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Sample records for developing rabbit ileum

  1. Transport of the alpha-amino-mono-carboxylic acid L-alanine by the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G

    1987-01-01

    The proposal that the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum is a high affinity carrier of the neutral amino acids was examined by means of measurements of influx across the brush border membrane of the intact epithelium using L-alanine as a representative of the neutral amino acids. Confirming...... the proposal, evidence was provided for mutual competitive inhibition between beta-alanine and L-alanine; and it was also demonstrated that a process contributes to the influx of L-alanine, which is characterized by a maximum rate of transport equal to that of beta-alanine and a Kt, which is equal to the Ki...... of L-alanine against the influx of beta-alanine. In the concentration range 0.01 to 0.125 mM the influx of L-alanine was found to be linearly related to the concentration indicating a significant unstirred layer influence on present and previous estimates of the Kt values for influx of amino acids...

  2. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

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    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  3. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  4. Development of the New Zealand White Rabbit Eye: I. Pre- and Postnatal Development of Eye Tunics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, M; Haddad, S; Emam, M

    2017-10-01

    The New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit has been and is right now regularly utilized in ophthalmic surgery evaluation. Inside NZW rabbit eye, the visibility of ocular structures throughout surgical procedure is fantastic. Younger rabbits are used in different ages for the evaluation of ophthalmic surgery. Complete studies of ocular development in the NZW rabbits have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the major landmarks and the time course of the pre- and post-natal development of the complete eye tunics of the NZW rabbit to give a superb model as well as a fruitful area for further ophthalmological investigations. Serial histological sections of NZW rabbit prenatal (E13-E28) and post-natal (P1-P14) stages were examined, respectively. The eye of the NZW rabbit developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were at the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, absence of pigmentation which represent an exploited benefit for ophthalmic surgery, remarkable Bowman's membrane at E25, poor developed ciliary stroma and juvenile retinal layer until P9. In human, the basic morphogenetic processes of the development of eye tunics are completed towards the end of the first half of gestation period. However, the latter represents the beginning stage of the development of eye tunics in the rabbit. Thus, allowing various extensive ophthalmic researches to be performed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  6. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

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    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  7. Altered Protein Expression in the Ileum of Mice Associated with the Development of Chronic Infections with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Fried, Bernard; Esteban, J. Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode that has been extensively used as experimental model to investigate the factors determining the expulsion of intestinal helminths or, in contrast, the development of chronic infections. Herein, we analyze the changes in protein expression induced by E. caproni infection in ICR mice, a host of high compatibility in which the parasites develop chronic infections. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the changes in protein expression, a two-dimensional DIGE approach using protein extracts from the intestine of naïve and infected mice was employed; and spots showing significant differential expression were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 37 spots were identified differentially expressed in infected mice (10 were found to be over-expressed and 27 down-regulated). These proteins were related to the restoration of the intestinal epithelium and the control of homeostatic dysregulation, concomitantly with mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins among others. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggests that changes in these processes in the ileal epithelium of ICR mice may facilitate the establishment of the parasite and the development of chronic infections. These results may serve to explain the factors determining the development of chronicity in intestinal helminth infection. PMID:26390031

  8. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Korfage, H. A.; Brugman, P.; Moorman, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin

  9. Postnatal development of fiber type composition in rabbit jaw and leg muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, J. A. M.; Helmers, R.; Matignon, M. de Goüyon; van Wessel, T.; Langenbach, G. E. J.; van Eijden, T. M. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the difference in fiber type composition and cross-sectional areas during postnatal development in male rabbit jaw muscles and compared these with changes in leg muscles. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content of the fibers was determined by immunohistochemistry. No fiber type difference

  10. [Dependence of rigor tension developed by skinned rabbit psoas fibers on the ionic strength of solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V V; Srebnitskaia, L K; Khromov, A S

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of isometric tension developed by a bundle of skinned rabbit psoas fibers when it is transferred from relaxing to rigor solution strongly depends on the ionic strength value of the bathing rigor solution. Upon elevation of the ionic strength from 0.04 to 0.34 the rigor tension declines about 2.3 times.

  11. Relationship between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Kemp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the relationships between BW at first insemination and subsequent body development, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling rate of rabbit does. Young rabbit does are vulnerable to body energy deficit in first lactation, resulting in

  12. Effects of Antisense Oligonucleotides against C-Reactive Protein on the Development of Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

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    Qi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still under debate. Many controversial and contradictory results using transgenic mice and rabbits have been published but it is also unclear whether CRP lowering can be used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In the current study, we examined the effects of the rabbit CRP antisense oligonucleotides (ASO on the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. CRP ASO treatment led to a significant reduction of plasma CRP levels; however, both aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were not significantly changed compared to those of control WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that inhibition of plasma CRP does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  13. Relation between the development of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis following glucocorticoid in a rabbit model

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    Tao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a recent increase in the number of patients suffering from bone and joint diseases, as a consequence of corticosteroids administration. There are more patients treated with low dose of GCs under long-term conditions in clinical, such as effect of GCs on Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn′s disease and Asthma patients. Hence, it was difficult for doctor to determine which problem occur first - OP or ON; however, there was no clinical report previously in the literature, and there was no effective animal model of OP and ON about low dose GCs. This study was conducted to develop rabbit models of glucocorticoid (GC-induced femoral head ON and OP and to investigate the temporal relationship between the occurrence of the two events following administration of glucocorticoids. Materials and Methods: Fifty six, 6 months old female rabbits were randomly divided into the GC group and control group (C. Rabbits received gluteal injections of methylprednisolone sodium succinate once a day for 4 weeks, while normal saline solution in the control group. Rabbits were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Hip magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the rabbits were sacrificed. Serum calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were also measured. The bone mineral density (BMD of femoral head and the femoral shaft were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The trabecular parameters of the femur and the 4 th lumbar vertebrae (L4 were measured with a micro-computed tomography (μ-CT. Also, the femoral head was stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: At 4 weeks in the GC group, the BMD of the femur reduced 33% and 22% in the femoral head and shaft; there was irregular intermediate to high T2-weighted images signals; μ-CT showed microfractures and cystic changes in the femoral head and L4 at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks in the GC group, the classical "line-like sign" indicating ON of the femoral head was

  14. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

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    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  15. Femoral trochlear groove development after patellar subluxation and early reduction in growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengjie; Ji, Gang; Yang, Xu; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ruipeng; Li, Mei; Wang, Fei; Dai, Chengliang; Li, Xiaona

    2016-01-01

    This animal study aimed to investigate whether early reduction in patellar subluxation could minimize femoral trochlear dysplasia in growing rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into four groups (N = 30 knees/group). The control group underwent no surgical procedures. The rabbits in the three experimental groups underwent surgical patellar subluxation. Those in the early-reduced group underwent reduction surgery 1 month after patellar subluxation. The late-reduced group underwent reduction surgery 2 months after patellar subluxation. The rabbits in the non-reduced group underwent no reduction surgery. CT scans were performed monthly to measure the sulcus angle and trochlear width and depth. Gross specimen examination and histological observation were performed to investigate anatomical configuration and changes in the trochlear groove cartilage. CT scans demonstrated significant differences in the sulcus angle, trochlear width and trochlear depth by 6 months after subluxation surgery in the late-reduced and non-reduced groups. No obvious differences in these parameters were seen in the early-reduced group compared with the control group. Gross specimen examination and histological investigations showed degenerative changes in the femoral trochlear groove and cartilage by 6 months after subluxation surgery in the late-reduced and non-reduced groups. No degenerative changes were found in the early-reduced group, compared with the control group. Our results indicate that patellar subluxation or dislocation early in an animal's development can lead to femoral trochlear dysplasia or flattening and that early relocation of the patella can prevent femoral trochlear dysplasia in growing rabbits.

  16. Effect of blood UV-irradiation on the development of alimentary cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbits (preliminary data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernigovskaya, S.V.; Yanushkene, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    In-house and literature data on possible effect of autotransfusion of UV-irradiated blood (AUVIB) on the development of hypercholesterolemia in rabbits and degree of ateriosclerotic change manifestation in the aorta of the animals are discussed

  17. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Casado, J.; Carpio, A.J.; Prada, L.M.; Tortosa, F.S.

    2015-07-01

    Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain). We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 %) than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %). The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity) are scarce. (Author)

  18. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain. We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 % than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %. The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity are scarce.

  19. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  20. B cell and antibody repertoire development in rabbits: the requirement of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, Rose G; Lanning, Dennis; Knight, Katherine L

    2006-01-01

    The antibody repertoire of rabbits has interested immunologists for decades, in part because of the ease with which large quantities of high affinity antibodies can be obtained in serum, and in part because of the presence of genetic variants, allotypes, within V(H), C(H) and C(L) regions. Studies of these allotypes led to the initial descriptions of allelic exclusion, and neonatal suppression of serum Ig production (allotype suppression), and were instrumental in demonstrating that V and C regions are encoded by separate genes and are usually expressed in cis. The immune system of rabbit continues to be of interest primarily because of the use of both gene conversion and somatic hypermutation to diversify rearranged heavy and light chain genes and the role that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and intestinal flora play in developing the primary (preimmune) antibody repertoire.

  1. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal.

  2. Temporal relationships exist between cecum, ileum and litter bacterial microbiomes in a commercial turkey flock, and subtherapeutic penicillin treatment impacts ileum bacterial community establishment

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    Jessica L Danzeisen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of twelve weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics.

  3. Development of a modified model of spinal cord ischemia injury by selective ligation of lumbar arteries in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W; Wen, J; Huang, Y-C; Yu, B-S

    2017-11-01

    Experimental study. The aim of this study is to develop a modified model of spinal cord ischemia in rabbits. Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Spine Surgery, Shenzhen, China. In total, 20 New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following four groups according to the level of ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries: (1) group A, sham group, no ligation, n=5; (2) group B, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at three levels (L2-L4, n=5); (3) group C, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at four levels (L2-L5, n=5); and (4) group D, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at five levels (L1-L5, n=5). The latency of motor-evoked potentials was measured intraoperatively and the modified Tarlov grades were scored, followed by a histological observation of spinal cord, on the seventh day after surgery. All 10 rabbits in Group A and Group B were electrophysiologically, neurologically and histologically normal. In Group C, moderate spinal cord ischemia injury was found in three of five rabbits: they had prolonged latency of motor-evoked potentials and neuronal karyopyknosis in the anterior horn of spinal cord, and the average Tarlov score was 4.2±0.8. In Group D, severe spinal cord ischemia injury was recorded in all the five rabbits: the latency of motor-evoked potential prolonged in one rabbit, whereas the waveform disappeared in four rabbits; loss of neurons and vacuolation of gray matter were seen in spinal cord sections, and the average Tarlov score was 0.6±0.9. Selective ligation of lumbar arteries was a modified method to induce feasible and reproducible model of spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

  4. Growth Development in Pre-Pubertal Female Rabbits Fed Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Grade) on the growth potential of young female rabbits. Forty pre-pubertal female rabbits within the age bracket of 16-17 weeks were used for this study. These forty young rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment group (A-E) with the control group inclusive. All other conditions of management were similar.

  5. Growth Development in Pre-Pubertal Female Rabbits Fed Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of crude oil (Bonny Light Grade) on the growth potential of young female rabbits. Forty pre-pubertal female rabbits within the age bracket of 16-17 weeks were used for this study. These forty young rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment group (A-E) with the ...

  6. Development of a rabbit's urethral sphincter deficiency animal model for anatomical-functional evaluation

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    M. Skaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a new durable animal model (using rabbits for anatomical-functional evaluation of urethral sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 New Zealand male rabbits, weighting 2.500 kg to 3.100 kg, were evaluated to develop an incontinent animal model. Thirty-two animals underwent urethrolysis and 8 animals received sham operation. Before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after urethrolysis or sham operation, it was performed cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP evaluation with different bladder distension volumes (10, 20, 30 mL. In each time point, 10 animals (8 from the study group and 2 from the sham group were sacrificed to harvest the bladder and urethra. The samples were evaluated by H&E and Masson's Trichrome to determine urethral morphology and collagen/smooth muscle density. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after urethrolysis, it was observed a significant decrease in LPP regardless the bladder volume (from 33.7 ± 6.6 to 12.8 ± 2.2 cmH2O. The histological analysis evidenced a decrease of 22% in smooth muscle density with a proportional increase in the collagen, vessels and elastin density (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Transabdominal urethrolysis develops urethral sphincter insufficiency in rabbits, with significant decrease in LPP associated with decrease of smooth muscle fibers and increase of collagen density. This animal model can be used to test autologous cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence treatment.

  7. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

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    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  8. Body morphometric development during growth and maturity of coloured dwarf rabbits available in the Italian market

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    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the live performance of “coloured dwarf” rabbits available in the Italian market during both the growing and adult maintenance periods to provide new insights on this breed, with specific regard to the gender effect. A further objective was to identify the morphometric characteristics of the selected population and compare them to the standard breeding requirements. Body weight (BW and body morphometric development were monitored in 145 “coloured dwarf” rabbits (80 males and 65 females during 2 different periods: 7-21 wk of age (growth and 28-45 wk of age (adultmaintenance. The animals were housed in individual cages and fed ad libitum with a commercial pelleted diet. Individual BW and feed consumption were measured twice a week to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion index, whereas the health status was monitored daily. At 20 and 45 wk of age, the skin fold width and body measurements were taken on each rabbit at predefined anatomical points. The body measurements included: body length (BL, ear length (EL, head height (HH, shoulder width (SW, rump width (RW, forehead width (FHW, head width (HW, tibia width (TW, thoracic circumference (TC, abdominal circumference (AC and 3 body indices: RW/BL, TC/BL, AC/BL. At 20 wk of age, the body weight of females (F was heavier than that of males (M (F: 1.630 vs. M: 1.542 g, P<0.001 and this significant difference was also maintained during the maintenance phase of the study (F: 1.953 vs. M: 1.850 g; P<0.001 at 45 wk. Interestingly, up to 20 wk of age average feed intake was higher and weight gain more rapid in F than M, whereas from 40 wk of age onwards the situation was reversed, as M registered a higher average feed intake (P<0.05. At 45 wk of age, the skin fold width was thicker in M than in F (M: 4.28 vs. F: 3.56 mm; P<0.001. All body measurements were affected by age and almost all of them also by gender, with the exception of BL, EL, FHW and

  9. How does a biopsy of endoscopically normal terminal ileum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... Background: Terminal ileum endoscopy and biopsy are the diagnostic tools of diseases attacking the ileum. However, abnormal histological findings can be found in ... lymphoid dominant structure, such as the Creutzfeldt-. Jakob disease that is resistant to sterilization of the. Libyan Journal of Medicine æ.

  10. Vascular remnants in the rabbit vitreous body. I. Morphological characteristics and relationship to vitreous embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; Van Luyn, MJA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we observed novel structures in the rabbit vitreous body. They were found in 18 out of 27 eyes from rabbits 0.5-36 months of age. These structures are scattered throughout the entire vitreous matrix. By light and transmission electron microscopy,

  11. Oral Glutamine Supplementation Benefits Jejunum but Not Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Hardy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine is the primary metabolic fuel of the small intestine. The ability of enteral glutamine to support jejunal architecture and metabolism is well established, but its effect on intestinal absorptive function, especially in the terminal ileum, remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional ileal fluid absorption surgical injury model and to determine if oral glutamine supplementation would be beneficial in accelerating healing and restoring function. The effects of either 1 cm resection and ileal end-to-end anastomosis or sham laparotomy on rat in vivo fluid absorption at study start (day 0, one and two days was investigated. In sham-operated rats, fluid absorption was not altered. In contrast, ileal fluid absorption was significantly reduced at days 0 (17.2±4.8 μL/cm/h and 1 (31.4±13.6 μL/cm/h, but returned to normal by day 2 (71.0±6.2 μL/cm/h in anastomosed rats. To examine the effects of glutamine in this model, rats were fed either glutamine (2.4 g/kg/day or an isonitrogenous glycine-supplemented elemental oral diet for five days before their randomization to sham or anastomotic groups. This dose of glutamine reached the ileum and was completely absorbed along the small intestine. Glutamine-fed rats demonstrated no difference in recovery of in vivo ileal fluid absorption, ileal villus morphometric measurements, mg DNA:mg protein ratio, degree of inflammation or glutaminase activity. In contrast, jejunal, but not ileal, villus morphometry, mg DNA:mg protein ratio and glutaminase activity were increased in glutamine-fed ‘not operated’ rats (P<0.01, indicating that the jejunum, but not the ileum, responded to the glutamine-supplemented diet. These studies demonstrate that ileal resection and anastomosis causes transient impairments in in vivo fluid absorption, and oral glutamine supplementation offers a beneficial effect to jejunal, but not ileal, intestinal mucosa. These results suggest

  12. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  13. Early development and the emergence of individual differences in behavior among littermates of wild rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Bautista, Amando; Roder, Manuel; Gilbert, Caroline; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    The ontogeny of associated individual differences in behavior and physiology during early postnatal life, and in particular the emergence of such differences among litter siblings, has been hardly explored in mammals under natural conditions. We studied such within-litter differences in behavior in European rabbit pups Oryctolagus cuniculus prior to weaning, and whether and how these differences co-varied with other individual characteristics such as postnatal body temperature and early growth. The study was conducted under semi-natural conditions in a colony of rabbits of wild origin, where the young were born and developed in nursery burrows. We equipped two siblings per litter with interscapular skin temperature loggers on postnatal day 2 and recorded temperature profiles for 48h. Individual body (skin) temperatures of pups within litters were repeatable across time, indicating the existence of consistent individual differences. Such differences within litters were associated with relative differences in pre-weaning growth, revealing that relatively warmer pups showed a greater increase in body mass during the nest period. Between postnatal days 12 and 17, after the pups had reached a developmental stage of greater mobility, we carried out different behavioral tests: a handling-restraint test, an open field test and a jump-down test from a platform. Individual responses in the former two tests were associated, as those pups showing a quicker struggling response to restraint during handling also exhibited greater exploratory activity in the open field. This correlation across contexts suggests the existence of personality types in wild rabbits at an early developmental stage. Furthermore, pups' behavioral responses were strongly associated with their relative within-litter body mass at testing. Animals with a lower body mass compared to their siblings showed a relatively quicker struggle response to handling restraint and covered a relatively larger distance in

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Aaron; Correll, James W.; Ladd, Anthony T.

    1951-01-01

    A study was made of the relationship of blood lipids to the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Rabbits fed a diet containing cholesterol were found to develop hyperlipemia characterized by a great increase in blood cholesterol and a much lesser increase in blood phospholipids; after several weeks they manifested conspicuous atherosclerosis of the aorta, as has often been observed by others. Comparable rabbits fed the same diets containing added cholesterol were given in addition repeated intravenous injections of the surface-active agents Tween 80 and Triton A20; these animals developed hyperlipemia which was characterized by a great increase in blood cholesterol and an equivalent or even greater increase in phospholipids, and they had much less atherosclerosis than did the control rabbits fed cholesterol alone. In further experiments it was observed that repeated intravenous injections of Tween 80 did not result in resorption of previously induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. The findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of natural and experimental atherosclerosis. PMID:14824410

  15. Development of tissue inflammation accompanied by NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rabbits infected with Treponema pallidum strain Nichols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Rong; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yu-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Zhen; Gao, Zheng-Xiang; Gao, Kun; Tong, Man-Li; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Li, Shu-Lian; Lin, Hui-Ling; Li, Wen-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ming; Lin, Yong; Liu, Li-Li; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2018-03-01

    The inflammasome responses in Treponema pallidum infection have been poorly understood to date. This study aimed to investigate the expression of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of tissue inflammation in rabbits infected with T. pallidum. Forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to a blank group or an infection group, and the latter was divided into no benzathine penicillin G (BPG) and BPG treatment subgroups. Rabbits in the infection group were injected intradermally with 0.1 mL of a 10 7 /mL T. pallidum suspension at 10 marked sites along the back, and the blank group was treated with normal saline. The BPG treatment subgroup received 200,000 U of BPG administered intramuscularly twice, at 14 d and 21 d post-infection. The development of lesions was observed, and biopsies of the injection site and various organs, including the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and testis, were obtained for NLRP3, caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA analysis during infection. Blood was also collected for the determination of IL-1β concentration. Rabbits infected with T. pallidum (both the BPG treatment and no BPG treatment subgroups), exhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in cutaneous lesions, showing a trend in elevation to decline; NLRP3 mRNA expression reached a peak at 18 d in the BPG treatment subgroup and 21 d in the no BPG treatment subgroup and returned to "normal" levels [vs. the blank group (P > 0.05)] at 42 d post-infection. The trend was similar to the change in cutaneous lesions in the infected rabbits, which reached a peak at 16 d in the BPG treatment subgroup and 18 d in the no BPG treatment subgroup. NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β mRNA expression levels were slightly different in different organs. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was also observed in the kidney, liver, lung, spleen and testis. IL-1β expression was observed in the kidney, liver, lung and spleen; however

  16. Effect of Dietary Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxides on Blood Cholesterol, Lipids, and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Min, Byungrok; Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol (CHO) and cholesterol oxides (COPs) on the development of atherosclerosis and the changes in fatty acid and blood characteristics in rabbits. In the first study, forty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed commercial rabbit chow with no added CHO or COPs, 1 g CHO, 0.9 g CHO + 0.1 g COPs, 0.8 g CHO + 0.2 g COPs, or 0.5 g CHO + 0.5 g COPs per kg diet. In the second study, 24 male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 3 groups and fed a diet containing 2 g CHO, 1.6 g CHO + 0.4 g COPs, or 1.2 g CHO + 0.8 g COPs per kg diet. All diets induced atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbits’ ascending thoracic aorta. The serum CHO and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly with the increased levels of CHO in the diets. Dietary CHO or COPs did not influence high-density lipoprotein CHO levels. The ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid increased as the level of dietary CHO and COPs increased. PMID:23774834

  17. RABBIT EARS, encoding a SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein, regulates petal development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Matsumoto, Noritaka; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2004-01-01

    Floral organs usually initiate at fixed positions in concentric whorls within a flower. Although it is understood that floral homeotic genes determine the identity of floral organs, the mechanisms of position determination and the development of each organ have not been clearly explained. We isolated a novel mutant, rabbit ears (rbe), with defects in petal development. In rbe, under-developed petals are formed at the correct position in a flower, and the initiation of petal primordia is altered. The rbe mutation affects the second whorl organ shapes independently of the organ identity. RBE encodes a SUPERMAN-like protein and is located in the nucleus, and thus may be a transcription factor. RBE transcripts are expressed in petal primordia and their precursor cells, and disappeared at later stages. When cells that express RBE are ablated genetically, no petal primordia arise. RBE is not expressed in ap1-1 and ptl-1 mutants, indicating that RBE acts downstream of AP1 and PTL genes. These characteristics suggest that RBE is required for the early development of the organ primordia of the second whorl.

