WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing rat pups

  1. Phenomenon of hormesis on γ-irradiated developing rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruda, V.P.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Development of rat pups was shown to accelerate body mass up 121% of control) afetr γ-irradiation on day 21 of the postnatal development (2.88 cGy, dose-rate of 0.12 cGy/h). Higher cumulative doses (14.4 and 144 cGy) did not influence the body mass growth, and inhibition was only caused by doses exceeding 150 cGy

  2. Development of locomotor activity of rat pups in figure-eight mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1985-05-01

    In a series of four experiments, social and experiential factors that influence the development of motor activity in rat pups were examined. Motor activity was monitored from postnatal Days 13 to 21 as photocell interruptions in figure-eight mazes and comparisons were made between pups maintained in a nest box containing a dam and siblings and allowed access to the maze for 23 hr/day, pups tested daily for 1 hr/day vs pups tested only on postnatal Days 15, 18, or 21, pups tested daily for either 5 min, 30 min, or 1 hr/day, and pups tested daily for 30 min/day either singly in a maze, paired with a littermate, or paired with an anesthetized pup of the same age. A monotonic increase in activity was seen for nest-box testing, minimal developmental change was seen for pups tested on only a single day or for pups tested with an anesthetized pup, whereas all other groups showed an inverted U-shaped profile of activity which was influenced by the duration of testing and/or the presence of a littermate. These data emphasize the relevance of environmental factors as determinants of preweaning behavior.

  3. Postnatal development of rat pups is altered by prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Pometlová, Marie; Charousová, Petra

    2006-01-01

    There are studies showing that drug abuse during pregnancy may have impairing effect on progeny of drug-abusing mothers. Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most common illicit drugs throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MA exposure on postnatal development of rat pups before the time of separation from their mothers. Female rats were injected with MA (5 mg/kg daily) for the duration of their pregnancy. Pups were then tested throughout the lactation period. They were weighed daily and the ano-genital distance was measured on postnatal day (PD) 1. Development of postural motor reaction was tested by righting reflex on surface between PD 1 and 12, and righting reflex in mid-air after PD 12 until successfully accomplished. On PD 15 homing test was examined as a test of pup acute learning. On PD 23 sensory-motor coordination was examined using the rotarod and bar-holding tests. Additionally, the markers of physical maturation, such as eye opening, testes descent in males and vaginal opening in females were also recorded. The birth weight in prenatally MA-exposed pups was lower than in controls or saline-exposed pups regardless of sex. There were no changes induced by prenatal MA exposure in weight gain or in sexual maturation. In righting reflexes, we demonstrated that pups exposed prenatally to MA were slower in righting reflex on surface and that they accomplished the test of righting reflex in mid-air later than controls or saline-exposed pups. The performance of homing test was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. The sensory-motor coordination was impaired in prenatally MA-exposed pups when testing in the rotarod test. Also, the number of falls in the bar-holding test was higher in MA-exposed pups than in controls. There were no sex differences in any measures. Thus, the present study demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure impairs development of postural motor movements of rat pups during the first 3 weeks

  4. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  5. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  6. Development of the central nervous system functions in rat pups prenatally exposed to alcohol (study on the behavioural teratology of ethanol in CFY rat pups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Ungváry, G; Szeberényi, J M; Kiss, A

    1988-01-01

    As a model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) the rate of the maturation of the functions of the central nervous system was studied in the offspring of pregnant CFY rats receiving (from the 7th-15th day of gestation) either oral ethanol treatment or liquid diet containing ethanol. Both types of exposure caused numerous behavioural impairments, besides high perinatal mortality also the opening of the eyes and ears, and the appearance of postural reflexes were delayed. The newborn rats could be characterized by hyperactivity and weak motor coordination. The learning capacity, the avoidance conditioned reflexes was the poorest in the case of the offspring of mothers kept on liquid diet, containing alcohol, the latency of the conditioned response was significantly lenghtened. During reconditioning, in the case of the sexually already mature pups, the weakest performance was observed in the offspring of mothers having received oral alcohol treatment. This findings indicated, on one hand, that the retardation ceased and, on the other, that the learning and memory impairments caused by oral alcohol exposure was persistent. Following prenatal alcohol exposure carried out by different methods the neurotoxic effect, the retardation of the rate of maturation of the central nervous functions, and the adaptive mechanisms were all affected to different extent. Besides alcohol exposure also other factors (relative protein insufficiency, malnutrition) may be involved in the pathomechanism of the above mentioned phenomena.

  7. Postnatal undernutrition in rats: attempts to develop alternative methods to food deprive pups without maternal behavioral alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, W; Carlini, E A

    1979-09-01

    Two methods were investigated as attempts to undernourish rat pups without the disturbances in maternal behavior that accompany the procedures used to date for this purpose. In the 1st method, a litter of 12 pups was raised by both a lactating mother and a "sensitized" female. The sensitized female was provided under the assumption that she could correct for the deficit in maternal care when 1 mother raises a large litter. The results showed that the pups raised by the 2 females were constantly removed by the females from each other's nests; the females engaged in constant fighting and showed altered maternal behavior. As a consequence the pups lost more weight than control underfed young. The 2nd method consisted of removing 6-8 nipples from virgin females which were mated 10 days later. After delivery these females raised litters of 6 pups. Their maternal behavior was equal to that of unoperated controls, and at weaning the pups had 20-50% less body weight. This method could be useful to study undernutrition effects on behavior, without confounding experimental variables.

  8. Effects of prenatal triphenyl-tin exposure on the development of behavior and conditioned learning in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberenyi, J M; Gonda, Z; Horkay, F; Kiss, A

    1982-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of the fungicide triphenyl-tin acetate were examined in pups of mothers treated perorally on day 7-15 of gestation. The gait and development of motor coordination did not differ from those of control animals, in spite of the high mortality rate of control pups during the nursing period. Spontaneous locomotor activity of treated pups at the age of 23 and 36 days was increased, however by the age of 90 days activity returned to control levels. Conditioned avoidance was acquired more rapidly, but was also extinguished sooner in animals born from, the nursed by poisoned mothers than in control.

  9. Differential effects of developmental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in the spinal cord of developing postnatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The plasticity and vulnerability of the rat spinal cord (SC) during postnatal development has been less investigated compared to other CNS structures. In this study, we determined the effects of thyroid hormonal (TH) deficiency and excess on postnatal growth and neurochemical development of the rat SC. The growth as well as the specific and total activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes of the SC were determined in hypo- and hyperthyroid rat pups at postnatal (P) days P1, P5, P10 and P21 (weaning), and were compared to age-matched untreated normal controls. AChE is a cholinergic synaptic enzyme while BuChE is a metabolic enzyme mainly found in glial cells and neurovascular cells. The SC is rich in somatic motor, autonomic cholinergic neurons and associated interneurons. Daily subcutaneous injection of pups with thyroxine (T4) and administration of antithyroid goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU) in the litter's drinking water were used to induce hyper- and hypothyroidism, respectively. Enzyme assays were carried out spectrophotometrically at the above-mentioned ages, using SC homogenates with acetylthiocholine-chloride as the substrate, together with specific cholinesterase inhibitors, which specifically target AChE and BuChE. SC weights were significantly lower at P10 and P21 in hypothyroid pups but unchanged in the hyperthyroid ones. Hypothyroidism significantly reduced both specific and total AChE activity in SC of P10 and P21 rat pups, while having no effects on the BuChE activity, although total BuChE activity was decreased due to reduced total tissue weight. In contrast both specific and total AChE activities were markedly and significantly increased (>100%) in the P10 and P21 hyperthyroid pups. However, BuChE specific activity was unaffected by this treatment. The results indicate that hypothyroid condition significantly reduces, while hyperthyroidism increases, the postnatal development of cholinergic synapses, thereby

  10. Effect of Intermittent Hypercapnia on Respiratory Control in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggerda, Justin A.; Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm infants are subject to fluctuations in blood gas status associated with immature respiratory control. Intermittent hypoxia during early postnatal life has been shown to increase chemoreceptor sensitivity and destabilize the breathing pattern; however, intermittent hypercapnia remains poorly studied. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia results in altered respiratory control, we examined the effects of daily exposure to intermittent hypercapnia on the ventilatory response to subsequent hypercapnic and hypoxic exposure in neonatal rat pups. Exposure cycles consisted of 5 min of intermittent hypercapnia (5% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2) followed by 10 min of normoxia. Rat pups were exposed to 18 exposure cycles each day for 1 week, from postnatal day 7 to 14. We analyzed diaphragm electromyograms (EMGs) from pups exposed to subsequent acute hypercapnic (5% CO2) and hypoxic (12% O2) challenges. In response to a subsequent hypercapnia challenge, there was no significant difference in the ventilatory response between control and intermittent hypercapnia-exposed groups. In contrast, intermittent hypercapnia-exposed rat pups showed an enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxic challenge with an increase in minute EMG to 118 ± 14% of baseline versus 107 ± 13% for control pups (p < 0.05). We speculate that prior hypercapnic exposure may increase peripheral chemoreceptor response to subsequent hypoxic exposures and result in perturbed neonatal respiratory control. PMID:19752577

  11. Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, Eliana M; Barina, Alexis E; Raju, Sharat; Li, Aihua; Kinney, Hannah C; Commons, Kathryn G; Nattie, Eugene E

    2011-02-01

    Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects postnatal forebrain development; its effect upon brain stem development is less certain. To evaluate the role of tryptophan [critical for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis] on brain stem 5-HT and the development of cardiorespiratory function, we fed dams a diet ∼45% deficient in tryptophan during gestation and early postnatal life and studied cardiorespiratory variables in the developing pups. Deficient pups were of normal weight at postnatal day (P)5 but weighed less than control pups at P15 and P25 (P interactions between nutrition, brain stem physiology, and age that are potentially relevant to understanding 5-HT deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome.

  12. Effects of maternal exposure to trichloroethylene on glucose uptake and nucleic acid and protein levels in the brains of developing rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbec, E.A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread contaminant of drinking water sources. This study examined several biochemical aspects of the hippocampus and cerebellum of rat pups that were exposed prenatally (gestational) and postnatally (lactational) to TCE via their dams' drinking water. The effects of TCE on glucose uptake, and on nucleic and protein levels in brain tissue were examined in these pups. Glucose uptake in the cerebellum, hippocampus and whole brain of the pups during the first 21 days of life was measured using the tritium-labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) dissection/scintillation counting technique. The author determined that 312 mg TCE/I in drinking water (total dam exposure was 684 mg) significantly depressed 2-DG uptake in the whole brains and cerebella of 7- to 21-day old pups. This concentration also reduced 2-DG uptake in the hippocampus of exposed pups at 7, 11, and 16 days, but the uptake returned to control levels by 21 days. No overt toxicity, such as lower body or brain weight, was observed at this exposure level. This decrease in 2-DG uptake is a reflection of a decreased relative glucose uptake in the TCE exposed animals. Total DNA and RNA were extracted and measured using a modification of the Schmidt-Thannhauser procedure and Schneider technique, respectively. Proteins were determined based on the method of Bradford (1976)

  13. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neurodevelopmental Reflex Testing in Neonatal Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Antoinette T; Armstrong, Edward A; Yager, Jerome Y

    2017-04-24

    Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants. The techniques described assess a variety of neurodevelopmental reflexes in neonatal rats. Neurodevelopmental reflex testing offers the investigator a testing method that is not otherwise available in such young animals. The methodology presented here aims to assist investigators in examining developmental milestones in neonatal rats as a method of detecting early-onset brain injury and/or determining the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The methodology presented here aims to provide a general guideline for investigators.

  15. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  16. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Moussaoui

    Full Text Available A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%, self-grooming (69%, and putting the pups back to the nest (167%. LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring.

  17. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  18. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months).

  19. Acoustic alterations of ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups induced by perinatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hiromi

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal hypothyroidism causes serious damage to auditory functions that are essential for vocalization development. In rat pups, perinatal hypothyroidism potentially affects the development of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) as a result of hearing deficits. This study examined the effect of perinatal hypothyroidism on the development of USVs in rat pups. Twelve pregnant rats were divided into three groups and treated with the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) via drinking water, from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21. The MMI concentration (w/v) was 0% (control group), 0.01% (low-dose group), or 0.015% (high-dose group). After birth, the pups were individually separated from the dam and littermates on PNDs 5, 10, 15, and 20, and their USVs were recorded for 5min. On PNDs 5 and 10, compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose groups exhibited reductions of both frequency-modulated and downward USVs. On PND 15, however, the low- and high-dose groups displayed increases in number, duration, and amplitude of USVs compared with those in the control group. Lower body weights were observed for the low- and high-dose groups than for the control group. Total thyroxine concentrations in plasma were dose-dependently reduced. The onset of auditory functions appeared on PNDs 11-14. Thus, the rat pups were unable to hear externally produced USVs before PND 11. USVs emitted on PNDs 5 and 10 might have been spontaneous and independent of the pups' own or littermate-emitted USVs. The developmental retardation of vocalization-related organs or muscles might underlie the acoustic alterations of USVs on PNDs 5 and 10. The greater number, duration, and amplitude of USVs on PND 15, after which the hearing onset occurred, suggested that the elevation of auditory thresholds occurred as a result of hearing deficits in the low- and high-dose groups. Perinatal hypothyroidism appears to have caused acoustic alterations in the USV development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.

  1. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose response (BBDR) Model***

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...

  2. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...

  3. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by 3 H 2 O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r 2 = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r 2 = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r 2 = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization

  4. Ethological analysis of mother-pup interactions and other behavioral reactions in rats: effects of malnutrition and tactile stimulation of the pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riul T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-pup interaction, as well as other behavioral reactions were studied during the lactation period in 24 litters of Wistar rats and their dams fed either a 16% (control - C; 12 litters or a 6% (malnourished - M; 12 litters protein diet. The diets were isocaloric. Throughout lactation there was a 36.4% weight loss of M dams and a 63% body weight deficit in the M pups when compared to control pups. During this period, half of the litters were exposed daily to additional tactile stimulation (CS or MS, while the other half were submitted to normal rearing conditions (CN or MN. The tactile stimulation of pups (handling consisted of holding the animal in one hand and gently touching the dorsal part of the animal's body with the fingers for 3 min. A special camera and a time-lapse video were used to record litter behavior in their home cages. Starting at 6 p.m. and ending at 6 a.m., on days 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of lactation, photos were taken at 4-s intervals. An increase in the frequency (154.88 ± 16.19 and duration (455.86 ± 18.05 min of suckling was observed throughout the lactation period in all groups compared to birth day (frequency 24.88 ± 2.37 and duration 376.76 ± 21.01 min, but the frequency was higher in the C (84.96 ± 8.52 than in the M group (43.13 ± 4.37; however, the M group (470.2 ± 11.87 min spent more time suckling as compared with the C group (393.67 ± 13.09 min. The M dams showed a decreased frequency of resting position throughout the lactation period (6.5 ± 2.48 compared to birth day (25.42 ± 7.74. Pups from the C group were more frequently observed separated (73.02 ± 4.38 and interacting (258.99 ± 20.61 more with their mothers than the M pups (separated 66.94 ± 5.5 and interacting 165.72 ± 12.05. Tactile stimulation did not interact with diet condition, showing that the kind of stimulation used in the present study did not lead to recovery from the changes induced by protein malnutrition. The changes in

  5. Ingestive behavior in rat pups is modified by maternal sodium depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillán, Carmen; Núñez, Paula; Costales, Marina; Vijande, Manuel; Argüelles, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental programming by maternal stress during pregnancy is found to influence behavioral development in the offspring. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal sodium depletion in rats during pregnancy on the development of thirst mechanisms in the offspring. Pregnant rats underwent 3 episodes of saline depletion, induced by injecting sc 10 mg of Furosemide in saline (0.5 ml). The treatment, given on the 14th, 17th and 20th days post-conception, is thought to induce acute sodium depletion on dams. The offspring were tested for their drinking responses to Isoproterenol (500 µg/kg sc). In accordance to the known sequence of ontogenic development of drinking mechanisms, all groups of pups drunk after being stimulated with Isoproterenol at 6 days of age. The offspring from Furosemide-treated dams drank significantly less than the control group after Isoproterenol (p<0.001). Nevertheless, basal intake (water drunk after vehicle-saline only) was also significantly lower in these pups (p<0.001). In conclusion, offspring exposed to saline depletion in utero, modify their thirst responses at 6 day of age. This confirms that in utero conditions determine thirst responses in the offspring and they could provide adaptive advantages.

  6. Treadmill exercise ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through neuronal generation in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wan; Jung, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Sam-Jun; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. We examined the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe using immunofluorescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was detected by Western blot analysis. The present results demonstrated that social isolation increased resting time and decreased mobility time. Expression of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe and expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were decreased by social isolation. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was suppressed by social isolation. Treadmill exercise decreased resting time and increased mobility in the social isolated rat pups. Expression of 5-HT, TPH, BDNF, and TrkB was increased by treadmill exercise. The present results suggested that treadmill exercise may ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through increasing neuronal generation.

  7. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases TNFα and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response in Male Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Riddle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR programs adult disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. Our group previously demonstrated that IUGR dysregulates adipose deposition in male, but not female, weanling rats. Dysregulated adipose deposition is often accompanied by the release of proinflammatory signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. TNFα contributes to adipocyte inflammation and impaired insulin signaling. TNFα has also been implicated in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, which impairs insulin signaling. We hypothesized that, in male rat pups, IUGR would increase TNFα, TNFR1, and components of the UPR (Hspa5, ATF6, p-eIF2α, and Ddit3 prior to the onset of obesity. We further hypothesized that impaired glucose tolerance would occur after the onset of adipose dysfunction in male IUGR rats. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-characterized rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Our primary findings are that, in male rats, IUGR (1 increased circulating and adipose TNFα, (2 increased mRNA levels of UPR components as well as p-eIF2a, and (3 impaired glucose tolerance after observed TNFα increased and after UPR activation. We speculate that programmed dysregulation of TNFα and UPR contributed to the development of glucose intolerance in male IUGR rats.

  9. Maternal Deprivation of Lewis Rat Pups Increases the Severity of Experi-mental Periodontitis in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Murison, Robert; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P; Gjermo, Per; Opstad, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis.

  10. Sex-Specific Consequences of Neonatal Stress on Cardio-Respiratory Inhibition Following Laryngeal Stimulation in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, Cécile; Chamberland, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presence of liquid near the larynx of immature mammals triggers prolonged apneas with significant O2 desaturations and bradycardias. When excessive, this reflex (the laryngeal chemoreflex; LCR) can be fatal. Our understanding of the origins of abnormal LCR are limited; however, perinatal stress and male sex are risk factors for cardio-respiratory failure in infants. Because exposure to stress during early life has deleterious and sex-specific consequences on brain development it is plausible that respiratory reflexes are vulnerable to neuroendocrine dysfunction. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is sufficient to exacerbate LCR-induced cardio-respiratory inhibition in anesthetized rat pups. Stressed pups were separated from their mother 3 h/d from postnatal days 3 to 12. At P14–P15, pups were instrumented to monitor breathing, O2 saturation (Spo2), and heart rate. The LCR was activated by water injections near the larynx (10 µl). LCR-induced apneas were longer in stressed pups than controls; O2 desaturations and bradycardias were more profound, especially in males. NMS increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) of males but not females. The positive relationship between corticosterone and testosterone observed in stressed pups (males only) suggests that disruption of neuroendocrine function by stress is key to sex-based differences in abnormal LCR. Because testosterone application onto medullary slices augments EPSC amplitude only in males, we propose that testosterone-mediated enhancement of synaptic connectivity within the DMNV contributes to the male bias in cardio-respiratory inhibition following LCR activation in stressed pups. PMID:29308430

  11. [Change of character of intersystemic interactions in newborn rat pups under conditions of a decrease of central influences (urethane anesthesia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S V; Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E

    2014-01-01

    On newborn rat pups, for the first day after birth, there was studied the character of mutual influences between the slow-wave rhythmical components of the cardiac, respiratory, and motor activities reflecting interactions between the main functional systems of the developing organism. The study was carried out in norm and after pharmacological depression of the spontaneous periodical motor activity (SPMA) performed by narcotization of rat pups with urethane at low (0.5 g/kg, i/p) and maximal (1 g/kg, i/p) doses. Based on the complex of our obtained data, it is possible to conclude that after birth in rat pups the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly by the slow-wave oscillations of the near- and manyminute diapason. The correlational interactions mediated by rhythms of the decasecond diapason do not play essential role in integrative processes. Injection to the animals of urethane producing selective suppression of reaction of consciousness, but not affecting activating influences of reticular formation on cerebral cortex does not cause marked changes of autonomous parameters, but modulates structure and expression of spontaneous periodical motor activity. There occurs an essential decrease of mutual influences between motor and cardiovascular systems. In the case of preservation of motor activity bursts, a tendency for enhancement of correlational relations between the modulating rhythms of motor and somatomotor systems is observed. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more pronounced in intact rat pups in the near- and many-minute modulation diapason, under conditions of urethane, somewhat decrease, whereas the rhythmical components of the decasecond diapason--are weakly enhanced.

  12. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-11-01

    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  14. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  15. Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and itsinteraction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by usingpercentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex. The exposure of sucklingpups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage ofsurvival in pups to weaning to (0% as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally,1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmentaltoxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% asresult from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin insuckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57 minuets inthe postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pupsfrom developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

  16. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  17. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  18. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  19. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  20. Asic3(-/- female mice with hearing deficit affects social development of pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2016-05-31

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to affect the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. However, potential effects on the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins in lactating animals and co-occurring effects on their offspring are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on concentrations of tocopherol in various tissues of lactating rats and their offspring and expression of genes involved in tocopherol metabolism. Twenty-eight Wistar Han rats were allocated to 2 groups and fed either a control diet (control group) or a diet containing 0.9 % of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group) during pregnancy and lactation. Feed intake of dams and body weight of dams and their pups were recorded weekly. Tocopherol concentrations in various body tissues were determined at day 14 of lactation in dams and 1, 7 and 14 days after birth in pups. Expression of selected genes involved in metabolism of tocopherol was determined in dams and pups. The data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Feed intake and body weight development of nursing rats and their pups was similar in both groups. In livers of CLA-fed dams, tocopherol concentrations decreased by 24 % but expression of TTPA and CYP3A1, involved in tocopherol transport and metabolism, were not influenced. In the dams' adipose tissue, gene expression of receptors involved in tissue tocopherol uptake, LDLR and SCARB1, but not of LPL, increased by 30 to 50 % and tocopherol concentrations increased by 47 % in CLA-fed compared to control dams. Expression of LPL, LDLR and SCARB1 in mammary gland was not influenced by CLA-feeding. Tocopherol concentrations in the pup's livers and lungs were similar in both groups, but at 14 days of age, adipose tissue tocopherol concentrations, and LDLR and SCARB1 expression, were higher in the CLA-exposed pups. We show that dietary CLA affects tissue concentrations of tocopherol in lactating rats and tocopherol metabolism in

  2. SRXRF study of trace elements in hippocampus of pup rats after prenatal and postnatal exposure to low-level mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Wang Meng; Shi Junwen; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Since the pollution of mercury in the environment still keeps high, more and more concerns over mercury toxicity are focused on the potential risk associated with relatively low-dose and long-term mercury exposure in the environment. It is well known that fetus and developing children are the susceptive victims of mercury damage. Therefore, high attention is focused on whether the prenatal and postnatal exposure to relatively low level of mercury will be harmful to children development. Some epidemiological studies reported that the methylmercury-related neuropsychological deficits were mainly found in the domains of cognitional parts, such as language, attention, memory, and so forth, Our previous study found out that high level of mercury was accumulated in the pup hippocampus after their prenatal and postnatal exposure to low dose of inorganic mercury. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) is characterized of its simultaneous determination of multi-elements, high sensitivity, small sampling amount and microanalysis. SRXRF does not cause the damage of irradiated samples. Thus, it makes possible to measure the distributions of trace elements in a selected area. In this study, in order to study the effects of low-level mercury exposure to pup rat brain, some oxidation-related elements, e.g. Cu, Fe and Mn in pup hippocampus after in utero and weaning exposure to low-level inorganic mercury were determined by SRXRF. The experiment was performed at a synchrotron radiation facility at Institute of High Energy Physics. And the spot size of the beam irradiating on the sample was adjusted to about 100 x 200 μm 2 , Each spot was irradiated for about 100 s. The spectra were analyzed by the AXIL program. Additionally, the activities of some important antioxidant enzymes, such as GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, were also measured together with the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that mercury exposure could lead to significant increase of both

  3. Effects Of Erdosteine On Oxidative-Antioxidative Equilibrium And On Cataract Formation In Rat Pups With Selenite-Induced Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Adil; Selek, Şahbettin; Erel, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether erdosteine supplementation following selenite exposure affects oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium and prevents cataract formation in rat pups. Methods: Thirty-nine Wistar-albino rat pups were divided into 3 groups. In Group 1 (n=16) only s.c saline was injected. In Group 2 (n=10) subcutaneous (s.c.) sodium selenite (30 nmol / g body weight) was injected on postpartum day 10. In Group 3 (n=13) s.c. sodium selenite (30 nmol/g body weight) were injected on postpartum day...

  4. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in vitro, 10% O2 in vivo) and to nicotinic receptor agonists (as an excitatory modulator of carotid body activity—nicotine 100 μM for in vitro studies, and epibatidine 5 μg/kg, i.p., which mainly acts on peripheral nicotinic receptors, for in vivo studies). The carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine were drastically reduced by mifepristone. Compared with vehicle, mifepristone-treated rats had a reduced body weight. The ventilatory response to epibatidine was attenuated; however, the hypoxic ventilatory response was similar between vehicle and mifepristone-treated pups. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mifepristone treatment did not change carotid body morphology. We conclude that PR activity is a critical factor ensuring proper carotid body function in newborn rats. PMID:22326965

  5. Effects of sevoflurane and clonidine on acid base status and long-term emotional and cognitive outcomes in spontaneously breathing rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Almenrader

    Full Text Available Numerous experiments in rodents suggest a causative link between exposure to general anaesthetics during brain growth spurt and poor long-lasting neurological outcomes. Many of these studies have been questioned with regard of their translational value, mainly because of extremely long anaesthesia exposure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a short sevoflurane anaesthesia, alone or combined with clonidine treatment, on respiratory function in spontaneously breathing rat pups and overall effects on long-lasting emotional and cognitive functions.At postnatal day (PND 7, male Sprague Dawley rat pups were randomized into four groups and exposed to sevoflurane for one hour, to a single dose of intraperitoneal clonidine or to a combination of both and compared to a control group. Blood gas analysis was performed at the end of sevoflurane anaesthesia and after 60 minutes from clonidine or saline injection. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were evaluated in different group of animals at infancy (PND12, adolescence (PND 30-40 and adulthood (PND 70-90.Rat pups exposed to either sevoflurane or to a combination of sevoflurane and clonidine developed severe hypercapnic acidosis, but maintained normal arterial oxygenation. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were not found altered in any of the behavioural task used either at infancy, adolescence or adulthood.Sixty minutes of sevoflurane anaesthesia in newborn rats, either alone or combined with clonidine, caused severe hypercapnic acidosis in spontaneously breathing rat pups, but was devoid of long-term behavioural dysfunctions in the present setting.

  6. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  9. Treatment and prophylaxis with sucralfate ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury in pup rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, Arzu Bostanci; Sencan, Aydin; Aktas, Safiye; Habif, Sara; Kabaroglu, Ceyda; Parildar, Zuhal; Karaca, Irfan

    2005-04-01

    Sucralfate is widely used as a cytoprotective agent in patients with peptic ulcer and other intestinal mucosal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. Four groups of 10 1-day-old rat pups were studied. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/O)-induced intestinal injury was created. Group 1 was subjected to H/O just after birth and sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment Control). Group 2 was subjected to H/O just after birth and treated with sucralfate for 3 days. They were sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment). Group 3 was subjected to H/O on the third day after birth and then sacrificed (Prophylaxis Control). Group 4 was treated with sucralfate for the first 3 days, then H/O was created. Just after H/O, the pups were sacrificed (Prophylaxis). The intestinal tissues were harvested for histopathological investigation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the intestinal tissues were determined. The mucosal injury grades of the treatment and prophylaxis groups were significantly lower than those of control groups (p<0.05). The mean MDA level in the treatment and prophylaxis groups were 0.42+/-0.17 and 0.21+/-0.23 nmol/mg respectively. The MDA levels of both groups were significantly lower than in the control groups (p<0.05). The present study shows that sucralfate has beneficial effects in an experimental model of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury.

  10. Early development and the emergence of individual differences in behavior among littermates of wild rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Bautista, Amando; Roder, Manuel; Gilbert, Caroline; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    The ontogeny of associated individual differences in behavior and physiology during early postnatal life, and in particular the emergence of such differences among litter siblings, has been hardly explored in mammals under natural conditions. We studied such within-litter differences in behavior in European rabbit pups Oryctolagus cuniculus prior to weaning, and whether and how these differences co-varied with other individual characteristics such as postnatal body temperature and early growth. The study was conducted under semi-natural conditions in a colony of rabbits of wild origin, where the young were born and developed in nursery burrows. We equipped two siblings per litter with interscapular skin temperature loggers on postnatal day 2 and recorded temperature profiles for 48h. Individual body (skin) temperatures of pups within litters were repeatable across time, indicating the existence of consistent individual differences. Such differences within litters were associated with relative differences in pre-weaning growth, revealing that relatively warmer pups showed a greater increase in body mass during the nest period. Between postnatal days 12 and 17, after the pups had reached a developmental stage of greater mobility, we carried out different behavioral tests: a handling-restraint test, an open field test and a jump-down test from a platform. Individual responses in the former two tests were associated, as those pups showing a quicker struggling response to restraint during handling also exhibited greater exploratory activity in the open field. This correlation across contexts suggests the existence of personality types in wild rabbits at an early developmental stage. Furthermore, pups' behavioral responses were strongly associated with their relative within-litter body mass at testing. Animals with a lower body mass compared to their siblings showed a relatively quicker struggle response to handling restraint and covered a relatively larger distance in

  11. Effects of Iron Administration on the Diameter of Cells of Growth Cartilage of Rat Pups During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbreen, Faiza; Qamar, Khadija; Shaukat, Sadia; Tasawar, Amna

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effect of oral iron administration on pregnant rats on the diameter of cells of growth plate of rat pups. Experimental study. Anatomy Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from March to November 2016. Group Acontaining 8 pregnant rats was control group, and group B containing same number of pregnant rats was the study group. Control group Awas on standard diet throughout pregnancy. Iron was given to the experimental group B for 21 days (throughout pregnancy) in the form of syrup 0.5ml daily (2.75 mg of elemental iron) given in water. Rat infants were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery. Inclusion criteria for infants was pups born at term which were active and taking feed. Femur from each rat infant of right side was removed for the growth plate investigation. Processing, embedding and staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study was done. The cell diameter in hypertrophy and proliferative zone was evaluated. Mean values of the diameter of chondrocytes in both the zones of growth cartilage of femur were measured. Diameter of the cells in hypertrophy and proliferative zones was considerably decreased in group B as compared to group A. Administration of iron during pregnancy with normal iron status can disturb growth of the rat infant through its accumulation in the epiphyseal plate of femur. The cell diameter of the hypertrophy and proliferative zones was markedly reduced in iron administered group as compared to the control group.

  12. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    from gestational day 7 to postnatal day (PND)13 with either vehicle (control) or a mixture of the five pesticides at 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of their individual NOAELs for causing major effects on pregnancy length and pup survival in our earlier studies. The pregnancy length was dose....... Although laboratory animal studies have shown that some endocrine disrupting pesticides can affect reproduction and sexual differentiation, individual pesticides may appear to be present in human tissues at too low levels to cause concern for adverse reproductive effects. However, recent studies in our...... laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Here, we present results from range finding studies with combined exposure...

  13. The use of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to ameliorate the hyperactivity of rat pups induced by in utero ethanol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko; Okazaki, Isao

    2000-01-01

    It has been demonstrated thatin utero ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces hyperactive behavior and learning disturbances in offspring. In order to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these neurobehavioral dysfunctions of rat pups induced byin utero EtOH exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups depending on the type of oil added to the diet and drinking water as follows; (a) 5% safflower oil with tap water (TW/n-6), (b) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA...

  14. Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  15. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  16. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of stress-induced changes in adults and pups: is aldosterone the main adrenocortical stress hormone during the perinatal period in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    Full Text Available Positive developmental impact of low stress-induced glucocorticoid levels in early development has been recognized for a long time, while possible involvement of mineralocorticoids in the stress response during the perinatal period has been neglected. The present study aimed at verifying the hypothesis that balance between stress-induced glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels is changing during postnatal development. Hormone responses to two different stressors (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and immune challenge induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharid measured in 10-day-old rats were compared to those in adults. In pups corticosterone responses to both stressors were significantly lower than in adults, which corresponded well with the stress hyporesponsive period. Importantly, stress-induced elevations in aldosterone concentration were significantly higher in pups compared both to corticosterone elevations and to those in adulthood with comparable adrenocorticotropin concentrations in the two age groups. Greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in postnatal period is further supported by changes in gene expression and protein levels of gluco- (GR and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and selected enzymes measured by quantitative PCR and immunohystochemistry in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, liver and kidney. Gene expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, an enzyme enabling preferential effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors, was higher in 10-day-old pups compared to adult animals. On the contrary, the expression and protein levels of GR, MR and 11β-HSD1 were decreased. Presented results clearly show higher stress-induced release of aldosterone in pups compared to adults and strongly suggest greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in stress during the postnatal period.

