male sterility. Heterozygous Adamts16mutant males were normal, indicating that this is a recessive trait. Testes of homozygous Adamts16mutant males were significantly smaller with significant histological changes associated with the lack of sperm production. Temporal histological assessments of the testis demonstrated that the seminiferous tubules did not support active spermatogenesis, but progressively lost germ cells, accumulated vacuoles and did not have any sperm. These observations, taken together with our previous report of renal abnormalities observed with the same Adamts16mutant rats, suggest an important mechanistic link between Adamts16 and the functioning of the male genitourinary system.

  19. Anticonvulsant action of two antagonists of NMDA receptors in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Lojková, Denisa; Mikulecká, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. S4 (2006), s. 314-314 ISSN 0013-9580. [Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and Canadian League against Epilepsy. 01.12.2006-05.12.2006, San Diego, CA] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : memantine * ifenprodil * developing rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Early postnatal development of rat brain is accompanied by generation of lipofuscin-like pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ivica, J.; Kagan, Dmytro; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 347, 1-2 (2011), s. 157-162 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : brain * early development * lipofuscin-like pigments * fluorescence * rat Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  1. Development of the acoustic startle response in rats and its change after early acoustic trauma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Chumak, Tetyana; Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, jul 1 (2015), s. 212-221 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory system * rat * acoustic startle reflex * development * critical period * noise exposure Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  2. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Babický, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S1-S7 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat * ontogenic development * presuckling period * suckling period * weaning period Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  3. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the developing rat heart: the role of elastin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Vytášek, R.; Vajner, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 358, 1-2 (2011), s. 215-220 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat heart * ontogenetic development * hydrogen peroxide * elastin * fluorescence Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  4. In vivo effect of chronic hypoxia on the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Lakshmi; Tkac, Ivan; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gruetter, Rolf; Rao, Raghavendra

    2005-01-01

    The cognitive deficits observed in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease suggest involvement of the developing hippocampus. Chronic postnatal hypoxia present during infancy in these children may play a role in these impairments. To understand the biochemical mechanisms of hippocampal injury in chronic hypoxia, a neurochemical profile consisting of 15 metabolite concentrations and 2 metabolite ratios in the hippocampus was evaluated in a rat model of chronic postnatal hypoxia using i...

  5. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...

  6. Development of a bio-magnetic measurement system and sensor configuration analysis for rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kiwoong; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Kang, Chan Seok; Ahn, San; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on superconducting quantum interference devices enables the measurement of very weak magnetic fields (10-1000 fT) generated from the human or animal brain. In this article, we introduce a small MEG system that we developed specifically for use with rats. Our system has the following characteristics: (1) variable distance between the pick-up coil and outer Dewar bottom (˜5 mm), (2) small pick-up coil (4 mm) for high spatial resolution, (3) good field sensitivity (45 ˜ 80 fT /cm/√{Hz} ) , (4) the sensor interval satisfies the Nyquist spatial sampling theorem, and (5) small source localization error for the region to be investigated. To reduce source localization error, it is necessary to establish an optimal sensor layout. To this end, we simulated confidence volumes at each point on a grid on the surface of a virtual rat head. In this simulation, we used locally fitted spheres as model rat heads. This enabled us to consider more realistic volume currents. We constrained the model such that the dipoles could have only four possible orientations: the x- and y-axes from the original coordinates, and two tangentially layered dipoles (local x- and y-axes) in the locally fitted spheres. We considered the confidence volumes according to the sensor layout and dipole orientation and positions. We then conducted a preliminary test with a 4-channel MEG system prior to manufacturing the multi-channel system. Using the 4-channel MEG system, we measured rat magnetocardiograms. We obtained well defined P-, QRS-, and T-waves in rats with a maximum value of 15 pT/cm. Finally, we measured auditory evoked fields and steady state auditory evoked fields with maximum values 400 fT/cm and 250 fT/cm, respectively.

  7. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  8. Diagnostic-therapeutic pathway for small lesions of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sbrollini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of our study was to define a diagnostic-therapeutic pathway for proper treatment of not-palpable testicular masses, that may be benign in 38% of cases. Since the intraoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach in particular in small lesion (< 8 mm and the risk of tissue loss in frozen section analysis occurs frequently, we propose a diagnostic flow chart for the best management of small testis lesions. This proposed protocol has to be shown in details to physicians and patients, who must understand the clinical implications and the risk to undergo a second radical surgery.