  18. Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left

  19. Ileum neovaginoplasty for Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. Al-Mehaisen

    2017-02-21

    Hauser syndrome, and to present further evidence on the successful use of ileum segment as an additional procedure for the creation of a neovagina. Methods: Five women presented with primary amenorrhea, normal ...

  20. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Che; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Wang, San-Fa; Chiang, Huei-Ching; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Ho, Yung-Chyan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2003-08-27

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, is usually used effectively in native medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, and liver disorders. Here, we report an extract, HSE (H. sabdariffa extract), which is designed to exhibit hypolipidemia and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. New Zealand White rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3%), lard oil (3%) diet (HCD) with or without 0.5 or 1% HSE for 10 weeks. The levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in the serum of rabbits fed HCD plus HSE than in the serum of rabbits fed HCD. Feeding HSE (0.5 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Histopathological examination showed that HSE reduced foam cell formation and inhibited smooth muscle cell migration and calcification in the blood vessel of rabbits. These results suggest that HSE inhibits serum lipids and shows an antiatherosclerotic activity.

  2. Implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for artificial vision in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kamei, Motohiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yasuo; Fujikado, Takashi; Ozawa, Motoki; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical procedures involved in the implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for inducing artificial vision. The electrode device comprised seven wire stimulation electrodes and a return electrode (diameter 50 μm), one manipulation rod (diameter 100 μm), and a cylindrical silicone board (diameter 2.0 mm). The stimulation electrodes and the manipulation rod protruded through the board to allow implantation of the electrode tips into the optic disc of the rabbit eye. The surgical procedures required to insert the device into the vitreous cavity and implant the device into the optic disc were evaluated. When the electrodes were stimulated, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were recorded at the visual cortex. The electrode device was inserted into the vitreous cavity with no damage using a trocar through a scleral incision. The device was easily manipulated using vitreoretinal forceps in the vitreous cavity, and the electrode tips were implanted into the optic disc in a single insertion after vitrectomy. When electrical stimulation was applied, EEPs were recorded from all electrode pairs. The newly developed electrode device was inserted into the eye and implanted into the optic nerve disc smoothly and safely, suggesting that these surgical procedures are useful for our artificial vision system.

  3. HPLC method development and validation for the estimation of axitinibe in rabbit plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanta Suneetha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A rapid, sensitive, and accurate high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of axitinibe (AN in rabbit plasma is developed using crizotinibe as an internal standard (IS. Axitinibe is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of advanced kidney cancer, which works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters 2695, Kromosil (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column using a mobile phase containing buffer (pH 4.6 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 v/v with a flow rate of1 mL/min. The analyte and internal standard were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile. The elution was detected by photo diode array detector at 320 nm.The total chromatographic runtime is 10.0 min with a retention time for axitinibe and IS of 5.685, and 3.606 min, respectively. The method was validated over a dynamic linear range of 0.002-0.2µg/mL for axitinibe with a correlation coefficient of r2 0.999.

  4. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  5. A rare case of ileus caused by ileum endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, Dan; Chicea, Radu; Ciprian, Tanasescu; Beli, Laurentiu; Dan, Sabau; Mihetiu, Alin; Adrian, Boicean

    2016-01-01

    We report our experience involving a rare case of ileum endometriosis complicated with small bowel obstruction. 33 years old female patient, admitted to emergency service with abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and vomiting. Abdominal X-ray showed dilated small bowel loops. Computerized tomography scan showed dilated small intestine segments excepting last ileum loop, gastric distension, enlarged ovaries. Emergency laparotomy was performed, showing acute bowel obstruction due to a stenotic tumor placed on the terminal ileum, cecum tumors, multiple tumors in Douglas pouch, multiple mesenteric enlarged lymph nodes. Right colectomy is performed with an ileo-transverso stomy placed in right hypochondrium. Postoperative evolution without complication, patient discharged after 13-days hospitalization. After hormonal treatment, she returned for a second look and ileotransverso anastomosis. Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women. Ileum localization is very rare (1%-7%), causing intestinal obstruction 7%-23% of cases. Intraoperative differential diagnosis is difficult, predisposing at confusion with other types of tumors. In the absence of fast microscopic exam, the tumor was considered malignant and imposed a right hemicolectomy. Intestinal obstruction due to ileum endometriosis is a rare condition, however, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. growth development in pre-pubertal female rabbits fed crude oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMA

    . (1986) was also given as supplement feed while clean-cool water was provided ad-libitum. All the animals were housed in conventional single-tier wire hutches. On commencement of the crude oil treatment, the forty rabbits were randomly.

  7. Protective Effects of Setarud (IMODTM on Development of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Shahhosseiny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new herbal drug setarud (IMODTM containing selenium, carotene, and flavonoids, was expected to have positive effects on lipid metabolism and liver functions, due to the nature of its primary components. This study was designed to determine effectiveness of the drug in reducing the risk of development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory animals. Methods: Two groups of male rabbits (n=10 per group as: intact and control groups on regular chow, were fed a high-cholesterol diet, and two experimental groups were maintained on the same diet and treated with different daily doses (0.02 g/kg and 0.04 g/kg of setarud (brand name IMOD®, Pars Roos, Iran. The treatment groups were then compared with the intact and control groups and with one another for the effects of the drug which was determined by changes in blood sugar, serum lipid levels, and liver function tests. Results: Results showed that drug had important benefits in alleviating the impact of high-cholesterol diet on serum lipids and liver function markers in drug-treated groups relative to hyperlipidemic controls (p < 0.001. A more favorable modification of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and the atherogenic index was found in animals, which received 0.04 g/kg drug, as compared to the 0.02 g/kg dose group (p < 0.05. Assessment of serum total protein, albumin, transaminases, and bilirubin levels showed that no changes in liver function of control and drug-treated animals during the period of the study. Conclusion: From the results of this study it may concluded that setarud has dose-dependent positive effects on liver and lipid metabolism and may acts as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent.

  8. Ileum Histoplasmosis Mimicking Intestinal Tuberculosis and Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Jiang; Dong, Qi-Chao; Lin, Xu; Chen, Yu-Ping; Gong, Fei-Yue; Liang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) without pulmonary and bone marrow involvement is very rare worldwide. It can be misdiagnosed as intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease. There are just few case reports of GIH in patients with a positive HIV antibody test. Here, we report a patient who presented to our hospital with repeated intestinal obstruction. The suspicious diagnosis was intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease due to unspecific clinical manifestations and radiologic images. Our patient's HIV antibody test was negative. She had no medical prescriptions. Therefore, our differential diagnosis needed to include ileum histoplasmosis besides intestinal lymphoma, intestinal tuberculosis, and Crohn's disease. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with ileum histoplasmosis due to surgical resection. It is important to be aware of potential infectious diseases, such as ileum histoplasmosis, when making a differential diagnosis. Moreover, surgical resection might be the final approach for small-intestine stricture with fibrosis.

  9. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2±0.12 mm 2 , and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits

  10. New insights into the developing rabbit brain using diffusion tensor tractography and generalized q-sampling MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yong Lim

    Full Text Available The use of modern neuroimaging methods to characterize the complex anatomy of brain development at different stages reveals an enormous wealth of information in understanding this highly ordered process and provides clues to detect neurological and neurobehavioral disorders that have their origin in early structural and functional cerebral maturation. Non-invasive diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI is able to distinguish cerebral microscopic structures, especially in the white matter regions. However, DTI is unable to resolve the complicated neural structure, i.e., the fiber crossing that is frequently observed during the maturation process. To overcome this limitation, several methods have been proposed. One such method, generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI, can be applied to a variety of datasets, including the single shell, multi-shell or grid sampling schemes that are believed to be able to resolve the complicated crossing fibers. Rabbits have been widely used for neurodevelopment research because they exhibit human-like timing of perinatal brain white matter maturation. Here, we present a longitudinal study using both DTI and GQI to demonstrate the changes in cerebral maturation of in vivo developing rabbit brains over a period of 40 weeks. Fractional anisotropy (FA of DTI and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA of GQI indices demonstrated that the white matter anisotropy increased with age, with GFA exhibiting an increase in the hippocampus as well. Normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA of GQI also revealed an increase in the hippocampus, allowing us to observe the changes in gray matter as well. Regional and whole brain DTI tractography also demonstrated refinement in fiber pathway architecture with maturation. We concluded that DTI and GQI results were able to characterize the white matter anisotropy changes, whereas GQI provided further information about the gray matter hippocampus area. This developing rabbit brain

  11. Diverticulitis of multiple diverticulosis of the terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulosis of the terminal ileum is very rare. We report a case of diverticulitis of multiple diverticula of the terminal ileum. A 67-year-old Japanese woman consulted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and melena. A blood laboratory revealed severe anemia increased CRP (11.21 mg/dl). The upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed no significant changes. The colon was free from diverticulum. CT demonstrated two tumors in the small intestine. PET identified a few shadows identical to the tumors detected by CT. The clinical diagnosis was small intestinal tumors, particularly malignant lymphoma. Operation was performed, and it revealed multiple tumor-like masses in the terminal ileum. The ulcers are deep and appeared diverticula. Microscopically, the diverticula were located in the proper muscle and subserosa. The walls of the diverticula were composed of granulation tissue with heavy lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration. Diverticular mucosal walls were recognized in some areas. The lymphocytes were free from atypia, and no features of malignant lymphoma were recognized. The pathological diagnosis was severe diverticulitis of multiple diverticula in the terminal ileum.

  12. Contraction Of Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum By Tephrosia vogelii Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the isolated guinea pig ileum, using the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f., and with the aim of determining its effects on contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. Modified Magnus technique was employed in setting up the tissue. Acetylcholine (ACh), histamine and ...

  13. Intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the ileum originated 40 years after ileosigmoidostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameshima Shinichi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs are rare carcinomas. They are asymptomatic and usually neither endoscopy nor contrast studies are performed for screening Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese male had a positive fecal occult blood test at a regular check-up in 2006. He suffered appendicitis and received an ileosigmoidostomy in 1966. A colonoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal lesion with an unclear margin at the ileum side of the anastomosis. A mucosal biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Excision of the anastomosis was performed for this patient. The resected specimen showed a flat mucosal lesion with a slight depression at the ileum adjacent to the anastomosis. Histological examination revealed a well differentiated intramucosal adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ. Immunohistological staining demonstrated the overexpression of p53 protein in the adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the ileum at such an early stage is a very rare event. In this case, there is a possibility that the ileosigmoidostomy resulted in a back flow of colonic stool to the ileum that caused the carcinogenesis of the small intestine.

  14. Ileum neovaginoplasty for Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review treatment modalities of Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome, and to present further evidence on the successful use of ileum segment as an additional procedure for the creation of a neovagina. Methods: Five women presented with primary amenorrhea, normal secondary female sexual ...

  15. Human Bone Derived Collagen for the Development of an Artificial Corneal Endothelial Graft. In Vivo Results in a Rabbit Model.

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    Natalia Vázquez

    Full Text Available Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world's population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane. Human corneal endothelial cells were cultured from corneal rims after corneal penetrating keratoplasty and type I collagen was isolated from remnant cancellous bone chips. Isolated type I collagen was analyzed by western blot, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry and quantified using the exponentially modified protein abundance index. Later on, collagen solution was casted at room temperature obtaining an optically transparent and mechanically manageable membrane that supports the growth of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells which expressed characteristic markers of corneal endothelium: zonula ocluddens-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase. To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of our artificial endothelial grafts, human purified type I collagen membranes cultured with rabbit corneal endothelial cells were transplanted in New Zealand white rabbits that were kept under a minimal immunosuppression regimen. Transplanted corneas maintained transparency for as long as 6 weeks without obvious edema or immune rejection and maintaining the same endothelial markers that in a healthy cornea. In conclusion, it is possible to develop an artificial human corneal endothelial graft using remnant tissues that are not employed in transplant procedures. This artificial endothelial graft can restore the integrality of corneal endothelium in an experimental model of

  16. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  17. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Rashade A H; Phipps, Andrew J; Yamamoto, Brenda; Green, Patrick; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus. Early immune responses that allow establishment of the infection are difficult to study without effective animal models. We have developed a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay to monitor the early events of HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Rabbit skin fibroblast cell lines were established by transformation with a plasmid expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and used as autochthonous targets (derived from same individual animal) to measure CTL activity against HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) constructs expressing either HTLV-1 envelope surface unit (SU) glycoprotein 46 or Tax proteins were used to infect fibroblast targets in a (51)Cr-release CTL assay. Rabbits inoculated with Jurkat T cells or ACH.2 cells (expressing ACH HTLV-1 molecule clone) were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 21, and 34 wk post-infection. ACH.2-inoculated rabbits were monitored serologically and for viral infected cells following ex vivo culture. Proviral load analysis indicated that rabbits with higher proviral loads had significant CTL activity against HTLV-1 SU as early as 2 wk post-infection, while both low- and high-proviral-load groups had minimal Tax-specific CTL activity throughout the study. This first development of a stringent assay to measure HTLV-1 SU and Tax-specific CTL assay in the rabbit model will enhance immunopathogenesis studies of HTLV-1 infection. Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU.

  18. Development of simplified sampling methods for behavioural data in rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alfonso-Carrillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the results of different simplified sampling methods for behavioural data compared to reference records of 24-h in order to assess rabbit doe behaviours at different physiological stages (gestation and lactation in animals housed in 2 types of cages (conventional and alternative. In total, we analysed 576 h of continuous video of 12 rabbit does at the end of lactation and the same females after weaning. The behavioural observations were studied using 3 independent categories of classification (location in the cage, posture and functional behaviours. Continuous behavioural recordings of 24 h were considered as the reference method to validate another 4 data collection sampling methods by aggregated video recordings of different frequency and duration [regular short and long methods with 2.4 and 8 h of observation respectively, and irregular (more frequent during the active period short and long methods with 6 and 8 h of observation, respectively]. The current results showed that, independently of the housing system, the best method to reduce the total observation time required to assess rabbit does’ behaviour depends on the trait studied and physiological stage of the does. In gestating does, irregular methods were not suitable to estimate behaviours of long duration such as lying, sitting, resting and grooming. However, in both physiological stages, regular methods were accurate for location behaviours, postures and functional behaviours of long duration. Instead, for the study of infrequent behaviours performed mainly during dark period, where coefficients of variation were high, the irregular long method led to the lowest mean estimation errors.

  19. Mechanical Ventilation Alters the Development of Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia in Rabbit.

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    Saber-Davide Barbar

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is common during mechanical ventilation (MV. Beside obvious deleterious effects on muco-ciliary clearance, MV could adversely shift the host immune response towards a pro-inflammatory pattern through toll-like receptor (TLRs up-regulation. We tested this hypothesis in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus VAP. Pneumonia was caused by airway challenge with S. aureus, in either spontaneously breathing (SB or MV rabbits (n = 13 and 17, respectively. Pneumonia assessment regarding pulmonary and systemic bacterial burden, as well as inflammatory response was done 8 and 24 hours after S. aureus challenge. In addition, ex vivo stimulations of whole blood taken from SB or MV rabbits (n = 7 and 5, respectively with TLR2 agonist or heat-killed S. aureus were performed. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation. After 8 hours of infection, lung injury was more severe in MV animals (1.40±0.33 versus [vs] 2.40±0.55, p = 0.007, along with greater bacterial concentrations (6.13±0.63 vs. 4.96±1.31 colony forming units/gram, p = 0.002. Interleukin (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-αserum concentrations reached higher levels in MV animals (p = 0.010. Whole blood obtained from MV animals released larger amounts of cytokines if stimulated with TLR2 agonist or heat-killed S. aureus (e.g., TNF-α: 1656±166 vs. 1005±89; p = 0.014. Moreover, MV induced TLR2 overexpression in both lung and spleen tissue. MV hastened tissue injury, impaired lung bacterial clearance, and promoted a systemic inflammatory response, maybe through TLR2 overexpression.

  20. Development of rabbit monoclonal antibodies for detection of alpha-dystroglycan in normal and dystrophic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa J Fortunato

    Full Text Available Alpha-dystroglycan requires a rare O-mannose glycan modification to form its binding epitope for extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin. This functional glycan is disrupted in a cohort of muscular dystrophies, the secondary dystroglycanopathies, and is abnormal in some metastatic cancers. The most commonly used reagent for detection of alpha-dystroglycan is mouse monoclonal antibody IIH6, but it requires the functional O-mannose structure for recognition. Therefore, the ability to detect alpha-dystroglycan protein in disease states where it lacks the full O-mannose glycan has been limited. To overcome this hurdle, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the alpha-dystroglycan C-terminus were generated. The new antibodies, named 5-2, 29-5, and 45-3, detect alpha-dystroglycan from mouse, rat and pig skeletal muscle by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In a mouse model of fukutin-deficient dystroglycanopathy, all antibodies detected low molecular weight alpha-dystroglycan in disease samples demonstrating a loss of functional glycosylation. Alternately, in a porcine model of Becker muscular dystrophy, relative abundance of alpha-dystroglycan was decreased, consistent with a reduction in expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in affected muscle. Therefore, these new rabbit monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for alpha-dystroglycan core protein detection and will enhance dystroglycan-related studies.

  1. Growth and development of rabbit oocytes in vitro: effect of fetal bovine serum concentration on culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Kida, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Kitada, K; Matsumoto, K; Saeki, K; Taniguchi, T; Hosoi, Y

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to develop a culture system that produced blastocyst stage embryos from rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. Two experiments were performed. First, various concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5%) were used in the culture medium for in vitro growth (IVG) of oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 299 μm in diameter. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed on mature oocytes obtained after IVG for 8 days and in vitro maturation for 14 to 16 h. Rates of survival and pronuclear formation after ICSI were higher for oocytes grown in a medium with 0.05% FBS compared to oocytes grown in a medium lacking FBS (97.6 vs. 76.9%, 97.5 vs. 70%, P medium containing 0.05% FBS than in the medium lacking FBS (9.5 vs. 17.9%, P medium for IVG improved developmental competence of rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the radiation (Co60) in pre-implants rabbit embryos: effect on atypic mitotic index and embryo pole development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: embryo pole development; percentage of abnormal mitotic figures. irradiation time was associated with lower scores of embryo pole development, but not with irradiation dose. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The abnormal mitotic cells was affected both by the time and dose of irradiation. (author)

  3. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  4. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  5. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  6. Immunolocalization of aquaporin-10 in tuberculous human ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, T.; Tahir, M.; Munir, B.; Lone, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of AQP-10 in the ileum of patients suffering from intestinal tuberculosis. Study Design: A cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, in year 2010. Methodology: Thirty seven paraffin embedded blocks of either surgically resected specimens or ileal biopsies with diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis were selected from records of the histopathology departments of local hospitals. These cases were subdivided into two groups: A-1 (with tuberculous granulomatous lesions with or without epithelium) and A-2 (without tuberculous lesion lying adjacent to the lesions and having an intact epithelium). Specimens of small intestine with malignancy, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoeal diseases caused by Rota virus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli were excluded. The variables studied were the presence/absence and location of AQP-10. The most common clinical symptoms found in tuberculous patients were abdominal pain followed by diarrhoea. A significant association was found between AQP-10 and site of granulomas and caseation necrosis (p=0.002 and p=0.006 respectively). Absence of AQP-10 was observed in tuberculous ileum at the site of lesion with ulceration. A strong positive staining of AQP-10 was found in the intact epithelium at sites adjacent to the tuberculous lesion indicating its localization near the epithelial lining of ileum. Conclusion: AQP-10 was present only on the epithelial cells occurring at the luminal side of the villi and was absent in tuberculous ileum where epithelium was absent. (author)

  7. The influence of prenatal X-irradiation on the activity of SRNA-aminoacyl synthetases in the developing rabbit brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, M.; Zgorzalewicz, B.