  18. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  19. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  20. [CHANGE OF CHARACTER OF INTERSYSTEMIC INTERACTIONS IN NEWBORN RAT PUPS UNDER CONDITIONS OF A DECREASE OF MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E; Kuznetsov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of slow-wave.rhythmic components of cardiac, respiratory.and motor activity was investigated in newborn rat pups on the first day after birth under normal conditions and after pharmacological depression of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) produced by injecting myocuran (myanesin) at low (100 mg/pg, i/p) and maximal (235 mg/pg, i/p) dosages. The data obtained allow to infer that in rat pups after birth the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly via slow-wave oscillations of about-one- and many-minute ranges whereas the rhythms of decasecond range do not play a significant role in integrative processes. Injection of miocuran at a dose causing no muscle relaxation and no inhibition of motor activity produces changes of the cardiac and respiratory rhythms as well as a transitory decrease of the magnitude of coordinate relations mediated by the rhythms of about-one- and many-minute ranges. The consequences of muscle relaxant injection were found to be more significant for intersystemic interactions with participation of the respiratory system. An increase of the dosage and, correspondingly, the total inhibition of SPMA is accompanied by reduction of the slow-wave components from the pattern of cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more expressed in intact rat pups, are reduced in the about-one- and many-minute ranges of modulation whereas in the decasecond range of modulation they are slightly increased. Key words: early ontogenesis, intersystemic interactions, cardiac rhythm, respiration, motor activity, myocuran (myanesin).

  1. Inorganic mercury exposure in drinking water alters essential metal homeostasis in pregnant rats without altering rat pup behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Costa, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Taíse F; Fonseca, Mariana M; Bernardi, Jamile S; Fiuza, Tiago L; Pereira, Maria E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in the doses of 0, 10 and 50μg Hg 2+ /mL in drinking water during pregnancy on tissue essential metal homeostasis, as well as the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in utero and breast milk on behavioral tasks. Pregnant rats exposed to both inorganic mercury doses presented high renal Hg content and an increase in renal Cu and hepatic Zn levels. Mercury exposure increased fecal Hg and essential metal contents. Pups exposed to inorganic Hg presented no alterations in essential metal homeostasis or in behavioral task markers of motor function. In conclusion, this work showed that the physiologic pregnancy and lactation states protected the offspring from adverse effects of low doses of Hg 2+ . This protection is likely to be related to the endogenous scavenger molecule, metallothionein, which may form an inert complex with Hg 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

  3. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...... survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual...

  4. Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rideau Batista Novais

    Full Text Available Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage.

  5. On the protective effect of omega-3 against propionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gezeery Amina R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The investigation of the environmental contribution for developmental neurotoxicity is very important. Many environmental chemical exposures are now thought to contribute to the development of neurological disorders, especially in children. Results from animal studies may guide investigations of human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants and drugs that produce or protect from neurotoxicity and may help in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To study the protective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on brain intoxication induced by propionic acid (PPA in rats. Methods 24 young male Western Albino rats were enrolled in the present study. They were grouped into three equal groups; oral buffered PPA-treated group given a nuerotoxic dose of 250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 days; omega-3 - protected group given a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day omega-3 orally daily for 5 days followed by PPA for 3 days, and a third group as control given only phosphate buffered saline. Tumor necrosis factor-α, caspase-3, interlukin-6, gamma amino-buteric acid (GABA, serotonin, dopamine and phospholipids were then assayed in the rats brain's tissue of different groups. Results The obtained data showed that PPA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity as measured by depletion of gamaaminobyteric acid (GABA, serotonin (5HT and dopamine (DA as three important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function. A high significant increase of interlukin-6 (Il-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as excellent markers of proinflammation and caspase-3 as a proapotic marker were remarkably elevated in the intoxicated group of rats. Moreover, brain phospholipid profile was impaired in PPA-treated young rats recording lower levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids showed a protective effects on PPA - induced changes in rats as

  6. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  7. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, A.; Nieto, S.; Sanhueza, J.; Morgado, N.; Rojas, I.; Zanartu, P.

    2010-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (Dha) is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHA containing lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC), obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine) supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily.), before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT) activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mothers plasma and increases the pups DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period. (Author) 66 refs.

  9. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 causes decreased protein levels of cyclin D1 via GSK3β activation and increased ROS production in rat pup livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, Jose L; Sanchez, Domènec J

    2014-02-01

    We here examined the potential liver toxicity in rat pups from dams exposed during the gestational and lactation periods to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). Dams were exposed to 0, 1, and 2mg/kg/day of BDE-99 from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21. When the pups were weaning, the liver from 1 pup of each litter was excised to evaluate oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. To determine whether thyroid hormone (TH) was disrupted, the protein and mRNA expressions of several TH receptor (TR) isoforms, as well as the protein levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylated protein kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), were evaluated. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 produced decreased levels of cyclin D1 in rat pup livers. A decrease in the active form of Akt and an increase in the active form of GSK3β were observed. The decreased Akt pathway may be due to a potential disruption of the nongenomic actions of TH by BDE-99 and its metabolites. This possible TH disruption was noted as a decrease in TR isoforms expression. By contrast, we observed an upregulation of CYP2B1 gene expression, which is correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species production. This outcome indicates activation of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor, which could induce the expression of other enzymes capable of metabolizing TH. The present findings support the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to PBDEs, at levels found in humans, may have serious implications for metabolic processes in rat pup livers.

  10. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in...

  11. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  12. Caffeine reduces apnea frequency and enhances ventilatory long-term facilitation in rat pups raised in chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Cécile A; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2010-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic function of caffeine on apneas in preterm neonates are not well determined. To better understand these effects, we exposed rat pups from postnatal d 3-12 to chronic intermittent hypoxia (5% O2/100 s every 10 min; 6 cycles/h followed by 1 h at 21% O2, 24 h/d), a model mimicking hypoxemic exposure in apneic neonates. Then, using whole-body plethysmography, we evaluated minute ventilation, apnea frequency, and duration after i.p injection of caffeine citrate (20 mg/kg) or saline under normoxia and in response to either sustained (FiO2 12%, 20 min) or brief (FiO2 5%, 60 s, total 10 episodes of 8 min each) hypoxia. These tests were used to assess peripheral and central components of hypoxic response. The latter also assessed the ventilatory long-term facilitation during recovery (2 h). Caffeine injection increased minute ventilation under baseline and during recovery. This effect was correlated with a decrease in apnea frequency (not duration). On the contrary, caffeine did not change the ventilatory response to sustained or brief hypoxic exposure. These results suggest that the effects of caffeine on apnea depend on increased central normoxic respiratory drive and enhancement of ventilatory long-term facilitation rather than on higher hypoxic ventilatory response.

  13. Antioxidant supplementation upregulates calbindin expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells of rat pups subjected to post natal exposure to sodium arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pushpa; Kaushal, Parul; Kumar, Pavan

    2018-07-01

    Optimal cytoplasmic calcium (Ca 2+ ) levels have been associated with adequate cell functioning and neuronal survival. Altered intracellular Ca 2+ levels following impaired Ca 2+ homeostasis could induce neuronal degeneration or even cell death. There are reports of arsenite induced oxidative stress and the associated disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The present study focused on determining the strategies that would modulate tissue redox status and calcium binding protein (CaBP) (Calbindin D28k-CB) expression affected adversely by sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2 ) exposure (postnatal) of rat pups. NaAsO 2 alone or along with antioxidants (AOXs) (alpha lipoic acid or curcumin) was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (covering rapid brain growth period - RBGP) to experimental groups and animals receiving sterile water by the same route served as the controls. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were subjected to euthanasia and the cerebellar tissue obtained therefrom was processed for immunohistochemical localization and western blot analysis of CB protein. CB was diffusely expressed in cell body as well as dendritic processes of Purkinje cells (PCs) along the PC Layer (PCL) in all cerebellar folia of the control and the experimental animals. The multilayered pattern of CB +ve cells along with their downregulated expression and low packing density was significantly evident in the arsenic (iAs) alone exposed group as against the controls and AOX supplemented groups. The observations are suggestive of AOX induced restoration of CaBP expression in rat cerebellum following early postnatal exposure to NaAsO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of undernutrition and litter size on material variables and pup development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K C; Wehmer, F; Morofski, J

    1978-05-01

    Differential effects of maternal nutrition and litter size variation were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design in which undernourished or lib fed mothers nursed litters of 4 or 12. Litter size accounted for a greater proportion of pup body weight a weaning than did maternal nutrition. When the mother was fed ad lib, birth weight of individual pups and later body weight were correlated regardless of litter size. When the mother was undernourished, these correlations were not found. Enlargement of littersize increased the pup weight coefficient of variability only when the mother was fed ad lib. Size of the litter did not influence the maternal variables under study: open field behavior, adrenal weight, and body weight.

  15. Passive immunization of fetal rats with antiserum to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or transection of the central roots of the nervus terminalis does not affect rat pups' preference for home nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Pfaff, D W

    1987-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is found immunocytochemically in cell bodies and fibers of the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve which courses from the nasal septum through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (medial to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves) and enters the forebrain, caudal to the olfactory bulbs. Immunoreactive LHRH is first detected in the nervus terminalis of the fetal rat at 15 days of gestation, preceding its detection by immunocytochemistry in any other area of the brain, including the median eminence, and preceding detection of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. During development of the rat fetus, the nervus terminalis is the principal source of LHRH in the nervous system from days 15 through 19 of a 21 day gestation period. We tested the notion that the LHRH system of the nervus terminalis is important for olfactory performance by examining the effects of administration of antisera to LHRH during fetal development (versus saline controls), or medial olfactory peduncle transections, in the neonatal rat, which would sever the central projections of the nervus terminalis (versus lateral peduncle transection, complete transection of the olfactory peduncles and the central nervus terminalis or controls) on preferences of rat pups for home nest. The hypothesis that LHRH is important for this chemosensory response was not confirmed. Neither antisera to LHRH nor medical olfactory peduncle transection disrupted preference for home shavings. Only complete olfactory peduncle transection had a significant effect compared to unoperated and sham-operated controls.

  16. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar M Akhavan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end of their pregnancy. On post natal day (PND 36, two groups consisted of 7 male rat pups in each group from sedentary or exercised mothers were sacrificed and the hippocampus was dissected for BDNF proteins level determination. Also, bilateral injection of K252a to the hippocampus was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action on PND59 in the rat pups. Results: Voluntary exercise during pregnancy significantly increased the level of BDNF protein in the hippocampus of the rat pups on PND36 compared to the control group (P=0.048. Inhibiting BDNF action abolished the exercise-induced improvement of learning acquisition in offspring in training trials (P=0.0001. No difference was observed in the platform location latency and the time spent in the target in the probe test between two groups. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise during pregnancy via a TrkB-mediated mechanism enhances the spatial learning acquisition, however, not the retention of memory in the rat pups.

  17. Influence of age, body temperature, GABAA receptor inhibition and caffeine on the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex in unanesthetized rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Ashley V; Gore, Julie L; Rudkin, Alison; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2013-03-01

    We measured the duration of apnea induced by sustained end-inspiratory lung inflation (the Hering Breuer Reflex, HBR) in unanesthetized infant rat pups aged 4 days (P4) to P20 at body temperatures of 32°C and 36°C. The expiratory prolongation elicited by the HBR lasted longer in the younger pups and lasted longer at the higher body temperature. Blockade of adenosine receptors by caffeine following injection into the cisterna magna (ICM) significantly blunted the thermal prolongation of the HBR. Blockade of gama-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptors by pre-treatment with ICM bicuculline had no effect on the HBR duration at either body temperature. To test the hypothesis that developmental maturation of GABAergic inhibition of breathing was modifying the response to bicuculline, we pretreated rat pups with systemically administered bumetanide to lower the intracellular chloride concentration, and repeated the bicuculline studies. Bicuculline still did not alter the HBR at either temperature after bumetanide treatment. We administered PSB-36, a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and this drug treatment did not modify the HBR. We conclude that caffeine blunts the thermal prolongation of the HBR, probably by blocking adenosine A2a receptors. The thermally sensitive adenosinergic prolongation of the HBR in these intact animals does not seem to depend on GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking. .

  19. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  20. Bronchopulmonary C-fibers' IL1RI contributes to the prolonged apneic response to intra-atrial injection of capsaicin by prenatal nicotinic exposure in rat pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi, E-mail: fxu@lrri.org

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) as a SIDS model reportedly sensitizes bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), contributing to the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea in rat pups, but the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary IL-1β upregulated by cigarette smoke is known to stimulate or sensitize PCFs acting via IL-1 type I receptor (IL1RI) and inhibit inspiration frequency. Because of its upregulation observed in SIDS victims, we hypothesized that PNE increased pulmonary IL-1β release and IL1RI expression in pulmonary C-neurons via action on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) to induce the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea. IL-1β in BALF and IL1RI in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglion and vagal pulmonary C-neurons retrogradely-traced were compared between Ctrl (saline) and PNE pups and among the vehicle-treated Ctrl and PNE and methyllycaconitine (a selective α7nAChR antagonist)-treated PNE pups. The effect of IL-1RI blockade (IL-1Ra) on the PCF-mediated apnea was also compared between Ctrl and PNE pups. PNE significantly elevated IL-1β in BALF and upregulated IL1RI gene and protein expression in N/J ganglia and gene in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. All of these responses were eliminated by pretreatment with blockade of α7nAChR. In addition, the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea in PNE pups was significantly shortened by right atrial bolus injection of IL-1Ra. We conclude that PNE enhances pulmonary IL-1β release and PCF IL1RI expression acting via α7nAChR in contributing to sensitization of PCFs and prolongation of the PCF-mediated apneic response. - Highlights: • PNE increased pulmonary IL-1β release and IL1R1 expression in the N/J ganglia. • PNE elevated IL1R1 mRNA in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. • Blockage of peripheral IL1R1 reduced the PNE-induced PCF sensitization. • PNE induced the changes in IL-1β and IL1R1 dependent on action of α7nAChR.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Perinatal Development of Barrel Cortex in Rat, Mouse and Guinea Pig Using Acetylcholinesterase Histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENDEMİR, Erdoğan

    2014-01-01

    The role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the developing neocortex was reexamined by comparing its expression in rats, mice and guinea pigs, following the protocol for acetylcholinesterase histochemistry (described in Sendemir et al., 1996) in order to determine the suitability of the breeding colony at UludaÛ University for use as an animal model. A total of 103 pups as well as two adult animals of each species were used. In the rat pups, acetylcholinesterase-rich patches were d...

  2. Perinatal methadone exposure produces physical dependence and altered behavioral development in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Smith, J A; Wallace, M J; Maher, J R; Saady, J J; Robinson, S E

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that the following prenatal/postnatal exposure groups were obtained: water/water, methadone/water, water/methadone and methadone/methadone. Methadone slightly reduced litter size, particularly the number of male offspring, and reduced litter birth weight. The induction or maintenance of physical dependence in the postnatal methadone exposure groups was confirmed by an experiment in which PD19 pups were challenged with naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Methadone concentrations were assayed in pup brain on postnatal days 4, 10 and 22. Postnatal exposure to methadone via maternal milk produced measurable levels of methadone which decreased with age. Neuromuscular and physical development were assessed. Exposure to methadone accelerated acquisition of the righting reflex, but tended to delay the acquisition of the negative geotaxic response. Postnatal exposure to methadone was associated with decreased somatic growth as measured through postnatal day 21. The older pups (postnatal day 21) exposed to methadone exhibited variations in activity levels: pups exposed to methadone both prenatally and postnatally exhibited the least amount of spontaneous locomotor activity and pups exposed only postnatally exhibited the most activity. Therefore, it is possible to induce and/or maintain physical dependence via lactation in rat pups fostered to methadone-treated dams. Perinatal exposure to methadone by this route produces several subtle disruptions of pup development in the absence of gross maternal or fetal toxicity.

  3. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHAcontaining lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC, obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily., before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mother’s plasma and increases the pups’ DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period.El ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA que requiere el feto y el recién nacido lo aporta la madre desde sus reservas y la dieta, por lo cual se sugiere suplementar a la madre con DHA. No hay consenso sobre la mejor forma de suplementación. Proponemos que un lisofosfolípido que contiene DHA y colina (DHA-LPC obtenido de huevos con alto contenido de DHA es

  4. Postnatal development of plasma amino acids in hyperphagic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, M J; Segués, T; Arola, L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of feeding a highly palatable high-energy cafeteria diet on individual amino acid levels in plasma during postnatal development of the rat has been evaluated and compared to chow-fed controls. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate as the control diet, and slightly hyperproteic. In response to cafeteria feeding, significant decreases were observed in plasma serine and cysteine along the period studied. Significant changes with age during the growth period were shown by cafeteria-fed animals, which were not observed in control rats. Citrulline levels were lower on days 10 and 14 in cafeteria pups than in chow pups. Methionine was highest on day 30. Threonine was also higher at days 20 and 30, as was valine but with a nadir at day 10. Lysine showed maximal values on days 14 and 30.

  5. Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.B. Cambraia

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14, B (N = 14, C (N = 9 and D (N = 9, were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

  6. High doses of L-naloxone but neither D-naloxone nor beta-funaltrexamine prevent hyperthermia-induced seizures in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laorden, M L; Miralles, F S; Puig, M M

    1988-03-01

    The effects of the non-specific opiate antagonist L-naloxone and the inactive isomer D-naloxone, as well as the specific mu receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, have been examined on hyperthermia-induced seizures in unrestrained 15 days old rats. Saline-injected animals exposed to an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C showed a gradual increase in body temperature reaching a maximum of 42 +/- 0.1 degrees C at 50 min exposure. At this time all the pups had seizures and died. Similar results were obtained when the animals were pretreated with different doses of D-naloxone and beta-funaltrexamine. Rats pretreated with L-naloxone also showed an increase in rectal temperature; but the temperature was lower than in saline-injected animals. Only high doses of L-naloxone prevented seizures and deaths. These data indicate that endogenous opioid peptides may play a role in seizures induced by hyperthermia and that receptors other than mu receptors could be involved in hyperthermia-induced seizures.

  7. Lung development and postnatal survival for rats exposed in utero to a high-boiling coal liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Miller, R.A.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The study reported determines postnatal viability and development of survivors following in utero exposure to Harmarville process solvent (HPS), a wide-boiling-range (150 to > 455/sup 0/C) coal liquid. For this study, 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ of the coal liquid was administered (by intragastric intubation) to rats from 12 to 14 dg. Offspring were evaluated for postnatal survival, growth and lung and thymus weights. Fifty-four percent of the exposed pups and 9% of the control pups died between birth and 3 days postpartum. Of the treated pups that died, 10% (6/5; pups/litters) had cleft palate, 27% (17/9) had small lungs and 33% (21/8) had both cleft palate and small lungs. No gross malformations were observed in the remaining 30% of the dead pups. Microscopic examination of lungs from HPS-treated pups revealed no evident histological abnormalities. Body, lung and thymus weights for treated animals that died were significantly less than those of controls. Surviving exposed pups weighed significantly less than control pups from 0.25 to 21 days postpartum and their thymus weights were also depressed through 21 days postpartum. These data suggest that retarded lung growth during prenatal life as a result of in utero exposure to the coal liquid contributes to a significant portion of the observed neonatal mortality. Furthermore, lung weights of survivors, although significantly lower than control values through 7 days postpartum, appeared to have recovered by 21 days postpartum.

  8. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  9. Epidermal growth factor and lung development in the offspring of the diabetic rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers who were exposed to excessive glucose show delayed maturation. Under these conditions, altered growth factor expression or signaling may have important regulatory influences. We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in lung development and maternal diabetes...... in the rat. In order to evaluate the possible role of glucose for the expression of EGF and the growth of lung tissue, we performed in vitro studies with organotypic cultures of fetal alveolar cells obtained from control rats. Compared to pups of normal rats, the newborn rats of untreated diabetic rats had...... and was associated with a reduced intensity of surfactant protein A-IR. The only difference observed between pups of treated diabetic rats and controls was a decrease in the lung weight:body weight ratio. In organotypic cultures, the presence of 13 mmol/L glucose in the cell media increased immunoreactive staining...

  10. Effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation and peripheral hormone levels in the prepubertal rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van den Hurk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prepubertal hypothyroidism on ovarian development in rats. Therefore, from birth up to day 40 postpartum, rats were given 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) via the drinking water of mothers and pups. At ages ranging from 12 to 40 days, ovarian weights

  11. Lateralized odor preference training in rat pups reveals an enhanced network response in anterior piriform cortex to olfactory input that parallels extended memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-09-18

    The present study examines synaptic plasticity in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) using ex vivo slices from rat pups given lateralized odor preference training. In the early odor preference learning model, a brief 10 min training session yields 24 h memory, while four daily sessions yield 48 h memory. Odor preference memory can be lateralized through naris occlusion as the anterior commissure is not yet functional. AMPA receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses in the aPC to lateral olfactory tract input, shown to be enhanced at 24 h, are no longer enhanced 48 h after a single training session. Following four spaced lateralized trials, the AMPA receptor-mediated fEPSP is enhanced in the trained aPC at 48 h. Calcium imaging of aPC pyramidal cells within 48 h revealed decreased firing thresholds in the pyramidal cell network. Thus multiday odor preference training induced increased odor input responsiveness in previously weakly activated aPC cells. These results support the hypothesis that increased synaptic strength in olfactory input networks mediates odor preference memory. The increase in aPC network activation parallels behavioral memory.

  12. The role of apitoxin in alleviating propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral impairments in rat pups: The expression pattern of Reelin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghestani, Maha H; Selim, Manar E; Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Said, Enas N; El-Hameed, Noura E Abd; Khalil, Samah R; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed. PPA treatment induced several behavioral alterations, as reduced exploratory activity and social behaviors, increased repetitive/stereotypic behaviors, and hyperactivity. In addition, a marked decline of neurotransmitters and down-regulation of Reelin mRNA expression were observed. BV exhibited high efficiency in ameliorating the PPA-induced neurobehavioral alterations, particularly when applied both before and after PPA administration. Overall, the results implied that BV has merit as a candidate therapeutic treatment to alleviate PPA-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. From the Cover: Prenatal Nicotinic Exposure Attenuates Respiratory Chemoreflexes Associated With Downregulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Neurokinin 1 Receptor in Rat Pup Carotid Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Gao, Xiuping; Ye, Chunyan; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Xu, Fadi

    2016-09-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke is the major risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A depressed ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) and hypercapnia (HCVR) is thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIDS and the carotid body is critically involved in these responses. We have recently reported that prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) over the full gestation induces depressed HVR in rat pups. Here, we asked whether PNE (1) depressed not only HVR but also HCVR that were dependent on the carotid body, (2) affected some important receptors and neurochemicals expressed in the carotid body, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), and (3) blunted the ventilatory responses to activation of these receptors. To this end, HVR and HCVR in Ctrl and PNE pups were measured with plethysmography before and after carotid body ablation (Series I), mRNA expression and/or immunoreactivity (IR) of TH, NK1R, and α7nAChR in the carotid body were examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (Series II), and the ventilatory responses were tested before and after intracarotid injection of substance P (NK1R agonist) and AR-R17779 (α7nAChR agonist) (Series III). Our results showed that PNE (1) significantly depressed both HVR and HCVR and these depressions were abolished by carotid body ablation, (2) reduced the relative population of glomus cells, mRNA NK1R, and α7nAChR and IR of NK1R and TH in the carotid body, and (3) decreased ventilatory responses to intracarotid injection of substance P or AR-R17779. These results suggest that PNE acting via the carotid body could strikingly blunt HVR and HCVR, likely through downregulating TH and NK1R. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chronic variable stress in fathers alters paternal and social behavior but not pup development in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; de Jong, Trynke R; Yang, Vanessa; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels have been shown to disrupt parental behavior in mothers; however, almost no studies have investigated corresponding effects in fathers. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that chronic variable stress inhibits paternal behavior and consequently alters pup development in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). First-time fathers were assigned to one of three experimental groups: chronic variable stress (CVS, n=8), separation control (SC, n=7), or unmanipulated control (UC, n=8). The CVS paradigm (3 stressors per day for 7 days) successfully stressed mice, as evidenced by increased baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations, increased adrenal mass, decreased thymus mass, and a decrease in body mass over time. CVS altered paternal and social behavior of fathers, but major differences were observed only on day 6 of the 7-day paradigm. At that time point, CVS fathers spent less time with their pairmate and pups, and more time autogrooming, as compared to UC fathers; SC fathers spent more time behaving paternally and grooming the female mate than CVS and UC fathers. Thus, CVS blocked the separation-induced increase in social behaviors observed in the SC fathers. Nonetheless, chronic stress in fathers did not appear to alter survival or development of their offspring: pups from the three experimental conditions did not differ in body mass gain over time, in the day of eye opening, or in basal or post-stress corticosterone levels. These results demonstrate that chronic stress can transiently disrupt paternal and social behavior in P. californicus fathers, but does not alter pup development or survival under controlled, non-challenging laboratory conditions. © 2013.

  15. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Cisternas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

  16. Development-dependent behavioral change toward pups and synaptic transmission in the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Taiju; Shindo, Sayaka; Yoshihara, Chihiro; Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Uki, Haruka; Minami, Masabumi; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2017-05-15

    Sexually naïve male C57BL/6 mice aggressively bite unfamiliar pups. This behavior, called infanticide, is considered an adaptive reproductive strategy of males of polygamous species. We recently found that the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTrh) is activated during infanticide and that the bilateral excitotoxic lesions of BSTrh suppress infanticidal behavior. Here we show that 3-week-old male C57BL/6 mice rarely engaged in infanticide and instead, provided parental care toward unfamiliar pups, consistent with observations in rats and other rodent species. This inhibition of infanticide at the periweaning period is functional because the next litter will be born at approximately the time of weaning of the previous litter through maternal postpartum ovulation. However, the mechanism of this age-dependent behavioral change is unknown. Therefore, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings of BSTrh and compared evoked neurotransmission in response to the stimulation of the stria terminalis of adult and 3-week-old male mice. Although we were unable to detect a significant difference in the amplitudes of inhibitory neurotransmission, the amplitudes and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents differed between adult and 3-week-old mice. These data suggest that maturation of the synaptic terminal in BSTrh that occurred later than 3 weeks after birth may mediate by the adaptive change from parental to infanticidal behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of fasting at different stages of lighting regimen on the proliferation of jejunal epithelial cells during rat pup weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria Albertina de Miranda; Okada, Monica A; Ayub, Cristina Lucia Sant'Ana C; Gomes, José Rosa

    2009-07-01

    The lifespan of intestinal epithelial cells is predetermined by the process of cell proliferation that occurs constantly in the crypt. The control of this process involves some endogenous factors, such as hormones, as well as exogenous factors, like food and natural light variations. These last two exogenous factors seem to be the major modulators of the cell proliferation process. Fasting treatment was conducted to assess the role of food and its effect on the metaphase index (MI) of the intestinal epithelium at different times and periods (light and dark) of the day. The effects of short- (5 hr) and long-term (25 hr) fasting on the MI in the jejunal epithelium of young rats were investigated at 09:00 h, 15:00 hr, 21:00 hr, and 02:00 hr using the arrested metaphases method. The present study demonstrates that 5 hr and 25 hr of fasting treatment decrease the MI at 09:00 hr. It was observed from MI analysis that there is an interaction between the fed/fasted status of the animal and the different times of the day. This result suggests that during the transition from youth to adulthood, the control of MI by the light/dark cycle seems to be more pronounced as compared with control by food intake at some periods of the day, although at other times food had a greater impact on the MI.

  18. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  19. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  20. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, I; Ranson, E; Buehler, M

    1981-10-01

    Three purebred female beagles were observed with both their first and second litters. Dams were given three separate simultaneous-choice retrieval tests: In addition, the maternal response to amniotic fluids was observed when one pup in the litter was treated with amniotic fluids and all other pups were treated with water. There was no evidence to suggest that pups were retrieved preferentially on the basis of their sex. One female retrieved her own but not alien pups, whereas another female made no such discrimination and readily retrieved alien pups in addition to her own. Retrieval behavior developed at the time of each whelping and normally lasted until the pups were about 5 days old, although a bitch would retrieve younger (alien) pups up to 14 days post partum. Maternal bitches were strongly attracted towards amniotic fluids: they investigated pups daubed with amniotic fluids to a significantly greater extent than control pups treated with water. The attraction of maternal females towards amniotic fluids developed at the time of each whelping and persisted for up to 30 days, well beyond the time that a whelping bitch would normally be exposed to her own fetal fluids. A possible role for amniotic fluids in the development of maternal behaviour and the establishment of the maternal/puppy bond is discussed. Copyright © 1981. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide.

  2. Influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Won, Ran; Shin, Hye-Sook; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-03-01

    During the prenatal period, the development of individual is influenced by the environmental factors. In the present study, the influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats was investigated. The exposure to the noise during pregnancy caused growth retardation, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and impaired spatial learning ability in pups. The exposure to music during pregnancy, on the other hand, caused increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning ability in pups. The present study has shown the importance of the prenatal environmental conditions for the cognition and brain development.

  3. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  5. Effects of perinatal asphyxia on the neurobehavioral and retinal development of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Szogyi, Donat; Reglodi, Dora; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Atlasz, Tamas; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Babai, Norbert; Gabriel, Robert; Koppan, Miklos

    2009-02-19

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits and represents a major problem in both neonatal and pediatric care. Several morphological, biochemical and behavioral changes have been described in rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how perinatal asphyxia affects the complex early neurobehavioral development and retinal structure of newborn rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by cesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily during the first 3 weeks, and motor coordination tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5. After completion of the testing procedure, retinas were removed for histological analysis. We found that in spite of the fast catch-up-growth of asphyctic pups, nearly all examined reflexes were delayed by 1-4 days: negative geotaxis, sensory reflexes, righting reflexes, development of fore- and hindlimb grasp and placing, gait and auditory startle reflexes. Time to perform negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait reflexes was significantly longer during the first few weeks in asphyctic pups. Among the motor coordination tests, a markedly weaker performance was observed in the grid walking and footfault test and in the walk initiation test. Retinal structure showed severe degeneration in the layer of the photoreceptor and bipolar cell bodies. In summary, our present study provided a detailed description of reflex and motor development following perinatal asphyxia, showing that asphyxia led to a marked delay in neurobehavioral development and a severe retinal degeneration.

  6. Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    1997-10-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

  7. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi Almeida, K C; Teles Boaventura, G; Guzmán Silva, M A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n=6), FG: fed with diet based on Flaxseed added with casein, CG: Casein, and MCG: Modified Casein supplemented with fibers and soybean oil. Newborn pups were weighted and submitted to euthanasia; brains were collected for evaluation of weight and lipid profile through gaseous chromatography. Significant increase in brain weight (39%) and relative brain weight (37%) was verified in pups from mothers fed with flaxseed diet. The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids from the flaxseed were found in abundance in the diet made with this oleaginous and also significant increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (38%), as well as in total of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (62%). Maternal diet of flaxseed during pregnancy influences the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acid in the composition of brain tissue, assuring a good development of this organ in newborn rats.

  8. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam. The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta.

  9. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from alpha-linolenic acid in young rats

    OpenAIRE

    DeMar, James C.; DiMartino, Carmine; Baca, Adam W.; Lefkowitz, William; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a crucial nervous system n-3 PUFA, may be obtained in the diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary α-linolenic acid (LNA). We addressed whether DHA synthesis is regulated by the availability of dietary DHA in artificially reared rat pups, during p8 to p28 development. Over 20 days, one group of rat pups was continuously fed deuterium-labeled LNA (d5-LNA) and no other n-3 PUFA (d5-LNA diet), and a second group of rat pups was fed a d5-LNA diet with un...

  10. Application of spectroscopy (1HMRS) to assess liver metabolite concentrations in rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Pingyang; Bian, Dujun; Chen, Juncao

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) measurement of liver metabolism in intrauterine growth restriction rats has seldom been reported. This study investigated the application of 1 H-MRS in assessing liver metabolism in newborn pups that experienced intrauterine growth restriction. Intra-uterine growth restriction was established by feeding rats low-protein diets during pregnancy. Newborn pups received conventional magnetic resonance imaging and 1 H-MRS using a 3.0T whole body MR scanner at 3, 8 and 12 weeks post birth. The success rate of 1 H-MRS was 83.33%. Significantly lower body weight, BMI and body length at 3 weeks as well as significantly lower body weight, BMI and waist circumference at 8 and 12 weeks were observed in newborn pups of IUGR rats compared with pups of control rats. Significant differences in ACho/H 2 O, ACr/H 2 O, AGlx/H 2 O and ALipid/H 2 O at 3 and 8 weeks as well as significant differences in ACr/H 2 O, ALipid/H 2 O and AGlx/H 2 O at 12 weeks were observed between pups of control rats and pups of IUGR rats. 1 H-MRS allows noninvasive assessment of liver metabolism in the rat and demonstrated the poor liver development of rats that experienced IUGR.

  11. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag

    2016-01-01

    was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose–response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg...... intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may...

  12. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...

  14. Development of neuropeptide Y-mediated heart innervation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin; Emanuilov, Andrey I; Anikina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Alexey A; Nozdrachev, Alexandr D

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a trophic role in the nervous and vascular systems and in cardiac hypertrophy. However, there is no report concerning the expression of NPY and its receptors in the heart during postnatal development. In the current study, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to label NPY, and Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R receptors in the heart tissue and intramural cardiac ganglia from rats of different ages (newborn, 10 days old, 20 days old, 30 days old, 60 days old, 1 year old, and 2 years old).The obtained data suggest age-dependent changes of NPY-mediated heart innervation. The density of NPY-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was the least in newborn animals and increased in the first 20 days of life. In the atria of newborn and 10-day-old rats, NPY-IR fibers were more abundant compared with the ventricles. The vast majority of NPY-IR fibers also contained tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis.The expression of Y1R increased between 10 and 20 days of life. Faint Y2R immunoreactivity was observed in the atria and ventricles of 20-day-old and older rats. In contrast, the highest level of the expression of Y5R was found in newborn pups comparing with more adult rats. All intramural ganglionic neurons were also Y1R-IR and Y5R-IR and Y2R-negative in all studied animals.Thus, the increasing of density of NPY-containing nerve fibers accompanies changes in relation of different subtypes of NPY receptors in the heart during development.