  9. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C.; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E.; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P hydrocephalus development. PMID:26848844

  10. Efek ekstrak testis terhadap jumlah implantasi dan jumlah anak pada mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of testis contains the testis specific proteins. The testis proteins may raise immune responses. The immune responses arethe antibodies against testis specific anti-protein. The reaction between the antibodies and the sperms can inhibit fertilization. Thisprocess has contraception effects. This research used 24 female and 20 male mice strain Balb/c. The experiment used the completerandom design with 4 concentration treatments (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg extracts of testis and 3 replications. Mice were injected 3times with time interval 21 days. After 15 days from the rising of vaginal plug, 3 mice were dissected and counted the implantation. Theothers mice were waited until delivered of the children. The datas were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD (α = 5%. The results showed thatextract of testis did not influence the amount of implantation at the uterus endometrial, but it decreased the amount of children. Theeffective concentration of extract testis is 2000 μg. So, this study showed that the intraperitoneum injection of the extract of testis hadcontraception effects.

  11. Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: Unusual ultrasonography and pathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mermershtain Wilmosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis in a 22-year-old man. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is highly resistant to radiotherapy and any known chemotherapeutic regimen. We recommend radical orchiectomy At last follow up, the patient was well, without any evidence of recurrence, ten years after surgery.

  12. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and lo...

  13. utilization of crude testis extract to enhance broiler production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EKWUEME

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of using aqueous testis extracts as growth promoters. In the first experiments, 100 Abore Acre chicks were assigned to four treatments in which the birds were given 0, 10,15 and 20% of a 3.3. % aqueous bull testis extract in drinking water ad libitum from week ...

  14. Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.M.; Rudd, T.G.; Gurgess, E.C.; Monda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[ 131 I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested

  15. Leiomyoma of Testis –Rare Benign Mimicker of Testicular Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Baliyan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are benign tumours that originate from any organ containing smooth muscles. The testis is an extremely rare site. We report a case of testicular leiomyoma in a 50-year-old. Testis-associated leiomyomas are a benign and rare disease presenting as a painless, slowly-growing mass. Only histological examination with immunohistochemistry can validate the diagnosis.

  16. Development of glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat forebrain: Implications for adverse effects of glucocorticoids in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment to avoid respiratory distress in preterm infants but there is accumulating evidence that these agents evoke long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Earlier, we showed that the developing rat forebrain is far more sensitive to glucocorticoi...

  17. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Impaired brain development in the rat following prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate at gestational day 17 and neurotrophin distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Grace, AA; Korf, J; Stampachiacchiere, B; Aloe, L

    2004-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are the consequence of a disrupted development of the CNS. Accordingly, intrauterine exposure to toxins may increase the risk for psychopathology. We investigated whether prenatal exposure of rats to the neurotoxin methylaxoxymethanol

  19. Development of an Assay Based on the Effects of PGBx on the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart and Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    phosphorylation and enhance ATP synthesis in aged and/or damaqed mitochondria is unique (Polis et al, 1973; Devlin, �), and its lack of effect on the...rat heart, (’An. Pha’mac. 9,101-112. Aronson, C. E. and Serlick, E. R., (1977a) Effects of chlorpromazine on the isola- ted perfused rat heart, ’ Apl...euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. Eur. J. Pharmac. 19, 12-17. Aronson, C. E. and Serlick, E. R. (1977a) Effects of chlorpromazine on the isolated

  20. Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. He had normal left testis and had no gynecomastia or infertility. The specimen of hernial sac showed testis with a 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm nodular mass having gray tan-cut surface. Histopathologically, the testis showed atrophy and the nodular portion showed tumor cells arranged in tubular and microcystic pattern, with no solid pattern or necrosis. The diagnosis of SCT was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for inhibin which showed fine granular cytoplasmic positivity. Cryptorchid testis having SCT and presenting as a content of inguinal hernia is a rare occurrence.

  1. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  2. Proteomic studies of rat tibialis anterior muscle during postnatal growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hualin; Zhu, Ting; Ding, Fei; Hu, Nan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a proteomic analysis consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was accomplished to investigate the complex protein expression patterns in rat tibialis anterior muscle during postnatal 3-month period. We determined the time-dependent expression alterations of 107 protein spots, among which 53 protein spots were identified. These identified proteins included skeletal contractile proteins, metabolic enzymes, chaperone, intermediate filament, and signal transduction proteins. The time-dependent expression of three proteins, such as Mylpf, desmin, and RKIP, was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The functional implication of these expression changes was also discussed. We further analyzed the linkage and interactions among the differentially expressed proteins (MAPK1, RKIP, AHSG, etc.). Collectively, the results might add to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating postnatal growth and development of rat tibialis anterior muscle.