    1976-01-01

    The activities of sRNA-aminoacyl synthetases were investigated in the cerebral white and grey matter of rabbits subjected during their prenatal life to a single x-ray dose of 150 rad. The results of investigations have shown that ionizing radiation acting during intrauterine development of the experimental animal brings about a distinct depression of all sRNA-aminoacyl synthetase activities in the newborn irradiated litter. During the postnatal development of these animals the activities of some of the synthetases further decreased and even at adulthood, where they are normally very low, their activities were below the control values. The activities of some other synthetases, after the initial depression, showed no further decrease and at adulthood had values comparable to controls. The results indicate clearly that prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation also affects the steps of protein biosynthesis which depend on the activity of sRNA-aminoacyl synthetases. (author)

  8. Inhibitory actions of eugenol on rat isolated ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cardoso, José H; Lahlou, Saad; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina N; Criddle, David N; Pinto Duarte, Glória I B; Santos, Marcia A V; Magalhães, Pedro J C

    2002-09-01

    The effects of eugenol (1-2000 microM) on rat isolated ileum were studied. Eugenol relaxed the basal tonus (IC50 83 microM) and the ileum precontracted with 60 mM KCl (IC50 162 microM), an action unaltered by 0.5 microM tetrodotoxin, 0.2 mM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 0.5 mM hexamethonium, and 1 microM indomethacin. Eugenol did not alter the resting transmembrane potential (Em) of the longitudinal muscle layer under normal conditions (5.0 mM K+) or in depolarised tissues. Eugenol reversibly inhibited contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and K+ (40 mM) with IC50 values of approximately 228 and 237 microM, respectively. Eugenol blocked the component of ACh-induced contraction obtained in Ca(2+)-free solution (0.2 mM EGTA) or in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM). Our results suggest that eugenol induces relaxation of rat ileum by a direct action on smooth muscle via a mechanism largely independent of alterations of Em and extracellular Ca2+ influx.

  9. Morphometry of megakaryocytes in the liver of New Zealand White rabbits during intrauterine and postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Maria Rita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic megakaryocytic cells of New Zealand White rabbit in the intrauterine phase and in the immediate postnatal period were studied. Statistical analysis of the data concerning the cytoplasm and nucleus of those cells, i.e., area, perimeter, maximum diameter, minimum diameter, volume and shape factor, presented significant differences (p<0.01 for F values concerning the life phases studied on15th, 22nd and 29th day of intrauterine life and 10th day of postnatal life, and for F values for animal within each phase. The Tukey?s test showed that most of the parameters studied in the cytoplasm and nucleus of these megakaryocytic cells presented the lowest values on the 15th day of intrauterine life and the highest on the 22nd day of the same phase.

  10. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Flores

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor infants born moderately/late preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs.Materials and methodsLambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n = 7 or term (147 days gestation; n = 9 were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5.ResultsThere was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 (p = 0.01. Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p < 0.0001 and crypt depth (term: 153 ± 11 µm, preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p = 0.01 were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend (p = 0.06 for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin (p = 0.02 and angiotensin II (p = 0.03 was significantly greater in the preterm lambs.ConclusionFindings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the

  11. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Tracey J; Nguyen, Vivian B; Widdop, Robert E; Sutherland, Megan R; Polglase, Graeme R; Abud, Helen E; Black, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    For infants born moderately/late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation), immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs. Lambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n  = 7) or term (147 days gestation; n  = 9) were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5). There was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 ( p  = 0.01). Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p  preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p  = 0.01) were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend ( p  = 0.06) for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin ( p  = 0.02) and angiotensin II ( p  = 0.03) was significantly greater in the preterm lambs. Findings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the preterm ileum, however, may be of concern.

  12. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37°C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

  14. Development of a simple dry eye model in the albino rabbit and evaluation of some tear substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalassi, S; Panichi, L; Chetoni, P; Saettone, M F; Boldrini, E

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the development of a simple dry eye model in the rabbit, induced by daily repeated instillations of 1.0% atropine sulphate. The evolution of the dry eye syndrome in the animals was assessed by the Schirmer I test and by examination of the cornea after fluorescein staining. The model produced rapidly some typical dry eye symptoms and could be satisfactorily used for a preliminary assessment of the protective activity of some polymeric tear substitutes. These were based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium hyaluronate, sodium polyacrylate or tamarind gum. The latter polymer showed the best overall results. Ferning tests on the formulations were also performed: their validity as predictors of the efficacy of tear substitutes is discussed.

  15. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  16. Maternal exposure to procymidone has no effects on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses in a modified developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kishimoto, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of procymidone (PCM) on development of male rabbit fetal external genitalia. PCM was administered once daily by gavage at dose levels of 0 (control) and 125mg/kg/day to pregnant rabbits from gestation day 6 through 28 and fetal external genitalia was observed in detail. This treatment period covered the critical stage of sexual differentiation of fetal external genitalia in rabbits. In the maternal animals, food consumption was reduced in the PCM group. There were no effects of PCM on maternal caesarean sectioning data or fetal external observations. In fetal external genitalia observations, there were no significant differences between the control and PCM treatment group in any of the following parameters: ano-genital distance (AGD), phallus boundary-genital distance, diameter of preputial lamella, ventral gap of preputial lamella, or ventral gap to diameter ration of preputial lamella, though severe feminization such as decreasing of AGD and hypospadias in male rat offspring at the dose level of 125 mg/kg of PCM were reported. These results suggest that PCM has no effect on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses, and species difference of developmental effects of PCM on sexual differentiation exists.

  17. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for rabbit prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeilly, A.S.; Friesen, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    A highly specific heterologous double-antibody RIA has been developed to measure rabbit PRL by using guinea pig antiserum to human PRL and ovine [ 125 I]iodo-PRL. Rabbit pituitary PRL and serum give parallel dose-response curves in the assay and no cross-reaction (<0.1%) occurs with GH, placental lactogens, LH, FSH, or TSH from several different species. The assay is suitable for the measurement of human, ovine, bovine, caprine, and canine PRL in addition to rabbit PRL, but shows no cross-reaction with rat PRL. Reproducibility and precision of the assay are within acceptable limits. Gel filtration of rabbit pituitary PRL and rabbit serum on Sephadex G-100 revealed coincident peaks of activity measured by RIA and by PRL radioreceptor assay. The molecular weight of rabbit PRL appeared similar to that of ovine PRL. Serum PRL levels increased after the injection of both TRH and chlorpromazine and were reduced by CB154 (Bromocriptine). Venepuncture stress caused an increase in PRL in nonpregnant or postpartum nonsuckled animals, but small or no increases were seen in lactating female rabbits

  18. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (Ptablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID

  19. Analysis of the cellular Aspergillus fumigatus proteome that reacts with sera from rabbits developing an acquired immunity after experimental aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Amstrong, Victor W; Gross, Uwe; Reichard, Utz

    2010-06-01

    Invasive aspergillosis caused by the mould Aspergillus fumigatus is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection in the immunocompromised host. In this study, a protective immune response against the disease was achieved in two infected rabbits, and the cellular fungal antigenic proteome that mediated such a response was investigated against the background of vaccine development efforts. Altogether, 59 different Aspergillus proteins were found becoming reactive in the course of the developing immunity, many of which are described in this context for the first time. These included proteins related to oxidative stress management, glycolysis and other metabolic pathways. As oxidative stress is suspected to be one of the major defense mechanisms, the results may indicate at least in part a continuous response of the pathogen to evade the host's immune system. In addition, proteins with suspected cell surface association or crucial function for fungal cell development were identified. As these antigens are newly recognized during the process of the developing immunoprotection, they may not only represent valuable infection markers but also importantly broaden the list of possible vaccine candidates.

  20. Ektopiske varicer i den distale ileum som årsag til gastrointestinal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Tine Juhl; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Bruun, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum.......Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum....

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  2. Seminoma metastasis to the terminal ileum after a 17-year disease-free interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M; Nickoloff, B; Weinberg, D

    1983-11-15

    This is a report of a metastasis of a pure seminoma to the ileum after a 17-year latent period. The patient had a previous history of stage I testicular seminoma treated with primary orchiectomy and radiotherapy. He presented clinically with ileocolic intussuseption caused by a solitary metastasis in the terminal ileum. The rarity of this event is discussed.

  3. Morphological features of the distal ileum and ceca of the common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following euthanasia, gross and histological techniques were used to investigate the morphology of the distal ileum and ceca of common pigeon. Results: At the ileo-ceco-rectal junction, the tunica muscularis of the distal ileum exhibited a thickened layer of oblique smooth muscle fibers positioned between the middle ...

  4. Biliary ileum: an uncommon complication of vesicular lithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sosa, Gabriel; Diaz Mesa, Julio; Collera Rodriguez, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    This the case of a female patient aged 80 with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart failure and a exogenous obesity urgently admitted due to abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distention of 3 days course. In abdominal simple radiograph radiological signs of intestinal occlusion were confirmed corroborated by abdominal echography and CAT. Hydroelectrolytic imbalance was corrected performing an exploration laparotomy observing the presence of large calculus located in terminal ileum. An enterolithotomy with enterorrhaphy and occlusive picture was resolved. At 16 from discharge, patient is re-admitted with a similar situation and at re-intervention presence of another calculus and a cholecystogastric fistula was verified involving the gall bladder and the gastric antrum repairing by gastrorrhaphy. At the end of transoperative period, patient had an episode of ventricular fibrillation with extreme bradycardia and an asystolic arrest. She was reanimated but there wasn't reversion and patient died. (author)

  5. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (PDigestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at 49 days of age and the longest at 70 days in the AL and R1 groups. Small intestinal villi were significantly higher and the crypts were significantly deeper in the restricted groups. It could be concluded that short intensive feed restriction increased digestible area in the small and large intestines, including the height of villi and depth of crypts, which might be involved in the compensatory

  6. Extent of corneal injury as a biomarker for hazard assessment and the development of alternative models to the Draize rabbit eye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, James V

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized 22 ocular irritants differing in type (surfactants, acid, alkali, bleaches, alcohol, aldehyde, acetone) and severity (slight to severe) by using the low-volume rabbit eye test. Ocular irritation was evaluated by 1) light microscopy to assess pathological changes, 2) in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) to quantify 4-dimensionally (x, y, z, and t) initial corneal injury and later responses in the same eye, and 3) laser scanning CM to quantify initial cell death. These studies revealed that regardless of the processes leading to injury, slight irritants injure the corneal epithelium, mild irritants injure the corneal epithelium and the superficial stroma, and moderate/severe irritants injure the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the corneal endothelium. Furthermore, extent of initial corneal injury was shown to predict subsequent responses and final outcomes. These findings suggest that extent of corneal injury may be used as a basis for the development of alternative ocular irritation tests. To test the validity of this approach, we have used an ex vivo, rabbit cornea culture model to measure extent of corneal injury following exposure to ocular irritants. Data indicate that the extent of ex vivo corneal injury significantly correlate with the extent of initial injury measured previously in live animals. Overall, these findings indicate that extent of initial corneal injury can be used as a new "gold standard" for the continued refinement and ultimate replacement of the Draize rabbit eye Ocular Irritation Test.

  7. Morphological Studies on the Postnatal Development of the Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissues of the Rabbit Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmohaimen M. Saleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic, morphometric, light and scanning electron microscopic structure of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of cecum were studied in the rabbits aged from birth to 16 weeks. The GALT were formed of lymph follicles covered by low columnar epithelium containing intraepithelial lymphocytes and leukocytes. They were concentrated at the ileocecal entrance (ileocecal patch and in the blind end of the cecum vermiform appendix. In the ileocecal patch, GALT were in direct contact with the lumen, while those of the appendix were covered by the interval intestinal villi in young rabbits and mucosal folds in the adult rabbits. The lymphoid follicles of the ileocecal patch were composed of dome region and germinal center and were separated by narrow inter-follicular areas. Whereas, the lymphoid follicles of the appendix were composed dome region and germinal center in the newly born rabbits and up to the 2nd week of age, the follicles became composed of four different sites: dome region, germinal center, coronal area, and a wide interfollicular area between neighboring follicles. Morphometrically; the dimensions of the lymphoid follicles of the cecal GALT increased in size with the advancement of the age. By SEM the lymphoid structures covered with special epithelium consisted of two types of cell absorptive enterocytes and M cells. The M cells in the cecal patch were microvilliated and present on the tips and sides of the dome lymphoid regions while in the appendix were non-microvilliated and present only on the sides of the dome regions.

  8. Development of molecular assays for the identification of the 11 Eimeria species of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliveira, U. C.; Fraga, J. S.; Licois, D.; Pakandl, Michal; Gruber, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 275-280 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Rabbit * Coccidiosis * ITS1 * Ribosomal DNA * PCR-based diagnosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  9. Relationship between chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings and terminal ileum lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongling; Wang, Changcheng; Liu, Shuqing; Xu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Ju; Chen, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    The causes and mechanisms of chronic diarrhea are complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings and terminal ileum lesions. All cases were collected from January 2009 to June 2010. The 40 patients in the patient group had chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings. Those who had hyperthyroidism, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis, atrophic gastritis, short bowel syndrome and connective tissue diseases had been excluded. The control group contained 40 healthy individuals without diarrhea. Endoscopy of the terminal ileum was applied in both groups, with the endoscope inserted into terminal ileum for more than 20 cm. The patients diagnosed of chronic diarrhea with terminal ileum lesions were treated with metronidazole and probiotics for 10-14 days. Before treatment there were significant differences in endoscopy findings of the terminal ileum between the two groups (P diarrhea, and terminal ileum lesions disappeared in 30 cases as determined by endoscopy. In the control group, endoscopy showed scattered hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles in 5 cases, and the follicles were small with the maximal diameter being 3 mm. There was no hyperemia, edema, erosion or ulcers. Chronic diarrhea patients with normal colonoscopy findings may have lesions in the terminal ileum that can be detected by endoscopy; including hyperemia, erosion, ulcers and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia. Therapeutic effect is good with metronidazole and probiotics.

  10. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R

    2013-06-01

    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  12. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Toussy, Gafar; Mousavi, Shahrokh

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. Contraction changes in the terminal ileum of guinea pigs were monitored using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Thymus vulgaris extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner and also decreased the amplitude of peristaltic waves. It is concluded that T. vulgaris has an antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum by decreasing the amplitudes of the muscle contractions during peristalsis. The EC50 was calculated as 1.7 mg mL(-1). In guinea-pig ileum the extract led to an antispasmodic effect, possibly by affecting the anticholinergic and serotoninergic pathways.

  13. Ileum neovaginoplasty for Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser: Review and case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Al-Mehaisen

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Women with Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome who need vaginal reconstruction have the surgical option of a vascularized free ileum graft that provides a durable, lubricated neovagina without the scarring of skin grafts.

  14. Development and use of a new perfusion technique to study glucose metabolism of the aortic wall in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated (1) possible alterations in glucose uptake and utilization in the perfused, normal, and diabetic vascular wall of rabbits and (2) the effects thereon of insulin and exogenous glucose concentration. Part I involved development and characterization of an in vitro perfusion technique that closely reproduced predetermined in vivo conditions of aortic blood flow, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pulse pressure. The responsiveness of the preparation to vasoactive agents was assessed with concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) from 10 -9 to 10 -4 M. In Part II, the effects of NE-induced tension development on glucose metabolism were determined by perfusion with oxygenated physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 7 mM glucose and tracer amounts of uniformly labeled 14 C-glucose. Aortas from 8 week-diabetic rabbits were perfused under similar conditions employing a NE infusion in the presence or absence of insulin (150 uU/ml) and variable levels of glucose. Effects of NE-induced tension development include an apparent increase (39%) in glucose uptake and a twofold increase in 14 CO 2 and lactate production. Aortas from diabetic rabbits perfused with PSS containing 7 mM glucose demonstrated marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%) and labeled tissue phospholipids (70%). Insulin or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM (diabetic levels) normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. The marked alterations of glucose metabolism in the diabetic state may contribute to the functional changes observed in diabetic blood vessels

  15. Fourier transform analysis of rabbit detrusor autonomous contractions reveals length dependent increases in tone and slow wave development at long lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael D; Klausner, Adam P; Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Habibi, Joseph R; Ratz, Paul H

    2013-07-01

    Bladder wall muscle (detrusor) develops low amplitude rhythmic contractions. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction activity is increased in detrusor from patients with overactive bladder. In this in vitro study we used fast Fourier transforms to assess the length dependence of low amplitude rhythmic contraction components. Rabbit detrusor strips were placed in a muscle bath between 2 clips to adjust length and record isometric tension. Tissues stretched from 70% to 130% of a reference muscle length at 10% increments were allowed to develop low amplitude rhythmic contractions at each length for 20 minutes. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction data were analyzed using fast Fourier transforms and represented by a frequency rather than a time spectrum. Based on fast Fourier transform analysis summarized by signal peaks within specific frequency ranges, rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contraction waveforms were divided into 1 tonic and 2 phasic components, defined as A0 + A1F1 + A2F2, where A0 is a length dependent basal tonic component that increases linearly, A1F1 is a slow wave with a length dependent specific amplitude (A1) and a length independent constant frequency (F1) of approximately 11.2 Hz, and A2F2 is a fast wave with a length dependent amplitude (A2) and frequency (F2) of approximately 0.03 Hz. Fast Fourier transform analysis revealed that rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contractions consist of a basal tonic component plus 2 phasic components. The amplitude of all 3 components was length dependent. The frequency of the fast component was not length dependent and the slow component was absent at short muscle lengths, developing only at muscle lengths beyond that producing a maximum active contraction. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spasmolytic and Anti-Spasmodic Action of Trachyspermum ammi Essence on Rat's Ileum Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hejazian, Seyed Hassan; Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Safari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trachyspermum ammi is a plant of umbelliferae family and has been traditionally used in the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion, colic, and diarrhea. Our previous study demonstrated that aqueous extract of Trachyspermum ammi reduced the contractile activity of rat′s ileum. Aims: This study was designed to examine the effect of Trachyspermum ammi essence on acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated rat′s ileum. Materials and Methods: In this experim...

  17. Antispasmodic Effects of Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium L.) Extract in the Isolated Ileum of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically i...

  18. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; van Laarhoven, Cees JHM; Lomme, Roger MLM; Hendriks, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. Results In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and we...

  19. [Repeated plasty of the esophagus in children with the application of transplant from the ileum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A P; Nabokov, V V; Miroshnikov, B I; Galkina, N V

    2012-01-01

    The authors give topographic-anatomical substantiation of a possibility to employ the ileum for esophageal replacement and describe a technique of forming such transplant. Their clinical experience includes 9 operated children. Earlier they had endured from 1 to 4 attempts of esophageal replacements by different traditional methods. In all children operated upon good results were obtained. It allows the ileum to be included in the arsenal of possible methods of esophageal replacement and considering it as an alternate variant in nonstandard situations.

  20. Method development for the quantitation of ABT-578 in rabbit artery tissue by 96-well liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin C; Zhang, Jun; Rodila, Ramona; Watson, Pamela; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative determination of drug concentrations in tissue samples can provide critical information for drug metabolism, kinetics, and toxicity evaluations. For analysis of tissue samples using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) detection, homogenization is a critical step in achieving good assay performance. Assay performance can be closely evaluated by spiking the drug directly into tissue samples prior to homogenization. It is especially important to include this assay evaluation for the analysis of artery tissue samples because artery tissue is very elastic, making it quite a challenge to develop an effective procedure for homogenization. An LC/MS/MS assay in 96-well format using liquid-liquid extraction was developed for analyzing ABT-578 in rabbit artery samples. Tissue quality control samples were prepared by spiking ABT-578 stock solutions directly into the tissue before homogenization. The usage of the tissue control samples gives a thorough evaluation of the sample preparation process that includes both homogenization and sample extraction. A 20% blood in saline solution was used as a homogenization solution. Calibration standards were made by spiking ABT-578 into rabbit whole blood. Blood quality control samples were also prepared by spiking ABT-578 into rabbit whole blood. These blood QC samples were used to confirm the validity of the calibration curve. A lower limit of quantitation of 0.050 ng/mL was achieved. The linear dynamic range of blood standards was from 0.050-30.3 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.9969-0.9996. Overall %CV was between 1.3 and 7.0%, and analytical recovery was between 98.2 and 105.8% for blood QC samples. The %CVs for tissue QC samples were between 6.7 and 13.0%, and analytical recovery after correction was between 93.5 and 114.3%. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN SOLUTION AND LIPOSOMAL FORM ON SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN FEMALE RABBITS DURING FERTILIZATION AND EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Syrvatka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are the most rapidly growing classes of nanoproducts. In this study, we investigated the influence of subcutaneous injections of silver nanoparticles in solution and in liposomal form on hematological and biochemical parameters of blood of New Zealand White rabbits during hormonal treatment, fertilization and early embryonic development. The females treated by free silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles in liposomal form received silver at a dose of 10 µg/kg/day in 5 % glucose solution during 28 days. Blood sampling was done four times: the day before the compounds administration; on day 7 after the compounds administration; in the period after hormonal induction and fertilization and on the 14th day of pregnancy. Our results showed changes in some biochemical (lactate dehydrogenase activities, progesterone and estradiol concentration, malondialdehyde level, etc. and hematological (hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, etc. parameters under the influence of hormonal treatment and pregnancy. The concentration of progesterone showed significantly higher values (P˂0.05 on GDs 1 in S group than in C group. The percentage of neutrophils was significantly higher in SG rabbits after 7 days of silver nanoparticles administration than that in the CG. There were no significant changes in red blood cells parameters, platelets, and activity of some ferments (ALP, AST, ALT, LDH, GGT between control and silver groups during the entire period of experiment. In conclusion, the hematological and biochemical values of blood obtained in the given study showed that free silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles in liposomal form in the investigated concentrations had no toxic effect on hormonal treatment, fertilization and early embryonic development in New Zealand White rabbits.