  15. Postnatal development of rats exposed to fluoxetine or venlafaxine during the third week of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. da-Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the toxic effects of fluoxetine (F (8 and 16 mg/kg and venlafaxine (V (40 and 80 mg/kg administered during the third week of pregnancy on early development of rats. Both antidepressants were administered by gavage on pregnancy days 15 to 20 to groups of 10 to 12 animals each. Duration of gestation, food and water consumption, number of live pups and birth weight were recorded. Litters were culled to six pups at birth (day 1 and followed for growth until weaning (day 25. On day 60, a male and a female from each litter were injected with the 5-HT1 agonist, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (6 mg/kg, ip and the serotonergic syndrome was graded. Fluoxetine but not venlafaxine reduced the duration of pregnancy when compared to the control (C group (F = 21.1 days and C = 21.6 days, mean, P<0.02; maximum = 22 days and minimum = 21 days in both groups. The highest doses of both fluoxetine, 16 mg/kg (F16, and venlafaxine, 80 mg/kg (V80, reduced the food intake of pregnant rats, resulting in different rates of body weight gain during treatment (from pregnancy day 15 to day 20: F16 = 29.0 g, V80 = 28.7 g vs C = 39.5 g (median. Birth weight was influenced by treatment and sex (P<0.05; two-way ANOVA. Both doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine reduced the body weight of litters; however, the body weight of litters from treated dams was equal to the weight of control litters by the time of weaning. At weaning there was no significant difference in weight between sexes. There was no difference among groups in number of live pups at birth, stillbirths, mortality during the lactation period or in the manifestation of serotonergic syndrome in adult rats. The occurrence of low birth weight among pups born to dams which did not show reduced food ingestion or reduction of body weight gain during treatment with lower doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine suggests that these drugs may have a deleterious effect on prenatal

  16. The effect of prenatal exposure to diazepam on aspects of postnatal development and behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, N; Grimm, V E

    1982-01-01

    In the present study the effects of chronic treatment of pregnant rats with diazepam on the physical and behavioral development of their offspring were investigated. Rats that were diazepam-exposed prenatally were compared to age-matched controls in terms of the following: number of littermates; birth weight and weight gain until weaning: motor development and coordination; simple motor learning; open field activity; performance on learning tasks of varying complexity; retention of these tasks. Nulliparous Wistar rats were injected s.c. for 16 days of their pregnancy was either 2.5, 5, of 10 mg/kg diazepam or an equal volume of vehicle. Prenatal diazepam treatment did not alter litter size, birth weight, or the righting reflex, but seemed to retard early motor development transiently. Diazepam pups showed longer latencies and less rearing in the open field. There were no differences between animals exposed to drug and vehicle in simple motor learning or in acquiring a simple successive discrimination task. However, there were significant dose-dependent differences on a complex six-choice simultaneous discrimination learning task, the diazepam-exposed rats making more errors and taking more time to reach the goal. A significant difference was seen again between diazepam- and vehicle-exposed rats on the retention test 10 days later. The results indicate that diazepam administered to pregnant rats has long-range effects on the behavior of the offspring, some becoming manifest even in maturity.

  17. Corrigendum to “Long-term valproic acid exposure increases the number of neocortical neurons in the developing rat brain" [Neurosci.Lett. 580 (2014) 12–16] A possible new animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Bertelsen, Freja C B; Scheel-Krüger, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that long-term fetal valproic acid (VPA) exposure at doses relevant to the human clinic interferes with normal brain development. Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of VPA (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) continuously during the last 9......–12 days of pregnancy and during the lactation period until sacrifice on the 23rd postnatal day. Total number of neocortical neurons was estimated using the optical fraction at or and frontal cortical thicknesses were sampled in VPA exposed pups compared with an unexposed control group. We found that pups....... Pups exposed to 100 mg/kg, but not to 20 mg/kg VPA displayed a significant (p brain development by disturbing neocortical organization...

  18. Hypoxia preferentially destroys GABAergic neurons in developing rat neocortex explants in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H. J.; Ruijter, J. M.; Wolters, P. S.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypoxic ischemia before or during the human birth process preferentially destroys GABAergic nerve cells, particularly in the neocortex, was tested in a tissue culture model system. To that end, rat neocortex explants dissected from 6-day-old rat pups and cultured to a

  19. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  20. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    Full Text Available In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  1. Maternal deprivation decelerates postnatal morphological lung development of F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of maternal separation on the neurobehavioral development of newborn Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Gaszner, Balazs; Szogyi, Donat; Horvath, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Frank, Falko; Besirevic, Dario; Kiss, Peter

    2009-05-29

    Animal models of neonatal stress, like maternal separation, may provide important correlation with human stress-related disorders. Early maternal deprivation has been shown to cause several short- and long-term neurochemical and behavioral deficits. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral development after postnatal stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of reflexes and motor coordination in male and female pups subjected to maternal deprivation. Pups were removed from their mothers from postnatal day 1-14, for 3h daily. Somatic development (weight gain, eye opening, ear unfolding, incisor eruption) and reflex development was tested during the first 3 weeks. The appearance of the following reflexes was investigated: crossed extensor, grasping, placing, gait, righting and sensory reflexes, and negative geotaxis. Timely performance of negative geotaxis, righting and gait were also tested daily during the first 3 weeks. Motor coordination and open-field tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5 (rotarod, elevated grid-walk, footfault, rope suspension, inclined board and walk initiation tests). The results revealed that a 3-h-long daily maternal separation did not lead to a marked delay or enhancement in reflex development and motor coordination. A subtle enhancement was observed in the appearance of hindlimb grasp and gait reflexes, and a better performance in footfault test in male rats suffering from maternal deprivation. In contrast, female maternally deprived (MD) rats displayed a slight delay in forelimb grasp and air righting reflex appearance, and surface righting performance. Open-field activity was not changed in maternally deprived rats. In summary, our present observations indicate that maternal deprivation does not induce drastic changes in early neurodevelopment, therefore, further research is needed to determine the onset of behavioral alterations in subject with maternal deprivation history. Gender differences

  3. Effects of protein-deficient nutrition during rat pregnancy and development on developmental hindlimb crossing due to methylmercury intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Bai, Chengjiang [Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Medecine du Travail et Hygiene du Milieu

    2000-07-01

    Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or low (3.5%) protein diet during gestation and lactation. The pups were separated from their mothers on postnatal day 21, and were given the same dient as their corresponding mothers. The groups of pups from each diet group were treated on either postnatal day 21 or postnatal day 60 with 7.5 mg methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) per kg b.w. once daily by gavage for 10 consecutive days, and the development of ataxia (hind-limb corossing) was monitored. The offspring from mothers on the protein-deficient diet were found to be more sensitive to MeHg-induced ataxia than those on the protein-sufficient diet. The former accumulated more mercury in different brain regions than the latter. The rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions of the offspring fed the protein-deficient diet were significantly reduced compared with the rates in those fed the protein-sufficient diet. However, MeHg treatment did not significantly modify the rates of such protein synthesis further in protein-deficient rats. Thus, a significantly much higher inhibition of the intrinsic rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions due to severe protein deficiency, as observed in this study, may be partly responsible for the increased susceptibility of developing rats fed a protein-deficient diet to MeHg-induced ataxia, or hindlimb crossing, although other factor(s) might also be involved. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhoosudan A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D generally follows prediabetes (PD conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70% of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30% nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities.

  5. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, P.; Christiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on the offspring. This has led to increased concern about thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in our environment. We have studied how developmental exposure to the known antithyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) affects the development of rat pups...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  6. A New Rat Model of Epileptic Spasms Based on Methylazoxymethanol-Induced Malformations of Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCDs can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12 or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15 or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15 of NMDA. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats with single NMDA-provoked spasms at P15, we obtain the intracranial electroencephalography and examine the pretreatment response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or vigabatrin. Rat pups prenatally exposed to MAM exhibited a significantly greater number of spasms in response to single and multiple postnatal NMDA doses than vehicle-exposed controls. Vigabatrin treatment prior to a single NMDA dose on P15 significantly suppressed spasms in MAM group rats (p < 0.05, while ACTH did not. The MAM group also showed significantly higher fast oscillation (25–100 Hz power during NMDA-induced spasms than controls (p = 0.047. This new model of MCD-based epileptic spasms with corresponding features of human spasms will be valuable for future research of the developmental epilepsy.

  7. Early postnatal gentamicin and ceftazidime treatment in normal and food restricted neonatal wistar rats: Implications for kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Brüggemann, Roger J M; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2017-09-01

    Up to two-thirds of premature born neonates are treated for infections with aminoglycosides such as gentamicin. Although acute toxicities are well described, there is uncertainty on developmental changes after treatment of premature born neonates. We studied the effect of gentamicin and ceftazidime on kidney development in the rat. Additionally, we evaluated the modulating effect of extrauterine growth restriction. On postnatal day (PND) 2, Wistar rats were cross-fostered into normal sized litters (12 pups) or large litters (20 pups) to create normal food (NF) or food restricted (FR) litters to simulate growth restriction and dosed daily intraperitoneally with placebo, 4 mg/kg of gentamicin or 50 mg/kg ceftazidime until PND 8. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics were studied in a separate group of animals. Kidneys were weighed. Renal expression of 18 developmental genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR on PND 8. On PND 35, glomerular number was assessed by stereology and glomerular generations were counted. Food restricted litters showed 22% less body weight compared with controls by day 35 (p kidney development, ceftazidime can affect Renin expression, and extrauterine growth restriction impairs kidney development, but did not modulate potential drug toxicity. Birth Defects Research 109:1228-1235, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 μM (IC 50 ) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17β-HSD-1, 17β-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ERα and ERβ. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity

  9. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the Nature of CP Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; deMartino, D.; diMille, F.; Williams, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present new X-ray and optical spectra of the old nova CP Pup (nova Pup 1942) obtained with Chandra and the CTIO 4m telescope. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma reaching a maximum temperature of 36+19 keV 16 absorbed by local complex neutral material. The time resolved optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of the 1.47 hr period, with cycle-to-cycle amplitude changes, as well as of an additional long term modulation which is suggestive either of a longer pe- riod or of non-Keplerian velocities in the emission line regions. These new observational facts add further support to CP Pup as a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV). We compare the mCV and the non-mCV scenarios and while we cannot conclude whether CP Pup is a long period system, all observational evidences point at an intermediate polar (IP) type CV.

  11. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  12. Effects of pre- and postnatal litter size reduction on development and behavior of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milković, K; Paunović, J; Joffe, J M

    1976-07-01

    Litter size was reduced to 2-5 rat pups either prenatally by unilateral maternal oviduct ligation (Group PRN) or postnatally by removing pups (Group PST). Normal size litters (8-10 pups) of sham ligated (SHM) and intact (CON) mothers served as controls. Weights at 30 days were increased by prenatal or postnatal reduction and reduced by prenatal stress (SHM); the sex difference in weight was most pronounced in PRN rats. At 75 days PRN rats were heaviest, with no differences between the other groups. Relative ovarian weights were reduced in PRN females and absolute testes weights increased in PST males. The PRN and SHM females had smaller relative adrenal weights than CON and PST females. Open-field activity was generally increased by prior avoidance conditioning and effects of treatments were found only in groups tested after avoidance-conditioning: PRN and SHM rats were more active than PST and CON rats, particularly on Days 1 (SHM) and 4 (SHM and PRN) of testing. Passive-avoidance behavior of PRN rats was also more susceptible to previous test experience: they emerged more slowly if they had prior open-field experience. The PST animals, in contrast, emerged more rapidly after prior test experience. Plasma corticosterone levels and shuttlebox conditioning and extinction were unaffected by treatments.

  13. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  14. Intravenous gestational cocaine in rats: effects on offspring development and weanling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Moyer, D; Robinson, S E

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant rats were injected with cocaine (CN; 6 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline (SAL), via the tail vein, on gestation days 8-20. A third group was untreated (UT). Maternal weight gain was not affected by dam treatment despite slight differences in food intake. Litter characteristics (e.g., litter size, pup weight) did not differ among groups. Indices of fetal mortality were not affected by the treatments. Developmental tests, initiated on postnatal day (PND) 2, indicated slight delays in the negative geotaxic response and eye opening in cocaine-exposed pups. Open-field and tail-flick tests were performed on PND 21. Pups were acutely injected with cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP), saline, or received no treatment before placement in a novel open field; morphine (1.5 mg/kg, SC) or saline was injected prior to the tail flick test. Pups from CN dams exhibited a significant decrease in spontaneous exploratory behavior compared to both controls, and a time-dependent increase in rearing compared to pups from UT dams. The acute cocaine injection prior to placement in the open field did not alter locomotion or rearing among dam treatment groups. However, the acute cocaine injection did increase stereotypy ratings for female pups from CN dams compared to similarly treated males, and females from SAL and UT dams. No differences were observed among groups in the tail-flick test. These data suggest that the IV route of administration provides a viable method of cocaine delivery in pregnant rats, and provides further evidence of the developmental and behavioral teratogenicity of prenatal cocaine exposure.

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction modifies the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn pups - Role of the accumbal μ-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, D P; Dalle Molle, R; Alves, M B; Luft, C; Desai, M; Ross, M G; Silveira, P P

    2016-05-13

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with increased preference for palatable foods. The hedonic response to sweet taste, modulated by the nucleus accumbens μ-opioid-receptors, may be involved. We investigated hedonic responses and receptor levels in IUGR and Control animals. From pregnancy day 10, Sprague-Dawley dams received either an ad libitum (Control), or a 50% food restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, and nursed by Adlib fed dams. The hedonic response was evaluated at 1 day after birth and at 90 days of life, by giving sucrose solution or water and analyzing the hedonic facial responses (within 60s). Control pups exposed either to water or sucrose resolved their hedonic responses after 16 and 18s, respectively, while FR hedonic responses to sucrose persisted over 20s. FR pups had deceased phospho-μ-opioid-receptor (p=0.009) and reduced phosphor:total mu opioid receptor ratio compared to controls pups (p=0.003). In adults, there was an interaction between group and solution at the end of the evaluation (p=0.044): Control decreased the response after sucrose solution, FR did not change over time. There were no differences in phosphorylation of μ-opioid-receptor in adults. These results demonstrate IUGR newborn rats exhibit alterations in hedonic response accompanied by a decrease in μ-opioid-receptor phosphorylation, though these alterations do not persist at 3 months of age. Opioid system alterations in early life may contribute to the development of preference for highly palatable foods and contribute to rapid weight gain and obesity in IUGR offspring. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  17. Long-term effect of altered nutrition induced by litter size manipulation and cross-fostering in suckling male rats on development of obesity risk and health complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozeš, Stefan; Sefčíková, Zuzana; Raček, L'ubomír

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the long-term effect of pre-weaning nutrition on positive and/or adverse regulation of obesity risk and health complications in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two experimental models were used in the present work: (1) To induce postnatal over- or normal nutrition, the litter size was adjusted to 4 (small litters-SL) and to 10 pups (normal litters-NL) in the nest, (2) in suckling pups at day 10, we used cross-fostering to identify the effect of altered dietary environment on their future body fat regulation, food intake, blood pressure, and the duodenal and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activity. After weaning, these control (NL, SL) and cross-fostered (NL-SL, SL-NL) groups were exposed to standard laboratory diet. On day 50, the SL in comparison with NL rats became heavier and displayed enhanced adiposity accompanied by significantly increased systolic blood pressure (19%) and duodenal (16%) and jejunal (21%) alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. The impact of pre-weaning over-nutrition of NL-SL pups was associated with long-lasting positive effect on obesity. In contrast, SL-NL rats submitted until weaning to the opposite normalized feeding condition on day 50 showed significantly decreased fat deposition (21%), systolic blood pressure (20%), and AP activity in duodenum and jejunum (14%). These results contribute to a better understanding of how early-acquired dietary habits determine the attenuation or prevention of obesity development in later life and can provide some benefit for optimizing the future dietary strategies in young and adult obese individuals.

  18. Effect of dietary linoleate/alpha-linolenate balance on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats during their prenatal and postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, S H; Huh, M H; Lee, Y B; Park, J S; Sohn, H S; Chung, C W

    2000-11-01

    The effect of the dietary linoleate (LA)/alpha-linolenate (LNA) balance during development on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats was studied. Female rats were fed on experimental diets during pregnancy and the resulting pups for 16 weeks. The dietary LA/LNA ratios were 1.07 (LA1), 2.64 (LA2), 4.45 (LA3), 7.68 (LA4) and 10.35 (LA5). The relative content of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in the brain of pups tended to increase with decreasing LA/LNA ratio at 0 and 3 weeks, while the level of DHA was maintained constant at 16 weeks regardless of the dietary LA/LNA ratio. The learning ability was measured at 12 weeks of age, and there was no difference among the groups. In an open field test, the exploratory index was significantly lower in the LA1 group than in the LA2 group. The LA1 group had a smaller litter size and lower survival rate than the other groups. We conclude that if the diet contained appropriate amounts and balance of LA and LNA, it was possible for rats to synthesize an appropriate amount of DHA and have normal behavioral activity without DHA supplementation.

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters the Postnatal Development of the Rat Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Annie R A; Wiradjaja, Vanny; Azhan, Aminath; Li, Anqi; Hale, Nadia; Wlodek, Mary E; Hooper, Stuart B; Wallace, Megan J; Tolcos, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of antenatal brain injury. We aimed to characterize cerebellar deficits following IUGR and to investigate the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. At embryonic day 18, pregnant rats underwent either sham surgery (controls; n = 23) or bilateral uterine vessel ligation to restrict blood flow to fetuses (IUGR; n = 20). Offspring were collected at postnatal day 2 (P2), P7, and P35. Body weights were reduced at P2, P7, and P35 in IUGR offspring (p < 0.05) compared with controls. At P7, the width of the external granule layer (EGL) was 30% greater in IUGR than control rats (p < 0.05); there was no difference in the width of the proliferative zone or in the density of Ki67-positive cells in the EGL. Bergmann glia were disorganized at P7 and P35 in IUGR pups, and by P35, there was a 10% decrease in Bergmann glial fiber density (p < 0.05) compared with controls. At P7, trophoblast antigen-2 (Trop2) mRNA and protein levels in the cerebellum were decreased by 88 and 40%, respectively, and astrotactin 1 mRNA levels were increased by 20% in the IUGR rats (p < 0.05) compared with controls; there was no difference in ASTN1 protein. The expressions of other factors known to regulate cerebellar development (astrotactin 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4, neuregulin 1, sonic hedgehog and somatostatin) were not different between IUGR and control rats at P7 or P35. These data suggest that damage to the migratory scaffold (Bergmann glial fibers) and alterations in the genes that influence migration (Trop2 and Astn1) may underlie the deficits in postnatal cerebellar development following IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The hepatic Igf2/H19 locus is not altered in 1-day old pups born to obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low protein diet containing adequate folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong et al. (Epigenetics, 2010) found, using diets low in folic acid, that compared to an 18% protein diet a 9% protein diet fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased Igf2 and H19 gene expression in the liver of day 0 male offspring. In addition DNA methylation in the Imprinting Cont...

  1. Immunogenicity of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, C M; DeBouck, P; Wiseman, A

    1997-02-01

    The study evaluated the ability of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine to produce seroconversion in pups with maternally derived hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers ranging from attenuated and therefore more infective than conventional modified live CPV strains in order to overcome relatively greater levels of maternally derived antibodies, the principal cause of CPV vaccine failures in pups. To assess vaccine performance under field conditions, healthy pups presented at five private veterinary clinics were used as test animals. A single dose of vaccine was given to 59 pups at 12 weeks of age (Group A). To accommodate the protocol of clinics where earlier CPV vaccination was practiced, 87 other pups were vaccinated with two doses, the first at 8-10 weeks of age, and the second at 12 weeks of age (Group B). Geometric mean HI titers were measured for blood samples obtained at the time of vaccination and at 14 weeks of age. Seroconversion was considered to have occurred if pups developed a fourfold or greater increase in HI titer to a level > or = 64. Of the 59 pups in Group A, 100% seroconverted following the single vaccine dose at 12 weeks of age. Of the 87 Group B pups, 82 (94.3%) seroconverted following either of the two vaccine doses. A geometric mean HI titer of 4828 was measured for Group A, and a geometric mean HI titer of 2028 was measured for Group B. An overall seroconversion rate of 96.5% was achieved in pups with maternally derived HI titers < or = 256.

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Boberg, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Tac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8.1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and Pups in the higher close groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T-4) levels during the closing period......Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent Studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone Status early in pregnancy may Cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased...... concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the Study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge or) the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (Han...

  3. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor α (ERα) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ERα, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA B receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGFα. Collectively, these results suggest that the disrupted sexual differentiation

  4. Cerebellar abnormalities following hypoxia alone compared to hypoxic-ischemic forebrain injury in the developing rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biran, V.; Heine, V.M.; Verney, C.; Sheldon, R.A.; Spadafora, R.; Vexler, Z.S.; Rowitch, D.H.; Ferriero, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two-day-old (P2) rat pups were subjected to either a global hypoxia or to electrocoagulation of the right carotid artery followed by 2.5. h hypoxia. Cellular and regional injury in the cerebellum (CB) was studied at 1, 2 and 19. days using immunohistology. Following hypoxia and hypoxia-ischemia, all

  5. Microarray Analysis of the Developing Rat Mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo KABURAGI; Naoyuki SUGANO; Maiko OSHIKAWA; Ryosuke KOSHI; Naoki SENDA; Kazuhiro KAWAMOTO; Koichi ITO

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the molecular events that occur in the developing mandible, we examined the expression of 8803 genes from samples taken at different time points during rat postnatal mandible development.Total RNA was extracted from the mandibles of 1-day-old, 1-week-old, and 2-week-old rats. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthesized from cDNA and biotinylated. Fragmented cRNA was hybridized to RGU34A GeneChip arrays. Among the 8803 genes tested, 4344 were detectable. We identified 148 genes with significantly increased expression, and 19 genes with significantly decreased expression. A comprehensive analysis appears to be an effective method of studying the complex process of development.

  6. Relative contributions of pituitary-adrenal hormones to the ontogeny of behavioral inhibition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kim, H

    1995-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups exhibit deficits in behavioral inhibition. Furthermore, administration of exogenous corticosterone (CORT) restores behavioral inhibition in ADX pups. Although these studies suggest that CORT has an important role in the development of behavioral inhibition, the relative behavioral effects of elevated pituitary hormone secretion induced by ADX are not known. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the potential behavioral effects of elevated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion induced by ADX and to further evaluate the contribution of endogenous CORT to the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 1., we verified that 10-day-old ADX rats exhibit high levels of plasma ACTH throughout the preweaning period associated with the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 2, 10-day-old pups were hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and ADX and were compared behaviorally to sham-operated controls on day 14. When tested in the presence of an anesthetized unfamiliar adult male rat, HYPOX + ADX pups exhibited low levels of freezing accompanied by ultrasonic vocalizations. These pups also had reduced concentrations of plasma ACTH and CORT. In Experiment 3, 10-day-old pups were HYPOX and tested for behavioral inhibition on day 14. In comparison to sham-operated controls, HYPOX rats exhibited significantly lower levels of freezing and had reduced plasma concentrations of ACTH and CORT. Results demonstrate clearly that deficits in freezing occur even in the presence of low plasma ACTH concentrations. Therefore, elevated secretion of pituitary hormones is not a major factor that contributes to the ADX-induced deficits in behavioral inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Elamipretide (SS-31 Ameliorates Isoflurane-Induced Long-Term Impairments of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Cognition in Developing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are supposed to be involved in the early pathogenesis of general anesthesia (GA-induced neurotoxicity and long-term cognitive deficits in developing brains. However, effective pharmacologic agents targeted on mitochondria during GA exposure are lacking. This study explores the protective effects of mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant elamipretide (SS-31 on mitochondrial morphogenesis and cognition in developing rats exposed to isoflurane. Rat pups at postnatal day (PND 7 were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 6 h following intraperitoneal administration of elamipretide or vehicle with 30 min interval. The hippocampus was immediately removed for biochemical assays. Histopathological studies were conducted at PND 21, and behavioral tests were performed at PND 40 or 60. We found that early exposure to isoflurane caused remarkable reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, mitochondrial deformation and neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. The injury occurrence ultimately gave rise to long-term cognitive deficits in developing rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with elamipretide not only provided protective effect against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damages, but also attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits. Our data support the notion that mitochondrial damage is an early and long lasting event of GA-induced injury and suggest that elamipretide might have clinically therapeutic benefits for pediatric patients undertaking GA.

  8. Experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey is more detrimental to growth than to the reflex development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Figueiredo Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the pregnancy and lactation performances of rats fed an experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2002/2003 and the impact of said diet on the growth and development of the pups until weaning. METHODS: Wistar (n=12 rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (control group, n=6 fed a commercial chow (Labina®, Brazil and an experimental group (n=6 fed the Family Budget Survey diet during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. All animals had free access to food and water during the entire study period. RESULTS: The Family Budget Survey diet increased the duration of pregnancy (control group=21.00±0.00; POFG=21.57±0.55, p=0.025 and made the dams lose weight during the lactation period (control group=27.92±18.47g; POFG=-15.66±16.90g. The Family Budget Survey group presented low food, energy and nutrient intakes during pregnancy, which became even lower during lactation. Pups from Family Budget Survey dams presented lower body weight at weaning (control group=52.38±4.49g; POFG=39.88±2.78g, p=0.001 and lower nose-to-anus length (control group= 117.37±0.64mm; POFG=125.62±0.96mm, p=0.001. However, some physical milestones and reflexes occurred earlier, such as the placing response reflex [control group= 12.00 (9.00-15.00 days; POFG=9.50 (9.00-14.00 days] aerial righting reflex [control group=18.00 (17.00-20.00 days; POFG=16.00 (13.00-18.00 days] and unfolding of the external ear [control group=3.00 (3.00-3.00 days; POFG=2.00 (2.00-3.00 days]. CONCLUSION: The Family Budget Survey diet seems to be more detrimental to the physical growth of the pups than to their brain growth, according to the assessed reflexes and physical milestones and measures. This may be due to the low protein content of the diet for rat reproduction and growth combined with adequate fat and essential fatty acid contents. Providing an adequate amount of

  9. Effects of heavy ions on the development of male gonads in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Shang, Yi; Tanaka, Kaoru; Hayata, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam on the development of rats in late organogenesis were studied both in utero and in vitro, with a special focus to the response of male gonads. Either rat fetuses in utero or the cultured fetal testes in vitro were irradiated with carbon or Ne ion beams at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.5 Gy. In addition to the linear energy transfer (LET) value of 13 keV/μm of carbon ion beams and of 30 keV/m of Ne ion beams for the in utero irradiation, the LET values at 40, 60, and 80 keV/μm of carbon ion beams were also applied for the in vitro investigation. In the mean time, effects from X-irradiations estimated under the same biological endpoints were studied comparatively for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) estimation of the accelerated heavy ion irradiations. Although the statistical analysis of results was not finished, certain tendencies were found as follows: For the in utero studies, pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses. Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight including brain, heart, thymus, lung, liver, kidney and testis were also observed in the pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses at postnatal ages of 1, 2 and three months. In addition, testes obtained at these postnatal ages are being studied on testicular development including conditions of the seminiferous tubules, the numbers of germ cells and Sertoli cells. For the in vitro experiments, pathological analysis of apoptosis occurrence in the cultured testes after X-irradiation or exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam is also now under investigation. From the third year, we would like to

  10. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  11. Delayed development, death and abnormal thyroglobulin in rats maintained on low-iodine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Rats weaned on Remington Low Iodine Diet (0.006 to 0.009 μgI/g) grew poorly, were very slow to breed, and 83% of their pups died in the neonatal period. A large iodide supplement (100μgI/d) improved growth of the females to almost normal but did not improve growth of males. With the iodide supplement they bred at an earlier age than rats fed the low iodide Remington diet but still 73% of the pups died before weaning. The addition of a vitamin mixture (biotin, vitamin B 12 , E, patothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and pyridoxine) to Remington Diet resulted in delayed pregnancies but 86% survival of offspring. A more nutritious low-iodine diet with a 'complete' mineral and vitamin supplement improved growth and survival, and the litters were delivered at the normal time. However, this more complete diet contained more iodine than the Remington diet. During the neonatal period, all the low iodine diets resulted in offspring that were unable to make T 3 as readily as adults fed the same diet. Pups from dams fed the Remington diet had thyroblobulin with lower sedimentation constants (18S and 12S) than was found in normal newborns. This unfolded and dissociated thyroglobulin may be an inadequate source of thyroid hormones, but it may hydrolyse more rapidly than normal 19S thyroglobulin. It is concluded that rats raised on a diet severely deficient in iodine were unable to litter until they were older than normal rats, and the survival of the offspring was poor unless the diet was supplemented with a vitamin mixture. The synthesis of thyroid hormones in low iodine neonatal rats was more severely impaired than in adults. (author)

  12. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  13. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  14. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys

  15. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  16. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation

  17. Effect of repeated fasting/refeeding on obesity development and health complications in rats arising from reduced nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozeš, Štefan; Šefčíková, Zuzana; Raček, Ľubomír

    2015-02-01

    Overnutrition during postnatal life represents a risk factor for later obesity and associated metabolic disorders. We investigated the interaction between postnatal and later-life nutrition on body composition, blood pressure and the jejunal enzyme activities in male Sprague-Dawley rats. From birth, we adjusted the number of pups in the nest to 4 (small litters-SL; overfeeding) or to 10 pups (normal litters-NL; controls), and from day 50 until 70, the SL (SL-R) and NL (NL-R) rats were subjected to 1 day fasting and 1 day refeeding cycles (RFR). Their body composition was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and enzyme activity was assayed histochemically. At 50 and 70 days, SL rats were found to be overweight (p obesity risk. Accordingly, in these animals, efficient fat deposition and elevated blood pressure were not diminished in response to dietary restrictions in later life.

  18. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  19. Neonatal systemic inflammation in rats alters retinal vessel development and simulates pathologic features of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ko, Jung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, Chang Won; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Ahn, Seong Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Oh, Joo Youn

    2014-05-15

    Alteration of retinal angiogenesis during development leads to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants, which is a leading cause of visual impairment in children. A number of clinical studies have reported higher rates of ROP in infants who had perinatal infections or inflammation, suggesting that exposure of the developing retina to inflammation may disturb retinal vessel development. Thus, we investigated the effects of systemic inflammation on retinal vessel development and retinal inflammation in neonatal rats. To induce systemic inflammation, we intraperitoneally injected 100 μl lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.25 mg/ml) or the same volume of normal saline in rat pups on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The retinas were extracted on postnatal days 7 and 14, and subjected to assays for retinal vessels, inflammatory cells and molecules, and apoptosis. We found that intraperitoneal injection of LPS impaired retinal vessel development by decreasing vessel extension, reducing capillary density, and inducing localized overgrowth of abnormal retinal vessels and dilated peripheral vascular ridge, all of which are characteristic findings of ROP. Also, a large number of CD11c+ inflammatory cells and astrocytes were localized in the lesion of abnormal vessels. Further analysis revealed that the number of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIloCD68loCD11bloCD11chi cells in the retina was higher in LPS-treated rats compared to controls. Similarly, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12a were increased in LPS-treated retina. Also, apoptosis was increased in the inner retinal layer where retinal vessels are located. Our data demonstrate that systemic LPS-induced inflammation elicits retinal inflammation and impairs retinal angiogenesis in neonatal rats, implicating perinatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of ROP.

  20. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  1. Cooperative Atlantic States Shark Pupping and Nursery (COASTSPAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Survey of inshore areas used by sharks for pupping and nurseries. Various locations have been surveyed, from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Massachusetts, most in...

  2. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to SbV on rat neurobehavioral development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Deise R; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2014-12-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) is a pentavalent antimony drug used to treat leishmaniases. We investigated the neurobehavioral development, sexual maturation and fertility of the offspring of MA-treated rats. Dams were administered MA (0, 75, 150, 300 mg Sb(V)/kg body wt/d, sc) from gestation day 0, throughout parturition and lactation, until weaning. At the highest dose, MA reduced the birth weight and the number of viable newborns. In the male offspring, MA did not impair development (somatic, reflex maturation, weight gain, puberty onset, open field test), sperm count, or reproductive performance. Except for a minor effect on body weight gain and vertical exploration in the open field, MA also did not affect the development of female offspring. Measurements of the Sb levels (ICP-MS) in the blood of MA-treated female rats and their offspring demonstrated that Sb is transferred to the fetuses via the placenta and to the suckling pups via milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Länsberg, John-Kalle; Sveinsdóttir, Snjólaug; Garwicz, Martin; Ohlsson, Lennart; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2018-01-01

    Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by cesarean section at day 29 of gestation, cared for in closed incubators with humidified air, and gavage fed with formula. Control term pups (T) delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at day 32 of gestation were housed and fed by their lactating doe. In vivo perfusion-fixation for immunohistochemical evaluation of cerebellar proliferation, cell maturation, and apoptosis was performed at repeated time points in PT and T pups. Results show that the mean weight of the pups and circulating IGF-1 protein levels were lower in the PT group at all time points (p staining at P0 (p = 0.003), P2 (p = 0.004), and P5 (p = 0.04) in the PT group compared to in the T group. Staining for sonic hedgehog was positive in neuronal EGL progenitors and Purkinje cells at early time points but was restricted to a well-defined Purkinje cell monolayer at later time points. Preterm birth in rabbit pups is associated with lower circulating levels of IGF-1, decreased postnatal growth, and decreased cerebellar EGL proliferation and Purkinje cell maturation. The preterm rabbit pup model exhibits important characteristics of human preterm birth, and may thus be suitable for the evaluation of interventions aiming to modify growth and cerebellar development in the preterm population. PMID:28972955

  4. Development switch in neural circuitry underlying odor-malaise learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and a 30-min peppermint-odor exposure. Conditioning groups included: Paired odor-LiCl, Paired odor-LiCl-Nursing, LiCl, and odor-saline. Results showed that Paired LiCl-odor conditioning induced a learned odor aversion in postnatal day (PN) 7, 12, and 23 pups. Odor-LiCl Paired Nursing induced a learned odor preference in PN7 and PN12 pups but blocked learning in PN23 pups. 14C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography indicated enhanced olfactory bulb activity in PN7 and PN12 pups with odor preference and avoidance learning. The odor aversion in weanling aged (PN23) pups resulted in enhanced amygdala activity in Paired odor-LiCl pups, but not if they were nursing. Thus, the neural circuit supporting malaise-induced aversions changes over development, indicating that similar infant and adult-learned behaviors may have distinct neural circuits.