  3. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  4. Wfs1- deficient rats develop primary symptoms of Wolfram syndrome: insulin-dependent diabetes, optic nerve atrophy and medullary degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaas, Mario; Seppa, Kadri; Reimets, Riin; Jagomäe, Toomas; Toots, Maarja; Koppel, Tuuliki; Vallisoo, Tuuli; Nigul, Mait; Heinla, Indrek; Meier, Riho; Kaasik, Allen; Piirsoo, Andres; Hickey, Miriam A; Terasmaa, Anton; Vasar, Eero

    2017-08-31

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene and is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes, optic atrophy, hearing loss and a number of other complications. Here, we describe the creation and phenotype of Wfs1 mutant rats, in which exon 5 of the Wfs1 gene is deleted, resulting in a loss of 27 amino acids from the WFS1 protein sequence. These Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show progressive glucose intolerance, which culminates in the development of diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and severe body weight loss by 12 months of age. Beta cell mass is reduced in older mutant rats, which is accompanied by decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from 3 months of age. Medullary volume is decreased in older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats, with the largest decreases at the level of the inferior olive. Finally, older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show retinal gliosis and optic nerve atrophy at 15 months of age. Electron microscopy revealed axonal degeneration and disorganization of the myelin in the optic nerves of older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats. The phenotype of Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats indicates that they have the core symptoms of WS. Therefore, we present a novel rat model of WS.

  5. Distribution of the DAZ gene transcripts in human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of variety of genes, especially located on Y chromosome, is critical for the regulation of spermatogenesis. In particular, fertility candidate genes such as deleted in azoospermia (DAZ are believed to have important function in sperm production, since DAZ is frequently deleted in azoospermic and severy oligozoospermic men. The role of the DAZ gene is supported by its exclusive expression in the testis and by its deletion in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients. The distribution of DAZ transcripts in seminiferous epithelium of human testis is reported in the present study. The use of Adobe Photoshop and Scion Image softwares allowed for semi-quantitative analysis of in situ RT-PCR (ISRT-PCR results. The intensity of ISRT-PCR product's fluorescence was different within individual seminiferous tubules. It was clearly shown by using the pseudocolour scale and transforming the intensity of the fluorescence into levels of greyscale images. The more intense fluorescence characterised single spermatogonia and those organized in small groups inside separate tubules. The most intense accumulation of DAZ mRNA was observed in spermatogonia.

  6. Stage I seminoma of the testis. Adjuvant radiotherapy or surveillance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allhoff, E.P.; Liedke, S.; De Riese, W.; Stief, C.; Schneider, B.

    1991-01-01

    Lately the role of radiotherapy in stage I seminoma of the testis has been questioned by some authors who reported on a ''surveillance'' strategy for these patients. Since 1980, 124 patients with seminoma of the testis have been referred to this institution; 97 of 116 patients analysed presented with stage I disease and 10 of these had elevated levels of βHCG. A total of 64 patients were given radiotherapy after orchiectomy and 33 entered a surveillance protocol. After a median follow-up of 48 months, 3 patients in the surveillance group relapsed after 5, 13 and 49 months and 2 of the irradiated patients did so after 25 and 33 months. Elevation of βHCG was not significant because none of these patients showed progression. A low rate of progression and excellent survival are associated with standard treatment (orchiectomy and radiotherapy) and good results have been achieved with chemotherapy in cases of relapse. A surveillance policy is not recommended in stage I seminoma because of its slower growth compared with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGTC), the absence of a specific tumour marker, the 10% risk of occult metastases and the 3-fold higher progression rate compared with irradiated patients. We suggest the use of a reduced dosage and radiation field. (author)

  7. Effect of hydrocele on appendix testis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Kutasy, Balázs; Benyó, Mátyás; Csanádi, Gábor; Kovács, Ilona; Balla, György; Flaskó, Tibor; Csernoch, László; Kiss, Csongor