  2. Hyperosmolarity evokes histamine release from ileum mucosa by stimulating a cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Banqin; An, Ning; Shaikh, Abdul Sami; Wang, Haoyi; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Jingxin; Zhao, Dongbo

    2017-11-18

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity lead to alteration in cellular volume. In the study, we examined the effects of hyperosmolarity on short-circuit currents (Isc) in the rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. Mucosal exposure to 20 mM glucose evoked a decrease of I SC in the rat ileum, which was antagonized by the stretch-activated channel blocker GdCl3, TTX and atropine, respectively. In contrast, it was not blocked by phlorizin, a Na + -glucose cotransporter SGLT1 inhibitor. Furthermore, the unabsorbed substances, such as sucrose, lactulose or urea, also induced a decrease of I SC in rat ileum. ELISA results revealed that 20 mM glucose stimulated the release of histamine from rat ileum mucosa, which was attenuated by TTX. In addition, the glucose-induced I SC was depressed by pyrilamine, a histamine H 1 receptor blocker (H 1 antagonist) whereas it was not affected by ranitidine (H 2 antagonist), clobenpropit (H 3 antagonists) or JNJ7777120 (H 4 antagonist), respectively. The ion substitution experiments suggest that the changes of Na + and HCO 3 - ion flux underlie the glucose-induced I SC. In conclusion, osmotic stimulus decreased the basal I SC of rat ileum by evoking histamine release from ileum mucosa. The changes of Na + and HCO 3 - ion transport are involved in the glucose-evoked decrease of basal I SC . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Stenosis of the terminal ileum. Endometriosis as the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, J; Grammel, S; Lobeck, H; Weidemann, H

    1997-07-25

    A 25-year-old woman had for 5 years complained of lower and mid-abdominal pain, at first monthly but later continuous and gradually increasing in severity. At the same time she had diarrhoea associated with nausea, vomiting and weight loss. Physical examination showed a markedly distended abdomen, diffuse pain on pressure over the whole abdomen, most marked in the left middle and lower part, and high pitched peristalsis, but was otherwise unremarkable. Abdominal radiography indicated small-intestinal ileus, while ultrasound revealed absent peristalsis in the small intestine and a 10 cm stenosis in the terminal ileum. Coloscopy demonstrated a fibrosed stenosis of the terminal ileum but a biopsy showed no specific changes. Under suspicion of Crohn's disease with stenosis of the terminal ileum a partial resection of the ileum was performed. The ileum was on inspection thickened with scar tissue but no inflammation. Histology revealed florid chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation, haemorrhages and ulcers, as well as numerous islands of endometriosis in the subserosa and muscularis propria. Endometriosis is a rare disease in women of the reproductive age, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum.

  4. The ileum as a determinant organ of the functional liver cell mass in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cunha Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if the ileum resection changes the functioning liver cell mass, the hepatic metabolism and the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical in rats. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 285g±34g were randomly divided into the ileum resection group (n = 6 and sham group rats (n = 6. After 30 days, they were anesthetized and 0.1mL of 99m-Tc-phytate (0.66MBq was injected via femoral vein. After 30 minutes, blood samples were collected for red blood cells radioactive labeling and serum ALT, AST and gammaGT. Liver samples were used for 99m-Tc-phytate percentage of radioactivity/gram of tissue and histopathology. Student 's t test was used with significance 0.05. RESULTS: There was a higher uptake of 99m-Tc-phytate in the liver of sham rats, compared to the ileum resection group (p<0.05. GammaGT, ALT and AST were increased in ileum resection rats compared to sham (p<0.05. The he patocytes count was significantly lower in ileum resection group than in sham (p<0.05. Liver: body mass ratio was lower in experimental animals than in sham group (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: These data support that the ileum has important role in liver function and liver mass regulation, and they have potential clinical implications regarding the pathogenesis of liver injury following lower bowel resection.

  5. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  6. Acute small bowel obstruction as a result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling the terminal ileum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor Avnesh S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, small bowel obstruction accounts for 20% of all acute surgical admissions. The aetiology for majority of these cases includes postoperative adhesions and herniae. However, a relatively uncommon cause is a Meckel's diverticulum. Although this diagnosis is primarily reported in the adolescent population, it should also be considered in adults. Case Presentation In the present report, we present a rare case where a fit and healthy 74-year-old gentleman, with no previous history of abdominal surgery, presented with the cardinal symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction as the result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling his terminal ileum. Initial investigations included a supine abdominal x-ray showing dilated loops of small bowel and computerised tomographic imaging of the abdomen, which revealed a stricture in the terminal ileum of unknown aetiology. At laparotomy, multiple loops of distended small bowel were seen from the duodeno-jeujenal junction to the terminal ileum, which was encircled by a Meckel's diverticulum. The Meckel's diverticulum was then divided to release the obstruction, mobilised and subsequently removed. Finally, the small bowel contents were decompressed into the stomach and the nasogastric tube aspirated, before returning the loops of bowel into the abdomen in sequence. The patient made a good postoperative recovery and was discharged home 5 days later. Conclusion This report highlights the importance of considering a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction in individuals from all age groups and especially in a person with no previous abdominal pathology or surgery.

  7. Antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote: inhibition of muscle contraction and enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion in rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, N; Shibata, T

    2001-01-01

    Wood creosote has long been used as an antidiarrheal agent, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. To elucidate the mechanism of its antidiarrheal activity, we have addressed questions whether it inhibits fluid secretion induced by Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in rabbit jejunum in vivo, and whether it inhibits muscle contraction of isolated rabbit ileum ex vivo. Wood creosote (10-100 mg/l) instilled in a ligated loop of jejunum inhibited STa-induced fluid secretion (p creosote is attributable to its antisecretory and antimotility effects. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Intestinal Mechanomorphological Remodeling Induced by Long-Term Low-Fiber Diet in Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yue; Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua

    2017-01-01

    Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits...... were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Five months later, four 10-cm-long segments obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine were used for histological and mechanical analysis......, respectively. The wall thickness, wall area, mucosa and muscle layer thickness decreased whereas the submucosa layer thickness increased in the IG (p

  9. Intrinsic innervation of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, J; Tootian, Z; Latorre, R; Sorteni, C; Chiocchetti, R

    2013-06-01

    Most investigations related to the characterisation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) are pivoted on the intestine of small rodents, but few studies are available on the ENS of wild or 'unconventional' rodents. Anti-PGP 9.5 and anti-Hu antibodies were utilised to recognise the distribution pattern of neuronal cell bodies and fibres of the ileum of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) ENS. The percentages of subclasses of enteric neurones in the total neuronal population were investigated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and calbindin (CALB). Myenteric plexus (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) neurones showing nNOS immunoreactivity (IR) were 41±4% and 11±6%, respectively, whereas cells expressing ChAT-IR were 56±9% and 74±16%, respectively. nNOS-IR was co-expressed by 21±2% and 9±4% of the MP and SMP cholinergic neurones, respectively, whereas the nNOS-IR MP and SMP neurones co-expressing ChAT-IR were 86±6% and 89±2%, respectively. CGRP-IR and SP-IR were expressed, respectively, by 13±5% and 6±3% of MP and 18±2% and 2±2% of SMP neurones. CALB-IR was expressed by 22±8% and 56±14% of MP and SMP neurones, respectively. MP and SMP cholinergic neurones co-expressed nNOS-IR (21±2% and 9±4%, respectively) and a very high percentage of nNOS-IR neurones showed ChAT-IR (86±6% and 89±2%, respectively). MP and SMP CALB-IR neurones co-expressed ChAT-IR (100% and 63±11%, respectively) and CGRP-IR (89±5% and 26±7%, respectively). Our data might contribute to the neuroanatomical knowledge of the gastrointestinal tract in exotic mammals and provide a comparison with the available data on other mammals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Influence of material and microtopography on the development of local infection in vivo: experimental investigation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Thomas F; Debefve, Laurence; Boure, Ludovic; Campoccia, Davide; Schlegel, Urs; Richards, Robert G

    2009-09-01

    Polishing the surface of internal fracture fixation (IFF) implant materials can ease implant removal and reduce irritation to gliding tissues by reducing soft tissue adhesion and bony overgrowth. Thus, polishing the surface of these implants is expected to have significant clinical benefit in certain situations. The aim of the present study was to determine if polishing the surface of an IFF device influences susceptibility to infection. The local infection rate associated with 4-hole 2.0 mm Synthes locking compression plates (LCPs) composed of clinically available commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium aluminium niobium (TAN) in their standard microrough form was compared with that of their test polished equivalents and also to clinically available electropolished stainless steel (EPSS). The LCPs were fixed in locking mode onto the tibia of mature, female New Zealand White rabbits and a clinical strain of Staphylococcus aureus was added to the implantation site. Twenty eight days after surgery the rabbits were euthanized and assessed for infection. The rank order based on descending ID50 was; polished TAN, standard TAN, standard cpTi, EPSS and finally polished cpTi, however, the ID50 values did not differ greatly between the groups with the same material. Using the LCP model in locking mode, polishing the surface of both cpTi and TAN was not found to influence the susceptibility to infection in our animal model.

  11. Development of novel amisulpride-loaded solid self-nanoemulsifying tablets: preparation and pharmacokinetic evaluation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Wael; Fahmy, Rania H; Mohamed, Magdy I

    2017-09-01

    The current investigation is focused on the formulation and in vivo evaluation of optimized solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) of amisulpride (AMS) for improving its oral dissolution and bioavailability. Liquid SNEDDS (L-SNEDDS) composed of Capryol™ 90 (oil), Cremophor ® RH40 (surfactant), and Transcutol ® HP (co-surfactant) were transformed to solid systems via physical adsorption onto magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin US2). Micromeretic studies and solid-state characterization of formulated S-SNEDDS were carried out, followed by tableting, tablet evaluation, and pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits. Micromeretic properties and solid-state characterization proved satisfactory flow properties with AMS present in a completely amorphous state. Formulated self-nanoemulsifying tablets revealed significant improvement in AMS dissolution compared with either directly compressed or commercial AMS tablets. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits emphasized significant improvements in t max , AUC (0-12) , and AUC (0-∞) at p < .05 with 1.26-folds improvement in relative bioavailability from the optimized self-nanoemulsifying tablets compared with the commercial product. S-SNEDDS can be a very useful approach for providing patient acceptable dosage forms with improved oral dissolution and biovailability.

  12. Development and validation of impurity-profiling UPLC method for the determination of sodium cromoglicate and tetryzoline hydrochloride: Application on rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Saleh, Sarah S; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Salem, Hesham

    2015-12-01

    Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), antihistaminic agent, and tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZH), a sympathomimetic agent, are formulated together as an ophthalmic preparation. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection (UPLC-UV) was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of SCG and TZH in rabbit aqueous humor. Due to the instability of both SCG and TZH under alkaline conditions, the UPLC method was applied for their determination in the presence of their possible degradation impurities. The separation was performed using C18 column (1.7μm particle size) and isocratic elution system with methanol: 1% o-phosphoric acid (65: 35, v/v).The optimum flow rate was 0.5ml/min and the detection was done at 230nm. The suggested method was validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and was successfully applied for determination of sodium cromoglicate (SCG) and tetryzoline HCl (TZH) as prepared synthetically in laboratory mixtures, and in the presence of their alkali-induced degradation impurities. The suggested method was effectively applied the determination of spiked rabbit aqueous humor samples as well as commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  14. Antispasmodic activity of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon in comparison with Pycnocycla spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract on rat ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Madadi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and isoacetovanillon are two components found in P. spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract with no previously reported effect on ileum contractions. Spasmolytic effect of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon were examined on response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-HT in strips of rat ileum. Longitudinal ileum strips were set up in an organ bath containing oxygenated Tyrode's solution. All strips that was contracted in response to EFS, acetylcholine or 5-HT sho...

  15. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  16. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...

  17. Allergy to rabbits. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic techniques have been used to study the antigenic components found in extracts of dust collected from rabbit housing areas. To determine the possible source of these antigens, comparisons have been made to rabbit saliva, urine, fur and dander. Specific antisera for the rabbit extracts were raised in guinea pigs, One major component of the dust (Ag Rl) was also found in large amounts in saliva, slightly less in fur and in only minimal amounts in urine and dander. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) of the dust, performed with sera from 14 rabbit allergic individuals who were RAST positive to rabbit saliva, urine and dust identified four IgE-binding constituents. Individual responses varied but all sera reacted with Ag Rl, identifying this as a major rabbit allergen. Dust RAST inhibition studies with rabbit dust, saliva and urine indicated saliva to be closely related to the dust. Ag Rl is a glycoprotein which appears to be very heterogeneous in nature. It produced a broad biphasic precipitin peak on immunoelectrophoresis and eluted from Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration over the molecular weight range 30-50 Kd, although a molecular weight of 17 Kd was indicated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and gradient gel electrophoresis. The RAST inhibition results and the antigenic similarity of saliva to the dust suggest this to be the most likely sorce of the major rabbit allergen, Ag Rl. (author)

  18. [X-ray diffraction study of the molecular nature of the dependence of rigor tension developed by skinned rabbit psoas muscle on the ionic strength of the solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V V; Kornev, A N; Srebnitskaia, L K

    1983-01-01

    Molecular origin of the dependence of rigor tension developed by skinned rabbit psoas muscle on the value of ionic strength in rigorizing solution was studied by means of X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that a deviation of the ionic strength from "normal" value (= 0.125) either to high (= 0.34) or to low (= 0.04) values is accompanied by the changes in the relative intensities of some meridional reflections while their axial positions remained unchanged. This may be explained as the result of the detachment of myosin subfragments-2 from the surfaces of thick filaments. The data obtained indicate that there is a correlation between the structure and localization of myosin subfragments-2 and the value of force generated by the muscle.

  19. Contractile effect of tachykinins on rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Fagundes, Diego Santos; Grasa, Laura; Arruebo, María Pilar; Plaza, Miguel Ángel; Murillo, María Divina

    2011-04-01

    To study the role of the tachykinin receptors in spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle from rabbit small intestine and to determine the mechanism of action of Substance P (SP). Rabbit duodenum, jejunum and ileum segments were prepared. The spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle were recorded using a computer via an isometric force transducer. The specific agonists and antagonists of tachykinin receptors were added into the organ bath. The agonists of tachykinin NK1 receptor (SP and [Sar9] SP), NK2 receptor (NKA and (β-Ala8)-NKA), and NK3 receptor (NKB and Senktide) all induced contractions in the small intestine. The contractions were diminished by NK1 receptor antagonist L-733,060, NK2 receptor antagonist GR-94800, and NK3 receptor antagonist SB 218795. Contractions caused by SP were also reduced by atropine, verapamil, PKC inhibitor staurosporine, and PLC inhibitor U73122. Ttachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors mediate the contractions of the smooth muscle in rabbit intestine. Furthermore, SP acts directly on smooth muscle cells through the tachykinin NK1 receptor.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in diabetic rabbits | Adelusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from diabetic rabbits have been compared to those of normal rabbits. Two sets of rabbits were used, normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits. The diabetic rabbits were obtained by inducing diabetes in rabbits using streptozotocin. Chloroquine at a dose of 10 mg/kg was administered to ...

  1. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  2. Development of a 10-day chorioallantoic membrane vascular assay as an alternative to the Draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, D M; Waters, D; Kong, B M

    1994-12-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a fertilized hen's egg has been studied extensively as a promising alternative model for predicting eye irritation potential. The specific methodology used with this model has varied among investigators but the basic premise of applying test material to the membrane surface and evaluating changes in the vasculature is relatively consistent. The CAM vascular assay (CAMVA) has shown high correlation with in vivo rabbit eye irritation data. This method uses the CAM of a 14-day-old egg and the response at 30 min after treatment as the endpoint. The primary CAM methods being evaluated in Europe use 9-10-day-old eggs because older eggs are considered 'live animals'; the possibility of using 10-day-old eggs to make the method more globally acceptable as a non-animal test was therefore investigated. By keeping the original CAMVA dosing and evaluation procedures the same, and only altering the age of the eggs from 14-day to 10-day, the results were found to be nearly identical for the two methods and both produce equivalent correlations to the in vivo eye irritation test results. Maintaining the original CAMVA methodology but using a younger egg, therefore, provides a good alternative method for predicting eye irritation potential that is more globally acceptable as a non-animal test.

  3. Genetic variability of the pattern of night melatonin blood levels in relation to coat changes development in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemineau Philippe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the genetic variability in both the nocturnal increase pattern of melatonin concentration and photoresponsiveness in coat changes, an experiment on 422 Rex rabbits (from 23 males raised under a constant light programme from birth was performed. The animals were sampled at 12 weeks of age, according to 4 periods over a year. Blood samples were taken 7 times during the dark phase and up to 1 h after the lighting began. Maturity of the fur was assessed at pelting. Heritability estimates of blood melatonin concentration (0.42, 0.17 and 0.11 at mid-night, 13 and 15 h after lights-out respectively and strong genetic correlations between fur maturity and melatonin levels at the end of the dark phase (-0.64 indicates that (i the variability of the nocturnal pattern of melatonin levels is under genetic control and (ii the duration of the nocturnal melatonin increase is a genetic component of photoresponsiveness in coat changes.

  4. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to an inflamed appendix wrapping around the last loop of ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Ricci, G; Bartolucci, P; Modini, C

    2005-01-01

    Acute apendicitis rarely presents with a clinical picture of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The Authors report a case of this inusual clinical occurrence, arised like a complication of a common disease, characterized by a chronically inflamed appendix (mucocele) wrapping around the last loop of ileum that produced volvolus and strangulation. The few similar cases reported in the literature are moreover reviewed.

  5. Out-pile tests for improved type rabbits in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Shigeru; Isozaki, Futoshi; Takita, Kenji; Aoyama, Masashi; Matsui, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation tests by hydraulic rabbit are expected to increase the demand of medical use radioisotope productions and nuclear human resource development after restart of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Therefore, it is necessary to shorten fabrication period of hydraulic rabbits. In this study, applicability of the pressure welding type hydraulic rabbit, which was used in Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3), was examined. As the results, it was confirmed that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit kept airtightness of the external pressure of 2.45 MPa, impact of the fall from 5m in height and every 5 times of thermal cycle under conditions such as 110°C ,200°C and 300°C. Furthermore, it was clear that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit had the endurance up to the inner pressure of 1 MPa. Therefore, there were bright prospects that the pressure hydraulic type rabbit has the applicability of the irradiation test in JMTR. (author)

  6. A note on sampling digesta from the ileum of broilers in phosphorus digestibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Dieckmann, A; Witzig, M; Shastak, Y

    2012-04-01

    The responses of broilers to increments of dietary P concentration in P retention and P prececal digestibility were studied in 2 experiments using Ross 308 broilers in their fourth week of age. The low-P basal diet was mainly based on corn, potato protein, and corn starch. Titanium dioxide was used as the indigestible marker. Monobasic calcium phosphate was added in 6 (experiment 1) or 5 (experiment 2) graded levels up to a maximum of 8.1 g of P/kg of the diet. Five (experiment 1) and 6 (experiment 2) replicated pens of 10 birds were used. Excreta were collected from trays underneath the pens. Birds were asphyxiated by carbon dioxide exposure and the ileum (from Meckel's diverticulum to 2-cm anterior to the ileo-ceca-colonic junction) was dissected. Digesta was collected from the entire section (experiment 1) or from 3 subsections of equal lengths (experiment 2). Excretion of P increased linearly with increasing dietary P concentration up to a level of about 5.2 g of P/kg of the diet and increased nonlinearly with further increase in dietary P. In contrast, P flow in the ileum increased linearly over the entire range of P intake. Up to the level of 5.2 g of P/kg of the diet, P excretion was slightly lower than P flow in the ileum, but responses in P excretion and P flow in the ileum were similar, suggesting that P excretion with urine is very low and unaffected by P intake when the birds are supplied with P below their requirement. Between the 3 subsections of the ileum, calculated digestibility was significantly different for the basal diet and the diet with the 3 lowest levels of P supplementation. We concluded that the response in P prececal digestibility to increments in dietary P concentration is linear over a wider range of dietary P than the response in P retention. When digesta is collected from the ileum for determination of P prececal digestibility, the first third of the ileum should not be considered.

  7. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, pacetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium.

  8. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-18

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea piggastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Technique Development Results for the Study of a Novel Dexamethasone Impregnated Bandage Contact Lens in a Rabbit Model After Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-22

    Many conditions can lead to ophthalmic inflammation , which can become painful and blinding. Steroid eye drops are the most common treatment and...PRK Inflammation in a Rabbit Model Timothy A. Soekenl, Michael Merkley!, Wesley Brundridgel, Gary Legaultl, Matthew Caldwelll, Joseph Ciolino2...7 .0 Dexamethasone Impregnated Contact Lenses in the Treatment of Post-PRK Inflammation · in a Rabbit Model Timothy A. Soeken 1, Michael Merkley1

  10. Comparison of the amount of pectin in the human terminal ileum with the amount of orally administered pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sugawara, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    Dietary fiber by definition is resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine, and it should naturally reach the large intestine. To date, there have been several reports that have examined in vivo how much dietary fiber actually reaches the terminal ileum in human subjects using glucose, with large differences in results. We compared the amount of pectin in the human terminal ileum with that of orally administered pectin. Seven healthy male volunteers ages 20 to 27 y were given a test meal containing 4.05 g of pectin. A double-lumen tube was placed in the terminal ileum by using the endoscopic retrograde bowel insertion method, and the ileal contents were aspirated through the tube. Amounts of pectin orally administered and collected from the terminal ileum were estimated as galacturonic acid concentrations (Englyst's method) and were compared with each other. The mean +/- standard deviation amount of pectin collected in the terminal ileum was 3.58 +/- 0.43 g, or 88.4 +/- 10.5% of pectin administered. Further, there were large individual differences in recovery, ranging from 76.8% to 105.1%. Approximately 90% of ingested pectin was recovered in the terminal ileum in this study. Ten percent may have been degraded by bacteria within the digestive tract, especially the terminal ileum.