  5. Development of rat telencephalic neurons after prenatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.

    1979-01-01

    Telencephalic neurons of rats, irradiated at day 15 of gestation with 125 R, develop synaptic connections on dendrites during maturation which appear to be normal spines in Golgi-stained light microscope preparations. At six weeks of postnatal age both control and irradiated rats have spiny dendritic processes on cortical pyramidal cells and caudate Golgi type II neurons. However, when the rats are 6 months old the irradiated rats have more neurons with beaded dendritic processes that lack spines or neurons and are likely to be degenerating neurons. The apparently normal development of the neurons followed by degeneration in the irradiated rat has a parallel in previous reports of the delayed hyperactivity which develops in rats irradiated on the fifteenth gestational day

  6. Effects of experimental suppression of active (REM) sleep during early development upon adult brain and behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, M; Scholtens, J; van de Poll, N E; Uylings, H B; van der Gugten, J; Boer, G J

    1983-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that active sleep (AS) is important for the normal development of the central nervous system, 3 different deprivation methods were applied to male Wistar rat pups during the first month of life. Daily injection of clomipramine from 8 to 21 days of age reduced the high level of AS to less than the adult value throughout most of the experimental period. Administration of clonidine from 8 to 21 days of life induced an almost total suppression of AS. Instrumental deprivation, using the 'pendulum' method, led to a significant (but less severe) AS reduction during 2-4 weeks of postnatal age. Open-field behavior testing in adulthood revealed a higher than normal level of ambulation in all 3 experimental groups. Masculine sexual responses were deficient, due to a low level of both mounts and ejaculations, in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated animals. Neither passive avoidance learning nor dark preference tests revealed any differences between the experimental and control rats. Sleep observations showed that there was an abnormally high incidence of large myoclonic jerks during AS in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated rats. Subsequent measurement of regional brain weights showed a significant reduction in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata, as compared with the respective control groups, in both the clomipramine- and the clonidine-treated rats. In addition, DNA and protein determination in the affected brain areas showed a proportional reduction in the cortex and in the medulla. These results demonstrate that interference with normal functioning either of AS per se or of specific monoaminergic transmitter systems during early development can produce long-lasting behavioral as well as brain morphological and biochemical abnormalities in later life.

  7. Effect of manganese on neonatal rat: manganese concentration and enzymatic alterations in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, P K; Husain, R; Mushtaq, M; Chandra, S V

    1977-01-01

    Suckling rats were exposed for 15 and 30 days to manganese through the milk of nursing dams receiving 15 mg MnCl/sub 2/.4H/sub 2/O/kg/day orally and after which the neurological manifestations of metal poisoning were studied. No significant differences in the growth rate, developmental landmarks and walking movements were observed between the control and manganese-exposed pups. The metal concentration was significantly increased in the brain of manganese-fed pups at 15 days and exhibited a further three-fold increase over the control, at 30 days. The accumulation of the metal in the brain of manganese-exposed nursing dams was comparatively much less. A significant decrease in succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase, adenosine deaminase, acetylcholine esterase and an increase in monoamine oxidase activity was observed in the brain of experimental pups and dams. The results suggest that the developing brain may also be susceptible to manganese.

  8. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E

    2016-07-21

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility.

  10. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  11. Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Ivan A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic very mild prenatal carbon monoxide (CO exposure (25 parts per million subverts the normal development of the rat cerebellar cortex. Studies at this chronic low CO exposure over the earliest periods of mammalian development have not been performed to date. Pregnant rats were exposed chronically to CO from gestational day E5 to E20. In the postnatal period, rat pups were grouped as follows: Group A: prenatal exposure to CO only; group B: prenatal exposure to CO then exposed to CO from postnatal day 5 (P5 to P20; group C: postnatal exposure only, from P5 to P20, and group D, controls (air without CO. At P20, immunocytochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers, and structural and functional proteins were assessed in the cerebellar cortex of the four groups. Quantitative real time PCR assays were performed for inducible (iNOS, neuronal (nNOS, and endothelial (eNOS nitric oxide synthases. Results Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, SOD2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 immunoreactivity increased in cells of the cerebellar cortex of CO-exposed pups. INOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity also increased in blood vessels and Purkinje cells (PCs of pups from group-A, B and C. By contrast, nNOS immunoreactivity decreased in PCs from group-B. Endothelial NOS immunoreactivity showed no changes in any CO-exposed group. The mRNA levels for iNOS were significantly up-regulated in the cerebellum of rats from group B; however, mRNA levels for nNOS and eNOS remained relatively unchanged in groups A, B and C. Ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased in group-B. Immunocytochemistry for neurofilaments (structural protein, synapsin-1 (functional protein, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, were decreased in groups A and B. Immunoreactivity for two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, remained

  12. Neurobehavioral toxicity in progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh N. Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylmercury (MeHg is recognized as one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants. This may be a concern to long-term consumption of contaminated fish and seafood for health risk to pregnant women and their children. AIM: An animal study was conducted to assess the effect of MeHg exposure on rodent offspring following in utero exposure. METHODS: Pregnant Wister rats were treated by gavage with MeHg at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD 5 till parturition, and then were allowed to deliver. RESULTS: Dams treated with 2.0 mg/kg/day MeHg group showed signs of toxicity such as gait alterations and hyperactivity resulting in the failure to deliver sustainable viable pups. MeHg had significant effects on body weight gain of dams during GD 5 till parturition. MeHg had no significant effects on the ages of physical developments such as pinna detachment, incisor eruptions or eye opening as well as alter cliff avoidance, surface righting, swimming ontogeny, startle reflex, pivoting, negative geotaxis, or forelimb and hindlimb grip strength in either sex. Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg/day MeHg treatment group prolonged gestation period, retard mid-air righting in male pups, shortened forelimb grip strength measured on rotating rod in either sex and enhanced open field behaviour in male pups. Data obtained from Functional Observation Battery (FOB also revealed impairment of neuromotor performance in male pups. The male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the female pups. CONCLUSION. Overall, the dose level of MeHg in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter neuromotor performance of the male pups.

  13. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  14. Atypical Red Blood Cells Are Prevalent in California Sea Lion Pups Born during Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Morán, Adriana; Banuet-Martínez, Marina; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We examined whether atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more common in 2015, when the high SST event was more pronounced, and whether the stable isotope signature of pup fur, as an indicator of maternal feeding strategies, accounted for the number of atypical cells. Various atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more prevalent and more abundant than reference values. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in both years, and only pups born in 2014 showed evidence of active erythropoiesis. Microcytes and reticulocytes were more common in pups with higher isotopic δ 13 C and lower δ 15 N values, suggesting a probable relationship between maternal feeding strategies and the effect of climatic anomalies on red blood cell physiology of their pups. As developing pinnipeds require increased oxygen storage capacity for diving and foraging, the presence of atypical erythrocytes could be relevant to CSL pup fitness if the underlying cause is not reverted. This study is a first step to explore the effects that climatic alterations in the marine environment can have on the blood physiology of developing individuals.

  15. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells. PMID:25756053

  16. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Salazar García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs and 20 control rats (CRs were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21 and newborn (NB pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC. In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.

  17. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  18. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Carusillo Theriault

    Full Text Available In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter.Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS at embryonic day (E 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks.mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2 and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9 for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls.In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development.

  19. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in CD-1 mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Ricceri, Laura; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2009-03-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP) largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Late gestational exposure [gestational day (GD) 14-17] to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg was evaluated in CD-1 mice during early development, by assessment of somatic and sensorimotor maturation [reflex-battery on postnatal days (PNDs) 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15] and ultrasound emission after isolation from the mother and siblings (PNDs 4, 7 and 10). Pups' motor skills were assessed in a spontaneous activity test on PND 12. Maternal behavior of lactating dams in the home cage and in response to presentation of a pup previously removed from the nest was scored on PND 4, to verify potential alterations in maternal care directly induced by CPF administration. As for the effects on the offspring, results indicated that on PND 10, CPF significantly decreased number and duration of ultrasonic calls while increasing latency to emit the first call after isolation. Prenatal CPF also reduced motor behavior on PND 12, while a tendency to hyporeflexia was observed in CPF pups by means of reflex-battery scoring. Dams administered during gestation with CPF showed baseline levels of maternal care comparable to those of controls, but higher levels of both pup-directed (licking) and explorative (wall rearing) responses. Overall our results are consistent with previous epidemiological data on OP neurobehavioral toxicity, and also indicate ultrasonic vocalization as an early marker of CPF exposure during development in rodent studies, with potential translational value to human infants.

  20. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in cd-1 mouse pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamandrei Gemma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Methods Late gestational exposure [gestational day (GD 14–17] to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg was evaluated in CD-1 mice during early development, by assessment of somatic and sensorimotor maturation [reflex-battery on postnatal days (PNDs 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15] and ultrasound emission after isolation from the mother and siblings (PNDs 4, 7 and 10. Pups' motor skills were assessed in a spontaneous activity test on PND 12. Maternal behavior of lactating dams in the home cage and in response to presentation of a pup previously removed from the nest was scored on PND 4, to verify potential alterations in maternal care directly induced by CPF administration. Results As for the effects on the offspring, results indicated that on PND 10, CPF significantly decreased number and duration of ultrasonic calls while increasing latency to emit the first call after isolation. Prenatal CPF also reduced motor behavior on PND 12, while a tendency to hyporeflexia was observed in CPF pups by means of reflex-battery scoring. Dams administered during gestation with CPF showed baseline levels of maternal care comparable to those of controls, but higher levels of both pup-directed (licking and explorative (wall rearing responses. Conclusion Overall our results are consistent with previous epidemiological data on OP neurobehavioral toxicity, and also indicate ultrasonic vocalization as an early marker of CPF exposure during development in rodent studies, with potential translational value to human infants.

  1. Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholinergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J D; Butcher, L L; Woolf, N J

    1991-04-24

    Hyperthyroidism, induced in rat pups by the daily intraperitoneal administration of 1 microgram/g body weight triiodothyronine, facilitated the development of ChAT fiber plexuses in brain regions innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to an earlier and increased expression of cholinergic markers in those fibers in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. A similar enhancement was seen in the caudate-putamen complex. This histochemical profile was correlated with an accelerated appearance of ChAT-positive telencephalic puncta, as well as with a larger total number of cholinergic terminals expressed, which persisted throughout the eight postnatal week, the longest time examined in the present study. Hypothyroidism was produced in rat pups by adding 0.5% propylthiouracil to the dams' diet beginning the day after birth. This dietary manipulation resulted in the diminished expression of ChAT in forebrain fibers and terminals. Hypothyroid treatment also reduced the quantity of ChAT puncta present during postnatal weeks 2 and 3, and, from week 4 and continuing through week 6, the number of ChAT-positive terminals in the telencephalic regions examined was actually less than the amount extant during the former developmental epoch. Immunostaining for nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R), which is associated almost exclusively with ChAT-positive somata and fibers in the basal forebrain, demonstrated a different time course of postnatal development. Forebrain fibers and terminals demonstrating NGF-R were maximally visualized 1 week postnatally, a time at which these same neuronal elements evinced minimal ChAT-like immunopositivity. Thereafter and correlated with increased immunoreactivity for ChAT, fine details of NGF-R stained fibers were observed less frequently. Although propylthiouracil administration decreased NGF-R immunodensity, no alteration in the development of that receptor was observed as a function of triiodothyronine treatment. Cholinergic

  2. Maternal hyperthyroidism alters the pattern of expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin system components in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Caroline A; Shibata, Caroline E R; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M

    2014-03-01

    Changes in perinatal environment can lead to physiological, morphological, or metabolic alterations in adult life. It is well known that thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for the development, growth, and maturation of organs and systems. In addition, TH interact with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and both play a critical role in adult cardiovascular function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal hyperthyroidism on cardiac RAS components in pups during development. From gestational day nine (GD9), pregnant Wistar rats received thyroxine (T4, 12 mg/l in tap water; Hyper group) or vehicle (control group). Dams and pups were killed on GD18 and GD20. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and T4 were higher in the Hyper group than in the control group dams. Cardiac hypertrophy was observed in Hyper pups on GD20. Cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was significantly lower in Hyper pups on both GD18 and GD20, but there was no difference in Ang I/Ang II levels. Ang II receptors expression was higher in the Hyper pup heart on GD18. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with alterations in fetal development and altered pattern of expression in RAS components, which in addition to cardiac hypertrophy observed on GD20 may represent an important predisposing factor to cardiovascular diseases in adult life.

  3. Administration of imatinib mesylate in rats impairs the neonatal development of intramuscular interstitial cells in bladder and results in altered contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thomas; Hutchings, Graham; Everaerts, Wouter; Prenen, Hans; Roskams, Tania; Nilius, Bernd; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The KIT receptor is considered as a reliable marker for a subpopulation of interstitial cells (IC), and by persistent neonatal inhibition of KIT we have investigated the role of this receptor in the development of IC-networks in bladder and we have observed the functional consequences of this inhibition. Newborn rat pups were treated daily with the KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM). After 7 days animals were sacrificed and bladder samples were dissected for morphological and functional studies. Morphological research consisted of immunohistochemistry with IC specific antigens (KIT and vimentin) and electron microscopy. The functional studies were based on isolated bladder strips in organ baths, in which spontaneous bladder contractility and the response to a non-subtype selective muscarinic agonist was evaluated. Suburothelial and intramuscular IC were found and characterized in neonatal rat bladder. IM-treatment induced a significant decrease in numbers of IC based on specific immunohistochemical markers, and electron microscopy revealed evidence of IC cell injury. These morphological alterations were observed on intramuscular IC only and not on IC in the suburothelium. Isolated muscle strips from IM-treated animals had a lower contractile frequency and an altered response to muscarinic agonists. The present study shows the presence of regional subpopulations of IC in neonatal rat bladder, provides evidence for a dependence on KIT of the development of intramuscular IC and supports the hypothesis that a poor development of networks of intramuscular IC might have repercussions on spontaneous and muscarinic-induced bladder contractility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Maternal behavior of the mouse dam toward pups: implications for maternal separation model of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso, Rodrigo; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Creutzberg, Kerstin Camile; Centeno-Silva, Anderson; Glusman Roithmann, Laura; Pazzin, Rafaelly; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Benetti, Fernando; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Maternal care is essential for an adequate pup development, as well as for the health of the dam. Exposure to stress in early stages of life can disrupt this dam-pup relationship promoting altered neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on the pattern of maternal behavior. The aim of this study is to compare the patterns of maternal behavior between mice exposed to MS and controls. BALB/c mice were subjected to MS for a period of 180 min/day from postnatal day 2-7 (n = 17) or designated to be standard animal facility reared (AFR) controls (n = 19). Maternal behaviors were computed as frequency of nursing, licking pups and contact with pups, and nonmaternal behaviors were computed as frequency of actions without interaction with pups and eating/drinking. A total of 18 daily observations of maternal behavior were conducted during these six days, and considering the proportion of maternal and nonmaternal behaviors, an index was calculated. There was no difference when comparing the global index of maternal behavior between the AFR and MS animals by the end of the observed period. However, the pattern of maternal behavior between groups was significantly different. While MS dams presented low frequency of maternal behavior within the first couple days of the stress protocol, but increasing over time, AFR dams showed higher maternal behavior at the beginning, reducing over time. Together, our results indicate that MS alters the maternal behavior of the dams toward pups throughout the first week of the stress protocol and provoked some anxiety-related traits in the dams. The inversion of maternal behavior pattern could possibly be an attempt to compensate the low levels of maternal care observed in the first days of MS.

  5. Delayed neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg in the cerebellum of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Delgado, Jeferson; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Pureur, Regina Pessoa; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2018-03-01

    Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational exposure of rats to MeHg at low doses (1 or 2 mg/kg) on parameters of redox imbalance and key signaling pathways in the cerebellum of their offspring. Pregnant females received MeHg (treated group) or 0.9% saline water (control group) by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 (GD5) until parturition and analyzes were proceed in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups. We found increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels as well as decreased SH content in pups prenatally exposed to 2 mg/kg MeHg. In addition, misregulated SOD/catalase activities supported imbalanced redox equilibrium. We found decreased GSK3β(Ser9) phosphorylation, suggesting activation of this enzyme and dephosphorylation/inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways. Increased PKAα catalytic subunit could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated c-Raf(Ser259) and downregulated MAPK pathway. In addition, we found raised levels of the Ca 2+ -dependent protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B). We also found preserved immunohistochemical staining for both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NeuN in MeHg-exposed pups. Western blot analysis showed unaltered levels of BAX/BCL-XL, BAD/BCL-2 and active caspase 3. Together, these findings support absence of reactive astrocytes, neuronal damage and apoptotic cell death in the cerebellum of MeHg treated pups. The present study provides evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg leads to later redox imbalance and disrupted signaling mechanisms in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups potentially predisposing them to long-lasting neurological impairments in CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  7. Neonatal L-glutamine modulates anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression, and microglial immunoreactivity: analysis in developing rats suckled on normal size- and large size litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti; Francisco, Elian da Silva; Lima, Cássia Borges; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-02-01

    In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 ; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive). At P28 and P30, we tested the animals, respectively, in the elevated plus maze and open field. At P30-35, we measured CSD parameters (velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration). Fixative-perfused brains were processed for microglial immunolabeling with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to analyze cortical microglia. Rats treated with Gln presented an anxiolytic behavior and accelerated CSD propagation when compared to the water- and naive control groups. Furthermore, CSD velocity was higher (p litter sizes, and for microglial activation in the L 15 groups. Besides confirming previous electrophysiological findings (CSD acceleration after Gln), our data demonstrate for the first time a behavioral and microglial activation that is associated with early Gln treatment in developing animals, and that is possibly operated via changes in brain excitability.

  8. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  9. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-. Filhés. Key words. ... use their method to obtain the orbital elements of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD ... Observation shows that the photometric phase, φ, which is measured from the pho- tometric reference point ...

  10. Individuality in harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, pup vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Opzeeland, IC; Van Parijs, SM

    In gregarious breeders, parents often use individually stereotyped vocalizations as a cue to relocate offspring. Harp seals aggregate in large colonies on pack ice during the whelping season. During the 11-day lactation period, females alternate between periods at sea and attending their pup. If

  11. Pupping habitat ofd grey seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Groot, de A.V.; Aarts, G.M.; Dijkman, E.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus) started recolonising Dutch coastal haul-outs in the 1950s, after practically 500 years of rarity in the Dutch coastal zone which was caused mainly by human hunting. The first pup-birth was recorded in 1985 at the Wadden Sea sandbank of Engelschhoek.

  12. Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate based herbicide alters the development of the rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Schimpf, Marlise; Milesi, María M.; Ingaramo, Paola I.; Luque, Enrique H.; Varayoud, Jorgelina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neonatal exposure to GBH lead to endometrial hyperplasia and increase proliferation. • GBH disrupts proteins involved in uterine organogenetic differentiation. • GBH exposure induced persistent increase of PR and Hoxa10 proteins. - Abstract: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are extensively used to control weeds on both cropland and non-cropland areas. No reports are available regarding the effects of GBHs exposure on uterine development. We evaluated if neonatal exposure to a GBH affects uterine morphology, proliferation and expression of proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation in rats. Female Wistar pups received saline solution (control, C) or a commercial formulation of glyphosate (GBH, 2 mg/kg) by sc injection every 48 h from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND7. Rats were sacrificed on PND8 (neonatal period) and PND21 (prepubertal period) to evaluate acute and short-term effects, respectively. The uterine morphology was evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The epithelial and stromal immunophenotypes were established by assessing the expression of luminal epithelial protein (cytokeratin 8; CK8), basal epithelial proteins (p63 and pan cytokeratin CK1, 5, 10 and 14); and vimentin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To investigate changes on proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), Hoxa10 and Wnt7a by IHC. The GBH-exposed uteri showed morphological changes, characterized by an increase in the incidence of luminal epithelial hyperplasia (LEH) and an increase in the stromal and myometrial thickness. The epithelial cells showed a positive immunostaining for CK8, while the stromal cells for vimentin. GBH treatment increased cell proliferation in the luminal and stromal compartment on PND8, without changes on PND21. GBH treatment also altered the expression of proteins involved in uterine organogenetic

  13. Enteral intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases iNOS expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2013-01-01

    To determine if intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases intestinal injury resulting from experimentally induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that IAP administration prevents the initial development of NEC related intestinal inflammation. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day 1 of life. Pre-term pups were exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula containing LPS to induce NEC. Select NEC pups were given 40, 4 or 0.4 units/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40u, IAP4u or IAP0.4u) enterally, once daily. Ileal sections were evaluated by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for IAP, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA and immunofluorescence for 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Experimentally induced NEC decreased IAP mRNA expression by 66% (p ≤ 0.001). IAP supplementation increased IAP mRNA expression to control. Supplemental enteral IAP decreased nitrosative stress as measured by iNOS mRNA expression and 3-NT staining in the NEC stressed pups (p ≤ 0.01), as well as decreased intestinal TNF-α mRNA expression. In addition, IAP decreased LSP translocation into the serum in the treated pups. We conclude that enterally administered IAP prevents NEC-related intestinal injury and inflammation. Enteral IAP may prove a useful strategy in the prevention of NEC in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Birth of rats following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Guo, Jitong; Malakooti, Nakisa; Morrison, John R; Trounson, Alan O; Du, Zhong Tao

    2003-11-01

    We report full-term development of nuclear transfer embryos following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage. Nuclei from 2-cell rat embryos were transferred into enucleated 2-cell embryos and developed to term after transfer to recipients (NT2). Pronuclear exchange in zygotes was used for comparison (NT1). Zygotes and 2-cell embryos were harvested from 4-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Nuclear transfer was performed by transferring the pronuclei or karyoplasts into the perivitelline space of recipient embryos followed by electrofusion to reconstruct embryos. Fused couplets were cultured for 4 or 24 h before being transferred into day 1 pseudopregnant recipients (Hooded Wistar) at the 1- or 2-cell stage. In vitro culture was also carried out to check the developmental competence of the embryos. In vitro development to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different between the two groups (NT1, 34.3%; NT2, 45.0%). Two of three recipients from NT1 and two of five recipients from NT2 became pregnant. Six pups (3 from NT1, 3 from NT2) were delivered from the four foster mothers. Three female pups survived; 2 from NT1 and 1 from NT2. At 2 months of age these pups appeared healthy, and were mated with Sprague-Dawley males. One rat derived from NT1 delivered 15 pups (5 males, 10 females) as did the rat from NT2 (7 males, 8 females). Our results show that by using karyoplasts from 2-cell stage embryos as nuclear donors and reconstructing them with enucleated 2-cell embryos, healthy rats can be produced.

  15. An Expanding Role For Purine Uptake Permease (PUP -like Transporters In Plant Secondary Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Jelesko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, our understanding of the plant purine uptake permease (PUP transporter family of was primarily oriented on purine nucleobase substrates and their tissue-specific expression patterns in Arabidopsis. However, a tobacco PUP-like homolog demonstrating nicotine uptake permease (NUP activity was recently shown to affect both nicotine metabolism and root cell growth. These new findings expand the physiological role for PUP-like transporters to include plant secondary metabolism. Molecular evolution analyses of PUP-like transporters indicate they are distinct group within an ancient super family of drug and metabolite transporters (DMTs. The PUP-like family originated during terrestrial plant evolution sometime between the bryophytes and the lycophytes. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the PUP-like transporters were likely were derived from a pre-existing nucleotide sugar transporter family within the DMT super family. Within the lycophyte Selaginella, there are three paralogous groups of PUP-like transporters. One of the three PUP-like paralogous groups showed an extensive pattern of gene duplication and diversification within the angiosperm lineage, whereas the other two more ancestral PUP-like paralogous groups did not. Biochemical characterization of four closely-related PUP-like paralogs together with model-based phylogenetic analyses indicate both subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization during the molecular evolution of angiosperm PUP-like transporters. These findings suggest that members of the PUP-like family of DMT transporters are likely involved in diverse primary and secondary plant metabolic pathways.

  16. Environmental enrichment decreases asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-11-13

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  17. The Effects of Early Postnatal Diuretics Treatment on Kidney Development and Long-Term Kidney Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Maicas, Nuria; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2016-01-01

    Diuretics are administered to neonates to control fluid balance. We studied whether clinical doses affected kidney development and function and whether extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) could be a modulator. Wistar rats were cross-fostered in normal food or food restricted litters at postnatal day (PND) 2 and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl, 5 mg/kg furosemide or 5 mg/kg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) up to PND 8. Kidneys were evaluated on proliferation, apoptosis and a set of mRNA target genes at PND 8, glomerular- and glomerular generation count at PND 35, clinical pathology parameters at 3- and 9 months, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at PND 8, 3 and 6 months, monthly blood pressure from 3 months onward and histopathology at study end. Treatment with furosemide or HCTZ did not have relevant effects on measured parameters. EUGR resulted in lower body weight from day 3 onwards (-29% at weaning; p < 0.001, -10% at necropsy; p < 0.001), less glomerular generations (4.4 ± 0.32 vs. 5.0 ± 0.423; p = 0.025, males only), decreased glomerular numbers (27,861 ± 3,468 vs. 30,527 ± 4,096; p = 0.026), higher creatinine clearance (0.84 ± 0.1 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; p = 0.047) at 3 months and lower plasma creatinine (25.7 ± 1.8 vs. 27.5 ± 2.8 µmol/l; p = 0.043) at 9 months. Furosemide and HCTZ did not influence kidney development or function when administered in a clinically relevant dose to rat pups at a stage of ongoing nephrogenesis. EUGR led to impaired kidney development but did not modify furosemide or HCTZ findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  20. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  1. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: Functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method in 8 day old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A pups together with parents and siblings (control, (B separation of the litter from the parents, (C individual separation from parents and siblings, (D individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C, where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D maternal vocalizations reactivated brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  2. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  4. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... in adult life. In this poster, we report data on hepatic lipid content. Methods: Rat dams were fed a 60 E% fat diet and given 15% sucrose (HFHS) in the drinking water or chow and pure water (C) six weeks before mating as well as during gestation and lactation. After birth, male pups was cross......-fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age...

  5. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadikar, R.S.; Sharma, C.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U- 14 C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation. (author)

  6. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadikar, R S; Sharma, C; Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U-/sup 14/C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation.

  7. Autoradiography of 90Sr in developing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, I.; Jonsen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution patterns of 90 Sr in five littermate, 8-day-old Wistar rats were studied by whole body autoradiography. Rats were killed 15 min, 1, 4, 24, and 72 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the isotope. Immediately after administration, 90 Sr was distributed throughout most of the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissue deposits had practically disappeared after 4 h. In the hard tissues of the body 90 Sr accumulated up to 24-72 h. Fifteen minutes after injection the uptake of 90 Sr in the enamel of the teeth was highest in the occlusal and incisal regions. 90 Sr gradually accumulated throughout the enamel and after 72 h its distribution in this layer was fairly uniform. Immediately after injection a narrow zone of radioactivity appeared in the dentin near the pulp. This zone broadened with time towards the dentinoenamel junction and included the intire dentin layer 72 h after injection. Initially, the uptake of 90 Sr was higher in the dentin than in the enamel, particularly in the cervical areas of the crown. This difference became less apparent with time. There was good correlation between the uptake in the teeth and bones, supporting the use of teeth as indicators of the 90 Sr body burden. (author)

  8. Distribution of aromatase and sex steroid receptors in the baculum during the rat life cycle: effects of estrogen during the early development of the baculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Higashi, Mayuko; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The baculum, also called os penis, plays an important role during copulation. However, the hormonal regulation of its development remains to be elucidated. To determine the direct involvement of sex steroids in the development of the baculum of rats, the distributions of androgen receptors (ARs), aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) were observed immunohistochemically. On Postnatal Day 1, the rudiment of the baculum expressed ARs, aromatase, and ESR1. In the proximal segment of the baculum of neonatal rats, ARs were expressed in the parosteal layer but not in the periosteum or osteoblasts. Aromatase was expressed from the parosteal layer to the endosteum, particularly in the inner osteogenic layer. ESR1 was also abundantly expressed in almost all cells from the parosteal layer to the endosteum. ARs, aromatase, and ESR1 were all abundantly expressed during the neonatal period in the hyaline cartilage of the proximal segment and in fibrocartilage of the distal segment of the baculum. Expression in all the tissues was attenuated in an age-dependent manner and became quite weak at puberty. To determine the effect of estrogen on the growth of the baculum, the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD) was subcutaneously injected daily into pregnant rats from Days 19 to 23 of gestation and into pups on postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. On Day 10, the length of the baculum in the ATD-treated rats was significantly shorter than that in the controls, although the body weight did not change. These findings suggest that not only androgen but also locally aromatized estrogen is involved in the early growth and development of the baculum.

  9. Comparison of two models of intrauterine growth restriction for early catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Yasaman; Moulin, Julie; Zbinden, Irene; Aprikian, Olivier; Macé, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Two models of intrauterine growth restriction, maternal food restriction (FR), and dexamethasone (DEX) exposure were compared for early postnatal catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mated dams were randomly divided into three groups at 10 days gestational age. Group FR was food restricted (50% of nongestating rats) during the last 11 days of gestation; Group DEX received DEX injections during the last week of gestation, and Group CON, the control group, had no intervention. Birth weight, catch-up growth, body weight, and food intake were measured in male offspring for 22 wk. Body composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin in response to a glucose load were assessed at 8, 16, and 22 wk. Pups from both FR and DEX dams had similarly lower birth weights than CON (22% and 25%, P growth, which occurred during the suckling period, was much more rapid in FR than DEX offspring (6 vs. 25 days, 95% CI). Postweaning, there were no significant differences between groups in food intake, body weight, body fat, and plasma insulin, but baseline plasma glucose at 22 wk and 2-h glucose area-under-the-curve at 8 and 22 wk were greater only in FR vs. CON offspring (P restriction is a more sensitive model than DEX exposure for studies aimed at investigating the link between low birth weight, early postnatal catch-up growth, and later development of glucose intolerance.

  10. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiography using 125 I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat

  11. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  12. Different dietary omega-3 sources during pregnancy and DHA in the developing rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Caroline E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA can be converted into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA under the action of desaturase and elongase enzymes. Human studies have demonstrated that females convert a higher proportion of ALA into EPA and DHA than males. We have demonstrated that when fed upon an ALA rich diet, female rats have a significantly higher EPA content of plasma and liver lipids than males. When fetal tissues were collected, it was observed that pups from dams fed the ALA rich diet had a comparable brain DHA status to those from dams fed on a salmon-oil based diet, indicating that conversion of ALA to DHA during pregnancy was efficient, and that DHA accumulated in a tissue-specific manner. Similar efficacy of dietary ALA in women during pregnancy would mean that plant n-3 fatty acids would be useful alternatives to preformed EPA and DHA.

  13. Oxidative stress in the developing brain: effects of postnatal glucocorticoid therapy and antioxidants in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Camm

    Full Text Available In premature infants, glucocorticoids ameliorate chronic lung disease, but have adverse effects on long-term neurological function. Glucocorticoid excess promotes free radical overproduction. We hypothesised that the adverse effects of postnatal glucocorticoid therapy on the developing brain are secondary to oxidative stress and that antioxidant treatment would diminish unwanted effects. Male rat pups received a clinically-relevant tapering course of dexamethasone (DEX; 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1, with or without antioxidant vitamins C and E (DEXCE; 200 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1 and 100 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1, respectively, on postnatal days 1-6 (P1-6. Controls received saline or saline with vitamins. At weaning, relative to controls, DEX decreased total brain volume (704.4±34.7 mm(3 vs. 564.0±20.0 mm(3, the soma volume of neurons in the CA1 (1172.6±30.4 µm(3 vs. 1002.4±11.8 µm(3 and in the dentate gyrus (525.9±27.2 µm(3 vs. 421.5±24.6 µm(3 of the hippocampus, and induced oxidative stress in the cortex (protein expression: heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70]: +68%; 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]: +118% and nitrotyrosine [NT]: +20%. Dexamethasone in combination with vitamins resulted in improvements in total brain volume (637.5±43.1 mm(3, and soma volume of neurons in the CA1 (1157.5±42.4 µm(3 and the dentate gyrus (536.1±27.2 µm(3. Hsp70 protein expression was unaltered in the cortex (+9%, however, 4-HNE (+95% and NT (+24% protein expression remained upregulated. Treatment of neonates with vitamins alone induced oxidative stress in the cortex (Hsp70: +67%; 4-HNE: +73%; NT: +22% and in the hippocampus (NT: +35%. Combined glucocorticoid and antioxidant therapy in premature infants may be safer for the developing brain than glucocorticoids alone in the treatment of chronic lung disease. However, antioxidant therapy in healthy offspring is not recommended.