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an elevated hydrostatic pressure of hydrocele on the structural integrity and steroid receptor expression pattern of the appendix testis in children. Twenty-six testicular appendages were obtained from boys (aged between 13 and 79 months, mean 40 months) who underwent surgical exploration because of hydrocele or congenital inguinal hernia. The tissue sections of testicular appendages were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence laser microscopy were performed using monoclonal mouse anti-human receptors against androgen and estrogen receptors. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 8) represented patients with groin hernia without hydrocele, who served as control group; group B (n = 7) represented patients with communicating hydrocele; and group C (n = 11) represented patients with noncommunicating hydrocele. The tissue sections of appendix testis expressed both androgen and estrogen receptors in all patients in groups A and B, and epithelial destruction was not present. The presence of androgen receptor (two of 11, P hydrocele did not influence the receptor expression pattern and the anatomic structure of testicular appendages, whereas noncommunicating hydrocele caused damage as indicated by the absence of steroid receptors and destruction of the epithelial surface. A better understanding of the physiological role of testicular appendages may change the indications of surgical treatment in patients with noncommunicating hydrocele.

  8. Flow cytometry of DNA in mouse sperm and testis nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mutations that occur in spermatogenic cells may be expressed as changes in DNA content, but developmentally-dependent alteration of its staining properties complicates the quantitation of DNA in individual germ cells. These alterations have been studied with flow cytometric techniques. Nuclei from mouse testis cells and sperm were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen method. The fluorescence intensity frequency distribution of nuclei of testis cells was characterized by 2 major and 5 minor peaks. Nuclei sorted from the various peaks with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter were identified microscopically. These data were confirmed by generation of peaks with nuclei prepared from cell suspensions enriched in specific cell types. One of the major peaks corresponded to round spermatid nuclei. The other major peak, located at 0.6 of the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to elongated spermatid nuclei. Purified nuclei of epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoa displayed asymmetric fluorescence distributions. A minor peak at 0.8 the intensity of the round spermatid nuclei was tentatively assigned to elongating spermatids. 2 of the minor peaks, located at 1.7 and 2.0 times the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to clumps of 2 haploid and diploid nuclei.

  9. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  10. The Effect of Cadmium on Hippocampus Development of Rat Embryos and L-carnitine Protective Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezani M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cadmium is a toxic metal which is widely used in industry. This metal exerts toxic effects on multiple organs, including nervous system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cadmium on weight and development of hippocampus in Wistar rat embryos and then determining whether L-carnitine, as an antioxidant, can protect hippocampus from the toxic effects.Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300g were used in this study. 24 hours after mating with male rats, the females were separated and their vaginal smears were examined for sperm detection. This day was considered as embryonic zero day. The female rats were divided into three groups: The control group which received no injection, the experimental group 1 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium and the experimental group 2 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium+500mg/kg B.W L-carnitin in days 7 and 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform over dose and their embryos were removed surgically. The embryos were fixed in formalin 10% for 30 days, the weight of embryos were measured. Then tissue processing, sectioning and Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & M staining were done. Some sections of hippocampus were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC soft ware. Results: The weight of embryos were significantly decreased in experimental groups. This decrease was significantly greater in the Experimental group 2. The number of cells and thickness of hippocampus layers were decreased significantly just in the second group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cadmium has teratogenic effects on embryo’s weight and development of hippocampus and at least a part of these effects may be inhibited by L-carnitine.

  11. Study on developing brain damage of neonatal rats induced by enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Yang Shuqin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal Wistar pure bred rats were studied. Methods: The model of irradiation induced brain damage in vivo was settled. The effects of cerebrum exposure by 235 U on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by thirteen index determination of multiple parameters. The dynamic retention of autoradiographic tracks of 235 U in cells of developing brain was observed. The changes of NSE, IL-1β, SOD, and ET in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum after expose to 235 U were examined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The somatic growth such as increase of body weight and brain weight was lower significantly. The retardation of development was found such as eye opening, sensuous function as auditory startle, movement and coordination function and activity as swimming, physiological reflexes as negative geotaxis, surface righting, grasping reflex suspension and the tendency behavior. The data showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The micro-autoradiographic tracing showed that the tracks of 235 U were mainly accumulated in the nucleus of developing brain. At the same time only few tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. Experimental study showed that when the dose of 235 U irradiation was increased, the level of NSE was decreased and the IL-1β was increased. However, the results indicated that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of 235 U, and can be inhibited by the high dose. Conclusion: The behavior of internal irradiation from 235 U on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility and compensation in nervous cells

  12. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  13. Effect of tritium (tritium water) on prenatal and postnatal development of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Yagova, A.