  11. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    groundnut cake can support normal growth and reproduction of rabbits for meat production. Key words: Rabbits, maize-milling waste, reproduction. INTRODUCTION. Inadequate animal protein in the diets of people in developing countries has called for the integration of some non-conventional meat sources into the farming.

  12. Preparation of high-affinity rabbit monoclonal antibodies for ciprofloxacin and development of an indirect competitive ELISA for residues in milk*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Yin, Yun; Lu, Lei; Ding, Hai; Wang, Lin; Yu, Ting; Zhu, Jia-jin; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Yan-zhen

    2010-01-01

    A convenient competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ciprofloxacin (CPFX) was developed by using rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAbs) against a hapten-protein conjugate of CPFX-bovine serum albumin (BSA). The indirect competitive ELISA of CPFX had a concentration at 50% inhibition (IC50) of 1.47 ng/ml and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.095 ng/ml. The mAb exhibited some cross-reactivity, however, not so high with enrofloxacin (28.8%), ofloxacin (13.1%), norfloxacin (11.0%), fleroxacin (22.6%), and pefloxacin (20.4%). And it showed almost no cross-reactivity with other antibiotics or sulfonamides evaluated in this study. The competitive ELISA kit developed here could be used as a screening tool to detect and control illegal addition of CPFX in food products. This kit had been applied to milk detection and the recovery rates from samples spiked by CPFX were in a range of 63.02%–84.60%, with coefficients of variation of less than 12.2%. PMID:20872990

  13. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  14. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Daniela C U; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Vendramini, Regina C; Bedani, Raquel; Bomdespacho, Laura Q; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége D; de Valdez, Graciela F; Rossi, Elizeu A

    2009-10-08

    There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P yogurt could be consumed as an alternative means of

  15. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauly-Silveira Nadiége D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet; HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Results Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively. Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%, E. faecium culture (43.3% or placebo (35.8%. Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P

  16. In-utero exposure to nicotine alters the development of the rabbit cardiac conduction system and provides a potential mechanism for sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Anh Tuan; Biet, Michael; Delabre, Jean-Francois; Morin, Nathalie; Dumaine, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To alleviate the risks, nicotine replacement therapies are often prescribed to women who wish to quit smoking during their pregnancy. Cardiac arrhythmias is considered the final outcome leading to sudden death. Our goal in this study was to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine altered the cardiac conduction system of newborn kittens in a manner susceptible to cause SIDS. Using neuronal markers and a series of immunohistological and electrophysiological techniques we found that nicotine delayed the development of the cardiac pacemaker center (sinoatrial node) and decreased its innervation. At the molecular level, nicotine favored the expression of cardiac sodium channels with biophysical properties that will tend to slow heart rate and diminish electrical conduction. Our results show that alterations of the cardiac sodium current may contribute to the bradycardia, conduction disturbances and other cardiac arrhythmias often associated to SIDS and raise awareness on the use of replacement therapy during pregnancy.

  17. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perforation of the ileum after a stab wound of the gluteal region: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Ünlü, Çaĝdaş; van Wagensveld, Bart A

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with a seemingly insignificant single gluteal stab wound which led to a solitary perforation of the ileum and delayed peritonitis. This case report illustrates that, despite the absence of any signs of bowel perforation on presentation, a patient may deteriorate gradually in the subsequent hours. This demonstrates the role of clinical observation in high risk gluteal stab wound patients.

  19. Abattoir-sourced isolated ileum from Gallus gallus domesticus as an experimental tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Sharma, Satya S; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2010-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the longevity of active muscarinic receptors on abattoir-sourced isolated ileum preparations from Gallus gallus domesticus, with a view to using the tissue as an experimental tool for functional response assays in laboratory experiments. A concentration-response curve for acetylcholine (1-256 μM) was plotted, in the presence and absence of 1, 3 and 6 nM atropine. In a second experiment, unknown concentrations of acetylcholine samples were determined by using an interpolation method. In this experiment, four sample concentrations were used and the calculated values were found to be almost equal to the actual values. Finally, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effects of post-sacrifice time on the contractile response of the tissue. The results showed that the tissue maintained considerable contractile response at the 6-hour post-sacrifice time-point. Competitive antagonistic activity was observed between acetylcholine and atropine on the chicken ileum, and the pA2 value was calculated to be 9.21 by using an Arunlakshana-Schild plot. The results suggest that isolated ileum preparations of Gallus gallus domesticus, obtained from a meat abattoir, can be used as a basic experimental tool for bioassays in routine laboratory experiments. However, its potential as a research tool still needs to be confirmed. © 2010 FRAME.

  20. Effects of Oxaliplatin Treatment on the Enteric Glial Cells and Neurons in the Mouse Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ainsley M; Stojanovska, Vanesa; Rahman, Ahmed A; McQuade, Rachel M; Senior, Paul V; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2016-09-01

    Oxaliplatin, currently used for treatment of colorectal and other cancers, causes severe gastrointestinal side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation that are attributed to mucosal damage. However, delayed onset and long-term persistence of these side effects suggest that damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) regulating physiological function of the gastrointestinal tract may also occur. The ENS comprises myenteric and submucosal neurons and enteric glial cells (EGCs). This study aimed to investigate the effects of oxaliplatin treatment on enteric neurons and EGCs within the mouse ileum. BALB/c mice received repeated intraperitoneal injections of oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg, 3 injections/week). Tissues were collected 3, 7, 14, and 21 days from the commencement of treatment. Decreases in glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive (IR) EGCs and protein gene product 9.5/β-Tubulin III-IR neurons as well as increase in s100β-IR EGCs after chronic oxaliplatin administration were observed in both the myenteric and submucosal plexi. Changes in EGCs were further observed in cross-sections of the ileum at day 14 and confirmed by Western blotting. Alterations in EGCs correlated with loss of myenteric and submucosal neurons in the ileum from oxaliplatin-treated mice. These changes to the ENS may contribute to the mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal side effects associated with oxaliplatin treatment. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  1. Simultaneous bladder and vaginal reconstruction using ileum in complicated vesicovaginal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata K Patwardhan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To discuss the outcome of surgical repair in complicated vesicovaginal fistula with simultaneous bladder and vaginal reconstruction using ileum. Materials and Methods: Four female patients in the age group of 12-30 years are included. All the patients had complicated vesicovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis secondary to obstetric hysterectomy (except one secondary to the genitourinary tuberculosis. Repair of vesicovaginal fistula with simultaneous bladder augmentation, ureteric reimplantation, and reconstruction of vagina using ileum was performed in all the cases. Results: All the patients had successful repair of fistula. Vaginal reconstruction using ileum, resulted in capacious vagina. Adult patients resumed to normal sexual life. Mucus discharge was the only complaint in postoperative period. Conclusions: Malnutrition, anemia, obstructed labor, Intra uterine fetal death (IUFD, postpartum hemorrhage following forceps delivery in a rural setting followed by an emergency obstetric hysterectomy after a delay of 6-8 h (due to transfer to a tertiary center were the few contributing factors leading to the formation of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF. Preoperative assessment of bladder capacity and vaginal capacity in such cases is mandatory. The small bowel is a readily available vascular tissue for restoring bladder and vaginal capacity.

  2. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  3. Rabbit production in low-input systems in Africa: situation, knowledge and perspectives – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Oseni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High poverty levels continue to plague much of Africa despite several intervention strategies aimed to stem the tide. The role of small livestock like rabbits as a tool in poverty alleviation programmes has been acknowledged for decades and successful national rabbit projects have clearly been demonstrated in Africa. With rising poverty levels across Africa, the need to rejuvenate such national rabbit projects for long-term sustainability becomes apparent. This presentation focuses on the status of rabbit production in Africa, with special attention to smallholder rabbit project development and its connection with poverty alleviation issues in the continent and with an emphasis on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and barriers to the system. A special case is made for the sustainable development of smallholder, low-input rabbit production systems in Africa on account of their popularity, low investment requirements and low economic risks, as well as their contributions to family nutrition, income generation and gender empowerment. Successful rabbit projects in several countries across Africa were identified and the reasons for success, as well as lessons learned, are discussed. In all, several cases standout: the National Rabbit Project of Ghana, the Heifer Project International Rabbit Project in Cameroon, and CECURI Rabbit Project in Benin Republic. Other fast-paced and moderately developed rabbit industries (e.g. in Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria are recognised. Critical constraints to rabbit project development (e.g. non-implementation of sustainable models for low-input rabbit units and absence of client-focused research and development programmes are noted. Prospects for the development of sustainable smallholder rabbit production models are discussed, which include the following: a paradigm shift among researchers to focus on innovative research related to the development of sustainable backyard rabbit production systems; upscaling of

  4. Acute development of cortical porosity and endosteal naïve bone formation from the daily but not weekly short-term administration of PTH in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamane

    Full Text Available Teriparatide [human parathyroid hormone (1-34], which exerts an anabolic effect on bone, is used for the treatment of osteoporosis in patients who are at a high risk for fracture. That the once-daily administration of teriparatide causes an increase in cortical porosity in animal models and clinical studies has been a matter of concern. However, it is not well documented that the frequency of administration and/or the total dose of teriparatide affect the cortical porosity. The present study developed 4 teriparatide regimens [20 μg/kg/day (D20, 40 μg/kg/day (D40, 140 μg/kg/week (W140 and 280 μg/kg/week (W280] in the rabbit as a model animal with a well-developed Haversian system and osteons. The total weekly doses were equivalent in the low-dose groups (D20 and W140 and in the high-dose groups (D40 and W280. After the short-term (1 month administration of TPDT, micro-CT, histomorphometry and three-dimensional second harmonic generation (3D-SHG imaging to visualize the bone collagen demonstrated that daily regimens but not weekly regimens were associated with the significant development of cortical porosity and endosteal naïve bone formation by marrow fibrosis. We concomitantly monitored the pharmacokinetics of the plasma teriparatide levels as well as the temporal changes in markers of bone formation and resorption. The analyses in the present study suggested that the daily repeated administration of teriparatide causes more deleterious changes in the cortical microarchitecture than the less frequent administration of higher doses. The findings of the present study may have some implications for use of teriparatide in clinical treatment.

  5. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  7. Flare-Up Diverticulitis in the Terminal Ileum in Short Interval after Conservative Therapy: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Nakatani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulitis in the terminal ileum is uncommon. Past reports suggested that conservative therapy may be feasible to treat terminal ileum diverticulitis without perforation; however, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy for small bowel diverticulitis. We present a 37-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain and nausea. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in the terminal ileum by computed tomography (CT. Tazobactam/piperacillin hydrate (18 g/day was administered. The antibiotic treatment was maintained for 7 days, and the symptoms disappeared after the treatment. Thirty-eight days after antibiotic therapy, he noticed severe abdominal pain again. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in terminal ileum which was flare-up of inflammation. He was given antibiotic therapy again. Nine days after antibiotic therapy, laparoscopy assisted right hemicolectomy and resection of 20 cm of terminal ileum were performed. Histopathology report confirmed multiple ileal diverticulitis. He was discharged from our hospital 12 days after the surgery. Colonoscopy was performed two months after the surgery and it revealed no finding suggesting inflammatory bowel disease. Surgical treatment should be taken into account as a potential treatment option to manage the diverticulitis in the terminal ileum even though it is not perforated.

  8. Perendoscopic manometry of the distal ileum and ileocecal junction: technique, normal patterns, and comparison with transileostomy manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberani, F; Corazziari, E; Tosoni, M; Badiali, D; Materia, E; Ribotta, G; Montesani, C; Boschetto, S; Torsoli, A

    1994-01-01

    The technique of perendoscopic manometry was used to study the motor patterns of the ileocecal junction and distal ileum. An expert endoscopist cannulated the distal ileum of 20 unsedated subjects in 260 +/- 252 (mean +/- SD) seconds, causing no discomfort beyond that of an ordinary colonoscopic examination. No sphincter-like motor activity was detected at the ileocecal junction, and four distinct motility patterns were identified in the distal ileum: (1) tone variations, (2) slow phasic contractions, (3) regular rapid phasic contractions, and (4) prolonged rapid phasic contractions. Previous appendectomy and insertion of the colonoscope into the distal ileum to position the manometric catheter did not affect the manometric recordings. Perendoscopic manometry of the distal ileum was compared with transileostomy manometry in 9 subjects. Perendoscopic and transileostomy manometric recordings showed the same motor patterns except for a longer occurrence of tone variations with perendoscopic manometry. In conclusion, this study shows that perendoscopic manometry of the distal ileum and ileocecal junction is feasible; recorded motor patterns are not affected.

  9. RABBIT PRODUCTION USING LOCAL RESOURCES AS FEEDSTUFFS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Safwat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the findings of existing research surrounding the nutritional impact of some forages as well as leaf and seed meals that were incorporated in rabbit diets, furthermore the importance of dietary fiber to improve the digestive health for growing rabbits. Optimum growth performance can be achieved by feeding forages or leaf meals with concentrates in the rabbit diets. Tropical plants contain appreciable amount of protein, fat, minerals and carbohydrates that can support growth and production, however much of these plants contain also anti-nutritional factors which have negative effects on digestion or absorption of nutrients. The review revealed that different forages inclusion levels enhance rabbit production and can help overcome the protein intake deficiency in developing countries. Therefore, the utilization of forage plants as well as tropical grasses and legumes for rabbit feeding is recommended.

  10. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  11. Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  13. Poly-ε-caprolactone mesh as a scaffold for in vivo tissue engineering in rabbit esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, P; Markoew, S; Le, D Q S

    2015-01-01

    -ε-caprolactone mesh in rabbit esophagus. Twenty female rabbits had a window of 0.6 × 1 cm cut in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The defect was covered with a poly-ε-caprolactone mesh. The rabbits were killed on postoperative day 28-30, and mesh with surrounding esophagus was removed for histological examination....... Fifteen rabbits survived the trial period. Six had no complications and had the mesh in situ. They all had ingrowth of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and an almost completely degraded mesh. Nine rabbits developed pseudo-diverticula. It proved possible to engineer both epithelial and smooth muscle...

  14. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  15. Rabbit Lake uranium mining a-zone, d-zone, eagle point: report of the environmental assessment panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts

  16. Development and validation of ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of lenalidomide in rabbit and human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Muzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lenalidomide (LND is a potent novel thalidomide analog which demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in treatment of multiple myeloma disease via a multiple-pathways mechanism. Validated sensitive method with high throughput is required for the determination of lenalidomide for pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetic studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis. Results A simple, highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of LND in rabbit and human plasma. After a simple protein precipitation using methanol, LND and carbamazepine (IS were separated on Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, i.d. 1.7 μm, Waters, USA using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (65:35:0.1%, v/v/v pumped at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. LND and IS were eluted at 0.71 and 1.92 min, respectively. The mass spectrometric determination was carried out using an electrospray interface operated in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 260.1 > 149.0 and m/z 237.0 > 179.0 were used to quantify LND and IS, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.23–1000 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 0.23 ng/mL. All the validation parameters were in the ranges acceptable by the guidelines of analytical method validation. Conclusion The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive, and hence it could be reliable for pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic study in both animals and humans.

  17. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emptying of the terminal ileum in intact humans. Influence of meal residue and ileal motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, R.C.; Brown, M.L.; Phillips, S.F.

    1987-03-01

    Emptying of the terminal ileum was assessed in 15 healthy humans by injecting technetium 99m-diethyltriaminopentaacetic acid into the bowel through a multilumen orocolonic tube. The subsequent arrival of isotope in the colon was quantified by gamma-scintigraphy and colonic filling curves were obtained. Studies were performed during fasting (n = 5) cnd 2.5 h after either a low residue meal (n = 5) or a meal made high in residue (n = 5) by adding 4 g of guar. The time for 50% of the isotope to reach the colon (T50) was significantly accelerated after both meals, being 72 +/- 15 min for the high residue meal and 62 +/- 8 min for the low residue meal, compared with 183 +/- 37 min (p less than 0.01) in the 5 fasting subjects. Although the addition of guar did not alter T50 significantly, it did cause a significant fall in the rate of colonic filling, implying increased isotope dilution. Delay at the ileocolonic junction, as shown by plateaus in the middle of the colonic filling curves, was uncommon. Hold-up was significant in only 2 of 10 postprandial and 2 of 5 fasting studies. Rates of ileocolonic transit could not be related to either a mean ileal motility index or the occurrence of specific ileal motor patterns immediately proximal to the ileocolonic junction. Fasting ileocolonic transit was characteristically erratic but could not be related to interdigestive migrating motor complexes, which were rarely observed in the last 60 cm of ileum. We conclude that ileocolonic transit in humans is related to the rate at which material accumulates in the ileum, being rapid postprandially and slow and erratic during fasting. This method yields consistent results and could be used to define further factors that influence ileocolonic inflow.

  19. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vijver Rozemarijn J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. Results In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028. Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Conclusions Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  20. INFLUENCE OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE MECHANICAL RESPONSES OF GUINEA-PIG ILEUM TO ACETYLCHOLINE AND HISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of antibiotics have been extensively described during the last decades, however, their role on digestive motility must be better investigated. Following a line of research, the influence of penicillin, chloranfenicol tetracycline and gentamicine on longitudinal smooth muscle responses to acetylcholine and histamine were studied on guinea-pig ileum. There were no differences between the responses before and after the addition of each antibiotic. Further investigations must be performed in order to find a possible influence of antibiotics on digestive motility.

  1. Are herbs always good for you? A case of paralytic ileum using a herbal tisane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Paolo; Nasone, Cinzia; Cantalamessa, Franco

    2007-06-01

    We believe that administration of phytotherapics ('herbal' medicines) should be managed by physicians and pharmacists who can monitor any adverse reactions including allergies in patients. This of course implies that physicians and pharmacists require adequate training at the university and post-university level regarding all aspects of medicinal plants. We report here a case of paralytic ileum occurring in an older self-medicated patient who acquired an herbal tisane composed of Cassia angustifolia, as well as other plant products, in an herbal shop, for chronic constipation. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum: case report with molecular confirmation and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rizkalla, Hala

    2012-02-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare, soft tissue malignancy of infancy, most commonly involving the distal extremities. We report a case of congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a 5-day-old boy who presented with an acute abdomen due to ileal perforation. Partial ileal resection was carried out with successful anastomosis. Grossly, the resected small bowel showed focal luminal stenosis with a thickened, indurated wall. Histology showed a transmural primitive spindle cell proliferation with a morphology consistent with congenital fibrosarcoma. The associated hallmark chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(q13;q25) was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Nb-benzoyltryptamine derivatives with relaxant activity in guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Stanley Juan C; de S Claudino, Fladmir; Da Silva, Bagnólia A; Câmara, Celso A; de Almeida, Reinaldo N; de Fátima V de Souza, Maria; Da Silva, Marcelo S; Da-Cunha, Emídio V L; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria

    2005-01-01

    A series of derivatives analogous to Nb-benzoyltryptamine were synthesized by the Schotten-Bauman procedure. The products obtained were: Nb-4-methoxy-benzoyltryptamine, Nb-2,4-dimethoxy-benzoyltryptamine, Nb-3,4-dimethoxy-benzoyltryptamine, Nb-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzoyltryptamine and Nb-3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzoyltryptamine. They were characterized through the usual spectrometric methods (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and showed non-selective relaxant activity in guinea-pig ileum pre-contracted with acetylcholine, histamine and KCl.

  4. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL CELERY LEAVES (APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. EXTRACTS ON THE CONTRACTION OF ISOLATED RAT ILEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Branković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, which has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts from celery leaves on intestinal contractility. Air-dried and powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and 96% ethanol, respectively. The activities of the extracts on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated rat ileum model. The isolated rat ileum was mounted in a 10ml tissue bath. The results suggest that the cumulative concentrations of the extracts of celery statistically significantly inhibited spontaneous rat ileum contractions (p<0.01. The extracts dose-dependently reduced the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the isolated ileum (p<0.05. Ethanol extract exhibited significantly greater relaxant activity than the aqueous extract (p<0.05. These results suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery leaves can produce the inhibition of the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine. These data indicate that celery extracts act as intestinal smooth muscle relaxants, which justifies their use in gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Inhibition of peristalsis in guinea-pig isolated ileum and colon by drugs that block prostaglandin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A; Eley, K G; Stockley, H L

    1976-01-01

    1 Methods of analysing peristaltic activity have been evaluated by the use of recordings of longitudinal and circular muscle activity and of propulsion in whole segments of guinea-pig ileum and colon. 2 Some prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, and antagonists of prostaglandin action were tested for their suitability for studying the role of prostaglandins in peristalsis. Aspirin was suitable; at 10-200 mug/ml it had little effect on responses of longitudinal muscle strips of the guinea-pig ileum to acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, nicotine or prostaglandin E2. Indomethacin (1-4 mug/ml) reduced responses to nicotine and prostaglandin E2. The prostaglandin antagonists polyphloretin phosphate and SC-19220 reduced contractions of ileal longitudinal muscle caused by nerve excitation with either nicotine or transmural stimulation. 3 Aspirin (20-100 mug/ml) or indomethacin (1-4 mug/ml) applied serosally greatly inhibited all aspects of peristalsis in guinea-pig ileum and colon. Inhibition of peristalsis of the ileum by aspirin was antagonized by prostaglandin E2 and that by indomethacin was removed by prostaglandin F2alpha or ACh. Inhibition of colonic peristalsis by aspirin was antagonized by prostaglandin E2 but rarely by ACh, and that by indomethacin by prostaglandin E1 or E2. Mucosal application of aspirin had little effect on either ileum or colon but indomethacin caused some inhibition. 4 These results support the supposition that prostaglandins contribute to peristaltic activity. PMID:823997

  6. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  7. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  8. Spasmolytic and Anti-Spasmodic Action of Trachyspermum ammi Essence on Rat's Ileum Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Seyed Hassan; Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Safari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Trachyspermum ammi is a plant of umbelliferae family and has been traditionally used in the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion, colic, and diarrhea. Our previous study demonstrated that aqueous extract of Trachyspermum ammi reduced the contractile activity of rat's ileum. This study was designed to examine the effect of Trachyspermum ammi essence on acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated rat's ileum. In this experimental procedure, the tissue samples were suspended from the transducer lever and mounted on the organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. Isotonic responses were recorded by using an isotonic transducer and the amplitude of contractions. This process was induced by cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine before and after exposing tissue by saline and different concentrations of essence. The chemical constituents of the essence from distillate extract of Trachyspermum ammi seeds were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the chemical analysis showed many components in which thymol was the main constituent. Our findings showed that the essence derived from the extract in all concentrations used in this study (0.002, 0.005, and 0.01% V/V) significantly reduced acetylcholine-induced contractions (47.34, 60.46, and 86%, respectively, P Trachyspermum ammi, the relaxant effect observed in this study is probably due to this agent which can exert an anti-cholinergic property.