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelstad, Marta; Hansen, Pernille Reimar; Boberg, Julie; Bonnichsen, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T 4 ) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T 4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T 4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  15. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseth, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 μg/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  16. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI.

  17. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Charrier, Isabelle; Aubin, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.

  18. In vivo incorporation of 1-14C-acetate into liver and plasma lipids of postnatally overfed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, L.; Noack, R.; Borchardt, M.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Forschungszentrum fuer Molekularbiologie und Medizin)

    1982-01-01

    Postnatal overnutrition due to breeding of rats in small nests (4 pups per dam) leads to distinct metabolic changes in later life stages even in conditions of ad libitum feeding. At an age of 5 months rats from small nests differ from those of large nests (14 pups per dam) in a significant higher level of liver triglycerides and cholesterol esters, whereas changes in plasma lipids concern only the increased cholesterol ester fraction. The relative distribution of in vivo incorporated 1- 14 C-acetate into liver lipids shows a higher moiety in the triglyceride fraction of animals from small nests but no changes of the relative distribution of activity among lipid fractions of plasma. These changes of lipid metabolism are discussed in relation to the development of an obese state of postnatally overfed animals. (author)

  19. Development of the rat larynx: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Opeyemi; Berzofsky, Craig; Sharma, Sansar; Pitman, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and describe the cartilaginous and muscular development of the rat larynx. Histologic evaluation. The larynges of Sprague Dawley rats of embryonic day (E) 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, postnatal day 0, 14, and adult of 250 gm were collected. Four larynges of each age were harvested, cut into 15-μm serial sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated under light microscopy. Representative digital images were recorded and evaluated at the preglottic (supraglottic in humans), glottic, and postglottic (subglottic in humans) levels. Brachial arches were observed at E13. At E17, immature structures of the larynx, including skeletal muscle, cartilage, and the lumen were identifiable. Chondrification and muscle formation were clearly seen by E19. The muscular and cartilagenous components of the larynx were well established by E21. During the span between birth and adult maturation, the size of the larynx increased from a height of 1.10 mm to 2.90 mm, and from a width of 1.80 mm to 5.40 mm, and from a length of 1.38 mm to 4.77 mm in the stained section. Although developed at E21, the laryngeal structures continued to grow by approximately 30%. Rat laryngeal development parallels that in mice and humans. In the rat, at E17 immature structures of the larynx are identifiable, they are well developed at birth and grow by approximately 30% into adulthood. Understanding the chronology and morphology of the embryogenesis of the rat laryngeal musculature is essential and will allow for further evaluation of the embryologic innervation of these muscles. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Development of antibodies against the rat brain somatostatin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theveniau, M; Rens-Domiano, S; Law, S F; Rougon, G; Reisine, T

    1992-05-15

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is a neurotransmitter in the brain involved in the regulation of motor activity and cognition. It induces its physiological actions by interacting with receptors. We have developed antibodies against the receptor to investigate its structural properties. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against the rat brain SRIF receptor. These antibodies (F4) were able to immunoprecipitate solubilized SRIF receptors from rat brain and the cell line AtT-20. The specificity of the interaction of these antibodies with SRIF receptors was further demonstrated by immunoblotting. F4 detected SRIF receptors of 60 kDa from rat brain and adrenal cortex and the cell lines AtT-20, GH3, and NG-108, which express high densities of SRIF receptors. They did not detect immunoreactive material from rat liver or COS-1, HEPG, or CRL cells, which do not express functional SRIF receptors. In rat brain, 60-kDa immunoreactivity was detected by F4 in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and striatum, which have high densities of SRIF receptors. However, F4 did not interact with proteins from cerebellum and brain stem, which express few SRIF receptors. Immunoreactive material cannot be detected in rat pancreas or pituitary, which have been reported to express a 90-kDa SRIF receptor subtype. The selective detection of 60-kDa SRIF receptors by F4 indicates that the 60- and 90-kDa SRIF receptor subtypes are immunologically distinct. The availability of antibodies that selectively detect native and denatured brain SRIF receptors provides us with a feasible approach to clone the brain SRIF receptor gene(s).

  1. Effects of maternal and lactational exposure to 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzone on development and reproductive organs in male and female rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Inselman, Amy L.; White, Gene A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Trbojevich, Raul A.; Sepehr, Estatira; Voris, Kristie L.; Patton, Ralph E.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Harrouk, Wafa; McIntyre, Barry; Foster, Paul M.; Hansen, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) is an ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compound used in many cosmetic products as a UV-protecting agent and in plastics for preventing UV-induced photodecomposition. HMB has been detected in over 95% of randomly collected human urine samples from adults and from premature infants, and it may have estrogenic potential. METHODS To determine the effects of maternal and lactational exposure to HMB on development and reproductive organs of offspring, time-mated female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 0, 1,000, 3,000, 10,000, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm HMB (7-8 per group) added to chow from gestation day 6 until weaning on postnatal day (PND) 23. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Exposure to HMB was associated with reduced body and organ weights in female and male offspring. No significant differences were observed in the number of implantation sites/litter, mean resorptions/litter, % litters with resorptions, number and weights of live fetuses, or sex ratios between the control and HMB dose groups. Normalized anogenital distance in male pups at PND 23 was decreased in the highest dose group. Spermatocyte development was impaired in testes of male offspring in the highest dose group. In females, follicular development was delayed in the highest dose group. However, by evaluating levels of the compound in rat serum, the doses at which adverse events occurred are much higher than usual human exposure levels. Thus, exposure to less than 10,000 ppm HMB does not appear to be associated with adverse effects on the reproductive system in rats. PMID:25707689

  2. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  4. The Efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Cognitive Disorders against Manganese Chronic Exposure in Rats during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallal Eddine Houari ADLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study aims at testing, in vivo, the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, of the Syzygium aromaticum essential oil against chronic manganese chloride (4.79 mg/l intoxication during the gestation and lactation period, in Wistar rat pups. Wistar rat pups were exposed to manganese via their dams’ drinking water from postnatal day (PND 1 to (PND 21. After their weaning, the rats exposed to manganese received injections of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (0.1 ml/kg for 18 days. The level of anxiety, depression and locomotor activity were studied. Locomotor activity (open field test, anxiety (elevated plus maze tests, and depression (forced swimming test were evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that Manganese exposure induces, on the one hand, impairments of body (p<0.001 and of brain weight (p<0.05. On the other hand, it increases level of anxiety (p<0.05, depression (p<0.001 and locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.001, when compared to control rats. Administration of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum leads to a reduction in the level of anxiety (p<0.05, of depression (p<0.001 and corrects locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.05 in rats exposed to manganese beforehand. These results suggest that essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum can employ as a natural, protective agent against neuro-toxicity induced by manganese chloride during the gestation and lactation periods.

  5. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Daniel Prabakaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups – lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile – using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII (Ins2 gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1 and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life.

  6. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  7. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  8. Studies on the developmental toxicity of ozone: postnatal effects. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavlock, R J; Meyer, E; Grabowski, C T

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to either 0, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm ozone during either mid gestation (Days 9-12) or late gestation (Days 17-20). The dams were allowed to deliver and the early morphological and behavioral development of their pups was monitored. Both exposure regimens transiently reduced neonatal growth rates. The late gestation exposure regimen produced retardations in early reflex development and in open field behavior. Finally, several males from this exposure regimen remained permanently stunted in growth.

  9. Fluoxetine effects on periodontogenesis: histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva REGUEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Reports have indicated that serotonin plays an important role in cell migration and differentiation during the organogenesis of several tissues, including the oral types. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI drugs during pregnancy could affect the delivery of serotonin to embryonic tissues altering its development. Objective This study aimed to assess the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the formation of the periodontal ligament during pregnancy and lactation in rat pups. Material and Methods Twelve pregnant rats of Wistar lineage were divided into four study groups. In the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered orally, throughout the entire period of the 21 days of pregnancy (CG group and in the CGL group, it was administrated during pregnancy and lactation (from day 1 of pregnancy to the 21st day after birth. Fluoxetine was administered orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg in a group treated during pregnancy only (FG group, and during pregnancy and lactation (FGL group. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the maxillary first molar periodontium region of the 24 rat pups was made under light microscopy, and periodontal ligament collagen was qualitatively evaluated under a polarizing light microscope. Results The quantity of fibroblasts (p=0.006, osteoblasts (p=0.027 and cementoblasts (p=0.001 was reduced in pups from the rats that received fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation. No alterations were seen in the collagen fibers. Conclusion These findings suggest that periodontal tissue may be sensitive to fluoxetine, and its interference in reducing periodontal cells depends on exposure time during lactation.

  10. Fibronectin distribution during the development of fetal rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Weaver, A C

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin distribution during fetal rat skin development has been studied immunocytochemically at the light and electron microscope level from 16 days of gestation to birth. The dermal-epidermal junction, the dermis, and connective tissue around developing muscle were shown by light microscopy......, and there was also staining associated with the underlying fine collagen fibrils. These observations are further evidence for the proposed role of fibronectin as a mediator of the cell-matrix interactions which are of importance for tissue development and maintenance....

  11. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Brca2 was tested in various tumor inducing experimental settings [49,52] * activated form Hs = Homo sapiens ; Rn = Rattus norvegicus; MMTV...sequencing gDNA from a wild-type 2 SD rat over a region of intron 21 that contains the splicing branch site 2 (underlined). ( el The same sequence from the...from the El pups at 1 week of age for macromolecule isolation. We also visually checked all Fk pups for gross abnormalities in physi- cal

  12. Maternal environment alters social interactive traits but not open-field behavior in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    Although it is recognized that the genetic background governs behavioral phenotypes, environmental factors also play a critical role in the development of various behavioral processes. The maternal environment has a major impact on pups, and the cross-fostering procedure is used to determine the influence of early life experiences. The present study examined the influence of maternal environment on behavioral traits in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. F344/DuCrlCrlj and Wistar (Crlj:WI) pups were fostered from postnatal day 1 as follows: Wistar pups raised by Wistar dams, F344 raised by Wistar, Wistar raised by F344, and F344 raised by F344. At 10 weeks of age, rats were randomly assigned to an open-field test and social interaction test. In the open-field test, irrespective of the rearing conditions, the activity during the first 1 min was significantly lower in F344 rats than in Wistar rats. Latency to the onset of movement showed no difference between groups. In the social interaction test, the recognition performance during the first 1 min in F344 raised by F344 was significantly shorter than that in the other groups. The onset of recognition to a novel social partner in F344 raised by F344 was significantly delayed, and the delay disappeared upon cross-fostering by Wistar dams. These results raise the possibility that the behavioral phenotype of F344 rats results from the interplay of genetic factors and maternal environment during early life, and that F344 rats are a strain with high susceptibility to rearing conditions for the formation of their emotionality.

  13. File list: Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Maternal and pup genotype contribution to growth in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Pen, Ido; Durieux, Geesje C.R.; Daan, Serge

    The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity-has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau

  16. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. Movements and foraging areas of naove, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what

  19. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what

  20. Development of vicarious trial-and-error behavior in odor discrimination learning in the rat: relation to hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Griesbach, G; Amsel, A

    1997-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has suggested that hippocampal electrolytic lesions result in a deficit in simultaneous, black-white discrimination learning and reduce the frequency of vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) at a choice-point. VTE is a term Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior, moving its head from one stimulus to the other at a choice point, and has been proposed as a major nonspatial feature of hippocampal function in both visual and olfactory discrimination learning. Simultaneous odor discrimination and VTE behavior were examined at three different ages. The results were that 16-day-old pups made fewer VTEs and learned much more slowly than 30- and 60-day-olds, a finding in accord with levels of hippocampal maturity in the rat.

  1. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  2. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, Sandra S; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Aboueissa, Abouel-Makarim; Wise, John Pierce

    2008-08-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  3. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S.; Goertz, Caroline E.C.; Dunn, J. Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M.D.; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim

    2008-01-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  4. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  5. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, William; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Sadowska, Mariola; Huso, David; Neal, Ashley; Ahearn, Aaron; Bryant, Joseph; Gallo, Robert C.; Lewis, George K.; Reitz, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4 + and CD8 + effector/memory (CD45RC - CD62L - ) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC + CD62L + ) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  7. Dysfunction of cortical synapse-specific mitochondria in developing rats exposed to lead and its amelioration by ascorbate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Faraz Ahmad,1,2 Mohammad Salahuddin,3 Widyan Alamoudi,2 Sadananda Acharya1 1Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Neuroscience Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Animal House Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Lead (Pb is a widespread environmental neurotoxin and its exposure even in minute quantities can lead to compromised neuronal functions. A developing brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb mediated toxicity and early-life exposure leads to permanent alterations in brain development and neuronal signaling and plasticity, culminating into cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions and elevated risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms have not been completely discerned. Methods: Because of their ability to fulfill high energy needs and to act as calcium buffers in events of high intensity neuronal activity as well as their adaptive regulatory capability to match the requirements of the dynamicity of synaptic signaling, synapse-specific or synaptic mitochondria (SM are critical for synaptic development, function and plasticity. Our aim for the present study hence was to characterize the effects of early-life Pb exposure on the functions of SM of prepubertal rats. For this purpose, employing a chronic model of Pb neurotoxicity, we exposed rat pups perinatally and postnatally to Pb and used a plethora of colorimetric and fluorometric assays for assessing redox and bioenergetic properties of SM. In addition, taking advantage of its ability as an antioxidant and as a metal chelator, we employed ascorbic acid (vitamin C supplementation as an ameliorative therapeutic strategy against Pb-induced neurotoxicity and dysfunction of SM

  8. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  9. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I during the early postnatal period in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... Methods: Forty-eight rats (P7-pups) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: ... Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants, .... Of the 48 rats initially used in the current study, 5.

  11. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of tributyltin chloride in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, R; Omura, M; Shimasaki, Y; Kubo, K; Oshima, Y; Aou, S; Inoue, N

    2001-05-25

    A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) was conducted in female rats using dietary concentrations of 5, 25, and 125 ppm TBTCl. Reproductive outcomes of dams (number and body weight of pups and the percentage of live pups) and the growth of female pups (the day of eye opening and body weight gain) were significantly decreased in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. A delay in vaginal opening and impaired estrous cyclicity were also observed in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. However, an increase in anogenital distance was found in all TBTCl groups on postnatal d 1. A dose-effect relationship was observed in TBTCl-induced changes in anogenital distance. These results indicate that the whole-life exposure to TBTCl affects the sexual development and reproductive function of female rats. In addition, the TBTCl-induced increase in anogenital distance seems to suggest it may exert a masculinizing effect on female neonates. However, the concentrations of TBTCl used in this study are not environmentally relevant.

  12. Effect of two models of intrauterine growth restriction on alveolarization in rat lungs: morphometric and gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Zana-Taieb

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in preterm infants increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by arrested alveolarization. We evaluated the impact of two different rat models (nitric oxide synthase inhibition or protein deprivation of IUGR on alveolarization, before, during, and at the end of this postnatal process. We studied IUGR rat pups of dams fed either a low protein (LPD or a normal diet throughout gestation and pups of dams treated by continuous infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters, alveolar surface (Svap, mean linear intercept (MLI and radial alveolar count (RAC and transcriptomic analysis were determined with special focus on genes involved in alveolarization. IUGR pups regained normal weight at day 21 in the two treated groups. In the LPD group, Svap, MLI and RAC were not different from those of controls at day 4, but were significantly decreased at day 21, indicating alveolarization arrest. In the L-NAME group, Svap and RAC were significantly decreased and MLI was increased at day 4 with complete correction at day 21. In the L-NAME model, several factors involved in alveolarization, VEGF, VEGF-R1 and -R2, MMP14, MMP16, FGFR3 and 4, FGF18 and 7, were significantly decreased at day 4 and/or day 10, while the various factors studied were not modified in the LPD group. These results demonstrate that only maternal protein deprivation leads to sustained impairment of alveolarization in rat pups, whereas L-NAME impairs lung development before alveolarization. Known growth factors involved in lung development do not seem to be involved in LPD-induced alveolarization disorders, raising the question of a possible programming of altered alveolarization.

  13. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. PMID:16210491

  14. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  15. Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-10-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  16. N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate in milk and its role in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, F.J.; Kastin, S.; Rerecich, M.; Sturman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Mammals in early life are incapable of synthesizing inorganic sulfate, an important constituent of connective tissue glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Studies have shown that [ 35 S]Na 2 SO 4 injected into lactating rats is secreted into the milk as [ 35 S] N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate (NLS); this compound accounts for ≥ 95% of the radioactivity found in milk. They have studied the metabolic fate of the sulfate moiety of NLS in the newborn rat. Lactating rat dams were injected with [ 35 S] Na 2 SO 4 at various times postpartum and pups were allowed to suckle for 48 hrs before sacrifice. Pups of varying ages (3 d. - 19 d.) were sacrificed and the GAGs were prepared from 9 different organs and tissues. Pups of all ages showed appreciable radiosulfate incorporated into all of the tissues and organs examined. In young pups (3 and 5 d old) a high of 75% of the total [ 35 S] sulfate in the homogenate was found in the GAGs of bone, and a low of 27% in the GAGs of liver. Analysis of the composition of the GAGs by enzymatic degradation showed that bone GAGs consisted entirely of chondroitin 4/6 sulfate (C4/6S) while liver GAGs contained 50% C4/6S, 10% dermatan sulfate (DS), and 40% chondroitinase resistant material (probably heparan sulfate). These data show that sulfate in the form of NLS is incorporated in substantial amounts into the sulfated GAGs of the developing rat and support the hypothesis that NLS is an important source of nutrient sulfate during rat development

  17. Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on postnatal day 19. Lead intoxication was confirmed by measuring renal, hepatic and cerebral lead concentration in dams and litters. Lead treatment hastened the day of appearance of the following parameters: eye opening (control: 13.5 ± 0.6, N = 88; lead: 12.9 ± 0.6, N = 72; P<0.05, startle reflex (control: 13.0 ± 0.8, N = 88; lead: 12.0 ± 0.7, N = 72; P<0.05 and negative geotaxis. On the other hand, spontaneous alternation performance was hindered in lead-exposed animals (control: 37.6 ± 19.7; lead: 57.5 ± 28.3% of alternating animals; P<0.05. These results suggest that lead exposure without concomitant undernutrition alters rat development, affecting specific subsets of motor skills.

  18. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Influence of dietary triacylglycerol structure and level of n-3 fatty acids administered during development on brain phospholipids and memory and learning ability of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Hougaard, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    of the nervous system. Methods: Pregnant rats were fed experimental diets from the 8th day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the pups were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a structured oil, a linseed oil, or a fish oil...... and 22:6n-3 adding up to a total of 2 mol% n-3 fatty acids. The effects of the experimental diets were compared to the effect of a chow diet. Results: The amount of 22:6n-3 in brain phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) of dams and offspring (3 and 13 weeks of age) was not affected......The objective of this study was to examine the effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on fatty acid profile of brain phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring, and the memory and learning ability of the offspring, when administered during initial development...

  20. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased

  1. Interleukin-1β increases neuronal death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus associated with status epilepticus in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-López, C; Tlapa-Pale, A; Medel-Matus, J-S; Martínez-Quiroz, J; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; López-Meraz, M-L

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases necrotic neuronal cell death in the CA1 area after induced status epilepticus (SE) in developing rats. However, it remains uncertain whether IL-1β has a similar effect on the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). In this study, we analysed the effects of IL-1β on 14-day-old Wistar rats experiencing DG neuronal death induced by SE. SE was induced with lithium-pilocarpine. Six hours after SE onset, a group of pups was injected with IL-1β (at 0, 0.3, 3, 30, or 300ng/μL) in the right ventricle; another group was injected with IL-1β receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist (IL-1Ra, at 30ng/μL) of IL-1RI antagonist (IL-1Ra) alone, and additional group with 30ng/μL of IL-1Ra plus 3ng/μL of IL-1β. Twenty-four hours after SE onset, neuronal cell death in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed using haematoxylin-eosin staining. Dead cells showed eosinophilic cytoplasm and condensed and fragmented nuclei. We observed an increased number of eosinophilic cells in the hippocampal DG ipsilateral to the site of injection of 3ng/μL and 300ng/μL of IL-1β in comparison with the vehicle group. A similar effect was observed in the hippocampal DG contralateral to the site of injection of 3ng/μL of IL-1β. Administration of both of IL-1β and IL-1Ra failed to prevent an increase in the number of eosinophilic cells. Our data suggest that IL-1β increases apoptotic neuronal cell death caused by SE in the hippocampal GD, which is a mechanism independent of IL-1RI activation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  3. Developing a Speaker Identification System for the DARPA RATS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plchot, O; Matsoukas, S; Matejka, P

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the speaker identification (SID) system developed by the Patrol team for the first phase of the DARPA RATS (Robust Automatic Transcription of Speech) program, which seeks to advance state of the art detection capabilities on audio from highly degraded communication channels. ...... such as CFCCs out-perform MFCC front-ends on noisy audio, and (c) fusion of multiple systems provides 24% relative improvement in EER compared to the single best system when using a novel SVM-based fusion algorithm that uses side information such as gender, language, and channel id....

  4. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  5. Autonomic substrates of the response to pups in male prairie voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Kenkel

    Full Text Available Caregiving by nonparents (alloparenting and fathers is a defining aspect of human social behavior, yet this phenomenon is rare among mammals. Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster spontaneously exhibit high levels of alloparental care, even in the absence of reproductive experience. In previous studies, exposure to a pup was selectively associated with increased activity in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons along with decreased plasma corticosterone. In the present study, physiological, pharmacological and neuroanatomical methods were used to explore the autonomic and behavioral consequences of exposing male prairie voles to a pup. Reproductively naïve, adult male prairie voles were implanted with radiotransmitters used for recording ECG, temperature and activity. Males responded with a sustained increase in heart-rate during pup exposure. This prolonged increase in heart rate was not explained by novelty, locomotion or thermoregulation. Although heart rate was elevated during pup exposure, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA did not differ between these males and males exposed to control stimuli indicating that vagal inhibition of the heart was maintained. Blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors with atenolol abolished the pup-induced heart rate increase, implicating sympathetic activity in the pup-induced increase in heart rate. Blockade of vagal input to the heart delayed the males' approach to the pup. Increased activity in brainstem autonomic regulatory nuclei was also observed in males exposed to pups. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to a pup activates both vagal and sympathetic systems. This unique physiological state (i.e. increased sympathetic excitation of the heart, while maintaining some vagal cardiac tone associated with male caregiving behavior may allow males to both nurture and protect infants.

  6. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  7. Pancreatic morphogenesis and extracellular matrix organization during rat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka, M; Haratake, J; Hashimoto, H

    1993-07-01

    We investigated the rat pancreatic morphology at various developmental stages ranging from 12 days of gestation to the neonatal stage, with special emphasis on alterations in extracellular matrix organization in vivo. The rat pancreatic development in utero could be divided into four representative stages as follows: (1) initial epithelial buds (12 days of gestation), (2) elongated and branching epithelium (13-14 days), (3) tubular structure (15-16 days), and (4) acinar structure (17 days or more). Ultrastructurally, the fetal and neonatal pancreata were almost constantly encompassed by continuous basal lamina, except for the earliest stage, in which minute disruptions of basal lamina were observed. Through the disruption, the direct epithelial-mesenchymal contact was formed between an endocrine cell and an adjacent mesenchymal cell, which implied epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in processes of endocrine cell differentiation. Collagen fibrils were frequently accumulated at the cleft (branchpoint) of the branching epithelium during the second and third stages mentioned above. Immunohistochemically, fibronectin and collagen type-I were localized particularly beside the neck (narrow part) or cleft of the pancreatic epithelium at these stages, although continuous linear localization of these matrices was noted around the initial pancreatic bud. This was in contrast to invariable linear localization of laminin and collagen type-IV at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface throughout the pancreatic development. Diffuse fibrillar localization of fibronectin and collagen type-I in the mesenchyme was pronounced at the later stages and after birth. Collagen type-III was only focally detectable around the pancreatic epithelium from the second stage, and its distinct localization was noted in the interlobular connective tissue after birth. Thus, chronological changes in extracellular matrix organization seemed to be closely related to morphogenetic processes of the rat

  8. Blockade of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors potentiates dopamine D2 activation-induced disruption of pup retrieval on an elevated plus maze, but has no effect on D2 blockade-induced one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lina; Di, Tianqi; Li, Yu; Cheng, Peng; Li, Ming; Gao, Jun

    2018-06-23

    Appetitive aspect of rat maternal behavior, such as pup retrieval, is motivationally driven and sensitive to dopamine disturbances. Activation or blockade of dopamine D 2 receptors causes a similar disruption of pup retrieval, which may also reflect an increase in maternal anxiety and/or a disruption of executive function. Recent work indicates that serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors also play an important role in rat maternal behavior. Given the well-known modulation of 5-HT 2A on the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine functions, the present study examined the extent to which blockade of 5-HT 2A receptors on dopamine D 2 -mediated maternal effects using a pup retrieval on the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Sprague-Dawley postpartum female rats were acutely injected with quinpirole (a D 2 agonist, 0.10 and 0.25 mg/kg, sc), or haloperidol (a D 2 antagonist, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg, sc), in combination of MDL100907 (a 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist, 1.0 mg/kg, sc, 30 min before quinpirole or haloperidol injection) or saline and tested at 30, 90 and 240 min after quinpirole or haloperidol injection on postpartum days 3 and 7. Quinpirole and haloperidol decreased the number of pup retrieved (an index of maternal motivation) and sequential retrieval score (an index of executive function), prolonged the pup retrieval latencies, reduced the percentage of time spent on the open arms (an index of maternal anxiety), and decreased the distance travelled on the maze in a dose-dependent and time-dependent fashion. MDL100907 treatment by itself had no effect on pup retrieval, but it exacerbated the quinpirole-induced disruption of pup retrieval, but had no effect on the haloperidol-induced one. These findings suggest a complex interactive effect between 5-HT 2A and D 2 receptors on one or several maternal processes (maternal motivation, anxiety and executive function), and support the idea that one molecular mechanism by which 5-HT 2A receptors mediate maternal behavior is through

  9. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.

    2017-06-01

    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  10. Optimization of reagent concentration for radioiodination of rat C-peptide II in development of radioimmunoassay procedure for rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Manupriya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat C-peptide is a polypeptide molecule made up of 31 amino acids and secreted from pancreas into circulation in two isoforms I and II. Quantification of rat C-peptide II in rat serum is important as it is directly related to the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism abnormalities, pancreatic performance analysis, monitoring of hypoglycemia, and diabetes-related illness in rat model. The aim of the present work is to develop a tracer by chloramine-T method for radioimmunoassay (RIA procedure and to determine the optimum amount of chloramine-T required for the preparation of stable radioiodinated product with a specific activity of around 24.97 MBq/μg, corresponding to 1 125I atom per molecule of the peptide. Tyrosylated rat C-peptide II was selected for the radioiodination procedure as rat C-peptide II does not contain either tyrosine or histidine which is mandatory for the incorporation of 125I atom to the rat C-peptide II. Tyrosylated rat C-peptide II was subjected to radioiodination by chloramine-T method with different concentrations of chloramine-T and sodium metabisulfite (MBS to obtain a stable radiolabeled compound. Optimized reaction conditions relating to the concentration of chloramine-T (10 μg and MBS (20 μg yielded a stable 125I-rat C-peptide II with specific activity of 21.01 MBq/μg corresponding to 0.84 125I atoms per molecule of the peptide. Preparation of high integrity tracer of rat C-peptide II was achieved by combining one molecule of oxidant (chloramine-T and two molecule of reductant (MBS.

  11. Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in mediating the Effect of Hypergravity on the Developing CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Lipinski, B.

    The present studies will explore the mechanisms through which altered gravity affects the developing CNS We have previously shown that exposure to hypergravity during the perinatal period adversely impacts cerebellar structure and function Pregnant rat dams were exposed to 1 65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge at NASA-ARC from gestational day G 5 through giving birth Both dams and their offspring remained at 1 65 G until pups reached postnatal day P 21 Control rats were raised under identical conditions in stationary cages On P21 motor behavior as determined by performance on a rotorod was more negatively impacted in hypergravity-exposed HG male 39 5 than in HG female pups 29 1 The total number of Purkinje cells determined stereologically in cerebella isolated from a subset of P21 rats was decreased in both HG males and HG female pups but the correlation between Purkinje cell number and rotorod performance was more consistent in male pups The level of 3-nitrosotyrosine 3-NT an index of oxidative damage to proteins was determined by ELISA in cerebellar tissue derived from a separate subset of P21 rats The level of 3-NT was increased by 127 in HG males but only 42 in HG females These results suggest that the effect of altered gravity on the developing brain may be mediated by oxidative stress These results also suggest that the developing male CNS may be more sensitive to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress than the developing female CNS Supported by NIEHS grant ES11946-01

  12. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  13. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  14. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  15. [The effects of strontium in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Fan, M

    1997-05-01

    Effects of strontium at a high level in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone were studied. The results showed that Sr2+ concentration from 5 to 500 mg/L in drinking water could increase the contents of strontium in blood serum, urine, femur, mixilla and tooth in Wistar rats exposed to Sr2+ for 12 weeks with an obvious dose-response relationship. In addition, strontium at over 50 mg/L could decrease the contents of calcium in bone, increase the contents of calcium in tooth and bone density, and decrease the levels of calcium in blood serum except female rats at the 12th week. Effects of Sr2+ on body weight, body length, AKP activity of serum, calcium content of urine and breaking load of bended femur for rats were not found. However, there are differences in the effects of strontium on growth and development of bone between male and female rats. At the 12th week the content of calcium in blood serum decreased in male rats but increased in female rats in exposed groups. At the 4th and 8th weeks, urine Hop/Cr in male rats increased but it remained normal level in female rats. Sr2+ increased the bone density of mixilla in male rats but it did not increase that of femur in female rats. It is suggested that such changes may be a result of the differences in endocritic regulation and metabolic process between two sexes.

  16. Diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination in South American sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo

    2015-08-30

    The use of accurate, species-specific diet-tissue discrimination factors is a critical requirement when applying stable isotope mixing models to predict consumer diet composition. Thus, diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination factors in several tissues for both captive and wild South American sea lions were estimated to provide appropriate values for quantifying feeding preferences at different timescales in the wild populations of this species. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the blood components of two female-pup pairs and females' prey muscle from captive individuals were determined by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) to calculate the respective isotopic discrimination factors. The same analysis was carried out in both blood components, and skin and hair tissues for eight female-pup pairs from wild individuals. Mean diet-to-female Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N values were higher than the female-to-pup ones. Pup tissues were more (15) N-enriched than their mothers but (13) C-depleted in serum and plasma tissues. In most of the tissue comparisons, we found differences in both Δ(15) N and Δ(13) C values, supporting tissue-specific discrimination. We found no differences between captive and wild female-to-pup discrimination factors either in Δ(13) C or Δ(15) N values of blood components. Only the stable isotope ratios in pup blood are good proxies of the individual lactating females. Thus, we suggest that blood components are more appropriate to quantify the feeding habits of wild individuals of this species. Furthermore, because female-to-pup discrimination factors for blood components did not differ between captive and wild individuals, we suggest that results for captive experiments can be extrapolated to wild South American sea lion populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T; Rivers, Pearl R; Muller, Coline; Toni, Pauline; Manser, Marta B

    2017-06-01

    In animals, signaling behavior is often context-dependent, with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages. Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity, presence of audiences, or noise masking the signal, all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production. In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta , group members emit soft contact calls, termed as "close calls", while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion. Here, we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups, that produce continuous, noisy begging calls as they follow older group members. Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present. We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls, which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion. There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages, that is, as the philopatric sex, females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups. Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity, while subordinates showed no sex-based differences. The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults. The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another, here contact calls versus begging calls, within the same species.

  18. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan T.WYMAN; Pearl R.RIVERS; Coline MULLER; Pauline TONI; Marta B.MANSER

    2017-01-01

    In animals,signaling behavior is often context-dependent,with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages.Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity,presence of audiences,or noise masking the signal,all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production.In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta,group members emit soft contact calls,termed as "close calls",while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion.Here,we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups,that produce continuous,noisy begging calls as they follow older group members.Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present.We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls,which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion.There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages,that is,as the philopatric sex,females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups.Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity,while subordinates showed no sex-based differences.The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults.The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another,here contact calls versus begging calls,within the same species.

  19. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone ...

  20. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, M.; Macleod, D. J.; Walker, M.; Smith, L. B.; Sharpe, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during t...

  1. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  2. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA...... challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect...... on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L)....