    1983-01-01

    Female rats were injected intraperitoneally on the first day after their fecundation with 3,7 kBq/g b.w. tritium water - activity which under these conditions does not increase prenatal death rate. The postnatal development of the born alive was traced in respect to the lethality rate and growth rate (mean bodily weight in dynamics up to the 60-th day p.p.) and compared with that of the offsprings from the control group. It was shown that the used activity tritium water during the initial stages of embryonic development does not result in deviations from the norm. (authors)

  14. The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, M.J.; Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report the results of an autoradiographic analysis of the postnatal development of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat brain. Quantitative analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a varied pattern of gradual development towards adult receptor concentrations during the second week of life. Receptor concentrations in the dentate gyrus increased dramatically between Days 9 and 15, while the changes during this period in the pyramidal layers of Ammon's horn seemed to reflect both structural changes in these regions as well as increases in receptor concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Pre-translational control of hepatic malic enzyme expression during the development of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, D J; Bailey, E

    1991-01-01

    The expression of hepatic cytosolic malic enzyme in the developing rat has been studied by molecular-biological techniques. Malic enzyme mRNA was barely detectable throughout the neonatal period, but increased to significant levels immediately before weaning. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that the two major malic enzyme mRNA species displayed non-co-ordinate control during development, with the 2.0 kb form accumulating to a greater extent than the 3.1 kb form. A novel 1.6 kb mRNA specie...

  16. Enhanced inhibitory effects of TBT chloride on the development of F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, H; Tsunoda, M; Kaido, T; Hosokawa, M; Sugaya, C; Inoue, Y; Kudo, Y; Satoh, T; Katagiri, H; Akita, H; Saji, M; Wakasa, M; Negishi, T; Tashiro, T; Aizawa, Y

    2010-05-01

    Neurotoxicity is one of the major effects of tributyltin (TBT). The effects on the next generation of F(1) rats exposed to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk may be stronger than those on adults. Pregnant Wister rats were exposed to TBT at 0 and 125 ppm in their food. Half of the female F(1) rats in both groups were exposed to TBT at 125 ppm in their food from 9 to 15 weeks of age. Female F(1) rats were divided into the following groups: the control-control (CC) group, with no exposure; the TBT-control (TC) group, exposed to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk; the control-TBT (CT) group, exposed to TBT via their food from 9 to 15 weeks of age; and the TBT-TBT (TT) group, exposed to TBT via the placenta, their dams' milk, and their food (n = 10/group). After administration, an open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) test were performed at 15 weeks of age. The mean body weights of the TC and TT groups were significantly lower than that of the CC group from 9 to 15 weeks of age. The mean relative thymus weight of the TC and TT groups was significantly lower than that of the CC group. In the open-field test, a marked decrease in the total locomotion distance was observed in the TT group. The mean values in the TT and TC groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. For the locomotion distance between 15 and 20 min, the mean values in the CT, TC, and TT groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. The mean locomotor distance between 25 and 30 min in the TT group was significantly lower than that in the CC and TC groups. The mean values of instances of wall rearing in the TC, CT, and TT groups were significantly lower than that in the CC group. The mean value of face washing or body washing in the TT group was significantly lower than that in the CT group. There were no significant differences in indexes of the PPI test. Exposure to TBT via the placenta and their dams' milk inhibited the development of F(1) rats, which

  17. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (pACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.

  18. A histological study on the prenatal development of the palatal rugae in the white rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motabagani, Mohamed Akram

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prenatal development of the palatal rugae in the White Rat and to discuss the possible role played by the developing rugae in palatal shelf elevation. Extraction of embryos from twenty pregnant female rats was carried out in the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th day of pregnancy. Four embryos from each age were decapitated and their heads were fixed and processed. Serial coronal and sagittal sections were made and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and with Mallory's trichrome stains. The results of the present study revealed that in the 12th day rat embryo the lateral and medial surfaces of the vertical palatine processes were covered with epithelium of uniform thickness but there was marked epithelial thickening at the junction between the lateral surface of the palatine process and the maxillary process with increased condensation in the subjacent mesenchyme. In the 13th day, the thickened epithelium was invaginated into the underlying mesenchyme to form a well-marked groove. In the 14th day, the anterior set of palatal rugae started to appear on the future oral surface of the vertical palatine process as three vertically arranged areas of epithelial thickenings. In the 15th day, the palatine processes became horizontal and the anterior set of rugae became apparent in coronal and sagittal sections. In the 16th day, the anterior set of rugae became well developed and their thickened epithelium became invaded by the subjacent mesenchyme. The posterior set of rugae started to appear as localized epithelial thickenings. It was concluded that the anterior set of rugae is developed prior to shelf elevation while the posterior set is developed only after palatal shelf elevation. The rugae may act as struts which help in keeping the palatine shelves horizontal when they have been elevated.