  9. Postmortem morphology and viability of human Peyer's patches in distal ileum: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Felicita; Tafaro, Angela; Piscitelli, Domenico; Casiello, Michela; Amati, Luigi; Jirillo, Emilio; Tattoli, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa contains a highly specialized immune system which plays a central role in the induction of immune reactions. In the small bowel, Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) is organized in lymphoid aggregates which are known as Peyer's Patches (PP). Even though human PP involvement in systemic immunity has been described, little is known about their anatomy and morphology and viability. The aim of this study was to examine PP according to their macroscopic anatomy, distribution and cell viability after death. Specimens from the distal ileum were obtained from 72 serial autopsy cases: PP were identified and, parts of them were analyzed for histological examination. Moreover, viability of recovered PP cells was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Most of the PP (90%) were situated on the antimesenteric border of ileum, and the greatest density of PP occurred in the most distal segment. The number of PP varied with age, with the maximum number observed in 21- to 30-years old cadavers. Histological examination showed their remarkable architectural preservation at different post-mortem intervals (PMI), while the mucosal surface underwent autolysis. In 56% of cases PP cells were still viable, especially at PMI < 24 hours after death. These data confirm that human PP are still well preserved in a remarkable percentage of cadavers also several hours after death, and their availability may be helpful in various fields of research.

  10. The Effect of Ischemia and Reperfusion on Enteric Glial Cells and Contractile Activity in the Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Palombit, Kelly; Vieira, Cátia; Silva, Isabel; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Castelucci, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effects of ischemia followed by different periods of reperfusion (I/R) on immunoreactive S100β-positive glial and Hu-immunoreactive neurons co-expressing the P2X2 receptor in the myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. The ileal artery was occluded for 35 min with an atraumatic vascular clamp. The animals were killed 24 h, 72 h, and 1 week after ischemia. Sham animals were not submitted to ileal artery occlusion. The relative density, size, and co-localization of P2X2 receptor-expressing cells in relation to S100β-immunoreactive glial and Hu-immunoreactive neuronal cells were evaluated. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of I/R on gastrointestinal transit and ileum contractile activity. The cellular density of P2X2 receptor and neuronal Hu immunoreactivity/cm(2) decreased after I/R, whereas glial S100β immunoreactivity/cm(2) increased. No significant differences between sham and I/R groups were observed regarding the perikarya area of Hu-positive neurons. The area of S100β-immunoreactive glial cells increased by 24.1 % 1 week after I/R compared with the 24 h group. Methylene blue progression along the small intestine decreased (P glial cells, may contribute to decreased GI motility after I/R.

  11. Pentoxifylline inhibits agonist-induced vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle and spontaneous peristalsis in isolated ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Mark W; Hirst, David G

    2005-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is currently used therapeutically as a tumor oxygenator where it been shown to increase tumor blood flow and potentiate ionizing radiation damage. The clinical benefits of PTX have been primarily attributed to its effect on the rheologic properties of whole blood, although there is speculation that the mechanism for PTX-induced increases in tumor oxygenation may be the direct result of reduced vascular resistance. Therefore, to address the issue of vascular (geometric) resistance directly, we examined the ability of PTX and its hydroxy metabolite, lisofylline (LF), to modulate phenylephrine (PE)-induced constriction in isolated rat tail arteries. PTX or LF significantly attenuated phenylphrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 for LF and PTX were 336 and 466 microM, respectively. Gastrointestinal disturbances have been reported following oral ingestion of PTX. To clarify the mechanistic basis for this side effect we examined the potential of PTX to modulate spontaneous peristalsis in isolated rat ileum rings. PTX significantly attenuated the spontaneous contractions (oscillations) in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison to isolated rat arterial vessels, the ileum ring preparations were significantly more sensitive (eightfold) to the relaxing effects of PTX (EC50 58 microM). Our data suggest that PTX- or LF-induced changes in tumor blood flow may be the direct result of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal disturbances that have been reported in the literature may be a consequence of PTX-induced inhibition of gut peristalsis.

  12. Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation without peritoneal calcification: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares Esther

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A case of giant meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation is presented. Conventional radiographic features of meconium peritonitis with secondary meconium pseudocyst formation are well described. Our case is unusual in comparison to other cases reported in the literature and needs to be reported because the meconium pseudocyst presented without the typical ultrasound features (calcifications, polyhydramnios and ascites and was initially identified as an abdominal mass. Case presentation We describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman in her third trimester of pregnancy, in which an abdominal mass was detected in the fetus. The newborn was diagnosed in the early neonatal period with meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation. Conclusions The prenatal appearance of a meconium pseudocyst can be complemented by other signs of bowel obstruction (if present such as polyhydramnios and fetal bowel dilatation. This is an original case report of interest to all clinicians in the perinatology and fetal ultrasound field. We consider that the utility of this case is the recognition that a meconium pseudocyst might appear without the typical ultrasound features and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when an echogenic intra-abdominal cyst is seen.

  13. Influence of distal ileum exclusion on hepatic and renal functions in presence of extrahepatic cholestasis

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    Evandro Luis de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the ileal exclusion interferes with liver and kidney functional changes secondary to extrahepatic cholestasis.METHODS: We studied 24 rats, divided into three groups with eight individuals each: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (ligation of the hepatic duct combined with internal biliary drainage, and Group 3 (bile duct ligation combined with internal biliary drainage and exclusion of the terminal ileum. Animals in Group 1 (control underwent sham laparotomy. The animals of groups 2 and 3 underwent ligation and section of the hepatic duct and were kept in cholestasis for four weeks. Next, they underwent an internal biliary bypass. In Group 3, besides the biliary-enteric bypass, we associated the exclusion of the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum and carried out an ileocolic anastomosis. After four weeks of monitoring, blood was collected from all animals of the three groups for liver and kidney biochemical evaluation (albumin, ALT, AST, direct and indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cGT, creatinine and urea.RESULTS: there were increased values of ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, cGT, creatinine and urea in rats from Group 3 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: ileal exclusion worsened liver and kidney functions in the murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis, being disadvantageous as therapeutic procedure for cholestatic disorders.

  14. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  15. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  16. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  17. Widespread exposure to Sarcoptes scabiei in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Casáis, R; Delibes-Mateos, M; Calvete, C; Rouco, C; Castro, F; Colomar, V; Casas-Díaz, E; Ramírez, E; Moreno, S; Prieto, J M; Villafuerte, R

    2012-02-10

    Sarcoptic mange was recently described in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in north-eastern Mediterranean Spain, the first such infection reported in this species anywhere in the world. This finding has created concern in conservationists and game managers given that an outbreak of mange after a translocation would have catastrophic consequences for naïve rabbit populations in other parts of Spain. A retrospective serosurvey using an 'in house' ELISA test based on the use of a recombinant antigen aimed at determining the rates of contact with Sarcoptes scabiei was carried out on sera from 966 rabbits collected between 1993 and 2010 in Spain. Antibodies were found in 13% of wild rabbits in 60% of the 53 areas surveyed, as well as in 16 of the 17 Spanish provinces and islands studied. Seropositive rabbits were found amongst the oldest samples analyzed and in all studied years. Antibodies were also detected in 36% of rabbits from the protected island of Dragonera, where rabbits have probably not been released since the 1970s. On Mallorca, where 89 rabbits were inspected for both lesions and antibodies, the prevalence of lesions (5.6%) was much lower than the seroprevalence (22.5%), indicating that rabbits often survive infection or that ELISA detects infected rabbits before they develop visible lesions. Seroprevalence was higher in areas with medium levels of rabbit abundance, no restocking and high rainfall. The results show that mange is widespread in rabbits and that the mite is not a recent introduction. Thus, sarcoptic mange could be considered as an enzootic disease in the wild rabbit and so prophylactic measures implemented during rabbit translocations are to be encouraged to avoid local outbreaks in naïve populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  19. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Hamid A.; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6)...

  20. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Artificial Ligament: Reconstruction of Injured Rabbit Medial Collateral Ligament With Elastin-Collagen and Ligament Cell Composite Artificial Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirukawa, Masaki; Katayama, Shingo; Sato, Tatsuya; Inoue, Kota; Niwa, Kosuke; Ito, Naoya; Hattori, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Takashi; Unno, Hironori; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2018-04-16

    Ligament reconstruction using a tissue-engineered artificial ligament (TEAL) requires regeneration of the ligament-bone junction such that fixation devices such as screws and end buttons do not have to be used. The objective of this study was to develop a TEAL consisting of elastin-coated polydioxanone (PDS) sutures covered with elastin and collagen fibers preseeded with ligament cells. In a pilot study, a ring-type PDS suture with a 2.5 mm (width) bone insertion was constructed with/without elastin coating (Ela-coat and Non-coat) and implanted into two bone tunnels, diameter 2.4 mm, in the rabbit tibia (6 cases each) to access the effect of elastin on the bond strength. PDS specimens taken together with the tibia at 6 weeks after implantation indicated growth of bone-like hard tissues around bone tunnels accompanied with narrowing of the tunnels in the Ela-coat group and not in the Non-coat group. The drawout load of the Ela-coat group was significantly higher (28.0 ± 15.1 N, n = 4) than that of the Non-coat group (7.6 ± 4.6 N, n = 5). These data can improve the mechanical bulk property of TEAL through extracellular matrix formation. To achieve this TEAL model, 4.5 × 10 6 ligament cells were seeded on elastin and collagen fibers (2.5 cm × 2.5 cm × 80 µm) prior to coil formation around the elastin-coated PDS core sutures having ball-shape ends with a diameter of 2.5 mm. Cell-seeded and cell-free TEALs were implanted across the femur and the tibia through bone tunnels with a diameter of 2.4 mm (6 cases each). There was no incidence of TEAL being pulled in 6 weeks. Regardless of the remarkable degradation of PDS observed in the cell-seeded group, both the elastic modulus and breaking load of the cell-seeded group (n = 3) were comparable to those of the sham-operation group (n = 8) (elastic modulus: 15.4 ± 1.3 MPa and 18.5 ± 5.7 MPa; breaking load: 73.0 ± 23.4 N and 104.8 ± 21.8 N, respectively) and higher than those

  1. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and leiomyoma of the ileum mimicking adnexal mass: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Hurşitoğlu, Behiye Seda; Farajov, Rasim; Terek, Mustafa Coşan; Sezak, Murat; Şimşek, Deniz; Yılmaz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Adnexal masses are formations seen in women of all ages; they most often include cystic elements. Medical history, physical examination, different imaging methods, and tumor marker determinations must be used together for preoperative evaluation of an adnexal mass. Both benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine are more rarely encountered than malignant tumors of other gastrointestinal system components; although advanced imaging methods and other diagnostic techniques are used, they do not always allow these tumors to be differentiated from adnexal masses. We report here on two cases operated on with the preliminary diagnosis of an adnexal mass, in which the presence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a leiomyoma of the ileum, respectively, was established.

  2. Effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin on the smooth muscle preparation of guinea-pig ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Y.; Spiegelstein, M.Y.

    1974-01-01

    1 The effects of Gymnodinium breve neurotoxin (GT) on smooth muscles were studied using the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2 The toxin caused strong spasmogenic effects at 1-4 μg/ml, characterized by prolonged tonic contraction with superimposed pronounced pendular movements. Tachyphylaxis was observed upon administration of successive doses. 3 Atropine blocked the contractile response elicited by GT, whereas mepyramine and hexamethonium failed to do so. These findings tentatively suggested a cholinergic involvement at a post-ganglionic site of action. 4 In the presence of tetrodotoxin the effects of GT were abolished, excluding direct action of the toxin on the smooth muscle. 5 It is concluded that GT exerts its spasmogenic effects through stimulation of the post-ganglionic cholinergic nerve fibres. PMID:4155337

  3. Ileum perforation due to cytomegalovirus infection in a patient with adult T-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Nakao, Atsunori; Okamoto, Ayana; Kihara, Takako; Hirota, Seiichi; Fujisaki, Noritomo; Kotani, Joji

    2016-04-01

    A 73-year-old woman was transferred to our department due to severe abdominal pain with peritonitis. Her laboratory data showed that her white blood cell count was elevated to more than 50,000/mm 3 . Antibodies to HTLV-I were positive and we made the diagnosis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Emergency laparotomy was performed and revealed two separate small perforations of the ileum, requiring bowel resection. Immunohistochemistry for cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen revealed positive staining in the intestinal stromal cells. Despite surgery and antiviral therapy with ganciclovir, she died after 28 days. Adult T-cell leukemia patients may present acute abdominal pain due to intestinal perforation caused by CMV infection. We should be aware of CMV infection as one of the pathogens causing acute abdominal crises such as massive hemorrhage or visceral perforation.

  4. Recurrent spontaneous subserosal hematoma of ileum causing intestinal obstruction in a patient with menkes disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Chao; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Wang, Nien-Lu; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Menkes disease (MD) is a disorder of copper metabolism due to ATP7A gene mutation that leads to severe copper deficiency. Deformed blood vessels can be found in many parts of the body, and intracranial hematoma is generally reported. Methods: We report a Taiwanese boy with MD who had recurrent spontaneous subserosal hematoma of ileum presenting as intestinal obstruction, with the 2 episodes 23 months apart. The patient returned to the usual physical status after surgical removal of the hematoma. Results: The defective copper metabolism causes dysfunction of a plenty of copper-dependent enzymes, giving rise to unique kinky hair appearance, progressive neurodegeneration, and connective tissue abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on recurrent subserosal hemorrhage of intestine in MD. Conclusion: Owing to the fragile structure of blood vessels, subserosal hematoma should be considered when patients with MD having intestinal obstruction. PMID:27631241

  5. Appendectomy and resection of the terminal ileum with secondary severe necrotic changes in acute perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryajev, Yuri N; Volkov, Nikolay N; Kashintsev, Alexey A; Chalenko, Marina V; Radionov, Yuri V

    2015-01-25

    Resectional procedures for advanced and complicated appendicitis are performed infrequently. Their extent can vary: cecal resection, ileocecectomy, and even right hemicolectomy. We present a very rare case of appendectomy that was combined with partial ileal resection for severe necrotic changes and small perforation of the ileum. A 19-year-old female patient was hospitalized with right iliac fossa pain and fever 10 days after the onset of symptoms. On laparoscopy, a large mass in a right iliac fossa was found. The ultrasound-guided drainage of the suspected appendiceal abscess was unavailable. After conversion using McBurney's incision, acute perforated appendicitis was diagnosed. It was characterized by extension of severe necrotic changes onto the ileal wall and complicated by right iliac fossa abscess. A mass was bluntly divided, and a large amount of pus with fecaliths was discharged and evacuated. Removal of necrotic tissues from the ileal wall led to the appearance of a small defect in the bowel. A standard closure of this defect was considered as very unsafe due to a high risk of suture leakage or bowel stenosis. We perform a resection of the involved ileum combined with appendectomy and drainage/tamponade of an abscess cavity. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged on the 15th day. In advanced appendicitis, the involved bowel resection can prevent possible complications (e.g., ileus, intestinal fistula, peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess). Our case may be the first report of an appendectomy combined with an ileal resection for advanced and complicated appendicitis.

  6. Nicotine-Induced Modulation of the Cholinergic Twitch Response in the Ileum of Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the direct drug effects of nicotine and its effects on the cholinergic twitch responses of the electrically stimulated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip from the ileum of guinea pig were investigated. Nicotine dose-dependently (0.3-10 µmol/l) evoked the well-known contractile responses on its own. Whereas the interposed twitch responses remained present without a change in height at 1 µmol/l nicotine, a nicotine concentration of 3 µmol/l slightly and a concentration of 10 µmol/l markedly diminished the twitch during their presence. After the washout of 1-10 µmol/l nicotine, the height of the twitch response was also temporarily and significantly reduced by 30-77%. The P2X purinoceptor agonist αβ-methylene ATP (1-10 µmol/l) dose-dependently induced contractions on its own and reduced the twitch response during its presence in the organ bath; however, it did not diminish the twitch responses after washout of the drug as nicotine did. The P2X antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid, the NMDA channel blocker MK-801 and the inhibitor of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels apamin reduced the contractile effect of 1 µmol/l nicotine. Apamin also significantly prevented the 'post-nicotine inhibition of the twitch' following the washout of 1-3 µmol/l nicotine. As a conclusion, we provide evidence for a functional interaction between nicotinic receptors and the P2X receptors in the ileum of the guinea pig. The 'post-nicotine inhibition of the twitch' is not due to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization or transmitter depletion, but most probably the secondary effects of nicotine on SK channels determine the reduced cholinergic motor neuron excitability. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Clinical utility of retrograde terminal ileum intubation in the evaluation of chronic non-bloody diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Rohit; Lopez, Rocio; Shen, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency and factors involved in the terminal ileum intubation of patients with chronic, non-bloody diarrhea and to compare diagnostic yields of colonoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The medical records of 945 patients undergoing colonoscopy for chronic, non-bloody diarrhea were reviewed. Findings of microscopic colitis, Clostridium difficile colitis, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease or tropical sprue were considered as definitive causes of diarrhea. A total of 689 patients met the diagnosis of chronic, non-bloody diarrhea, in which 370 (53.7%) underwent ileocolonoscopy. Specific histological diagnosis could explain the patient's symptoms in 107 (15.5%) patients. The diagnostic yield were 15.0% in the colonoscopy-only group, 16.9% in the ileocolonoscopy without biopsy group, and 15.5% in the ileocolonoscopy with biopsy group. Of the 19 patients with an abnormal terminal ileal biopsy, six (31.6%) had an otherwise normal colonic appearance which would have been diagnosed as normal if the ileum had not been reached and biopsied. In those with Crohn's disease (n = 7), five had ileocolitis and two had colitis only. A multivariate analysis showed that age of the patients and otherwise normal gross endoscopic results to be the only factors associated with a lower likelihood of ileal intubation by endoscopists. The ileal intubation rate was 53.7% in our patients with chronic, non-bloody diarrhea. Diagnostic yield of ileocolonoscopy with biopsy in US patients with chronic, non-bloody diarrhea appeared to be low, if the colon side was normal on endoscopy. But this may provide supportive evidence in patients diagnosed with ileocolonic Crohn's disease. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  8. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  9. A journey into insidious world of MALT lymphoma of the ileum: from the beginning to the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek; Singh, Sunita; Pal, Manoj; Lathwal, Amit

    2014-12-01

    Lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) has been used to describe a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma derived from gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) of the ileum are extremely rare and only few reports with endoscopic features have been reported. We present a 55-year-old male patient with history of abdominal pain and loss of appetite since 2½ years. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography was normal, but computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed, dilated segment of ileum containing both contrast and debris. He underwent segmental resection of ileum associated with stricture site, histopathology of which revealed MALToma of ileum. Patient was subsequently treated with low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. Primary treatment possibility should be considered as the treatment of H. pylori infection while surgical resection for superficial lesions followed by low dose chemotherapy is recommended. The present case report explore MALToma of the GI tract, its diagnostic criterions, role of radiological and pathological tools, various investigative techniques and role of surgery and chemotherapy in such cases.

  10. In vivo imaging of farnesoid X receptor activity reveals the ileum as the primary bile acid signaling tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, Sander M.; Volle, David H.; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Auwerx, Johan

    2007-01-01

    We generated and characterized a firefly luciferase reporter mouse for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). This FXR reporter mouse has basal luciferase expression in the terminal ileum, an organ with well-characterized FXRalpha signaling. In vivo luciferase activity reflected the

  11. Interleukin-1 beta activates specific populations of enteric neurons and enteric glia in the guinea pig ileum and colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjwa, ETTL; Bradley, JM; Keenan, CM; Kroese, ABA; Sharkey, KA

    2003-01-01

    Fos expression was used to assess whether the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) activated specific, chemically coded neuronal populations in isolated preparations of guinea pig ileum and colon. Whether the effects of IL-1beta were mediated through a prostaglandin pathway and

  12. Actions of Artemisia vulgaris extracts and isolated sesquiterpene lactones against receptors mediating contraction of guinea pig ileum and trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Gaudencio M; Broadley, Kenneth J; Kariuki, Benson; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R; Simons, Claire

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluates the Philippine medicinal plant Artemisia vulgaris for antagonistic activity at selected biogenic amine receptors on smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract in order to explain its traditional use in asthma and hyperactive gut. The antagonistic activity of chloroform crude extract (AV-CHCl(3)) and methanol crude extract (AV-MeOH) of Artemisia vulgaris was studied against concentration-response curves for contractions of the guinea pig ileum and trachea to 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT(2) receptors), methacholine (M(3) muscarinic receptors), histamine (H(1) receptors) and β-phenylethylamine (trace amine-associated receptors, TAAR1). The Artemisia vulgaris chloroform (AV-CHCl(3)) and methanol (AV-MeOH) extract showed histamine H1 antagonism in the ileum and trachea. Further analysis of AV-CHCl(3) isolated two major components, yomogin and 1,2,3,4-diepoxy-11(13)-eudesmen-12,8-olide. Yomogin, a sesquiterpene lactone, exhibited a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonism in the ileum. The presence of a specific, competitive histamine receptor antagonist and smooth muscle relaxant activity in Artemisia vulgaris extracts on the smooth muscle in ileum and trachea explains its traditional use in the treatment of asthma and hyperactive gut. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Yao, W.; Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA

  14. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20...