  3. Analysis of within subjects variability in mouse ultrasonic vocalization: pups exhibit inconsistent, state-like patterns of call production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adam Rieger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship, as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by state-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable trait. However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is threefold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  4. Physiological response to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups: metabolic rates, energy reserve utilization, and water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Delphine; Groscolas, René; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2009-11-01

    Surviving prolonged fasting requires various metabolic adaptations, such as energy and protein sparing, notably when animals are simultaneously engaged in energy-demanding processes such as growth. Due to the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, subantarctic fur seal pups have to repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout the 10-mo rearing period while preparing for nutritional independence. Their metabolic responses to natural prolonged fasting (33.4 +/- 3.3 days) were investigated at 7 mo of age. Within 4-6 fasting days, pups shifted into a stage of metabolic economy characterized by a minimal rate of body mass loss (0.7%/day) and decreased resting metabolic rate (5.9 +/- 0.1 ml O(2)xkg(-1)xday(-1)) that was only 10% above the level predicted for adult terrestrial mammals. Field metabolic rate (289 +/- 10 kJxkg(-1)xday(-1)) and water influx (7.9 +/- 0.9 mlxkg(-1)xday(-1)) were also among the lowest reported for any young otariid, suggesting minimized energy allocation to behavioral activity and thermoregulation. Furthermore, lean tissue degradation was dramatically reduced. High initial adiposity (>48%) and predominant reliance on lipid catabolism likely contributed to the exceptional degree of protein sparing attained. Blood chemistry supported these findings and suggested utilization of alternative fuels, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and de novo synthesized glucose from fat-released glycerol. Regardless of sex and body condition, pups tended to adopt a convergent strategy of extreme energy and lean body mass conservation that appears highly adaptive for it allows some tissue growth during the repeated episodes of prolonged fasting they experience throughout their development.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  6. Oral Morphine Consumption Reduces Lens Development in Rat Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahadoran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of morphine, during pregnancy, in addition to inducing defects in the mother’s nervous system function, caused defects or delays in the formation and evolution of embryonic visual system. In the present study, changes in lens development was assessed in embryos exposed in utero to morphine. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300 g were mated with male rats and pregnancy was determined by sperm observation in vaginal smear. This day was considered as embryonic day zero (E0. The females were then divided randomly into the experimental and the control groups. The control group received tap water and the experimental group received morphine (0.05 mg/ml in their water. On embryonic day 13 ( E13, blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital sinus of all animals for plasma corticosterone detection. On embryonic day 17(E17, the animals were killed by an overdose of chloroform and the embryos were taken out surgically. The embryos were fixed in 10% formalin for 30 days. At this time, the head of the embryos were removed for tissue processing and Hematoxylin- Eosin (H&E staining. The samples were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC software. Results: Our data indicated that plasma corticosterone level was dramatically increased and the lens was thinner in the experimental group. (Although the proliferation of lens cells increased in the experiment group but that lens had delay in removing the proliferated and elongation cells with abnormal density in the lateral part of the lens in compare with control group. I have no idea what the authors are stating here. Moreover, the opening of the eyelids was delayed in the off springs of the mothers who received morphine. Conclusions: This study showed that morphine consumption during pregnancy leads to defects in fetal visual system development, particularly in the lens, and eyelids.

  7. Rapid development of Leydig cell tumors in a Wistar rat substrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; Rommerts, F. F.

    1991-01-01

    In 78% of the Wistar rats (substrain U) studied, spontaneous Leydig cell tumors developed between the ages of 12 and 30 months. The first signs of tumor development, in the form of nodules of Leydig cells, were already apparent in 1-month-old U-rats. These nodules of Leydig cells were found in all

  8. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Implementing trials of complex interventions in community settings: The USC – Rancho Los Amigos Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I.; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to: (a) participant recruitment and retention, (b) intervention delivery and fidelity, (c) randomization and assessment, and (d) potential inadvertent treatment effects. Purpose We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Method Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. Results PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accord

  10. Implementing trials of complex interventions in community settings: the USC-Rancho Los Amigos pressure ulcer prevention study (PUPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B; Garber, Susan L; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul

    2014-04-01

    Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)-Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to (1) participant recruitment and retention, (2) intervention delivery and fidelity, (3) randomization and assessment, and (4) potential inadvertent treatment effects. We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accordance with a rigorous plan. Finally, we

  11. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger Bertolus, Julie; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2016-10-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor-shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10-15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor-shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. © 2016 Boulanger Bertolus et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor–shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10–15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor–shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. PMID:27634146

  13. Prenatal nicotine and maternal deprivation stress de-regulate the development of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus neurons in hippocampus of infant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC, postnatal maternal deprivation (MD or the combination of the two (NIC+MD to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14 pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG, decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment.

  14. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  15. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  16. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long-term......The FGL peptide is a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FGL has both neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. Neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to result in long-lasting behavioral abnormalities......, including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL...

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI of myelination in the rat brain following treatment with gonadal hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Roberts, T.; Barkovich, A.J.; Prayer, L.; Kucharczyk, J.; Moseley, M.; Arieff, A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI to show maturation of white-matter structures in the developing rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the rate of this development. Starting from their second postnatal day, 16 rat-pups of either sex were repeatedly treated with subcutaneous implants containing 17-beta estradiol or delta-androstene 3,17 dione, respectively. Serial T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI was performed weekly for 8 weeks using a 4.7 T unit. Maturation of anterior optic pathways and hemisphere commissures was assessed. Diffusion-weighted images were processed to produce ''anisotropy index maps'', previously shown to be sensitive to white-matter maturation. Compared with untreated rat-pups, estrogen-treated animals showed accelerated, and testosterone-treated animals delayed maturation on anisotropy index maps and histological sections. In all animals, maturational changes appeared earlie on anisotropy index maps than on other MRI sequences or on myelin-sensitive stained sections. Diffusion-weighted imaging, and the construction of spatial maps sensitive to diffusion anisotropy, seem to be the most sensitive approach for the detection of maturational white-matter changes, and thus may hold potential for early diagnosis of temporary delay or permanent disturbances of white-matter development. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI of myelination in the rat brain following treatment with gonadal hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Roberts, T. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Prayer, L. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Kucharczyk, J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Moseley, M. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Arieff, A. [Department of Medicine, Geriatrics Section, Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center and University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI to show maturation of white-matter structures in the developing rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the rate of this development. Starting from their second postnatal day, 16 rat-pups of either sex were repeatedly treated with subcutaneous implants containing 17-beta estradiol or delta-androstene 3,17 dione, respectively. Serial T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI was performed weekly for 8 weeks using a 4.7 T unit. Maturation of anterior optic pathways and hemisphere commissures was assessed. Diffusion-weighted images were processed to produce ``anisotropy index maps``, previously shown to be sensitive to white-matter maturation. Compared with untreated rat-pups, estrogen-treated animals showed accelerated, and testosterone-treated animals delayed maturation on anisotropy index maps and histological sections. In all animals, maturational changes appeared earlie on anisotropy index maps than on other MRI sequences or on myelin-sensitive stained sections. Diffusion-weighted imaging, and the construction of spatial maps sensitive to diffusion anisotropy, seem to be the most sensitive approach for the detection of maturational white-matter changes, and thus may hold potential for early diagnosis of temporary delay or permanent disturbances of white-matter development. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The development of radioimmunoassay kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge

    2006-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum is prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A radioimmunoassay method is established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay is 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay is 0.12 mg/L, recovery rate is 97.8%- 108.4%. Intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients are <4.0% and <8.2% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values are more than 0.990 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. The kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental in- jury of the kidney. (authors)

  20. Development of obesity in Zucker obese (fafa) rat in absence of hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, M P; Vasselli, J R; Greenwood, M R

    1980-03-01

    The free-feeding, genetically obese rat is hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and hypertriglyceridemic and has increased fat cell size and number compared to its lean littermate. These experiments demonstrate that, when fafa rats are prevented from expressing hyperphagia throughout life, the complete obese "syndrome" still develops. Furthermore, life-long food restriction does not prevent increased lipoprotein lipase in the fafa rat. The data support the concept that a peripheral metabolic adaptation, probably in lipid metabolism, results in preferential shunting of dietary substrate in the restricted obese rats to adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in other tissues.

  1. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tartrazine and the developing nervous system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, T J; Brodie, R E; Spaid, S L

    1977-05-01

    Rat dams were exposed to the artificial food color tartrazine (FD&C Yellow no. 5) at dietary levels of 0, 1, and 2% during gestation and lactation. The experimental offspring were continued on the same diets for approximately 3 months after weaning. No adverse physical or behavioral effects were noted in the dams. Fetal development and postnatal viability of the offspring were also normal. The only effect on postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) was a small transient change in neuromotor clinging ability of female offspring. The limited effect of tartrazine on the CNS was further evidenced by the facts that (1) the neurobehavioral profiles of the experimental weanlings revealed no significant abnormalities, and (2) morphochemical analysis of brain tissue, as well as brain weights, revealed no abnormalities. Tartrazine did appear to exert more general signs of toxicity in the offspring--namely, depressed body weight, an apparent reduction in thymus weight, and a slight elevation of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  3. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  4. Presence of pups suppresses hunger-induced feeding in virgin adult mice of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Li, Xing-Yu; Wang, Shao-Ran; Wei, Yi-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-10-24

    Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of Vglut2+ neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal behaviors and motivation, was sufficient to suppress hunger-induced feeding. However, muscimol inhibition of the mPOA, while disrupting maternal behaviors, did not prevent pup suppression of feeding, indicating that neural pathways in other brain regions may also mediate such an effect. Together, these results provide novel insights into neural coordination of pup care and feeding in mice and organizations of animal behaviors in general. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N

    1998-01-01

    The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats....

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  7. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  8. [A new method of investigation of "child's" behavior (infant-mother attachment) of newborn rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamenskiĭ, A A

    2010-01-01

    A new method of studying "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn rats was developed. The efficiency of the method was proved in estimation of dopaminergic control of the infant-mother attachment. Selective D2-antagonist clebopride applied in subthreshold for motor activity doses caused a decrease in aspiration of pups to be in contact with a dam. On the basis of features analyzed (latent periods and expression of various behavioral components), the integrated criterion for the estimation of "child's" reactions was suggested. Application of this criterion made it possible to neutralize high individual variability of the behavior typical of newborns.

  9. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines and GABA/glutamate levels in rats following chronic lead exposure during neonatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shailesh Kumar, M V; Desiraju, T [National Inst. of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Neurophysiology

    1990-06-01

    Wistar rat pups were administered either a high dose of lead acetate (400 {mu}g lead-g body weight/day) or a low dose (100 {mu}g lead/g body weight/day) by gastric intubation, from 2 days through 60 days of age. The rats on both these doses exhibited statistically significant decreases in body and brain weights throughout the lead treatment period. A group of rats on high dose was also rehabilitated by discontinuing the lead from 60 days of age. In these rats, at 160 days of age, the body weight but not the brain weight recovered to normal levels. During the lead intake, the rats on high dose revealed significant elevations in the levels of noradrenaline (NA) in the hippocampus (HI), cerebellum (CE), hypothalamus (HY), brainstem (BS), and accumbens-striatum (SA). The elevated levels in all the above regions except in the HY persisted even after rehabilitation. The dopamine (DA) levels changed significantly in opposite directions in HY (elevation) and BS (reduction) during the lead treatment, and the HY recovered after rehabilitation. Under lead, the serotonin (5HT) levels were elevated significantly in the HI, BS and MC (motor cortex), while after rehabilitation the abnormality persisted only in the MC. Low dose lead treatment was also effective on the same areas of brain. In the low dose group, estimation of the levels of GABA and glutamate were also done, and a significant decrease of GABA in CE and glutamate in MC was observed. The differences observed in the neurotoxic effects (none or significant) of lead in the different regions for each of the transmitters (NA, DA, 5HT) supports the interesting conclusion that the vulnerability of the axon terminals of any given type is dependent on some regional factors, although the projections of the different regions originate from an apparently similar category of neurons in the brain stem. (orig.).

  10. Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2011-01-01

    Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide β-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group.

  11. Relationship between blood-retinal barrier development and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between development of blood-retinal barrier and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat. METHODS: Activity of GPx, MDA level in lens and selenium content in the eyeballs of different ages rats were determined. Besides, lanthanum hydroxide \\〖La(OH3\\〗 tracer method was used to detect development status of blood-retina barrier at different ages. RESULTS: The result showed that the enzyme activity of GPx was highest in young rats before open eyes, but then decreased gradually with age. Distribution of La(OH3 in retinal pigment epithelial layer of 20-day-old rats was significantly less than 11-day-old rats. Injecting sodium selenite to 9-day-old rats, lanthanum hydroxide increased obviously and extended to the inner layers of the retina after 48h, and the retinal pigment epithelial layer was damaged seriously; while injecting sodium selenite to 18-day-old rats with the same dose, number of lanthanum hydroxide decreased significantly and did not extend to the inner layer after 48h.Before opening eyes, the content of MDA in the lens of rats was the highest, and decreased significantly after opening eyes. The Se group was 5 times as that of the control group. Besides, in these groups of rats, selenium content in the eyeballs and MDA level in the lens were in agreement with the change of La(OH3 distribution. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that antioxidant capacity in the eyelid unopened rats is not the main reason for selenite induced cataract formation. The real reason is that blood-retina barrier development is not mature in the eyelid unopened rats.

  12. The Efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Cognitive Disorders against Manganese Chronic Exposure in Rats during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallal Eddine Houari ADLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study aims at testing, in vivo, the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, of the Syzygium aromaticum essential oil against chronic manganese chloride (4.79 mg/l intoxication during the gestation and lactation period, in Wistar rat pups. Wistar rat pups were exposed to manganese via their dams’ drinking water from postnatal day (PND 1 to (PND 21. After their weaning, the rats exposed to manganese received injections of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (0.1 ml/kg for 18 days. The level of anxiety, depression and locomotor activity were studied. Locomotor activity (open field test, anxiety (elevated plus maze tests, and depression (forced swimming test were evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that Manganese exposure induces, on the one hand, impairments of body (p<0.001 and of brain weight (p<0.05. On the other hand, it increases level of anxiety (p<0.05, depression (p<0.001 and locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.001, when compared to control rats. Administration of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum leads to a reduction in the level of anxiety (p<0.05, of depression (p<0.001 and corrects locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.05 in rats exposed to manganese beforehand. These results suggest that essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum can employ as a natural, protective agent against neuro-toxicity induced by manganese chloride during the gestation and lactation periods.

  13. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, Stephane; Rooney, Andrew A.; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl 2 ) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  14. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  15. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jayoung Jeong,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, South Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea; 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+ NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+ NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%; resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after

  16. Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia caused by ingestion of pennies by a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, K.S.; Jain, A.V.; Inglesby, H.B.; Clarkson, W.D.; Johnson, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 4-month-old Pomeranian pup was examined because of anorexia, salivation, and persistent vomiting. Initial laboratory testing revealed marked hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis. Survey abdominal radiography revealed 4 metal objects which, when removed by gastrotomy, were identified as pennies. Of 4 pennies, 3 were minted since 1983 and were heavily pitted over the surface and rim. Partially digested pennies were composed of a copper-plated high zinc concentration alloy. Further laboratory testing indicated a marked increase in serum zinc concentration in the pup (28.8 mg/L), confirming metal toxicosis. Serum zinc concentrations decreased during recovery

  17. Protective effects of ebselen on sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying a novel role for X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2 in CrVI-induced adverse effects on germ cell nest breakdown and follicle development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Sakhila K; Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC widely used in more than 50 industries, including chrome plating, welding, wood processing, and tanneries. Recent data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicate increased levels of Cr in drinking water from several American cities, which potentially predispose residents to various health problems. Recently, we demonstrated that gestational exposure to CrVI caused POF in F1 offspring. The current study was performed to identify the molecular mechanism behind CrVI-induced POF. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm of potassium dichromate from Gestational Day (GD) 9.5 to GD 14.5 through drinking water, and the fetuses were exposed to CrVI through transplacental transfer. Ovaries were removed from the fetuses or pups on Embryonic Day (ED) 15.5, ED 17.5, Postnatal Day (PND) 1, PND 4, or PND 25, and various analyses were performed. Results showed that gestational exposure to CrVI: 1) increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis and advanced germ cell nest (GCN) breakdown; 2) increased X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2, a POF marker in humans, during GCN breakdown; 3) decreased Xpnpep2 during postnatal follicle development; and 4) increased colocalization of Xpnpep2 with Col3 and Col4. We also found that Xpnpep2 inversely regulated the expression of Col1, Col3, and Col4 in all the developmental stages studied. Thus, CrVI advanced GCN breakdown and increased follicle atresia in F1 female progeny by targeting Xpnpep2. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  19. Gender differences and lateralization in the distribution pattern of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in developing rat hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Kheradmand, Hamed; Haghir, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Numerous investigators have provided data supporting essential roles for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in development of the brain. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically determine the distinct regional distribution pattern of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-IR) expression in various portions of newborn rat hippocampus on postnatal days 0 (P0), 7 (P7), and 14 (P14), with comparison between male/female and right/left hippocampi. We found an overall significant increase in distribution of IGF-IR-positive (IGF-IR+) cells in CA1 from P0 until P14. Although, no marked changes in distribution of IGF-IR+ cells in areas CA2 and CA3 were observed; IGF-IR+ cells in DG decreased until P14. The smallest number of immunoreactive cells was present in CA2 and the highest number in DG at P0. Moreover, in CA1, CA3, and DG, the number of IGF-IR+ cells was markedly higher in both sides of the hippocampus in females. Our data also showed a higher mean number of IGF-IR+ cells in the left hippocampus of female at P7. By contrast, male pups showed a significantly higher number of IGF-IR+ cells in the DG of the right hippocampus. At P14, the mean number of immunoreactive cells in CA1, CA3, and DG areas found to be significantly increased in left side of hippocampus of males, compared to females. These results indicate the existence of a differential distribution pattern of IGF-IR between left-right and male-female hippocampi. Together with other mechanisms, these differences may underlie sexual dimorphism and left-right asymmetry in the hippocampus.

  20. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) Vaccination: Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Pups after Inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b Modified Live Virus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Tempesta, Maria; Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland Eugene; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2001-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. New antigenic variants (biotypes), designated CPV2a and CPV2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. At the present time the original CPV2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. In the present study the comparison of neutralizing antibody titers in two groups of pups (18 pups in each group) inoculated with CPV2 and CPV2b modified live virus vaccines is reported. Using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, relevant differences between antibody titers, against either the homologous or the heterologous virus, were not constantly observed. Using the neutralization (Nt) test, however, the pups inoculated with CPV2 had antibody titers which were approximately 30 times higher to the homologous virus (mean, 4,732) than to the heterologous virus (CPV2b) (mean, 162). The results of these experiments support two conclusions: (i) the HI test may not always accurately evaluate the true immune status of dogs with respect to CPV, and (ii) dogs inoculated with CPV2 vaccine develop relatively low Nt antibody titers against the heterologous virus (CPV2b). These data may suggest an advantage for new vaccines, considering that most presently licensed vaccines are produced with CPV2, which no longer exists in the dog population. PMID:11329467

  1. Canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses in pups after inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b modified live virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, A; Cavalli, A; Martella, V; Tempesta, M; Decaro, N; Carmichael, L E; Buonavoglia, C

    2001-05-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. New antigenic variants (biotypes), designated CPV2a and CPV2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. At the present time the original CPV2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. In the present study the comparison of neutralizing antibody titers in two groups of pups (18 pups in each group) inoculated with CPV2 and CPV2b modified live virus vaccines is reported. Using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, relevant differences between antibody titers, against either the homologous or the heterologous virus, were not constantly observed. Using the neutralization (Nt) test, however, the pups inoculated with CPV2 had antibody titers which were approximately 30 times higher to the homologous virus (mean, 4,732) than to the heterologous virus (CPV2b) (mean, 162). The results of these experiments support two conclusions: (i) the HI test may not always accurately evaluate the true immune status of dogs with respect to CPV, and (ii) dogs inoculated with CPV2 vaccine develop relatively low Nt antibody titers against the heterologous virus (CPV2b). These data may suggest an advantage for new vaccines, considering that most presently licensed vaccines are produced with CPV2, which no longer exists in the dog population.

  2. Developmental and behavioral effects of postnatal amitraz exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palermo-Neto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postnatal amitraz exposure on physical and behavioral parameters were studied in Wistar rats, whose lactating dams received the pesticide (10 mg/kg orally on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 of lactation; control dams received distilled water (1 ml/kg on the same days. A total of 18 different litters (9 of them control and 9 experimental born after a 21-day gestation were used. The results showed that the median effective time (ET50 for fur development, eye opening, testis descent and onset of the startle response were increased in rats postnatally exposed to amitraz (2.7, 15.1, 21.6 and 15.3 days, respectively compared to those of the control pups (1.8, 14.0, 19.9 and 12.9 days, respectively. The ages of incisor eruption, total unfolding of the external ears, vaginal and ear opening and the time taken to perform the grasping hindlimb reflex were not affected by amitraz exposure. Pups from dams treated with amitraz during lactation took more time (in seconds to perform the surface righting reflex on postnatal days (PND 3 (25.0 ± 2.0, 4 (12.3 ± 1.2 and 5 (8.7 ± 0.9 in relation to controls (10.6 ± 1.2; 4.5 ± 0.6 and 3.4 ± 0.4, respectively; the climbing response was not changed by amitraz. Postnatal amitraz exposure increased spontaneous motor activity of male and female pups in the open-field on PND 16 (140 ± 11 and 17 (124 ± 12, and 16 (104 ± 9, 17 (137 ± 9 and 18 (106 ± 8, respectively. Data on spontaneous motor activity of the control male and female pups were 59 ± 11 and 69 ± 10 for days 16 and 17 and 49 ± 9, 48 ± 7 and 56 ± 7 for days 16, 17 and 18, respectively. Some qualitative differences were also observed in spontaneous motor behavior; thus, raising the head, shoulder and pelvis matured one or two days later in the amitraz-treated offspring. Postnatal amitraz exposure did not change locomotion and rearing frequencies or immobility time in the open-field on PND 30, 60 and 90. The present findings indicate

  3. De rijping van het cerebellum; a study of the postnatal development of the rat cerebellum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebels, E.J.

    1969-01-01

    Chapter I: INTRODUCTION In this investigation the development of the rat cerebellum from 0 -30 days after birth is studied morphologically, by means of enzymchistochemistry and electronmicroscopy. Enzymchistochemistry and electronmicroscopy were chosen because changes in enzyme content or enzyme

  4. Cytoarchitecture in cultured rat neocortex explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Romijn, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    Neocortex explants obtained from 6-day-old rat pups and cultured in a serum-free medium from 5 hr to 13 days in vitro (DIV) show preservation of cytoarchitectural characteristics. Major changes in the size of the explants and their layers occur during the first 2 DIV. A radial arrangement of neurons

  5. Development of rat visual system after prenatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Biesold, D.; Mares, V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pregnant for 16 or 19 days (ED 16 or 19) were irradiated with 1 Gy and killed after 24 hrs or at age 24 or 180 days. The primary influence of X-rays consists in a lethal lesion of cells located in the periventricular zone as well as some of the more differentiated cells in the brain parenchyma. After irradiation on ED 16, the acute damage was greater in the cerebral cortex and the superior colliculus (SC) than in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Irradiation on ED 19 damaged mainly the cortical part of the visual system. In adult animals the acute radiation damage results in a deficit in packing density and the total number of neurons. Animals irradiated on ED 16 revealed more pronounced changes in deep layers of the cortex (L VI) than in the superficial layers. The deficit was smaller in the SC, and in the LGN an increase in the packing density of nerve cells was found. In animals irradiated on ED 19, the deficit in neurons density occurred mainly in more superficial layers of the cortex, with a maximum deficit in layer IV. From comparison of acute and final changes it may be concluded that the damage of preneuroblastic cell populations is compensated during later embryonic development, while the damage induced in populations already at early neuroblast stage is irreversible and leads to a permanent deficit. Glia cell population is altered in a similar way as the number of neurons in regions poor in myelin, while in regions rich in myelin the number of glia cells seems to depend on changes in the number of efferent and afferent nerve fibres. (author)

  6. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  7. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Baarspul, ANJ; Broekman, M; Creuwels, JCS; Reijnders, PJH

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activities, including scientific research. Pup weaning

  8. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Broekman, M.; Creuwels, J.C.S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activitiesincluding scientific research. Pup weaning mass,

  9. Expression and location of α-fetoprotein during rat colon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Sun, Peng; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development. METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development. PMID:19360917

  10. Selfish Pups: Weaning Conflict and Milk Theft in Free-Ranging Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabi Paul

    Full Text Available Parent-offspring conflict theory predicts the emergence of weaning conflict between a mother and her offspring arising from skewed relatedness benefits. Empirical observations of weaning conflict have not been carried out in canids. In a field-based study on free-ranging dogs we observed that nursing/suckling bout durations decrease, proportion of mother-initiated nursing bouts decrease and mother-initiated nursing/suckling terminations increase with pup age. We identified the 7th - 13th week period of pup age as the zone of conflict between the mother and her pups, beyond which suckling solicitations cease, and before which suckling refusals are few. We also report for the first time milk theft by pups who take advantage of the presence of multiple lactating females, due to the promiscuous mating system of the dogs. This behaviour, though apparently disadvantageous for the mothers, is perhaps adaptive for the dogs in the face of high mortality and competition for resources.

  11. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  12. A Radio Emission Analysis of Classical Nova V351 Pup (1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendeln, Carolyn; Chomiuk, Laura; Finzell, Thomas; Linford, Justin D.; Strader, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Previously, Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup) was measured to host one of the most massive ejections claimed in the literature. Multi-frequency radio detections from one epoch were published for this nova in the 1990's; and yet, the remaining data collected by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) have remained unpublished. In this paper, we analyze the remaining unpublished data sets for V351 Pup at frequencies of 4.9, 8.4, 14.9, and 22.5 GHz. We fit the resulting light curve to a model of expanding thermal ejecta, under the assumption that the radio emission is dominated by free-free radiation and accounting for high levels of clumping in the ejecta. Images of V351 Pup in both the radio (from the VLA) and Hα+[N II] (from Hubble Space Telescope) exhibit no aspherical structure, strengthening our assumption of spherical symmetry. From expansion parallax methods, we estimate the distance to V351 Pup to be 5.0 ± 1.5 kpc. Our light-curve fit yields a value of {{log}}10({M}{ej})=-5.2+/- 0.7 {M}⊙ for the ejecta mass, implying that V351 Pup is on the low end of expectations for ejecta mass from classical novae. A comparison between our derived ejecta mass and theoretical models gives evidence for a very massive (1.25 {M}⊙ ) white dwarf, which is consistent with spectroscopic evidence for an oxygen-neon white dwarf.

  13. Tissue-specific splicing pattern of fibronectin messenger RNA precursor during development and aging in rat

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Fibronectin isoforms are generated by the alternative splicing of a primary transcript derived from a single gene. In rat at least three regions of the molecule are involved: EIIIA, EIIIB, and V. This study investigated the splicing patterns of these regions during development and aging, by means of ribonuclease protection analysis. Between fetal and adult rat, the extent of inclusion of the EIIIA and/or EIIIB region in fibronectin mRNA varied according to the type of tissue analyzed; but the...

  14. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin; Zhu Lingli

    2001-01-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium 235 U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 β (IL- β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells

  15. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guixiong, Gu; Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Shuqin, Yang; Lingli, Zhu [Suzhou Medical College, Suzhou (China)

    2001-04-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium {sup 235}U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 {beta} (IL- {beta}), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells.

  16. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  17. Sexual dimorphism in development of kidney damage in aging Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Jennifer M; Akinsiku, Oladele; Moningka, Natasha C; Jerzewski, Katie; Baylis, Chris; LeBlanc, Amanda J; Kang, Lori S; Sindler, Amy L; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2012-08-01

    Aging kidneys exhibit slowly developing injury and women are usually protected compared with men, in association with maintained renal nitric oxide. Our purpose was to test 2 hypotheses: (1) that aging intact Fischer-344 (F344) female rats exhibit less glomerular damage than similarly aged males, and (2) that loss of female ovarian hormones would lead to greater structural injury and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in aging F344 rat kidneys. We compared renal injury in F344 rats in intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen replaced young (6 month) and old (24 month) female rats with young and old intact male rats and measured renal protein abundance of NOS isoforms and oxidative stress. There was no difference in age-dependent glomerular damage between young or old intact male and female F344 rats, and neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement affected renal injury; however, tubulointerstitial injury was greater in old males than in old females. These data suggest that ovarian hormones do not influence these aspects of kidney aging in F344 rats and that the greater tubulointerstitial injury is caused by male sex. Old males had greater kidney cortex NOS3 abundance than females, and NOS1 abundance (alpha and beta isoforms) was increased in old males compared with both young males and old females. NOS abundance was preserved with age in intact females, ovariectomy did not reduce NOS1 or NOS3 protein abundance, and estrogen replacement did not uniformly elevate NOS proteins, suggesting that estrogens are not primary regulators of renal NOS abundance in this strain. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent superoxide production and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in aging male rat kidneys compared with females, which could compromise renal nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability. The kidney damage expressed in aging F344 rats is fairly mild and is not related to loss of renal cortex NOS3

  18. Perinatal exposure to low-dose BDE-47, an emergent environmental contaminant, causes hyperactivity in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander; Girard, Sylvie; Lachapelle, Sophie; Abdelouahab, Nadia; Sebire, Guillaume; Takser, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a group of environmental contaminants increasing in North America. Few data are available on neurobehavioral effects at low-dose exposure. Our goal in the present study was to evaluate whether low-dose BDE-47, which is the most abundant PBDE in human samples, affects the neurobehavioral development of rats. Dams were exposed to vehicle or low-dose BDE-47 (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) each 5 days from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 20 by intravenous injections. Spontaneous locomotor activity of pups was assessed using the open field test on PND 15, 20 and 25. Sensorimotor coordination was assessed using a RotaRod on PND 30. Exposure to BDE-47 increased locomotor activity of pups. Developmental landmarks and sensorimotor coordination were not influenced by exposure to BDE-47. BDE-47 content in adipose tissue of exposed rats was similar to that known for human populations. These results indicate neurodevelopmental disruption induced in rats by BDE-47 at levels found in the human population.

  19. Maternal low-protein diet-induced delayed reflex ontogeny is attenuated by moderate physical training during gestation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão-Tebas, Filippe; Bento-Santos, Adriano; Fidalgo, Marco Antônio; de Almeida, Marcelus Brito; dos Santos, José Antônio; Lopes de Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of moderate- to low-intensity physical training during gestation on reflex ontogeny in neonate rats whose mothers were undernourished. Virgin female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: untrained (NT, n 7); trained (T, n 7); untrained with a low-protein diet (NT+LP, n 7); trained with a low-protein diet (T+LP, n 4). Trained rats were subjected to a protocol of moderate physical training on a treadmill over a period of 4 weeks (5 d/week and 60 min/d, at 65 % of VO₂max). After confirming the pregnancy, the intensity and duration of the exercise were reduced. Low-protein groups were provided with an 8 % casein diet, and controls were provided with a 17 % casein diet. Their respective offspring were evaluated (during the 10th-17th days of postnatal life) in terms of physical feature maturation, somatic growth and reflex ontogeny. Pups born to mothers provided with the low-protein diet during gestation and lactation showed delayed physical feature and reflex maturation and a deficit in somatic growth when compared with controls. However, most of these deficiencies were attenuated in pups of undernourished mothers undergoing training. In conclusion, physical training during gestation attenuates the effects of perinatal undernutrition on some patterns of maturation in the central nervous system during development.

  20. Enhancement of Spatial Learning-Memory in Developing Rats via Mozart Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Yao; Yang Xia; Sheng-Jun Dai; Guang-Zhan Fang; Hua Guo; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of musical stimulations on the capability of the spatial learning-memory in developing rats by behavioral and electro-physiological techniques.Rats,which are exposed to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major,complete learning tasks of the Moriss water maze with significantly shorter latencies,and the power spectrum of alpha band of electrohippocampogram (EHG) significantly increase,compared with the control rats and rats exposed to the horror music.The results indicate that if given the stimulation of Mozart music in the developmental period of the auditory cortex,the capability of the spatial learning-memory can be significantly changed.The enhancement of alpha band of EHG may be related to the change of this function mainly.

  1. Free radical activity during development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, O.M.; Akerblom, H.K.; Sariola, H.; Andersson, S.M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Martin, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Hallman, M. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation was quantified by measuring expired pentane from diabetic prone BB Wistar rats of 45-90 d of age. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was manifest at the age of 71 {plus minus} 8 d. Expired pentane increased from 2.1 {plus minus} 0.7 to 5.0 {plus minus}3.0 pmol/100g/min (p <0.01) at manifestation of the disease and remained high throughout the test period. In healthy age-matched control rats it persisted low. In rats made diabetic with streptozotocin, expired pentane remained low. The changes in expired pentane suggest that the development of endogenous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity. This is not due to hyperglycemia or ketosis per se, and reflects a fundamental difference in the free radical activity between the spontaneously diabetic BB rats and the disease produced by streptozotocin. Development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity that persists after the manifestation of the disease.

  2. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mathevon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.Em mamíferos coloniais como as focas, o reconhecimento vocal mútuo entre as mães e seu filhote é de importância primordial para o sucesso reprodutivo. As fêmeas alternam viagens de alimentação no mar com períodos de amamentação em terra e, quando voltam à colônia, elas devem achar vocalmente seu filhote no meio de muitos outros visualmente semelhantes. As jovens focas emitem um ''grito de atração da mãe'' que apresenta características individuais. Examinamos aqui o processo perceptual do reconhecimento do grito do filhote pela mãe numa população sub-antártica da foca Arctocephalus tropicalis. Para identificar seu filhote as fêmeas se baseiam no padrão da freqüência de modulação e outras características espectrais deste grito. Como os parâmetros acústicos do grito de um filhote mudam ao longo do período de amamentação por causa do seu crescimento, as mães precisam de uma memorização refinada da voz de seu filhote. Experiências de campo mostram que as fêmeas desta espécie s

  3. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.A.; Meyers, B.; Alex, S.; Fang, S.L.; Braverman, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  4. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5’ethynyl-2’deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns

  5. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  6. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel based ‘mouse pup syllable classification calculator’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine eGrimsley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified ten syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  7. The ontogeny of salt hunger in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, M

    1999-05-01

    Salt hunger is the behaviour of an animal suffering sodium deficiency. It is characterised by an increased motivation to seek and ingest sodium, and the ability to distinguish between sodium and other salts. Here I review the development of salt hunger in the rat. Salt hunger develops rapidly between birth and weaning. It can first be demonstrated 72 h postnatally when an intracerebroventricular injection of renin elicits greater swallowing of NaCl solution than water and greater mouthing of solid fragments of NaCl than of an artificial sweetener. However, sodium deficit per se cannot arouse the hunger at this age, and first elicits increased intake of NaCl only at 12 days-of-age. The next landmark is at 17 days-of-age when the hormonal synergy of aldosterone and central angiotensin II first elicits salt hunger, as it does in the adult. The specificity of the hunger for the sodium ion also develops postnatally: the 72 h-old sodium-hungry neonate does not distinguish between NaCl and other mono- and di-valent chloride salts but, increasingly during development, the sodium hungry pup distinguishes salts and by weaning age NaCl is clearly preferred to other salts almost as it is in adults. Early development may also be a sensitive period for determining lifelong preferences, and indeed, acute perinatal sodium depletion induces a lifelong enhancement of salt intake. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a behaviour develops precociously and how, when the behaviour becomes important at weaning, the rat pup is competent to meet its sodium requirements, and may be adapted to anticipate sodium deficit.