  19. Interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia in the development of calcific aortic valve disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kris; Roosens, Bram; Bala, Gezim; Remory, Isabel; Hernot, Sophie; Delvenne, Philippe; Mestrez, Fabienne; Droogmans, Steven; Cosyns, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is currently the most common heart valve disease worldwide and is known to be an active process. Both renal failure and dyslipidaemia are considered to be promoting factors for the development of valvular calcifications. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the respective contribution and interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia on CAVD in a rat model, using echocardiography and compared with histology. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were prospectively divided in eight groups, each fed a different diet to induce renal failure alone and combined with hyperlipidaemia or hypercholesterolemia. CAVD was detected and quantified by calibrated integrated backscatter of ultrasound (cIB) and compared with the histological calcium score. The study follow-up was 20 weeks. At the end of the study, the cIB value and the calcium score of the aortic valve were significantly increased in the group with isolated renal failure but not with dyslipidaemia. The combination of renal failure with high cholesterol or high-fat diet did not significantly increase calcifications further. Renal failure alone does induce aortic valve calcifications in a rat model of CAVD, whereas dyslipidaemia alone does not. The combination of renal failure with dyslipidaemia does not increase calcification further. These findings suggest that a combination of atherosclerotic and calcifying factors is not required to induce aortic valve calcifications in this model.

  20. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: cchuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Tsen [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals.

  2. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals

  3. Kinetic characterization of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases in brain nerve terminals during rat postnatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, I.; Drakulić, D.; Petrović, S.; Milošević, M.; Jovanović, N.; Horvat, A.

    2011-12-01

    A family of enzymes named ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDases) catalyzes the termination of ATP and ADP actions. Three different NTPDases (NTPDase 1-3), differing in their preference for a substrate, have been localized in the brain of adult mammals. The goal of our study was to clarify ATP and ADP hydrolyzing activities and kinetic parameters of NTPDases in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) isolated from 15-, 30-, 60- and 90-days-old female rat brains. ATP and ADP hydrolysis were maximal in the presence of Mg2+ and showed insensitivity to ion-transporting ATPase inhibitors. The pronounced increase in both, ATP and ADP hydrolysis, were found in the SPM isolated from rats in the first month of life, stayed at the same level in the second month, and then decreased in adulthood. Kinetic analysis are also developmental-dependent, and together with the rate of ATP:ADP hydrolysis, point that all three NTPDases are present in SPM isolated from different developmental stages, with different, developmental-dependent proportion of activities. The lowest velocity and the highest affinity were observed for ATP hydrolyses, while the highest velocity and lowest affinity were detected for ADP hydrolyses in SPM isolated from 15-day old rats. Since specific ATP and ADP hydrolysis were lowest in this stage, we concluded that velocity is crucial for ATPase-, while affinity is for ADPase-part of NTPDases. Increased NTPDases activities, changes in their hydrolysis velocity and substrates affinities during rat postnatal development indicate involvement of adenine nucleotides in processes implicated to neuronal maturation and augmented neuroprotection.

  4. Are Cocaine-Seeking "Habits" Necessary for the Development of Addiction-Like Behavior in Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bryan F; Fadanelli, Monica; Kawa, Alex B; Robinson, Terry E

    2018-01-03

    Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit," and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, to procure such drugs as cocaine, addicts often require considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits. To better model drug-seeking behavior in addicts, we first developed a novel cocaine self-administration procedure [puzzle self-administration procedure (PSAP)] that required rats to solve a new puzzle every day to gain access to cocaine, which they then self-administered on an intermittent access (IntA) schedule. Such daily problem-solving precluded the development of S-R seeking habits. We then asked whether prolonged PSAP/IntA experience would nevertheless produce "symptoms of addiction." It did, including escalation of intake, sensitized motivation for drug, continued drug use in the face of adverse consequences, and very robust cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, especially in a subset of "addiction-prone" rats. Furthermore, drug-seeking behavior continued to require dopamine neurotransmission in the core of the nucleus accumbens (but not the dorsolateral striatum). We conclude that the development of S-R seeking habits is not necessary for the development of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Substance-use disorders are often characterized as "habitual" behaviors aimed at obtaining and administering drugs. Although the actions involved in consuming drugs may involve a rigid repertoire of habitual behaviors, evidence suggests that addicts must be very creative and flexible when trying to procure drugs, and thus