  15. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Kardia, Egi; Kamaldin, Nurulain ‘Atikah; Latahir, Ahmad Zaeri; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2013-01-01

    No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, e...

  16. Development of rabbit embryos during a 96-h period of in vitro culture after superovulatory treatment under conditions of elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H; Dooley, M P; Hopkins, S M; Anderson, L L; Yibchok-anun, S; Hsu, W H

    1999-08-16

    The effects of elevated ambient temperature on the response to exogenous gonadotropins were evaluated in female New Zealand White rabbits exposed to 33+/-1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) and 10-30% relative humidity (8 h/day) during a 5-day period. Does were treated with pFSH (0.3 mg/0.3 ml Standard Armour) twice daily during three consecutive days with a minimum interval of 8 h between injections. Six hours after the last FSH injection all does were removed from the experimental chamber, given hCG (25 IU/kg) and paired overnight. Nineteen hours after pairing, embryos were flushed from the reproductive tracts, evaluated, and subjected to in vitro culture during a 96-h period. The ovulatory responses to exogenous gonadotropins and fertilization rates did not differ significantly under conditions of elevated ambient temperature, whereas fewer blastocysts and increased number of degenerate embryos were observed after culture. We conclude that although hyperthermia was induced during exposure to elevated ambient temperature, it did not alter the ovulatory responses to gonadotropin treatment and plasma concentrations of FSH and LH compared with does in a thermoneutral environment. Exposure of donor rabbits to elevated ambient temperature before mating, however, increased embryonic degeneration.

  17. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  18. Influence of the radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implants rabbit embryos: effect on atypic mitotic index and embryo pole development; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no numero de mitoses atipicas e no grau de desenvolvimento do polo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-08-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: embryo pole development; percentage of abnormal mitotic figures. irradiation time was associated with lower scores of embryo pole development, but not with irradiation dose. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The abnormal mitotic cells was affected both by the time and dose of irradiation. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  20. Morphological Characterization of the Myenteric Plexus of the Ileum and Distal colon of Dogs Affected by Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchÄfer, Bárbara Tavares; Silveira, Mariana Póvoa; Palombit, Kelly; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Watanabe, Ii Sei; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Castelucci, Patricia

    2017-10-23

    Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (canine dystrophinopathy) is a hereditary degenerative disease characterized by muscle changes similar to those described for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and by alterations in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. Some authors have suggested that these abnormalities may be associated with intestinal motility. This study analyzed the nitrergic and cholinergic neurons and P2X7 receptor expression in the myenteric plexus of the ileum and distal colon of dogs with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) expression and to label all HuC/D- and P2X7 receptor-immunoreactive (IR) neurons. Transmission electron microscopy and basic histology were performed for further analysis. The results showed that nitrergic neurons exhibited a Dogiel type I morphology in the ileum and distal colon. The neuronal profile results showed that there were fewer NOS-, ChAT-, and HuC/D-IR neurons in the ileum than in the distal colon in the dystrophic (DT) dogs. Additionally, there were more NOS-, ChAT- and HuC/D-IR neurons per ganglion in the distal colon than in the ileum. The P2X7 receptor-expressing neurons colocalized with nitrergic and cholinergic neurons. Transmission and light microscopy revealed collagen between the muscle fibers, between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers and within the myenteric ganglia of dogs with muscular dystrophy. These findings provide a morphological description of the myenteric neurons in the ileum and distal colon of these DT dogs and may contribute to a better understanding of the gastrointestinal disorders found in patients with DMD. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. DETECTING PRESENCE OF C/T POLYMORPHISM AT POSITION 34 SECOND INTRON OF THE MYOSTATIN GENE IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka MARKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin gene is a negative regulator of skeletal muscles growth. It is responsible for normal development of skeletal muscles. The objective of the research was to detect variation of C/T at position 34 of the second intron of the MNST gene in rabbits. The research included 114 rabbits: 54 of them Polish Rabbits, and 60 of them White Flemish Giants, examined by means of the PCR-RFLP method using AluI restriction enzyme. We found allele C with a frequency of 0.6184 of the examined rabbit population, and allele T with a frequency of 0.3816 of the examined rabbits.

  2. Identification and partial characterisation of a new Lagovirus in Australian wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, T; Wright, J D; Robinson, A J

    2009-02-05

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia to control feral rabbit populations. Before RHDV was released on the Australian continent in 1996, antibodies cross-reacting in RHDV specific ELISAs were found in Australian wild rabbits, leading to the hypothesis that a non-pathogenic calicivirus had been circulating in rabbit populations in Australia, potentially providing some level of cross-immunoprotection to RHDV infection. For the detection of this putative virus, a universal lagovirus PCR test was developed to screen a variety of different tissues of wild caught rabbits. We identified a new lagovirus in the intestinal tissues of three apparently healthy young wild rabbits. Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis revealed high concentrations of viral RNA in intestinal tissues and suggests a faecal-oral mode of transmission. Genome organisation and phylogenetic analysis following the sequencing of the entire viral genome revealed a new member of the genus Lagovirus within the family Caliciviridae.

  3. Cell-mediated transgenesis in rabbits: chimeric and nuclear transfer animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhartchenko, V; Flisikowska, T; Li, S; Richter, T; Wieland, H; Durkovic, M; Rottmann, O; Kessler, B; Gungor, T; Brem, G; Kind, A; Wolf, E; Schnieke, A

    2011-02-01

    The ability to perform precise genetic engineering such as gene targeting in rabbits would benefit biomedical research by enabling, for example, the generation of genetically defined rabbit models of human diseases. This has so far not been possible because of the lack of functional rabbit embryonic stem cells and the high fetal and perinatal mortality associated with rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer. We examined cultured pluripotent and multipotent cells for their ability to support the production of viable animals. Rabbit putative embryonic stem (ES) cells were derived and shown capable of in vitro and in vivo pluripotent differentiation. We report the first live born ES-derived rabbit chimera. Rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were derived from bone marrow, and multipotent differentiation was demonstrated in vitro. Nuclear transfer was carried out with both cell types, and embryo development was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Rabbit MSCs were markedly more successful than ES cells as nuclear donors. MSCs were transfected with fluorescent reporter gene constructs and assessed for nuclear transfer competence. Transfected MSCs supported development with similar efficiency as normal MSCs and resulted in the first live cloned rabbits from genetically manipulated MSCs. Reactivation of fluorescence reporter gene expression in reconstructed embryos was investigated as a means of identifying viable embryos in vitro but was not a reliable predictor. We also examined serial nuclear transfer as a means of rescuing dead animals.

  4. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. Copyright

  5. in New Zealand white rabbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning and expression analysis of zygote arrest 1 (Zar1) in New Zealand white rabbits. DAN WANG, SHU-YU XIE, WEI ... The objectives of this study were to clone the New. Zealand white rabbit Zar1 gene and to .... amplified from the reverse-transcription (RT) product tem- plate in the following 25 μL reactions: 12.5 μL 2 ...

  6. Contractile effect of tachykinins on Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) isolated ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Frankie H M; Chan, Sze Wa; Rudd, John A

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies used Suncus murinus to investigate the anti-emetic potential of NK(1) tachykinin receptor antagonists. However, the pharmacology of tachykinin receptors in this species has not been fully characterized. In the present studies, therefore, we examined a range of tachykinin receptor agonists for a capacity to induce contractions of the isolated ileum. The tachykinin NK1 receptor preferring agonists substance P, septide and [Sar9Met(O2)11] substance P, and the tachykinin NK2 preferring agonists neurokinin A and GR 64349 (Lys-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-R-gamma-lactam-Leu-Met-NH2) caused concentration dependent contractions with EC50 values in the nanomolar range. However, the tachykinin NK3 preferring agonists neurokinin B and senktide (1nM-1microM) induced only weak contractions. The action of senktide, but not [Sar9Met(O2)11] substance P, septide, or GR 64349, was antagonized significantly by atropine (Ptachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 ((+)-[(2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxy-benzyl-amino)-2-phenylpiperidine]) (10-100nM) inhibited substance P- and septide-induced contractions non-competitively. The pA2 value estimated for CP-99,994 against septide was 7.3+/-0.1. It also non-competitively antagonized the contractile responses induced by [Sar9Met(O2)11] substance P with a pA2 of 7.4+/-0.1. CP-99,994 also had a slight inhibitory action on neurokinin A-induced contractions, but did not modify the action of GR 64349. Conversely, the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, saredutant, competitively antagonized GR 64349-induced contractions with a pA2 of 7.34+/-0.02. On the other hand, the presence of both CP-99,994 and saredutant competitively antagonized substance P-induced contraction. The present studies indicate that tachykininNK1 and NK2 receptors exist in the ileum of S. murinus and are involved in mediating contractions directly on smooth muscle, whereas tachykinin NK3 receptors may play a minor role involving a release of acetylcholine.

  7. The gut microbiota engages different signaling pathways to induce Duox2 expression in the ileum and colon epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, F; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    , but not when germ-free mice were colonized with various commensal bacteria. Duox2 expression was more rapidly induced by the gut microbiota in the colon than in the ileum. Furthermore, we showed that regulation of Duox2 expression in the ileum involved TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein including interferon......-β (TRIF) and canonical nuclear factor-κB p50/p65 signaling, whereas regulation of Duox2 expression in the colon involved MyD88 and the p38 pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that the gut microbiota uses two distinct signaling pathways to induce Duox2 expression in the ileum and colon epithelium....

  8. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  9. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices

  10. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of venoms obtained from Mexican toxoglossate gastropods on isolated guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protein-containing extracts prepared from the venom ducts of Conus austini, Conus spurius and Polystira albida caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions in guinea pig ileum. The most potent extract was obtained from P. albida venom ducts (IC50 = 0.11 ± 0.02 µg protein/mL. The three extracts produced a moderate inhibition of contractions elicited by acetylcholine (ACh 1 µM, suggesting the presence of anticholinergic compounds. The contractile response elicited by nicotine (10 µM was significantly reduced by the extracts prepared from the ducts of C. austini and P. albida, which indicates that the venom produced by these species contains toxins that target neuronal nicotinic receptors. All three extracts significantly inhibited contractions evoked by histamine (0.5 µM, particularly those from C. spurius and P. albida. These findings reveal the presence of antihistaminergic compounds not previously described in any conoidean venom. Finally, we found that only the extract prepared from C. spurius ducts decreased KCl (60 mM-induced contractions, indicating that the venom of this snail contains compounds that block voltage-dependent Ca2+ or Na+ channels.

  12. [Thio- and oxybarbiturates inhibit peristalsis in the Guinea-pig ileum in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M K; Berg, W; Kublik, A; Holzer, P; Roewer, N

    2002-12-01

    Inhibition of gastrointestinal motility by drugs used for anaesthesia or sedation in critically ill patients in the ICU is a major problem leading to various complications. Thus this study examines whether the thio- and oxybarbiturates thiopentone and pentobarbitone exert an inhibitory effect on intestinal peristalsis. Peristalsis in isolated segments of the guinea-pig small intestine was elicited by distension of the gut wall through a rise of intraluminal pressure and recorded via the intraluminal pressure changes associated with the aborally moving peristaltic contractions. Thiopentone and pentobarbitone (0.1 - 300 microM)-induced inhibition of peristalsis was reflected by an increase of the peristaltic pressure threshold (PPT). Thiopentone (EC50 = 19,8 microM) and pentobarbitone (EC50 = 99.7 micro M) concentration-dependently increased the PPT. While the vehicle (saline) and 0.1 - 10 micro M thiopentone and pentobarbitone were without any effect on the PPT, 100 micro M caused a significant increase in PPT, and complete abolition of peristalsis occurred after 300 micro M thiopentone or pentobarbitone in all segments tested. Inhibition was reversed by changing the bath solution. Thio- and oxybarbiturates inhibit intestinal peristalsis in the guinea-pig ileum. It is assumed that thiopentone and pentobarbitone affect propulsive peristalsis also in the human small intestine.

  13. [Comparative proteomics analysis of the ileum of Pi-Yang deficiency model rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Lu, Ling; Wang, Cai-Xia; Jia, Lian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Based on proteomics technology, Pi-yang deficiency syndrome (PYDS) correlated differential proteins were screened, thus providing powerful experiment reliance for exploring the essence of PYDS. Totally 36 SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into the normal control group (n = 16) and the PYDS group (n = 20). The PYDS model rats were induced by improper diet, overstrain, and administration of yang impairing bitter cold herbs. The total proteins of the ileum were separated and extracted from rats in the PYDS group and the normal control group. The differential protein dots were identified using Delyder 2D 6.5 image analysis software by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technology. The finger print map of corresponding peptide qualities was obtained by applying MALDI TOF/TOF. The differential proteins were identified using Mascot search library. Judged by statistics and fuzzy mathematics, Pi-yang deficiency rat model was successfully established. Eight proteins with differential expressions involving cell skeleton, energy metabolism, and signal transduction, and so on were obtained. Of them, there were 4 up-regulated proteins, i.e., desmin, cytokeratin8 (CK8), pyruvate kinase (PK), and ezrin. Four down-regulated proteins were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cytokeratin19 (CK19), cytokeratin1 (CK1), and actin. The pathogenesis of PYDS might be slowed energy metabolism rate, reduced energy production, changed structure of ileal villin, and weakened absorbing and digestive functions.

  14. Radiosensitivity of ileum crypt cells in hibernating, arousing, and awake ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslow, B.N.; Michael Fry, R.J.; Suhrbier, K.M.; Sallese, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of ileal crypt cells, to 60 Co gamma radiation, was studied in ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) during hibernation, arousal, and the euthermic state. Survival of ileal crypt cells, assayed by the microcolony technique from stained transverse sections of ileum, was greater in animals irradiated in hibernation or 1 hr after initiation of arousal from hibernation. Crypt survival returned to the level of irradiated nonhibernating controls in animals irradiated 3 to 7 hr after initiation of arousal. Over the exposure range of 1500 to 2400 R, the survival of crypt cells for euthermic controls gave a D 0 = 133 +- 12 R and for animals irradiated in hibernation it gave a D 0 = 487 +- 92 R. In animals irradiated 1 hr after initiation of arousal, when core temperature is within the range of euthermic controls, crypt survival was almost as high as in the hibernators. These results suggest that the increased resistance of ileal crypt cells in hibernating animals could be due to hypoxia, although not direct evidence for hypoxia in hibernation was established. The changes in mitotic index of ileal crypt cells during hibernation and arousal indicate an alteration in the distribution of cells in the phases of the cycle. This change in distribution may also have contributed to the increased radioresistance of hibernators

  15. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the terminal ileum in a Crohn's disease patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, Ugo; De Simone, Matilde; Ferrero, Stefano; Ciulla, Michele M; Lemos, Alessandro; Avesani, Ettore Contessini

    2005-01-01

    Several malignancies have been described in association with inflammatory bowel diseases, the most common being adenocarcinoma. Carcinoid tumor and Crohn disease has also been previously reported, however the coexistence of both neoplasms is quite rare and the clinical diagnosis is very difficult. Here we report what we believe to be the fourth case of a mixed adenocarcinoid tumor coexisting with Crohn's disease. The patient presented with clinical and radiological features of intestinal obstruction. Laparotomy showed a stricturing lesion in the last 6 cm of the terminal ileum with proximal dilation. Only the histology of the resected surgical specimen proved the presence of a mixed adenocarcinoid tumor involving the terminal ileum. Carcinoid tumor should be suspected in elderly patients with Crohn's disease presenting with intestinal obstruction and laparotomy should be considered to exclude malignancy

  16. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  17. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... receive excitatory input by parasympathetic, possibly vagal, preganglionic fibres, via release of acetylcholine acting on nicotinic receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin suggests that CGRP is also released from extrinsic sensory neurons....

  18. Einfluss von Thujonen und Omeprazol auf die Aktivität der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Huhnstock, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Untersucht wurde der Einfluss von Thujonen (α Thujon, αβThujon, natürliches Mischthujon) und Omeprazol auf die Ruheaktivität, den Basaltonus, die pharmakologisch vorstimulierte glatte Muskulatur ,sowie die elektrisch induzierte Kontraktionen und die elektrisch induzierte Relaxation unter nicht-adrenergen nicht-cholinergen Bedingungen an der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum von Ratten. Auf die Ruheaktivität und den Basaltonus hatten die Substanzen keinen Einfluss. Thujone hatten einen signifikante...

  19. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  20. Further developments in the study of harmonic analysis by the correlation and spectral density methods, and its application to the adult rabbit EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meilleurat, Michele

    1973-07-01

    The application of harmonic analysis to the brain spontaneous electrical activity has been studied theoretically and practically in 30 adult rabbits chronically implanted with electrodes. Theoretically, an accurate energetic study of the signal can only be achieved by the calculation of the autocorrelation function and its Fourier transform, the power density spectrum. Secondly, a comparative study has been made of the analogical methods using analogic or hybrid devices and the digital method with an analysis and computing program (the sampling rate, the delay, the period of integration and the problems raised by the amplification of the biological signals and sampling). Data handling is discussed, the method mainly retaining the study of variance, the calculation of the total energy carried by the signal and the energies carried along the frequency bandwidth ΔF, their percentage as related to the total energy, the relationships of these various values for various electroencephalographic states. Experimentally, the general aspect of the spontaneous electric activity of the dorsal hippocampus and the visual cortex during vigilance variations is accurately described by the calculation of the variance and the study of the position of the maximum values of the peaks of the power density spectra on the frequency axis as well as by the calculation of the energies carried in various frequency bands, 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 Hz. With the same theoretical bases, both the analogical and digital methods lead to similar results, the former being easier to operate, the latter more accurate. (author) [fr

  1. Desenvolvimento de um modelo experimental de falha óssea infectada na ulna de coelhos Development of an experimental model of infected bone void in the ulna of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lemos Azi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental que permita estudar a regeneração de grandes falhas ósseas em condições de infecção. MÉTODO: Falhas ósseas segmentares de 15mm foram criadas cirurgicamente na ulna de 12 coelhos e inoculadas com 5x10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC de S. aureus. O desbridamento da infecção foi realizado duas semanas após, seguida da aplicação sistêmica de gentamicina por quatro semanas. Os animais foram acompanhados por um período de 12 semanas para avaliação do controle da infecção e da regeneração óssea. RESULTADOS: A regeneração espontânea foi inferior a 25% do defeito na avaliação radiográfica e histológica. CONCLUSÃO: A Falha óssea infectada de 15mm na ulna de coelhos é incapaz de alcançar a regeneração completa sem tratamentos adicionais. Nível de Evidência V, Estudo experimental.OBJECTIVE: Develop a model that allowed the study of bone regeneration in infection conditions. METHOD: A 15 mm defect was surgically created in the rabbit ulna and inoculated with 5x10(8 colony-forming units (CFU of S. aureus. Surgical debridement was performed two weeks after and systemic gentamicin was administered for four weeks. Animals were followed up to 12 weeks to evaluate infection control and bone regeneration. RESULT: Bone regeneration was inferior to 25% of the defect in radiological and histological analysis. CONCLUSION: Infected bone defect of 15 mm in the rabbit ulna was unable to achieve full regeneration without further treatment. Level of Evidence V, Experimental Study.

  2. ‘Ileibacterium massiliense’ gen. nov., sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human ileum of a patient with Crohn disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mailhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose here the main characteristics of ‘Ileibacterium massiliense’ strain Marseille-P3115, which was isolated from the ileum liquid sample of a patient with Crohn disease.

  3. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  4. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was seen in four of the rabbits. The reports by the histopathologist are included in Appendix A...hypoplasia in the spleens of all five rabbits and varying levels of increased U I I Page 21 hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages in four of the...99 and 443. Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was noted in 5/6 rabbits and was especially prominent in rabbit #99. I

  5. Pediatric Crohn disease is characterized by Th1 in the terminal ileum and Th1/Th17 immune response in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić Mlakar, Ana; Hojsak, Iva; Jergović, Mladen; Čimić, Samir; Bendelja, Krešo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the expression of inflammatory mediators in the affected terminal ileum and colon in pediatric Crohn disease (CD) patients with different stages of disease. Additionally, we assessed the role of efflux transporters in disease pathogenesis and their correlation with immune response. The study included 26 CD patients (10 newly diagnosed (CD-new), 8 CD-treated, and 8 CD-remission) and 15 control subjects. The terminal ileum IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1β were elevated in CD-new, while in the colon, the IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-6 were elevated in both CD-new and CD-treated subgroups. SOCS3 expression was elevated in both subgroups with active inflammation at both ileum and colon, while SOCS1 was elevated only in CD-new ileum and CD-treated colon. MDR1 expression in ileum was reduced in both subgroups with active inflammation, while BCRP was reduced only in CD-new subgroup. New onset pediatric CD is characterized by Th1 response in ileum and mixed Th1/Th17 response in the colon, with elevated expressions of innate IL-6 and IL-1β. SOCS1/SOCS3 expressions seem to be insufficient for the regulation of the immune response. The reduction in MDR1 expression points to its role in the disease pathogenesis. What is Known: • CD is characterized by an aberrant immune response What is New: • The immune response in new onset pediatric CD differs between terminal ileum and colon • MDR1 expression is downregulated at both terminal ileum and colon irrespective of the disease activity.