  8. Quantitative analysis of development and aging of genital corpuscles in glans penis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Mizuho; Hoshi, Hideo; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Ishikawa, Youichi; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Murakami, Kunio; Kishi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present postnatal developmental study was to determine densities of unique genital corpuscles (GCs) in glans penis of developing and aged rats. GCs were identified as corpuscular endings consisting of highly branched and coiled axons with many varicosities, which were immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5. In addition, GCs were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, but not for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y. GCs were not found in the glans penis of 1 week old rats. Densities of GCs were low at 3 weeks, significantly increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak of density at 40 weeks, and tended to decrease at 70 and 100 weeks. Sizes of GCs were small in 3 weeks old rats, increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak-size at 40 weeks and reduced in size at 70 and 100 weeks. Considering sexual maturation of the rat, the results reveal that GCs of the rat begins to develop postnatal and reaches to the peak of their development after puberty and continues to exist until old age, in contrast to prenatal and early postnatal development of other sensory receptors of glabrous skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (ppenguins (ppenguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  10. Reproduction of mouse-pup ultrasonic vocalizations by nanocrystalline silicon thermoacoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Takashi; Harada, Toshihiro; Kato, Masahiro; Nakano, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Kikusui, Takefumi; Koshida, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    As one of the functional properties of ultrasound generator based on efficient thermal transfer at the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) layer surface, its potential as an ultrasonic simulator of vocalization signals is demonstrated by using the acoustic data of mouse-pup calls. The device composed of a surface-heating thin-film electrode, an nc-Si layer, and a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, exhibits an almost completely flat frequency response over a wide range without any mechanical surface vibration systems. It is shown that the fabricated emitter can reproduce digitally recorded ultrasonic mouse-pups vocalizations very accurately in terms of the call duration, frequency dispersion, and sound pressure level. The thermoacoustic nc-Si device provides a powerful physical means for the understanding of ultrasonic communication mechanisms in various living animals.

  11. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  12. Impact of environmental noise on growth and neuropsychological development of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Meng, Meng; Zhao, Congmin; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Liyan; Wen, Enyi

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of environmental noise exposure on the growth and neuropsychological development in neonatal rats. Twenty-four postnatal 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into control, high-noise and reduced noise groups. The rats in the high-noise group were exposed to 90 dB white noise, and those in the control group were grown under standard condition, while those in the reduced noise group were exposed to standard condition with sound-absorbing cotton. Ten, 15, and 20 days post noise exposure, both the body weight and length of the rats in high-noise group were lower than those in the control and reduced noise groups, respectively. The secretion of growth hormone was significantly decreased in the rats exposed to high noise environment, compared to those exposed to standard condition and reduced noise. More interestingly, the swimming distance was apparently increased and the swimming speed was significantly decreased in high-noise group compared with those in control and reduced noise groups. Importantly, the mRNA and protein levels of SYP in the rats hippocampus were significantly decreased in high-noise group compare with those in control and reduced noise groups. Similarly, the positive expression of SYP in the CA1 region of hippocampus was also significantly decreased in the high noise group rats. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that high noise exposure could decrease the production of growth hormone and SYP in neonatal rats, which may retard the growth of weight and length and the capability of learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Spontaneous motor activity during the development and maintenance of diet-induced obesity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B E

    1991-09-01

    More than 80% of most daily spontaneous activities (assessed in an Omnitech activity monitor) occurred during the last hour of light and 12 h of the dark phase in 8 chow-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty additional rats were, therefore, monitored over this 13-h period to assess the relationship of activity to the development and maintenance of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on a diet high in energy, fat and sucrose (CM diet). Nine of 20 rats became obese after 3 months on the CM diet, with 71% greater weight gain than 10 chow-fed controls. Eleven of 20 rats were diet resistant (DR), gaining the same amount of weight as chow-fed rats. Neither initial activity levels nor initial body weights on chow (Period I) differed significantly across retrospectively identified groups. After 3 months on CM diet or chow (Period II), as well as after an additional 3 months after CM diet-fed rats returned to chow (Period III), there were significant inverse correlations (r = -.606 to -.370) between body weight at the time of testing and various measures of movement in the horizontal plane. There was no relationship to dietary content nor consistent correlations of body weight or diet group to vertical movements, an indirect measure of ingestive behavior. Patterns of time spent in the vertical position were significantly different for DIO vs. DR rats in Period III, however. Thus, differences in food intake and metabolic efficiency, rather than differences in nocturnal activity, are probably responsible for the greater weight gain in DIO-prone rats placed on CM diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Diet composition determines course of hyperphagia in developing Zucker obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Maggio, C A

    1990-12-01

    Previous observations from this laboratory indicate that, during growth, the hyperphagia of the male genetically obese Zucker rat reaches a peak or "breakpoint" and then declines. To examine the effect of dietary macronutrient content on the course of hyperphagia, groups of male lean and obese rats were maintained from 5-28 weeks of age on powdered chow, or isocaloric diets (3.6 kcal/g) containing 72% of calories as corn oil, dextrose, or soy isolate protein (n = 5 lean and obese rats/diet). On chow, hyperphagia was maintained at a level of 7-8 g above lean control intake until a "breakpoint" was reached at 17 weeks, and obese intake declined to lean control level. On the fat diet, hyperphagia was increased to 10 g/day when a breakpoint was reached at 8 weeks. On the dextrose and protein diets, hyperphagia at a level of 3-4 g/day reached breakpoints at weeks 18 and 16, respectively. On all diets, the intakes of obese rats were precisely equal to the intakes of lean control rats by weeks 19-20. These data show that the magnitude and duration of hyperphagia in the developing obese rat are influenced by diet composition. Previously, we have proposed that the obese rat's hyperphagia arises from rapid adipocyte filling. Since high-fat diets facilitate adipocyte enlargement, the early "breakpoint" of hyperphagia seen with the high-fat diet may indicate that this feeding stimulation decreases as the fat cells of the obese rat approach maximal size.

  15. Expression of nitric oxide synthase during the development of RCS rat retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Warfvinge, K; Ehinger, B

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be both neurodestructive and neuroprotective in the central nervous system and could possibly play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders. On the assumption that NO synthesis may influence degenerative processes in the retina, we have examined the development and distribution of nitric-oxide-synthase(NOS)-immunoreactive cells in developing Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat retinas, which is an animal model for retinal degeneration. An antibody against constitutive neuronal NOS was used for immunocytochemistry on RCS rat retinas from postnatal (PN) days 3, 7, 10, 14, 35, 70 and 281 and compared with that in the normal rats of PN days 3, 7, 10, 14, 54 and adults. Immunoreactive cells were not seen in PN 3 retinas but were distinctly seen in the PN 7 retina along with a plexus in the inner plexiform layer. In both groups (normal and RCS rats) a distinct sublayering of the plexus in the inner plexiform layer could be seen at PN 10, which became more distinct at PN 14. The immunoreactive cells were detected also in the oldest retina examined, which was PN 281 in the case of RCS rats. In both groups, certain amacrine cells, certain bipolar cells and certain horizontal cells were found to be immunoreactive. In conclusion, the developmental timetable of the NOS immunoreactivity was identical in the normal and the RCS rat retinas. The NOS-immunoreactive cells persisted in the RCS retinas even when the retina had degenerated extensively. Abnormalities with the inducible isoforms of NOS cannot be ruled out from this study. We conclude that the chronological and qualitative development of the constitutive neuronal NOS immunoreactivity is normal in RCS rat retinas. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. A procedure for culturing rat neocortex explants in a serum-free nutrient medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H. J.; de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure is described for long-term culturing of rat neocortex explants in a serum-free growth medium. Slices spanning the entire cortical depth from pial to ventricular side are prepared from 6-day-old rat pups. After preincubation in Hanks' balanced salt solution with extra glucose, the

  17. Re-alimentation in harbor seal pups: effects on the somatotropic axis and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Julie P; Norris, Tenaya; Zinn, Steven A

    2010-01-15

    The metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, together with IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), have been well studied in domestic species and are the primary components of the somatotropic axis. This hormone axis is responsive to nutrient intake, associated with growth rate, and accretion of protein and adipose. However, this relationship has not been evaluated in species that rely heavily on adipose stores for survival, such as pinnipeds. The primary objectives of this research were to investigate the response of the somatotropic axis to reduced nutrient intake and re-alimentation in rehabilitated harbor seal pups, and to assess if these hormones are related to nutritional status and growth rate in harbor seals. Stranded harbor seal pups (n=24) arrived at the rehabilitation facility very thin after fasting for several days (nutritional nadir). Throughout rehabilitation nutrient intake increased and pups gained mass and body condition. Concentrations of GH and IGFBP-2 decreased with re-alimentation, while IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations increased. Overall, GH and IGFBP-2 were negatively associated and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were positively associated with growth rate and increased body condition of harbor sea pups. Further, the magnitude of the growth response was related to the magnitude in response of the somatotropic axis to varied levels of intake. These data suggest that multiple components of the somatotropic axis may be used to assess the energy status of individuals and may also provide information on the level of feed intake that is predictive of growth rate.

  18. The study of triple systems V949 Cen, V358 Pup and V1055 Sco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Hoňková, K.; Juryšek, Jakub; Mašek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2015), s. 151-168 ISSN 0001-5237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * V949 Cen * V358 Pup * V1055 Sco Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

  19. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  20. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation facilitates operant self-administration of the drug in 5-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during each of gestational days 17-20, pregnant rats were intragastrically administered ethanol 1 g/kg, or water (vehicle). On postnatal day 5, pups were tested on a novel operant conditioning procedure in which they learned to touch a sensor to obtain 0.1% saccharin, 3% ethanol, or 5% ethanol. Immediately after a 15-min training session, a 6-min extinction session was given in which operant behavior had no consequence. Pups were positioned on a smooth surface and had access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump, which served to deliver an intraoral solution as reinforcement (Paired group). A Yoked control animal evaluated at the same time received the reinforcer when its corresponding Paired pup touched the sensor. Operant behavior to gain access to 3% ethanol was facilitated by prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation. In contrast, operant learning reflecting ethanol reinforcement did not occur in control animals prenatally exposed to water only. Similarly, saccharin reinforcement was not affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. These results suggest that in 5-day-old rats, prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose facilitates operant learning reinforced by intraoral administration of a low-concentration ethanol solution. This emphasizes the importance of intrauterine experiences with ethanol in later susceptibility to drug reinforcement. The present operant conditioning technique represents an alternative tool to assess self-administration and seeking behavior during early stages of development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  2. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas Gomez, Zulma Janeth

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  3. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eLiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  4. Prevalence of Presenting Conditions in Grey Seal Pups (Halichoerus grypus Admitted for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. C. Silpa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey was performed on the presenting conditions of 205 live grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus admitted to the Cornish Seal Sanctuary in Gweek, United Kingdom between May 2005 and March 2011. The purpose of the survey was to examine the prevalence of various presenting signs at the sanctuary. The presenting signs were classified into nine non-mutually exclusive categories: ocular disorders, nasal disorders, oral disorders, respiratory disorders, orthopaedic disorders, puncture wounds, abrasions, netting injuries, and onychia. The sex ratio of seal pups in this study was 1.35 males per female. Of the 205 examined for rehabilitation, 22 (10.73% did not survive to release. 68.78% of grey seal pups presented with puncture wounds, 47.80% with respiratory disorders, 46.34% with ocular disorders, 42.63% malnourished, 36.59% with abrasions, 25.37% with oral disorders, 23.90% with nasal disorders, 11.71% with orthopaedic disorders, 9.27% with onychia, and 3.41% presented with netting injuries. 52% were normothermic, 42% were hyperthermic, and 5% were hypothermic. Associations between gender, outcome of rehabilitation, hospitalisation time and presenting disorders were examined. In addition, admissions rates were found to display seasonality. The results of this study will aid in future preparation of grey seal rehabilitation facilities.

  5. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  6. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  7. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  8. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  9. HMGB1 promotes the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Sadamura-Takenaka

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and death. Recent studies have suggested that chronic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving inflammation have not been fully elucidated.To elucidate the roles of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein with extracellular pro-inflammatory activity, in a rat model of PAH.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered monocrotaline (MCT. Concentrations of HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and localization of HMGB1 in the lung were examined over time. The protective effects of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody against MCT-induced PAH were tested.HMGB1 levels in BALF were elevated 1 week after MCT injection, and this elevation preceded increases of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and the development of PAH. In contrast, serum HMGB1 levels were elevated 4 weeks after MCT injection, at which time the rats began to die. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that HMGB1 was translocated to the extranuclear space in periarterial infiltrating cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial epithelial cells of MCT-injected rats. Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody protected rats against MCT-induced lung inflammation, thickening of the pulmonary artery wall, and elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, and significantly improved the survival of the MCT-induced PAH rats.Our results identify extracellular HMGB1 as a promoting factor for MCT-induced PAH. The blockade of HMGB1 activity improved survival of MCT-induced PAH rats, and thus might be a promising therapy for the treatment of PAH.

  10. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase expression in the developing rat liver: control at different levels in the prenatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Salvadó, J.; Boon, L.; Biharie, G.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    To study the regulation of the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (Glu-DH) in rat liver during development, the Glu-DH mRNA concentration in the liver of rats ranging in age from 14 days prenatal development to 3 months after birth was determined. This concentration increased up to two days

  11. Disrupted social development enhances the motivation for cocaine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Limpens, J.H.W.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917

    2014-01-01

    for behavioural development. In particular, social play behaviour during post-weaning development is thought to facilitate the attainment of social, emotional and cognitive capacities. Conversely, social insults during development can cause longlasting behavioural impairments and increase the

  12. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between (3H)dopamine specific uptake and (3H)GBR 12783 specific binding during the maturation of rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.J.; Costentin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the specific uptake of dopamine in the rat striatum during the early postnatal period is compared with the ontogenetic changes of the specific binding of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 to the site of uptake inhibition. During maturation, the increase in the specific binding of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 parallels the increase in the specific uptake of dopamine. ( 3 H)GBR 12783 specific binding sites increase in number from day 1 postpartum until 40 days, when they reach the adult level. In 40 day-old rats, the weight of the striatum represents 80% of adult values. The affinity of ( 3 H)GBR 12783 for the inhibition site is similar in membrane preparations obtained from 6 day-old pups and adults; this results in a same ability of the inhibitor to block the specific uptake of dopamine into synaptosomes obtained from pups or adult rats. These data support the hypothesis of the existence of a single molecular entity including both the inhibition site and the carrier itself

  14. Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siermontowski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

  15. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to toluene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    Development and neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to toluene (CAS 108-88-3) were studied after exposing pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) to 1800 ppm of the solvent for 6 h daily on days 7-20 of gestation. Body weights of exposed offspring were lower until day 10 after parturition. Neurobehavio...

  17. Selenium prevents tumor development in a rat model for chemical carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkhem-Bergman, L.; Torndal, U. B.; Eken, S.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that selenium compounds can prevent cancer development. In this work we studied the tumor preventive effect of selenium supplementation, administrated as selenite, in the initiation, promotion and progression phases in a synchronized rat model for...

  18. Cortical interhemispheric responses to rhythmic stimulation are influenced by status epilepticus in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 209-210 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : status epilepticus * interhemispheric responses * developing rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. Influence of age and immunization on development of gingivitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekic, P; Klausen, B; Friis-Hasché, E

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of age and antigenic priming on the development of gingivitis, 33 healthy rats were placed in contact with Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides gingivalis. On days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after inoculation, the gingival condition...

  20. Postnatal development and behaviour of Wistar rats after prenatal toluene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, R. [Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Chahoud, I. [Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with different concentrations of toluene by inhalation (300, 600, 1000 and 1200 ppm) from day 9 to day 21 of pregnancy for 6 h a day in a whole-body inhalation chamber (controls inhaled fresh air only). From day 22, rats were kept single-caged and were allowed to deliver. Besides a detailed evaluation of the physical development of the offspring we performed the following tests: forelimb-grasp reflex, righting reflex, cliff-drop aversion reflex, maintainance of balance on a rotating rod, measurement of locomotor activity and learning ability in a discrimination learning test. A toluene exposure of 1200 ppm resulted in a reduced body weight of rat dams and offspring and a higher mortality until weaning. The physical development (incisor eruption, eye opening and vaginal opening) was retarded in this group. There were no clear-cut and concentration-dependent differences in the development of reflexes, rota rod performance and locomotor activity between the offspring of animals exposed to toluene and the controls. Likewise, no effects were found on learning ability in the operant conditioning task. Compared to the controls there were no differences in mating, fertility and pregnancy indexes in the F{sub 1}-generation. The tests performed have provided no evidence that toluene exposures {<=} 1200 ppm induce adverse effects on the behaviour of rat offspring exposed during late embryonic and fetal development. (orig.). With 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist MPEP on learning in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulecká, Anna; Mareš, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 1 (2007), S48-S48 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : MPEP * developing rats * behavioral parameters Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 5057610. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : oxidative stress * developing rat brain * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  3. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  4. Extinction, Reacquisition, and Rapid Forgetting of Eyeblink Conditioning in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory. However, age differences in extinction and subsequent reacquisition have yet to be studied using this model. The present study examined extinction and reacquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats. In…

  5. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  6. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  7. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  8. Disturbed sensorimotor and electrophysiological patterns in lead intoxicated rats during development are restored by curcumin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Benammi

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the most significant health problem of environmental origin. It is known to cause different damages in the central and peripheral nervous system which could be represented by several neurophysiological and behavioral symptoms. In this study we firstly investigated the effect of lead prenatal exposure in rats to (3g/L, from neonatal to young age, on the motor/sensory performances, excitability of the spinal cord and gaits during development. Then we evaluated neuroprotective effects of curcumin I (Cur I against lead neurotoxicity, by means of grasping and cliff avoidance tests to reveal the impairment of the sensorimotor functions in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to lead. In addition, extracellular recordings of motor output in spinal cord revealed an hyper-excitability of spinal networks in lead treated rats. The frequency of induced fictive locomotion was also increased in treated rats. At the young age, rats exhibited an impaired locomotor gait. All those abnormalities were attenuated by Cur I treatment at a dose of 16g/kg. Based on our finding, Cur I has shown features of a potent chemical compound able to restore the neuronal and the relative locomotor behaviors disturbances induced by lead intoxication. Therefore, this chemical can be recommended as a new therapeutic trial against lead induced neurotoxicity.

  9. Estimating dispersal rates of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus mother-pup pairs from a natal rookery using mark-resight data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey E Kuhn

    Full Text Available To monitor population trends of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska, newborn pups are counted during aerial surveys. These surveys are scheduled to occur after the majority of pups are born, but before pups begin to spend significant time in the water. Some studies have reported dispersal of mother-pup pairs away from breeding beaches during the pupping season (July, which may influence survey results. Using a multistate mark-recapture model with state uncertainty, we estimated the amount of dispersal during the pupping season based on observations of permanently marked sea lions. Research was conducted at land-based observation sites on Marmot Island, Alaska, between 2000 and 2013. Both marked adult females with dependent pups and marked pups were observed at two rookery beaches from May to July. Cumulative dispersal rates were minimal (< 1% prior to the planned start of the aerial survey (23 June and increased to 11.2% by the planned survey completion date (10 July. The increased cumulative dispersal rate during the remainder of the observation period (end of July suggests potential bias in surveys that occur beyond 10 July, however surveys past this date are rare (< 10% between 1973 and 2016. As a result, movements of mother-pup pairs during the pupping season are not likely to influence aerial survey estimates.

  10. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  11. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Studies on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane following maternal ethanol ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinski, B

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the developing rat liver and on the structure and function of the postnatal rat liver plasma membrane were carried out following maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and lactation. A developmental study of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) indicated that both the activity and certain kinetic properties of the enzyme from the progeny of alcohol-fed and pair-fed mothers were similar. Fatty liver, however, developed in the alcoholic progeny only after ADH appeared on a day 19 of gestation. Further studies on structural and functional changes were then undertaken on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane. Radioligand binding studies performed using the hapatic alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor as a plasma membrane probe demonstrated a significant decrease in receptor density in the alcoholic progeny, but no changes in binding affinity. Finally, the fatty acid composition of constituent phospholipids and the cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes were determined. All these observations suggest that membrane alterations in the newborn may be partially responsible for the deleterious action(s) of maternal alcoholism at the molecular level.

  13. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  14. Chronic Oral Capsaicin Exposure During Development Leads to Adult Rats with Reduced Taste Bud Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelian, Jacquelyn M; Samson, Kaeli K; Sollars, Suzanne I

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sensory interaction between gustatory and trigeminal nerves occurs in the anterior tongue. Surgical manipulations have demonstrated that the strength of this relationship varies across development. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that affects fibers of the somatosensory lingual nerve surrounding taste buds, but not fibers of the gustatory chorda tympani nerve which synapse with taste receptor cells. Since capsaicin is commonly consumed by many species, including humans, experimental use of this neurotoxin provides a naturalistic perturbation of the lingual trigeminal system. Neonatal or adults rats consumed oral capsaicin for 40 days and we examined the cross-sensory effect on the morphology of taste buds across development. Rats received moderate doses of oral capsaicin, with chronic treatments occurring either before or after taste system maturation. Tongue morphology was examined either 2 or 50 days after treatment cessation. Edema, which has been previously suggested as a cause of changes in capsaicin-related gustatory function, was also assessed. Reductions in taste bud volume occurred 50 days, but not 2 days post-treatment for rats treated as neonates. Adult rats at either time post-treatment were unaffected. Edema was not found to occur with the 5 ppm concentration of capsaicin we used. Results further elucidate the cooperative relationship between these discrete sensory systems and highlight the developmentally mediated aspect of this interaction. Chronic exposure to even moderate levels of noxious stimuli during development has the ability to impact the orosensory environment, and these changes may not be evident until long after exposure has ceased.

  15. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  16. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  17. Motor System Development Depends on Experience: A Microgravity Study of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kalb, Robert; Hillman, Dean; DeFelipe, Javier; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Animals move about their environment by sensing their surroundings and making adjustments according to need. All animals take the force of gravity into account when the brain and spinal cord undertake the planning and execution of movements. To what extent must animals learn to factor in the force of gravity when making neural calculations about movement? Are animals born knowing how to respond to gravity, or must the young nervous system learn to enter gravity into the equation? To study this issue, young rats were reared in two different gravitational environments (the one-G of Earth and the microgravity of low Earth orbit) that necessitated two different types of motor operations (movements) for optimal behavior. We inquired whether those portions of the young nervous system involved in movement, the motor system, can adapt to different gravitational levels and, if so, the cellular basis for this phenomenon. We studied two groups of rats that had been raised for 16 days in microgravity (eight or 14 days old at launch) and compared their walking and righting (ability to go from upside down to upright) and brain structure to those of control rats that developed on Earth. Flight rats were easily distinguished from the age-matched ground control rats in terms of both motor function and central nervous system structure. Mature surface righting predominated in control rats on the day of landing (R+O), while immature righting predominated in the flight rats on landing day and 30 days after landing. Some of these changes appear to be permanent. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: (1) Many aspects of motor behavior are preprogrammed into the young nervous system. In addition, several aspects of motor behavior are acquired as a function of the interaction of the developing organism and the rearing environment; (2) Widespread neuroanatomical differences between one-G- and microgravity-reared rats indicate that there is a structural basis for the adaptation

  18. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M.; Bhat, Nimee K.; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A.; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E 2 -induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E 2 pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E 2 -induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E 2 -treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E 2 group relative to those in the E 2 group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E 2 -induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E 2 -induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E 2 -treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E 2 and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E 2 and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E 2 -induced

  19. Maternal exposure to a Western-style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J

    2017-01-01

    The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2-week-old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western-style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet-exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2-week-old offspring. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  1. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  2. Prenatal Exposure to a Maternal High-Fat Diet Affects Histone Modification of Cardiometabolic Genes in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya Upadhyaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0.1. In the HF-diet exposed offspring, 54% of the annotated genes showed the gene-activating mark trimethylated lysine 4. Many of these genes (1 are associated with the “metabolic process” in general and particularly with “positive regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis” (FDR = 0.03; (2 overlap with 455 quantitative trait loci for blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol (all, FDR < 0.1; and (3 are linked to cardiac disease susceptibility/progression, based on disease ontology analyses and scientific literature. These results indicate that maternal HF-diet changes the cardiac histone signature in offspring suggesting a fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of cardiac tissue in utero.

  3. Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khattak, S.T.; Elahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

  4. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT CEREBELLUM AND HIPPOCAMPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the nervous system is a complex program, involving coordinated growth of axons and their targets. In rodents, rapid brain growth occurs during early postnatal development. At this time, several fundamental processes, such as dendritic and axonal outgrowth and the e...

  5. Development and adaptation to resection of infant rat gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Vries

    1982-01-01

    textabstractInfants with malrotation of the gut easily develop midgut volvuluse If this volvulus is not treated immediately, ischemic necrosis of the small bowel may develop rapidly. The treatment of these children requires extensive small bowel resection. Infrequently, children are born with

  6. Impaired Growth of Small Intestinal Epithelium by Adrenalectomy in Weaning Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Tohru; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Functional maturation of the small intestine occurs during the weaning period in rats. It is known that this development is facilitated by glucocorticoid. However, the effect of glucocorticoid on morphological development of small intestine has yet to be clarified. The present study evaluated the morphological development and cell proliferation of the small intestine in adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups. To further understand the mechanism of glucocorticoid effects on intestinal development, we examined the localization of the glucocorticoid receptor in the small intestine. Microscopic analysis showed that growth of villi and crypts is age-dependent, and is significantly attenuated in ADX rats compared with sham-operated rats. BrdU-positive cells, i.e. proliferating cells, were primarily observed in crypt compartments and rapidly increased in number during the early weaning period. The increase in BrdU-positive cells could be attenuated by adrenalectomy. The morphological development of small intestine may be associated with increased proliferation of epithelial cells. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptors were found in epithelial cells of the mid- and lower villi and not in crypts where BrdU-positive cells were localized. These results indicate that the growth of small intestine is attenuated by adrenalectomy, and that glucocorticoid indirectly acts on proliferation of epithelial cells during the weaning period

  7. The importance of dietary control in the development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Knippels, L.M.J.; Ezendam, J.; Odink, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the further development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway (BN) rats and in particular the importance of allergen-free breeding of the laboratory animals for the allergen to be used. For this purpose BN rats were bred for 3 generations on soy- and peanut-free feed since

  8. Cytomegalovirus-enhanced development of transplant arteriosclerosis in the rat; effect of timing of infection and recipient responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van Dam, JG; Onuta, G; Klatter, FA; Grauls, G; Bruggeman, CA; Rozing, J

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is put forward as a risk factor for transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). In this article, we studied CMV-enhanced development of TA in rats in different donor/recipient combinations in relation to the timing of infection. Recipient rats transplanted with an aortic allograft (BN to

  9. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  10. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  11. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-05-29

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal separation increases later immobility during forced swim in guinea pig pups: evidence for sensitization of a depressive-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Schreibeis, Amanda D; Schiml, Patricia A; Deak, Terrence

    2017-01-01

    Early-life stress is thought to increase later vulnerability for developing depressive illness by sensitizing underlying stress-responsive systems. Guinea pig pups separated from their mother and isolated in a novel cage for 3 hr exhibit a sensitized depressive-like behavioral response when separated again the following day as well as weeks later. The behavioral response and its sensitization appear to be mediated by inflammatory factors. To determine if this sensitization is specific to the separation response or if it reflects a broader underlying depressive-like state, guinea pig pups that had either been separated for 3 hr or remained with their mothers were observed in the forced swim test the following 3 days. Earlier separation was found to increase the duration of immobility, a measure sensitive to antidepressant treatment. These results support the use of the guinea pig as a model for examining mechanisms of inflammatory-mediated sensitization of depression following stress in early life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hyperthyroidism affects lipid metabolism in lactating and suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, S M; Jahn, G A; Giménez, M S

    2001-08-01

    Two per thousand pregnant women have hyperthyroidism (HT), and although the symptoms are attenuated during pregnancy, they rebound after delivery, affecting infant development. To examine the effects of hyperthyroidism on lactation, we studied lipid metabolism in maternal mammary glands and livers of hyperthyroid rats and their pups. Thyroxine (10 microg/100 g body weight/d) or vehicle-treated rats were made pregnant 2 wk after commencement of treatment and sacrificed on days 7, 14, and 21 of lactation with the litters. Circulating triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine concentrations in the HT mothers were increased on all days. Hepatic esterified cholesterol (EC) and free cholesterol (FC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were diminished on days 14 and 21. Lipid synthesis, measured by incorporation of [3H]H2O into EC, FC, and TG, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase activities increased at day 14, while incorporation into FC and EC decreased at days 7 and 21, respectively. Mammary FC and TG concentrations were diminished at day 14; incorporation of [3H]H2O into TG decreased at days 7 and 21, and incorporation of [3H]H2O into FC increased at day 14. In the HT pups, growth rate was diminished, tetraiodothyronine concentration rose at days 7 and 14 of lactation, and triiodothyronine increased only at day 14. Liver TG concentrations increased at day 7 and fell at day 14, while FC increased at day 14 and only acetyl CoA carboxylase activity fell at day 14. Thus, hyperthyroidism changed maternal liver and mammary lipid metabolism, with decreased lipid concentration in spite of increased liver rate of synthesis and decreases in mammary synthesis. These changes, along with the mild hyperthyroidism of the litters, may have contributed to their reduced growth rate.

  14. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Wee, Sunmee; Park, Paula E; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of drug dependence have described both reductions in brain reward processes and potentiation of stress-like (or anti-reward) mechanisms, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling. Accordingly, chronic exposure to opiates often leads to the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We measured paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) in male Wistar rats allowed limited (short access group: ShA) or extended (long access group: LgA) access to heroin or cocaine self-administration, or in rats made dependent on ethanol via ethanol vapor exposure (ethanol-dependent group). In heroin self-administering animals, after transition to LgA conditions, thresholds were reduced to around 50% of levels observed at baseline, and were also significantly lower than thresholds measured in animals remaining on the ShA schedule. In contrast, thresholds in animals self-administering cocaine under either ShA (1 h) or LgA (6 h) conditions were unaltered. Similar to heroin LgA rats, ethanol-dependent rats also developed mechanical hypersensitivity after eight weeks of ethanol vapor exposure compared to non-dependent animals. Systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist MPZP significantly alleviated the hypersensitivity observed in rats dependent on heroin or ethanol. The emergence of mechanical hypersensitivity with heroin and ethanol dependence may thus represent one critical drug-associated negative emotional state driving dependence on these substances. These results also suggest a recruitment of CRF-regulated nociceptive pathways associated with escalation of intake and dependence. A greater understanding of relationships between chronic drug exposure and pain-related states may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the transition to drug addiction, as well as reveal new treatment opportunities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Development of telmisartan in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Min Lin,1,* Jo-Ting Tsai,2,* Chen Kuei Chang,1 Juei-Tang Cheng,3 Jia-Wei Lin11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University, 3Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Decrease of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPARδ expression has been observed after spinal cord injury (SCI. Increase of PPARδ may improve the damage in SCI. Telmisartan, the antihypertensive agent, has been mentioned to increase the expression of PPARδ. Thus, we are going to screen the effectiveness of telmisartan in SCI for the development of it in clinical application.Methods: In the present study, we used compressive SCI in rats. Telmisartan was then used to evaluate the influence in rats after SCI. Change in PPARδ expression was identified by Western blots. Also, behavioral tests were performed to check the recovery of damage.Results: Recovery of damage from SCI was observed in telmisartan-treated rats. Additionally, this action of telmisartan was inhibited by GSK0660 at the dose sufficient to block PPARδ. However, metformin at the dose enough to activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase failed to produce similar action as telmisartan. Thus, mediation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in this action of telmisartan can be rule out. Moreover, telmisartan reversed the expressions of PPARδ in rats with SCI.Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that telmisartan can improve the damage of SCI in rats through an increase in PPARδ expression. Thus, telmisartan is useful to be developed as an agent in the therapy of SCI.Keywords: PPARδ, AMPK, spinal cord injury, angiotensin receptor blocker, metformin

  17. Unilateral nasal obstruction affects motor representation development within the face primary motor cortex in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasunori; Kato, Chiho; Uchima Koecklin, Karin Harumi; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control ( n = 36) and experimental ( n = 36) groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction after cauterization of the external nostril at 8 days of age. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed when the rats were 5, 7, 9, and 11 wk old in control and experimental groups ( n = 9 per group per time point). Repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA was used for intergroup and intragroup statistical comparisons. In the control and experimental groups, the total number of positive ICMS sites for the genioglossus and anterior digastric muscles was significantly higher at 5, 7, and 9 wk, but there was no significant difference between 9 and 11 wk of age. Moreover, the total number of positive ICMS sites was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control at each age. It is possible that nasal obstruction induced the initial changes in orofacial motor behavior in response to the altered respiratory pattern, which eventually contributed to face-M1 neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral nasal obstruction in rats during growth periods induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and altered development of the motor representation within the face primary cortex. Unilateral nasal obstruction occurring during growth periods may greatly affect not only respiratory function but also craniofacial function in rats. Nasal obstruction should be treated

  18. [Effect of leptin on long-term spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Er-Cui; Jiang, Li

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effect of leptin by observing its effect on spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. A total of 80 neonatal rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation (n=27), model (n=27) and leptin intervention (n=27). The rats in the model and leptin intervention groups were used to prepare a model of white matter damage in developing brain, and the rats in the leptin intervention group were given leptin (100 μg/kg) diluted with normal saline immediately after modelling for 4 consecutive days. The survival rate of the rats was observed and the change in body weight was monitored. When the rats reached the age of 21 days, the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial memory. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of rats between the three groups (P>0.05). Within 10 days after birth, the leptin intervention group had similar body weight as the sham-operation group and significantly lower body weight than the model group (P0.05). The results of place navigation showed that from the second day of experiment, there was a significant difference in the latency period between the three groups (Pmemory impairment of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. It thus exerts a neuroprotective effect, and is worthy of further research.