  5. The potential of cell sheet technique on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa T Alshareeda

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is considered the 3rd leading cause of death by cancer worldwide with the majority of patients were diagnosed in the late stages. Currently, there is no effective therapy. The selection of an animal model that mimics human cancer is essential for the identification of prognostic/predictive markers, candidate genes underlying cancer induction and the examination of factors that may influence the response of cancers to therapeutic agents and regimens. In this study, we developed a HCC nude rat models using cell sheet and examined the effect of human stromal cells (SCs on the development of the HCC model and on different liver parameters such as albumin and urea.Transplanted cell sheet for HCC rat models was fabricated using thermo-responsive culture dishes. The effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs on the developed tumour was tested. Furthermore, development of tumour and detection of the liver parameter was studied. Additionally, angiogenesis assay was performed using Matrigel.HepG2 cells requires five days to form a complete cell sheet while HepG2 co-cultured with UC-MSCs or BM-MSCs took only three days. The tumour developed within 4 weeks after transplantation of the HCC sheet on the liver of nude rats. Both UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs improved the secretion of liver parameters by increasing the secretion of albumin and urea. Comparatively, the UC-MSCs were more effective than BM-MSCs, but unlike BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs prevented liver tumour formation and the tube formation of HCC.Since this is a novel study to induce liver tumour in rats using hepatocellular carcinoma sheet and stromal cells, the data obtained suggest that cell sheet is a fast and easy technique to develop HCC models as well as UC-MSCs have therapeutic potential for liver diseases. Additionally, the data procured indicates that stromal cells enhanced the fabrication of HepG2

  6. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michelle; MacLeod, David J; Walker, Marion; Smith, Lee B; Sharpe, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during the MPW +/- postnatal testosterone propionate (TP) treatment. To assess penile growth responsiveness, rats were treated with TP in various time windows (late foetal, neonatal through early puberty, puberty onset, or combinations thereof). Phallus length, weight, and morphology, hypospadias and anogenital distance (AGD) were measured in mid-puberty (d25) or adulthood (d90) in males and females, plus serum testosterone in adult males. MPW flutamide exposure reduced adult penile length and induced hypospadias dose-dependently; this was not rescued by postnatal TP treatment. In normal rats, foetal (e14.5-e21.5) TP exposure did not affect male penis size but increased female clitoral size. In males, TP exposure from postnatal d1-24 or at puberty (d15-24), increased penile length at d25, but not ultimately in adulthood. Foetal + postnatal TP (e14-postnatal d24) increased penile size at d25 but reduced it at d90 (due to reduced endogenous testosterone). In females, this treatment caused the biggest increase in adult clitoral size but, unlike in males, phallus size was unaffected by TP during puberty (d15-24). Postnatal TP treatment advanced penile histology at d25 to more resemble adult histology. AGD strongly correlated with final penis length. It is concluded that adult penile size depends critically on androgen action during the MPW but subsequent growth depends on later androgen exposure. Foetal and/or postnatal TP exposure does not increase adult penile size above its

  7. Expression of the cancer-testis antigen BORIS correlates with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Zubair; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Kita, Georgia-Xanthi; Farrar, Dawn; Seddon, Ian; Corr, John; Klenova, Elena

    2014-02-01

    BORIS, a paralogue of the transcription factor CTCF, is a member of the cancer-testis antigen (CT) family. BORIS is normally present at high levels in the testis; however it is aberrantly expressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines. The main objectives of this study were to investigate BORIS expression together with sub-cellular localization in both prostate cell lines and tumor tissues, and assess correlations between BORIS and clinical/pathological characteristics. We examined BORIS mRNA expression, protein levels and cellular localization in a panel of human prostate tissues, cancer and benign, together with a panel prostate cell lines. We also compared BORIS levels and localization with clinical/pathological characteristics in prostate tumors. BORIS was detected in all inspected prostate cancer cell lines and tumors, but was absent in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased levels of BORIS protein positively correlated with Gleason score, T-stage and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in prostate tumors. The relationship between BORIS and AR was further highlighted in prostate cell lines by the ability of ectopically expressed BORIS to activate the endogenous AR mRNA and protein. BORIS localization in the nucleus plus cytoplasm was also associated with higher BORIS levels and Gleason score. Detection of BORIS in prostate tumors suggests potential applications of BORIS as a biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis, as an immunotherapy target and, potentially, a prognostic marker of more aggressive prostate cancer. The ability of BORIS to activate the AR gene indicates BORIS involvement in the growth and development of prostate tumors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2018-04-01

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  9. Early embryonic brain development in rats requires the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Alonso, M I; Santiago, C; Moro, J A; De la Mano, A; Carretero, R; Gato, A

    2009-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid has shown itself to be an essential brain component during development. This is particularly evident at the earliest stages of development where a lot of research, performed mainly in chick embryos, supports the evidence that cerebrospinal fluid is involved in different mechanisms controlling brain growth and morphogenesis, by exerting a trophic effect on neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPC) involved in controlling the behaviour of these cells. Despite it being known that cerebrospinal fluid in mammals is directly involved in corticogenesis at fetal stages, the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the activity of NPC at the earliest stages of brain development has not been demonstrated. Here, using "in vitro" organotypic cultures of rat embryo brain neuroepithelium in order to expose NPC to or deprive them of cerebrospinal fluid, we show that the neuroepithelium needs the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid to undergo normal rates of cell survival, replication and neurogenesis, suggesting that NPC are not self-sufficient to induce their normal activity. This data shows that cerebrospinal fluid is an essential component in chick and rat early brain development, suggesting that its influence could be constant in higher vertebrates.

  10. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Nakahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  11. Development of jaw muscles' function in rats fed a kneaded diet

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi, IKEDA; Department of Orthodontics, Kagoshima University Dental School

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the effect of chewing foods on the development of jaw muscles' function, 41 Wister male rats were divided into the solid (group S, n=20) and the kneaded (group K, n=21) diet groups at 16 days of age and fed their respective diets till the end of the experiment. At 5, 8 and 11 weeks of age, electromyograms of the masseter (Ma), medial pterygoid (Mp), temporal (Tm) and digastric muscles (Di) were recorded when both groups intook and chewed the solid diet. Results indicated that : 1) ...

  12. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  13. Peri-pubertal administration of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) affects reproductive organ development in male but not female Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Wallace, Shannon M; Carroll, Erica E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through post-natal day 53/54 and 42/43, respectively. Age and body mass at vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PPS), as well as all measures of estrous cyclicity were not affected by treatment with NTO. Males treated with NTO exhibited reductions in testis mass associated with tubular degeneration/atrophy. Less pronounced reductions in accessory sex organ masses were also observed in the 500mg/kg-day group. Treatment with NTO did not affect thyroid hormone or testosterone levels. These findings suggest that NTO is not acting as an estrogen or thyroid active compound, but may indicate effects on steroidogenesis and/or direct testicular toxicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E

    1991-01-01

    Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances...... of their ichthyoses, three of the ichthyotic subjects had no measurable activity of the enzyme, steroid sulfatase (STS) in leucocytes, a distinct characteristic of recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). However, the remaining three subjects had normal STS activity, a strong indicator of autosomal dominant ichthyosis...... (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone...

  15. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  16. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Rossi, Soledad Paola

    2017-05-31

    The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  17. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  18. Live Imaging of the Drosophila Testis Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Leah J; Matunis, Erika L

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of adult tissue stem cell niches provides key insights into the dynamic behavior of stem cells, their differentiating progeny, and their neighboring support cells, but few niches are amenable to this approach. Here we discuss a technique for long-term live imaging of the Drosophila testis stem cell niche. Culturing whole testes ex vivo for up to 12.5 h allows for tracking of cell-type specific behaviors under normal and various chemically or genetically modified conditions. Fixing and staining tissues after live imaging allows for the molecular confirmation of cell identity and behavior. Utilization of live imaging in intact niches will facilitate further understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate stem cell function in vivo.

  19. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia...

  20. Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Yao, Wenqing; Yang, Lulu; Wang, Jianzhong; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie

    2014-02-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is an extremely rare extratesticular neoplasm. Due to its low occurrence and the scarcity of data, sonographic characteristics of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis are still poorly defined. A 46-year-old male complained of swelling and pain in the right side of the scrotum. No associated symptoms were observed. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy yielded no response. Postoperative pathology revealed a diagnosis of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Using the ultrasonography features observed, combined with a review of current literature, the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this neoplasm are presented.