  19. The effect of a hyperdynamic environment on the development of the rat retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a 2 G field on the retinal development of the layers in the rat and central visual system nuclei are investigated. The thickness of the retinal layers, ganglion cells, and brains of male and female Wistar rats suspended from an 18 foot diameter centrifuge creating a 2 G field are evaluated and compared with a control group. A decrease in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of 37.1 percent, of 58.5 percent in the inner nuclear layer (INL), and of 28.8 percent in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a reduction in body weight are observed in the 2-G rats. The data reveal that the ganglion cells and visual system nuclei activity correspond well with the control data; however, the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) activity is inhibited in the 2-G rats. It is concluded that the differences in ONL and IPL are attributed to body weight reduction, but the INL and MTN are affected by the 2-G conditions.

  20. Utilization of 14C-tyrosine in brain and peripheral tissues of developmentally protein malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.; Leahy, J.P.; McConville, F.; Morgane, P.J.; Resnick, O.

    1978-01-01

    Prior studies of developmentally protein malnourished rats have reported substantial changes in brain and peripheral utilization of 14 C-leucine, 14 C-phenylalanine, and 14 C-tryptophan. In the present study rats born to dams fed a low protein diet (8% casein) compared to the offspring of control rats fed a normal diet (25% casein) showed few significant differences in the uptake and incorporation of 14 C-tyrosine into brain and peripheral tissues from birth to age 21 days. At birth, the 8% casein pups exhibited significant decreases in brain and peripheral tissue incorporation of tracer only at short post-injection times (10 and 20 min), but not at longer intervals (90 and 180 min). During ontogenetic development (Days 5-21), the 8% casein rats showed significant increases in uptake of 14 C-tyrosine into the brain and peripheral tissues on Day 11 and a significantly higher percent incorporation of tracer into brain protein on Day 21 as compared to the 25% casein rats. For the most part, there were no significant changes in incorporation of radioactivity in peripheral tissues for the 2 diet groups on these post-birth days. Overall, the data indicates that developmental protein malnutrition causes relatively fewer changes in brain and peripheral utilization of the semi-essential amino acid tyrosine than those observed in previous studies with essential amino acids

  1. A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of growth and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Watson, Charles; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal brain development in the etiology of several neurologic diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH) atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions. The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment for characterizing rat models of human neurologic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Postdependent state in rats as a model for medication development in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    Rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for alcoholism requires understanding of its underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology. Obtaining this knowledge largely relies on animal studies. Thus, choosing the appropriate animal model is one of the most critical steps in pre-clinical medication development. Among the range of animal models that have been used to investigate excessive alcohol consumption in rodents, the postdependent model stands out. It was specifically developed to test the role of negative affect as a key driving force in a perpetuating addiction cycle for alcoholism. Here, we will describe our approach to make rats dependent via chronic intermittent exposure to alcohol, discuss the validity of this model, and compare it with other commonly used animal models of alcoholism. We will summarize evidence that postdependent rats fulfill several criteria of a 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV/V-like' diagnostic system. Importantly, these animals show long-lasting excessive consumption of and increased motivation for alcohol, and evidence for loss of control over alcohol intake. Our conclusion that postdependent rats are an excellent model for medication development for alcoholism is underscored by a summary of more than two dozen pharmacological tests aimed at reversing these abnormal alcohol responses. We will end with open questions on the use of this model. In the tradition of the Sanchis-Segura and Spanagel review, we provide comic strips that illustrate the postdependent procedure and relevant phenotypes in this review. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the development and proliferation of testicular cells in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlalla, Mohamed Babo; Wei, Quanwei; Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Mehfooz, Asif; Mao, Dagan; Shi, Fangxiong

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20-70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption. In addition there were changes in serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histomorphology showed a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter in hyper-T compared to the other groups. Leydig cell numbers showed a significant elevation in hyper-T but not in hypo-T groups. Immunostaining indicated that TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors α/β (TRαβ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have the roles in testicular development. Our findings suggest that hyper- and hypo-thyroidism regulate testicular cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in prepubertal rats, indicating that expression of TSHR, TRαβ and PCNA may be regulated by thyroid hormones that are involved in testicular development; and that the administration of T4 to the hypo-T+T4 group leads to an improvement in the testicular condition. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Mere odor exposure learning in the rat neonate immediately after birth and 1 day later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stacie S; Spear, Norman E

    2010-05-01

    Rat pups are more resistant to retroactive associative interference 3 hr after birth than 24 hr later [Cheslock et al. [2004] Developmental Science, 7, 581-598]. The present experiments tested the effect of age, retention interval and dam presence during the retention interval on odor-induced motor activity subsequent to mere odor exposure. Rats were exposed to an hour of odor immediately after birth or approximately 1 day later and tested after a given retention interval (3 or 27 hr [Exp 1]; 0, 30, 75, or 180 min [Exp. 2]). They spent the retention interval either in the presence or absence of a foster dam (Exp. 1 and 3). After the retention interval, pups were tested in a 4-min activity test including a 2-min baseline period and 2 min of odor exposure. Overall activity was scored during tape-playback. Odor-exposed pups were more active than nonexposed pups during reexposure to the odor during testing, but this was true only for P0 pups. In contrast, P1 pups without prior odor exposure were active during testing and behaviorally quieted in the presence of the odor they were previously exposed to. Though 1 day apart, newborn rats just hours old lack many of the experiences that a 1-day-old has had including nursing, huddling, and being groomed. These experiences are associated with, among other stimuli, a barrage of olfactory cues (e.g., colostrum, saliva, dander, feces, and urine). P0 and P1 pups also differ in their proximity from the birthing experience and associated neurochemical changes. The age-related pattern of responding to odors based on previous odor exposure was discussed in relation to these and other possibilities.

  5. Mere odor exposure learning in the rat neonate immediately after birth and one day later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stacie S.; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Rat pups are more resistant to retroactive associative interference 3 hrs after birth than 24 hours later (Cheslock, Sanders, & Spear, 2004). The present experiments tested the effect of age, retention interval and dam presence during the retention interval on odor-induced motor activity subsequent to mere odor exposure. Rats were exposed to an hour of odor immediately after birth or approximately one day later and tested after a given retention interval (3 hrs or 27 hrs [Exp 1]; 0, 30, 75, or 180 min [Exp. 2]). They spent the retention interval either in the presence or absence of a foster dam (Exp. 1 and 3). After the retention interval, pups were tested in a four-minute activity test including a two-minute baseline period and two minutes of odor exposure. Overall activity was scored during tape-playback. Odor-exposed pups were more active than non-exposed pups during reexposure to the odor during testing, but this was true only for P0 pups. In contrast, P1 pups without prior odor exposure were active during testing and behaviorally quieted in the presence of the odor they were previously exposed to. Though one day apart, newborn rats just hours old lack many of the experiences that a one day old has had including nursing, huddling, and being groomed. These experiences are associated with, among other stimuli, a barrage of olfactory cues (e.g., colostrum, saliva, dander, feces, and urine). P0 and P1 pups also differ in their proximity from the birthing experience and associated neurochemical changes. The age-related pattern of responding to odors based on previous odor exposure was discussed in relation to these and other possibilities. PMID:20411590

  6. Locomotion and physical development in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.S.; Hupp, E.W.; Lancaster, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotor skill, and physical development were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 rad, 15 rad, and 6.8 rad) delivered on the 20th day of prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 rad) to high (150 rad) doses of radiation had effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 rad delayed pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, and decreased body weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption were marginally delayed in the 150 rad treated animals. Exposure to 15 rad delayed pivoting and cliff-avoidance

  7. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  8. Sepsis-induced alteration in T-cell Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, M H; Ravindranath, T M; Choudhry, M A; Muraskas, J K; Namak, S Y; Dallal, O; Sayeed, M M

    2001-01-01

    Sepsis-induced suppression in T-cell proliferation follows deranged Ca(2+) signaling in adult rats. In preliminary studies, we observed suppression in T-cell proliferation in septic neonatal rats as well. In this study, we assessed splenic T-cell cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), as its elevation plays an important role in T-cell proliferation. Also, we investigated the role of PGE(2) in sepsis-related changes in T-cell [Ca(2+)](i) in animals pretreated with cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor (resveratrol) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS-398). Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old rat pups by intraperitoneal implantation of fecal pellets containing Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The sham group consisted of pups implanted with sterile fecal pellets. Septic and sham pups were sacrificed 24 h after implantation and their spleens were removed. The spleens from sham and septic pups, along with spleens from unoperated control pups, were processed for single cell suspensions, and T cells were isolated using nylon wool columns. Fura-2 fluorophotometry was employed for the measurement of [Ca(2+)](i) (in nM units) in T cells stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Our results show that ConA-mediated T-cell [Ca(2+)](i) response is significantly suppressed in septic neonatal rats. Pretreatment of pups with COX-2, but not COX-1 inhibitor, prevented the decrease in the [Ca(2+)](i) response. These findings suggest that PGE(2) might induce the attenuation in T-cell Ca(2+) signaling during sepsis in neonatal rats. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  10. Early postnatal development of rat brain is accompanied by generation of lipofuscin-like pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ivica, J.; Kagan, Dmytro; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 347, 1-2 (2011), s. 157-162 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : brain * early development * lipofuscin-like pigments * fluorescence * rat Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  11. Anticonvulsant action of two antagonists of NMDA receptors in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Lojková, Denisa; Mikulecká, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. S4 (2006), s. 314-314 ISSN 0013-9580. [Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and Canadian League against Epilepsy. 01.12.2006-05.12.2006, San Diego, CA] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : memantine * ifenprodil * developing rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Development of the acoustic startle response in rats and its change after early acoustic trauma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Chumak, Tetyana; Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, jul 1 (2015), s. 212-221 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory system * rat * acoustic startle reflex * development * critical period * noise exposure Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  13. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the developing rat heart: the role of elastin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Vytášek, R.; Vajner, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 358, 1-2 (2011), s. 215-220 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat heart * ontogenetic development * hydrogen peroxide * elastin * fluorescence Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  14. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Babický, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S1-S7 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat * ontogenic development * presuckling period * suckling period * weaning period Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  15. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...

  16. Development of a bio-magnetic measurement system and sensor configuration analysis for rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kiwoong; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Kang, Chan Seok; Ahn, San; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on superconducting quantum interference devices enables the measurement of very weak magnetic fields (10-1000 fT) generated from the human or animal brain. In this article, we introduce a small MEG system that we developed specifically for use with rats. Our system has the following characteristics: (1) variable distance between the pick-up coil and outer Dewar bottom (˜5 mm), (2) small pick-up coil (4 mm) for high spatial resolution, (3) good field sensitivity (45 ˜ 80 fT /cm/√{Hz} ) , (4) the sensor interval satisfies the Nyquist spatial sampling theorem, and (5) small source localization error for the region to be investigated. To reduce source localization error, it is necessary to establish an optimal sensor layout. To this end, we simulated confidence volumes at each point on a grid on the surface of a virtual rat head. In this simulation, we used locally fitted spheres as model rat heads. This enabled us to consider more realistic volume currents. We constrained the model such that the dipoles could have only four possible orientations: the x- and y-axes from the original coordinates, and two tangentially layered dipoles (local x- and y-axes) in the locally fitted spheres. We considered the confidence volumes according to the sensor layout and dipole orientation and positions. We then conducted a preliminary test with a 4-channel MEG system prior to manufacturing the multi-channel system. Using the 4-channel MEG system, we measured rat magnetocardiograms. We obtained well defined P-, QRS-, and T-waves in rats with a maximum value of 15 pT/cm. Finally, we measured auditory evoked fields and steady state auditory evoked fields with maximum values 400 fT/cm and 250 fT/cm, respectively.

  17. Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Guihai; Shen, Feifei; Sun, Baolan; Song, Honghua; Xu, Meiyu; Wu, Youjia

    2018-05-14

    EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampal neurons significantly improved ephrin-A5 expression but could not restore its expression to control levels. Hypothyroid hippocampal neurons in-vitro showed synaptogenesis disorder characterized by a reduction in the number and length of neurites. Furthermore, the synaptogenesis-associated molecular expressions of NMDAR-1 (NR1), PSD95 and CaMKII were all downregulated correspondingly. These results suggest that ephrin-A5 expression may be decreased in CH, and abnormal activation of ephrin-A5/EphA5 signaling affects synaptogenesis during brain development. Such findings provide an important basis for exploring the pathogenesis of CH genetically.

  18. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C.; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E.; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P hydrocephalus development. PMID:26848844

  19. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2014-01-01

    the influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50 mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were...... in both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5 mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable......Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine...

  20. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  1. Genetic Regulation of Development of Thymic Lymphomas Induced by N‐Propyl‐N‐nitrosourea in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Hiroko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Matsuyama, Mutsushi

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the linkage between Hbb and Tls‐1 (thymic lymphoma susceptible‐1) loci and to investigate other loci concerned in thymic lymphomagenesis, the BUF/Mna rat, which is highly sensitive to the lymphomagenic activity of N‐propyl‐N‐nitrosourea (PNU), the WKY/NCrj rat, reported to be resistant, and their cross offspring were subjected to genetic analysis. F1 hybrid and backcross generations were raised from the 2 strains, and 6 genetic markers including Hbb were analyzed in individuals of the backcross generation. However, no linkage between Hbb and Tls‐1 loci could be demonstrated since WKY rats also developed a high incidence of thymic lymphomas in response to PNU. Nevertheless, thymic lymphomas developed more rapidly and reached a larger size in the BUF rats. F1 rats expressed a rather rapid and large tumor growth phenotype, while the [(WKY × BUF) × WKY] backcross generation consisted of rats with either rapidly growing or slowly growing tumors. It was thus concluded that rapid development of thymic lymphomas is determined by a gene, provisionally designated Tls‐3. Analysis of the relationship between 6 genetic markers and development of thymic lymphoma in the backcross generation demonstrated that the Tls‐3 locus is loosely linked to the Gc locus, suggesting a possible location on rat chromosome 14. Tls‐3 may not be identical with Tls‐1 and other genes known to be relevant to thymic tumors, but its relationship with Tls‐2 remains obscure. PMID:7559080

  2. Omega-3 attenuates high fat diet-induced kidney injury of female rats and renal programming of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, Asmaa Mohammed; Ali Eshra, Mohammed; Ahmed Rashed, Laila; Fathy Amer, Marwa; Elham Fares, Amal; Samir Kamar, Samaa

    2018-05-09

    Maternal diet composition could influence fetal organogenesis. We investigated effects of high fat diet (HFD) intake alone or combined with omega 3 during pregnancy, lactation and early days of weaning on nephrogenesis of pups and maternal renal function and morphology. Mothers and their pups included in each group were supplied with the same diet composition. Rats were divided into group I, II and III supplied with chow of either 10 kcal%, 45 kcal% or 45 kcal% from fat together with omega-3 respectively. Group II showed increased serum urea and creatinine, renal TNF-α, IL1β. Structural injury was observed in mothers and their pups as Bowman's capsule and tubular dilatation and increased expression of PCNA that were decreased following omega-3 supplementation added to down regulation of Wnt4, Pax2 gene and podocin expression. Omega-3 supplementation improves lipid nephrotoxicity observed in mothers and their pups.

  3. Segmental neuropathic pain does not develop in male rats with complete spinal transections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubscher, Charles H; Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Johnson, Richard D

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study using male rats, a correlation was found between the development of "at-level" allodynia in T6-7 dermatomes following severe T8 spinal contusion injury and the sparing of some myelinated axons within the core of the lesion epicenter. To further test our hypothesis that this sparing is important for the expression of allodynia and the supraspinal plasticity that ensues, an injury that severs all axons (i.e., a complete spinal cord transection) was made in 15 male rats. Behavioral assessments were done at level throughout the 30-day recovery period followed by terminal electrophysiological recordings (urethane anesthesia) from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons receiving convergent nociceptive inputs from receptive fields above, at, and below the lesion level. None of the rats developed signs of at-level allodynia (versus 18 of 26 male rats following severe contusion). However, the terminal recording (206 MRF neurons) data resembled those obtained previously post-contusion. That is, there was evidence of neuronal hyper-excitability (relative to previous data from intact controls) to high- and low-threshold mechanical stimulation for "at-level" (dorsal trunk) and "above-level" (eyelids and face) cutaneous territories. These results, when combined with prior data on intact controls and severe/moderate contusions, indicate that (1) an anatomically incomplete injury (some lesion epicenter axonal sparing) following severe contusion is likely important for the development of allodynia and (2) the neuronal hyper-excitability at the level of the medulla is likely involved in nociceptive processes that are not directly related to the conscious expression of pain-like avoidance behaviors that are being used as evidence of allodynia.

  4. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on the development of the reproductive system of Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rosmani Md Zin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Genistein is known to influence reproductive system development through its binding affinity for estrogen receptors. The present study aimed to further explore the effect of Genistein on the development of the reproductive system of experimental rats. METHODS: Eighteen post-weaning female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: (i a control group that received vehicle (distilled water and Tween 80; (ii a group treated with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW of Genistein (Gen 10; and (iii a group treated with a higher dose of Genistein (Gen 100. The rats were treated daily for three weeks from postnatal day 22 (P22 to P42. After the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the uteri and ovaries were harvested and subjected to light microscopy and immunohistochemical study. RESULTS: A reduction of the mean weekly BW gain and organ weights (uteri and ovaries were observed in the Gen 10 group compared to the control group; these findings were reversed in the Gen 100 group. Follicle stimulating hormone and estrogen levels were increased in the Gen 10 group and reduced in the Gen 100 group. Luteinizing hormone was reduced in both groups of Genistein-treated animals, and there was a significant difference between the Gen 10 and control groups (p<0.05. These findings were consistent with increased atretic follicular count, a decreased number of corpus luteum and down-regulation of estrogen receptors-a in the uterine tissues of the Genistein-treated animals compared to the control animals. CONCLUSION: Post-weaning exposure to Genistein could affect the development of the reproductive system of ovarian-intact experimental rats because of its action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by regulating hormones and estrogen receptors.

  5. Impaired brain development in the rat following prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate at gestational day 17 and neurotrophin distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Grace, AA; Korf, J; Stampachiacchiere, B; Aloe, L

    2004-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are the consequence of a disrupted development of the CNS. Accordingly, intrauterine exposure to toxins may increase the risk for psychopathology. We investigated whether prenatal exposure of rats to the neurotoxin methylaxoxymethanol

  6. Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Bromantan (N-[2-adamantil]-N-[para-bromphenyl]amine) is an "actoprotective" drug widely used in Russia as a muscle performance-enhancing agent for sportsmen and as an immunostimulator in medicine. Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. Sexually mature female rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given bromantan at doses of 30 mg/kg (30-mg/kg group), 150 mg/kg (150-mg/kg group) and 600 mg/kg (600-mg/kg group) daily for 16 days, while the controls received the vehicle, amylaceous solution. Afterwards, treated females were mated with untreated males. The body weight change of the pregnant rats was monitored, as well as the length of gestation, litter size, sex ratio and number of stillborn. The offsprings were weighed and observed for external malformations, abnormalities of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes and open-field behaviour. Observation of rat dams revealed that their general state and activity in all groups did not differ significantly both during and after bromantan treatment. Bromantan had no adverse effects on body weight and gestation length of dams. Number of dams delivered per group did not differ from controls. There were stillborn rat pups in all litters, but the control group had less. One dam in the first group delivered a rat pup with a head hematoma. Litter size of the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups was decreased (by 34.9% and 44.2%, respectively) and increased in the 150-mg/kg group (by 45.1%, POpen-field testing (PND 40) resulted in an insignificant decrease of exploratory and locomotor behaviors for the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups. The number of grooming episodes was insignificantly decreased for the 30-mg/kg group and insignificantly increased for the 600-mg/kg group. In the passive avoidance testing, on the retention day (72 h later), entry latency for rat pups in the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups increased by 259.0%, 175.3% and 160

  7. Wfs1- deficient rats develop primary symptoms of Wolfram syndrome: insulin-dependent diabetes, optic nerve atrophy and medullary degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaas, Mario; Seppa, Kadri; Reimets, Riin; Jagomäe, Toomas; Toots, Maarja; Koppel, Tuuliki; Vallisoo, Tuuli; Nigul, Mait; Heinla, Indrek; Meier, Riho; Kaasik, Allen; Piirsoo, Andres; Hickey, Miriam A; Terasmaa, Anton; Vasar, Eero

    2017-08-31

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene and is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes, optic atrophy, hearing loss and a number of other complications. Here, we describe the creation and phenotype of Wfs1 mutant rats, in which exon 5 of the Wfs1 gene is deleted, resulting in a loss of 27 amino acids from the WFS1 protein sequence. These Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show progressive glucose intolerance, which culminates in the development of diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and severe body weight loss by 12 months of age. Beta cell mass is reduced in older mutant rats, which is accompanied by decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from 3 months of age. Medullary volume is decreased in older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats, with the largest decreases at the level of the inferior olive. Finally, older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show retinal gliosis and optic nerve atrophy at 15 months of age. Electron microscopy revealed axonal degeneration and disorganization of the myelin in the optic nerves of older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats. The phenotype of Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats indicates that they have the core symptoms of WS. Therefore, we present a novel rat model of WS.

  8. Effects of chronic treatment with valproate and oxcarbazepine on testicular development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Ali; Ekinci, Ozgür; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Gürgen, Seren Gulsen; Ekinci, Ozalp; Erdogan, Deniz; Coskun, Zafer Kutay; Tunc, Lutfi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on testicular development in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 14 rats each. Each group received the following via gavage over 90 days: group 1, tap water (control group); group 2, VPA (300mg/kg/day); group 3, OXC (100mg/kg/day). After sacrifice, body, testicular and epididymidis weights were measured. Testes were sampled, fixed and processed, and quantitative morphometric analysis of Sertoli cells, spermatocytes and spermatids was performed in stages II, V and XII by histopathological examination. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to transform growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and p53, and the apoptotic index was assessed using the TUNEL method. Testis and relative testis weights were significantly lower in the VPA group compared to the control group (p0.05). Apoptotic cell counts and p53 immunoreaction were significantly high and TGF-β1 expression was significantly lower in the VPA group compared to that of the control group (p0.05). Our results show that VPA treatment from prepuberty to adulthood significantly negatively affects spermatogenesis, not only by reducing testicular weight, but also by increasing apoptotic death and p53 and decreasing TGF-β1 activation. OXC has a minimal side effect on testicular development. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Curative effects of sodium fusidate on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, Roberto; Mangano, Katia; Quattrocchi, Cinzia

    2003-01-01

    Fusidic acid and sodium fusidate (fusidin) are antibiotics with low toxicity and powerful immunomodulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we have evaluated the effect of fusidin on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNB)-induced colitis in rats that serves....... These entailed a significant reduction in body weight loss, smaller increase in colon weights, milder macroscopic damage, and lower histological scores. In addition, when sacrificed at the end of the study, fusidin-treated rats had significantly lower blood levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon......-gamma compared with untreated controls. The present findings concur with the beneficial actions of fusidin in a pilot study conducted in patients with Crohn's disease and warrant controlled studies in humans with IBD....

  10. The effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the development of rat cerebral cortex, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Koji

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of neuronal migration on developing rat cerebral cortex, we need a tissue culture system in which neuronal migration can be observed. We prepared a tissue culture system of embryonic rat cerebral cortex starting on embryonic day 16 and cultivating it for 48 hours. The autoradiographic study in this system revealed not only the migration of 3 H-thymidine labeled neurons but also neuronal migration delays from low doses of ionizing radiation of more than 10 cGy. In addition, on immunohistochemical study, cell-cell adhesion molecule N-CAM staining was remarkably decreased in the matrix cell layer. In the tissue culture system where monoclonal anti-N-CAM antibodies were added, neuronal migration delay comparable to that of 20 cGy radiation was found. In conclusion, it was speculated that neuronal migration delay might be caused by disturbed N-CAM synthesis in matrix cells after low dose ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. In vivo and in vitro study of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.A.; Deaton, T.G.; Bawden, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake patterns of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel were studied in vivo and in vitro. Autoradiographic methods were used that preclude loss or translocation of tracers associated with water-soluble compounds in the sections. In eight-day-old rats injected with the tracer, /sub 90/Sr uptake in the enamel was significantly less than for dentin and bone, particularly at early sacrifice times. The uptake pattern of 90Sr was somewhat different from that previously observed for /sub 45/Ca. The in vitro experiments indicated that the viable intact enamel organ limits uptake of /sub 90/Sr by enamel in both the secretory and maturation phases of enamel formation

  12. Morphological and Histopathological Changes in Orofacial Structures of Experimentally Developed Acromegaly-Like Rats: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Iikubo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue enlargement and mandibular prognathism are clinically recognized in almost all patients with acromegaly. An acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I was used to investigate morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures and to clarify whether these changes were reversible. Exogenous administration of IGF-I evoked specific enlargement of the tongue with identifiable histopathological changes (increased muscle bundle width, increased space between muscle bundles, and increased epithelial thickness, elongation of the mandibular alveolar bone and ascending ramus, and lateral expansion of the mandibular dental arch. Regarding histopathological changes in the mandibular condyle, the cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix ratio, and number of osteoblasts were all significantly greater in this rat model. After normalization of the circulating IGF-I level, tongue enlargement and histopathological changes in the tongue and mandibular condyle were reversible, whereas morphological skeletal changes in the mandible remained.

  13. Peripheral Nerve Injury in Developing Rats Reorganizes Representation Pattern in Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, John P.; Sanes, Jerome N.

    1987-02-01

    We investigated the effect of neonatal nerve lesions on cerebral motor cortex organization by comparing the cortical motor representation of normal adult rats with adult rats that had one forelimb removed on the day of birth. Mapping of cerebral neocortex with electrical stimulation revealed an altered relationship between the motor cortex and the remaining muscles. Whereas distal forelimb movements are normally elicited at the lowest threshold in the motor cortex forelimb area, the same stimuli activated shoulder and trunk muscles in experimental animals. In addition, an expanded cortical representation of intact body parts was present and there was an absence of a distinct portion of motor cortex. These data demonstrate that representation patterns in motor cortex can be altered by peripheral nerve injury during development.

  14. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of cerebral cortex: I. Neuronal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes profound disruptions in the development of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effect of in utero ethanol exposure on the generation of neurons was determined. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet in which ethanol constituted 37.5% of the total caloric content (Et) or pair-fed an isocaloric control diet (Ct) from gestational day (GD) 6 to the day of birth. The time of origin of cortical neurons was determined in the mature pups of females injected with [3H]thymidine on one day during the period from GD 10 to the day of birth. The brains were processed by standard autoradiographic techniques. Ethanol exposure produced multiple defects in neuronal ontogeny. The period of generation was 1-2 days later for Et-treated rats than for rats exposed prenatally to either control diet. Moreover, the generation period was 1-2 days longer in Et-treated rats. The numbers of neurons generated on a specific day was altered; from GD 12-19 significantly fewer neurons were generated in Et-treated rats than in Ct-treated rats, whereas after GD 19 more neurons were born. The distribution of neurons generated on a specific day was disrupted; most notable was the distribution of late-generated neurons in deep cortex of Et-treated rats rather than in superficial cortex as they are in controls. Cortical neurons in Et-treated rats tended to be smaller than in Ct-treated rats, particularly early generated neurons in deep cortex. The late-generated neurons in Et-treated rats were of similar size to those in Ct-treated rats despite their abnormal position in deep cortex. Neurons in Ct-treated rats tended to be rounder than those in Et-treated rats which were more polarized in the radial orientation

  15. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  16. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  17. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  18. Dopamine antagonists during parturition disrupt maternal care and the retention of maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Rigero, Beth A; Bridges, Robert S

    2002-11-01

    Brief contact with pups at parturition enables the female rat to establish and retain the full repertoire of maternal behaviors, allowing her to respond rapidly to pups in the future. To determine whether the dopamine system is involved in the retention of maternal behavior, females were continuously infused with dopamine antagonists during the periparturitional period and then allowed either a brief interaction period with pups (3 h) or no interaction with pups (pups removed as they were born). Females were exposed to either the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) or the D2-like antagonist clebopride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg/day). The high dose of either DA antagonist resulted in significant attenuation of maternal care immediately postpartum. When tested for the retention of maternal behavior 7 days later, however, only the females exposed to the D2 antagonist displayed a delayed response to shown full maternal behavior (FMB) towards donor pups. Thus, while both dopamine receptor subtypes appear necessary for the full and rapid expression of maternal behavior during the early postpartum period, only the D2 receptor subtype appears to be involved in the retention of this behavior.

  19. Brief postnatal exposure to phenobarbital impairs passive avoidance learning and sensorimotor gating in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutherz, Samuel B; Kulick, Catherine V; Soper, Colin; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2014-08-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures. However, mounting preclinical evidence suggests that even brief exposure to phenobarbital in the neonatal period can induce neuronal apoptosis, alterations in synaptic development, and long-lasting changes in behavioral functions. In the present report, we treated neonatal rat pups with phenobarbital and evaluated behavior in adulthood. Pups were treated initially with a loading dose (80 mg/kg) on postnatal day (P)7 and with a lower dose (40 mg/kg) on P8 and P9. We examined sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition), passive avoidance, and conditioned place preference for cocaine when the animals reached adulthood. Consistent with our previous reports, we found that three days of neonatal exposure to phenobarbital significantly impaired prepulse inhibition compared with vehicle-exposed control animals. Using a step-though passive avoidance paradigm, we found that animals exposed to phenobarbital as neonates and tested as adults showed significant deficits in passive avoidance retention compared with matched controls, indicating impairment in associative memory and/or recall. Finally, we examined place preference conditioning in response to cocaine. Phenobarbital exposure did not alter the normal conditioned place preference associated with cocaine exposure. Our findings expand the profile of behavioral toxicity induced by phenobarbital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief postnatal exposure to phenobarbital impairs passive-avoidance learning and sensorimotor gating in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutherz, Samuel B.; Kulick, Catherine V.; Soper, Colin; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures. However, mounting preclinical evidence suggests that even brief exposure to phenobarbital in the neonatal period can induce neuronal apoptosis, alterations in synaptic development, and long-lasting changes in behavioral functions. In the present report, we treated neonatal rat pups with phenobarbital and evaluated behavior in adulthood. Pups were treated initially with a loading dose (80mg/kg) on postnatal day (P)7 and with a lower dose (40 mg/kg) on P8 and P9. We examined sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition), passive avoidance, and conditioned place preference to cocaine when the animals reached adulthood. Consistent with our previous reports, we found that three days of neonatal exposure to phenobarbital significantly impaired prepulse inhibition as compared to vehicle-exposed control animals. Using a step-though passive avoidance paradigm, we found that animals exposed to phenobarbital as neonates and tested as adults showed significant deficits in passive avoidance retention as compared to matched controls, indicating impairment in associative memory and/or recall. Finally, we examined place preference conditioning in response to cocaine. Phenobarbital exposure did not alter the normal conditioned place preference associated with cocaine exposure. Our findings expand the profile of behavioral toxicity induced by phenobarbital. PMID:25112558

  1. Study on developing brain damage of neonatal rats induced by enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Yang Shuqin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal Wistar pure bred rats were studied. Methods: The model of irradiation induced brain damage in vivo was settled. The effects of cerebrum exposure by 235 U on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by thirteen index determination of multiple parameters. The dynamic retention of autoradiographic tracks of 235 U in cells of developing brain was observed. The changes of NSE, IL-1β, SOD, and ET in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum after expose to 235 U were examined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The somatic growth such as increase of body weight and brain weight was lower significantly. The retardation of development was found such as eye opening, sensuous function as auditory startle, movement and coordination function and activity as swimming, physiological reflexes as negative geotaxis, surface righting, grasping reflex suspension and the tendency behavior. The data showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The micro-autoradiographic tracing showed that the tracks of 235 U were mainly accumulated in the nucleus of developing brain. At the same time only few tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. Experimental study showed that when the dose of 235 U irradiation was increased, the level of NSE was decreased and the IL-1β was increased. However, the results indicated that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of 235 U, and can be inhibited by the high dose. Conclusion: The behavior of internal irradiation from 235 U on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility and compensation in nervous cells

  2. Altered Functional Connectivity Following an Inflammatory White Matter Injury in the Newborn Rat: A High Spatial and Tem