  6. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute aerobic swimming exercise induces distinct effects in the contractile reactivity of rat ileum to KCl and carbachol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layanne Cabral Da Cunha Araujo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED and acutely exercised (EX-AC groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10 and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days one week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 x 10-2 M compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 x 10-2 M. Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 x 10-7 M compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 x 10-7 M. The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 µmol/mL in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 µmol/mL. Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 µm, respectively compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 µm, respectively. Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  8. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  9. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  10. Extrinsic innervation of ileum and pelvic flexure of foals with ileocolonic aganglionosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, F; Gentilini, F; Romagnoli, N; Spadari, A; Turba, M E; Giunta, M; Sadeghinezhad, J; Sorteni, C; Chiocchetti, R

    2016-10-01

    Equine ileocolonic aganglionosis, which is also called lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), is a severe congenital condition characterized by the unsuccessful colonization of neural crest progenitors in the caudal part of the small intestine and the entire large intestine. LWFS, which is attributable to a mutation in the endothelin receptor B gene, is the horse equivalent of Hirschsprung's disease in humans. Affected foals suffer from aganglionosis or hypoganglionosis of the enteric ganglia resulting in intestinal akinesia and colic. In other species with aganglionosis, fibers of extrinsic origin show an abnormal distribution pattern within the gut wall, but we have no information to date regarding this occurrence in horses. Our present aim is to investigate the distribution of extrinsic sympathetic and sensory neural fibers in LWFS, focusing on ileum and the pelvic flexure of the colon of two LWFS foals compared with a control subject. The sympathetic fibers were immunohistochemically identified with the markers tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase. The extrinsic sensory fibers were identified with the markers Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Since SP and CGRP are also synthesized by subclasses of horse intramural neurons, LWFS represents a good model for the selective study of extrinsic fiber distribution. Affected foals showed large bundles of extrinsic fibers, compared with the control, as observed in Hirschsprung's disease. Furthermore, altered adrenergic pathways were observed, prominently in the pelvic flexure. The numbers of SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive fibers in the muscle, a target of enteric neurons, were dramatically reduced, whereas fibers deduced to be extrinsic sensory axons persisted around submucosal blood vessels. Fiber numbers in the mucosa were reduced. Thus, extrinsic innervation, contributing to modulate enteric functions, might also be affected during LWFS.

  11. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  12. Immune response in rabbit ovaries following infection of a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Seamark, Robert; Kerr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the autoimmune response in rabbit ovaries following infection with a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B (MV-ZPB). A specific IgG antibody response to ZPB was elicited in the serum of infected rabbits and the antibody strongly bound to the zona pellucida of oocytes in secondary and tertiary follicles. T cell infiltration in the ovary was detected in a small proportion of the infected rabbits. In spite of this, the mean number of preovulatory and tertiary follicles in the ovary was significantly reduced at 30 days postinfection compared with that of the infected and uninfected controls. Histological analysis revealed that the cortex and medulla of these ovaries had accumulated a large number of probably luteinized cells and there were no follicles in these areas, indicating the ovaries were in a severe pathological condition. The data suggest that the delivery of ZP antigens using a recombinant myxoma virus is a prospective way to develop immunocontraceptive vaccines for rabbit population control, but that more understanding of the kinetics of the autoimmune response induced by viral delivery is needed

  13. ANTIBODY POLYCLONAL PRODUCTION ON RABBIT ANTI-OVINE PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN (Rabbit anti-ovPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Setiatin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detectPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT,DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as aplacebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume withcomplete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected atmutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginalear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measuredusing Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immuneresponse among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could beconcluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG atmolecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as amajor protein for producing antibodi.

  14. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...... was detected in rabbits, resulting in the absorption of a higher proportion of the anthocyanins from black currant juice than from an aqueous citric acid matrix. In humans the absorption and urinary excretion of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be proportional with dose and not influenced...

  15. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  16. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls. All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p < 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p < 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p < 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p < 0.05) or IB (p < 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p < 0.01). Early administrative of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusin, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  17. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug was administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls, All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p less than 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p less than 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p less than 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p less than 0.05) or IB (p less than 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p less than 0.01). Early administration of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusion, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  18. Coccidia of rabbit: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2009), s. 153-166 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/2328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : rabbit coccidia * review article * life cycles * pathology * immunity * coccidiosis control Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2009

  19. Variations of immunoglobulins after antigenic injection in irradiated rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, P.; Borgard, J.P.

    Study on the influence of irradiation upon rabbit immunoglobulins is developed. It is tried to check if the observed delay, after cephalic irradiation, in specified antibody response of injected antigen, could be in relation with a transient hypoimmunoglobulinemia in these same animals [fr

  20. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  1. Establishment of a cerebral schistosomiasis experimental model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Dan; Chen, Shi-Jie; Wu, Ming-Can; Cheng, Xiang-Lin; Li, Jun-Chuan; Chen, Ting-Xuan; Zhu, Zhan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to establish a cerebral schistosomiasis model in rabbits, to provide a valuable tool for morphological analysis, clinical manifestation observation, as well as investigations into immunological reactions and pathogenesis of focal inflammatory reaction in neuroschistosomiasis (NS). Sixty New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into operation, sham-operation and normal groups. Rabbits in the operation group received direct injection of dead schistosome eggs into the brain, while their counterparts in the sham-operation group received saline injection. Rabbits in the normal group received no treatment. Base on the clinical manifestations, rabbits were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30 post injection, and brain samples were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Sections were observed under the microscope. The rabbits in the operation group exhibited various neurological symptoms, including anorexy, partial and general seizures, and paralysis. The morphological analysis showed several schistosome eggs in the nervous tissue on day 3 post operation, with very mild inflammation. On days 7-10 post operation, several schistosome eggs were localized in proximity to red blood cells with many neutrophilic granulocytes and eosinophilic granulocytes around them. The schistosome eggs developed into the productive granuloma stage on days 14-20 post operation. On day 30, the schistosome eggs were found to be in the healing-by-fibrosis stage, and the granuloma area was replaced by fibrillary glia through astrocytosis. The sham-operation group and the normal group showed negative results. This method might be used to establish the cerebral schistosomiasis experimental model. Several factors need to be considered in establishing this model, such as the antigenic property of eggs, the time of scarification, and the clinical manifestations.

  2. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  3. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  4. The Role of GABAA Receptor in Antispasmodic Activity of Hydroalcholic Extract of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley Seed in Rat Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Savary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Parsley is one of the medicinal herbs used for gastrointestinal disorders. However, spasmolytic activity of Petroselinum crispum (parsley extract has been reported, there is a lack of information to support the mechanism of this antispasmodic activity. Taking this into account, the purpose of the present work was to investigate the role of GABAA receptor on antispasmodic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of parsley seed in isolated rat ileum. Materials and Methods: In this study, terminal portion of ileum (2 cm was dissected out and mounted in an organ bath containing air bubbled Tyrode solution (37οC, pH=7.4. Under 1gr resting tension, ileal contraction was induced by KCl (60 mM and recorded isotonically. The effects of non-cumulative (0.1-0.5 mg/ml concentrations of extract on KCl-induced contractions were examined. After evaluating the effect of agonist and antagonist GABAA receptor, the effect of parsley extract was assessed in the presence of muscimol (25 µM and bicuculline (10 µM as agonist and antagonist of GABAA, respectively. Results: Parsley seed extract reduced the KCl-induced ileal contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (n=7, p<0.001. Both muscimol and bicuculline exerted relaxant effect on ileal contraction (n=7, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. Surprisingly, agonist and antagonist of GABAA both potentiated the spasmolytic effect of extract (0.2 mg/ml. Altogether, spasmolytic effect of extract was not attenuated in the presence of GABAA antagonist. Conclusion: It seems that GABAA receptor is not involved in the antispasmodic effect of parsley seeds extract in rat ileum.

  5. Synthetic lapachol derivatives relax guinea-pig ileum by blockade of the voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fabiana de A; Monteiro, Fabio de S; Martins, Italo Rossi R; Barbosa, Ticiano P; Camara, Celso de A; Pinto, Angelo C; Vargas, Maria D; da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to further evaluate a possible spasmolytic activity of synthetic lapachol derivatives, norlapachol, alpha-norlapachone, beta-norlapachone and hydro-hydroxy-norlapachol (HH-norlapachol), on guinea-pig ileum. In guinea-pig ileum, except for norlapachol, all naphthoquinones inhibited the phasic contractions induced by carbachol or histamine. Even when the ileum was pre-contracted with KCl, carbachol or histamine, all naphthoquinones induced relaxation, suggesting that these naphthoquinones could be acting on the voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)). As the tonic component this contraction is maintained mainly by the opening of the Ca(V), we hypothesized that these naphthoquinones might be acting on these channels. This hypothesis was confirmed by the observation that norlapachol (pD'2 = 4.99), alpha-norlapachone (pD'2 = 4.49), beta-norlapachone (pD'2 = 6.33), and HH-norlapachol (pD'2 = 4.53) antagonized the contractions induced by CaCl2 in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. As beta-norlapachone was the most potent we decided to continue the study of its action mechanism. The fact that this naphthoquinone has inhibited the tonic contractions induced by S-(-)-Bay K8644 [EC50 = (1.6 +/- 0.30) x 10(-5) M] suggests that the Ca2+ channel involved belongs to the type L (Ca(V)1.2). In addition, in the functional level, the spasmolytic effect of beta-norlapachone does not involve participation of free radicals, since its curve of relaxation was unchanged in the presence of glutathione, an antioxidant agent.

  6. Coronavirus-like particles in laboratory rabbits with different syndromes in The Netherlands (Coronavirus-like particles in rabbits).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractVirus-like particles were identified from the plasma of rabbits which developed pleural effusion disease after inoculation with different strains of Treponema pallidum. These particles were considered coronavirus-like on the basis of their size, morphology, and buoyant density. Clinical

  7. DETECTING PRESENCE OF C/T POLYMORPHISM AT POSITION 34 SECOND INTRON OF THE MYOSTATIN GENE IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka MARKOWSKA; Alica RAFAYOVA; Anna TRAKOWICKA

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a negative regulator of skeletal muscles growth. It is responsible for normal development of skeletal muscles. The objective of the research was to detect variation of C/T at position 34 of the second intron of the MNST gene in rabbits. The research included 114 rabbits: 54 of them Polish Rabbits, and 60 of them White Flemish Giants, examined by means of the PCR-RFLP method using AluI restriction enzyme. We found allele C with a frequency of 0.6184 of the examined rabbit pop...

  8. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  10. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  11. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  12. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  13. Effect of trypan blue on the action of acetylcholine, histamine and salbutamol in the isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, M; Damankeshideh, M

    1996-07-01

    It has been reported that trypan blue, a diazo dye with polyamphipatic structure, can inhibit the coupling of receptors to G-proteins. This inhibition of G-protein coupling has been investigated in isolated guinea-pig ileum. It was found that trypan blue could elicit a slight but dose-dependent contractile response in isolated guinea-pig ileum (4.5% of maximum contractile response induced by acetylcholine). While trypan blue potentiated the effect of histamine and shifted its dose-response curve to the left, it did not affect the contractile effects of acetylcholine. Furthermore, the relaxation which has been induced by salbutamol, a beta 2 agonist, was inhibited by trypan blue. It is concluded that trypan blue, as shown in biochemical studies, act selectively and can uncouple Gs-protein from beta 1 receptors. However, the effect of trypan blue on the whole tissue preparation depends on the type of G-protein involved and post G-protein processes which are stimulated after receptor activation. Trypan blue and similar agents could provide useful tools for further investigations of the mechanism of receptor-G protein coupling in the whole tissue preparation.

  14. Compound double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception caused by lipoma of the ileum in an adult patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicaj Besnik X

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The initial diagnosis of intussusception in adults very often can be missed and cause delayed treatment and possible serious complications. We report the case of an adult patient with complicated double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from the gastroenterology service to the abdominal surgery service with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasound, barium enema, and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intraluminal obstruction of his ascending colon. Plain abdominal X-rays showed diffuse air-fluid levels in his small intestine. A double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception was found during an emergent laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy, including resection of a long segment of his ileum, was performed. The postoperative period was complicated by acute renal failure, shock liver, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 30 days. An anatomical pathology examination revealed a lipoma of his ileum. Conclusions Intussusception in adults requires early surgical resection regardless of the nature of the initial cause. Delayed treatment can cause very serious complications.

  15. The gene expression of weaning age and its effect on productive performance of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. El-Sabrout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Weaning age for mammals remains a topic of debate and an interesting subject of research. The literature data reflect opposite views on the recommended weaning age of rabbits. Thus, we determined the optimal weaning age for average commercial rabbit lines by studying one of these lines, the V-line. Gene expression of weaning age was studied in this research to reach the optimal weaning age for efficient rabbit growth and survival. The effect of weaning age on growth and mortality rates was investigated in young rabbits by comparing 3 groups (kits of 10 V-line does for each group, weaned at 23 (W23, 28 (W28 and 33 (W33 days of age. Rabbits weaned at 23 d of age had significantly (P<0.05 lower body weight at the age of 63 d (market age than those weaned at 28 and 33 d of age. The weaning age also influenced survival; mortality rate was highest in rabbits weaned at 23 d of age, followed by those weaned at 28 and 33 d of age. Morphometric parameters reflect the integral effect of all factors influencing digestive tract growth and development. From the results, it seems that the small intestine length did not have a clear effect on different weaning ages. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis is an important tool to monitor changes in gene expression in animals such as rabbits. We used this approach to measure intestinal insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 mRNA level and observed that the expression levels of IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb and IGF-1R were nearly the same in W28 and W33 rabbits, while they were the lowest in W23 rabbits. Serum IGF-1 concentrations tended to present significant differences (P<0.05 with different weaning ages. We found that levels of IGF-1 in rabbits weaned at 28 and 33 d of age were convergent and higher than the IGF-1 levels in rabbits weaned at 23 d of age. Moreover, the early weaning of rabbits has a negative impact on growth. This therefore suggests that moderate weaning (28W will be suitable for the farm

  16. Manufacturing of Sample Transfer of Rabbit System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2004-01-01

    The samples transfer of rabbit system, has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of the samples transfer of rabbit system, doing by started of preparation the Manufacturing procedure refer to Final design of the facility of rabbit system transfer. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the Samples transfer of rabbit system can be concluded that the research activity and users services in P2TRR well meet to be done. (author)

  17. Dried chicory root has minor effects on the digestibility of nutrients and the composition of the microflora at the terminal ileum and in faeces of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    acid in ileal digesta was unaltered. The digestibility of organic matter and energy in faeces was not affected by the amount of fructan in the diets but the digestibility of protein decreased with increasing content of fructan and surprisingly the digestibility of fat increased. The concentration......The present investigation aimed to study digestibility of nutrient at the terminal ileum and the total tract, and the impact on microbial composition at the two sites. Four experimental diets based on wheat with increasing amounts of dried chicory root (0, 8.6, 17.2 or 25.8%) were formulated....... The diets were fed to four pigs fitted with a T-canula at the terminal ileum according to a Latin square design. The digestibility of nutrients, except non-starch polysaccharides, was not affected by the experimental diets at the terminal ileum. The concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic...

  18. Lack of Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression on Severe Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

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    DIMAS ANDRIANTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In human, coronary heart disease causes by severe pathological atherosclerosis. In this study, we established animal model to study atherosclerosis caused by hyperlipidemia. This study therefore was undertaken to define the effect of increasing atherosclerosis risk factor, include body weight as well as age, cholesterol concentration and dietary fat in rabbit chow, and time of treatment. Male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 4 groups; Group I and III were consisted of 2 months rabbit were fed with standard rabbit chow. To introduce atherosclerosis, the chow for Group II was contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% palm oil; whereas the chow for group IV was contained 0.5% cholesterol and 5% coconut oil to induce higher atherosclerotic lesion. Results showed that group II and IV developed hyperlipidemia. However, aortic cholesterol concentration in those groups did not different significantly (P > 0.05. We suggest that low carbohydrate composition in diet, 50% lower compared to the previous researches, was able to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration. This study demonstrated the complex interactions between low carbohydrate diet and cholesterol metabolism and the dramatic effects of reducing atherosclerosis risk factor; however, even though hyperlipidemic condition was achieved, total plasma cholesterol HDL ratio was maintained low.

  19. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae . Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae . The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti- E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae , which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis.

  20. Radiocesium movement in a gray rabbit brush community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, B.; Rogers, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Price, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gray rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Compositae), is the dominant shrub on disturbed land surfaces on much of the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. A stand of rabbit brush growing on an inactive liquid-waste-disposal crib was studied. Thirty percent of the shrubs showed low but detectable radiation levels in a field survey. The primary radionuclide was 137 Cs. The source of 137 Cs in shrubs was the gravel drain field in the crib, at least 2.4 m below the surface, which was the approximate maximum depth of penetration of rabbit brush taproots. Cesium-137 was observed in roots of certain rabbit brush plants, in the upper 1 cm of soil, and in litter beneath contaminated plants but was not detectable in soil samples taken at depths of 15, 50, 100, and 150 cm. Invertebrates associated with a contaminated shrub showed higher concentrations of 137 Cs than did wider-ranging species. Two of seven pocket mice trapped on the crib contaminated detectable amounts of 137 Cs

  1. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  2. RabbitMQ cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Santomaggio, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    A practical book filled with advanced recipes as well as plenty of code and real-life examples which will make your learning curve quick and easy.If you are a software developer who wants to develop distributed applications based on messaging, then this book is for you. It's assumed that you have some experience with multithreading applications and distributed applications. You are also expected to know the basic concepts of Web and cloud applications in order to follow the recipes effectively.

  3. Técnica do aproveitamento da papila íleo-cecal naileostomia definitiva e na anastomose íleo-retal Technique of preserving the ileum-caecal papilla in the definitive ileostomy and ileum-rectal anastomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando se faz ileostomia com a papila, a perda líquida é bem menor e a irritação local às vezes é nula, podendo o paciente viver sem o uso da bolsa. OBJETIVO: Mostrar uma técnica operatória em que se preserva a papila na ileostomia ou na anastomose íleo-retal. Ela consta da preservação da vasculatura do ceco e íleo terminal e secção do ceco deixando-se 1 cm de orla na papila ileal que é fixada na pele por contra-abertura para ileostomia definitiva. Quando se resseca o cólon, a papila é anastomosada ao reto (íleo-papilo-retostomia. RESULTADOS: São bons, pois há diminuição do número de evacuações, da perda de líquidos nas fezes e da irritação epidérmica. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento é exequível e traz resultados que melhoram a qualidade de vida do paciente.INTRODUCTION: When ileostomy is done with the ileum-caecal papilla, the liquid is decreased and happens much less local irritation and its possible that the patient can live without the use of the bag. OBJECTIVE: To show a surgical technique that preserves the papilla in ileostomy or ileo-rectal cancer. METHOD: It is done with the preservation of the vasculature of the cecum and terminal ileum; cecum section is made leaving 1 cm border, coronal, on the ileal papilla, which is fixed on the skin for a counter-opening for permanent ileostomy. When a colectomy is needed, the anastomosis can be made with the rectal stump (papilla-ileum-retostomy. RESULTS: They are good because there is a decrease in the number of bowel movements, loss of fluid in the stool and less epidermal irritation. CONCLUSION: The procedure is feasible and brings results that improve the quality of life of patients.

  4. Evidence that histamine homologues discriminate between H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex and ileum longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, E A; Shankley, N P; Black, J W

    1999-01-01

    The binding of the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist ([3H]-R-α-methylhistamine) to sites in guinea-pig cerebral cortex and ileum longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus has been characterized and a comparison made of the apparent affinities of a series of H3-receptor ligands.Saturation analysis suggested that [3H]-R-α-methylhistamine labelled a homogeneous population of histamine H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex (pKD=9.91±0.07; nH=1.07±0.03; n=5) and ileum longitudinal muscle mye...

  5. Hepatitis E virus in wild rabbits and European brown hares in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, F; Schwaiger, K; Dähnert, L; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Höper, D; Gareis, M; Groschup, M H; Eiden, M

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a change of hepatitis E from being a typical travel-associated disease to an autochthonous zoonosis in Germany was observed. An increasing number of autochthonous infections with the hepatitis E Virus (HEV) have been recognized in developed countries. Venison from wild boar is already known to be a potential source of infection, if not prepared properly by the consumer. In Germany, certain wild animals are known to be a reservoir for HEV. However, current information is missing about European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thus, a total of 833 hunting-harvested animals (European brown hares n = 669; wild rabbits n = 164) were tested for the occurrence of HEV RNA and HEV antibodies. For this, liver and blood specimens were taken after hunts in six German federal states. HEV antibodies were found by ELISA in 2.2% (624/14) of European brown hares, but no HEV RNA was detectable by nested real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, a seroprevalence of 37.3% (126/47) was observed for wild rabbits, and 17.1% (164/28) of the samples were HEV RNA positive. Genomic analysis revealed that these partial sequences clustered within the rabbit clade of HEV-3 genotype. In addition, one rabbit sequence segregated into subtype 3g of HEV-3. Highest seroprevalences for hares and rabbits were detected in the federal states of Bavaria and of Schleswig-Holstein, respectively. Comparing urban, rural and insular areas, the highest seroprevalence was shown for wild rabbits in rural areas and for European brown hares on the northern island Fehmarn. This study provides evidence that European brown hares and wild rabbits from Germany can be infected with HEV. The different prevalences indicate that wild rabbits are a potential reservoir for HEV in Germany, whereas European brown hares seem to be only of minor importance for the epidemiology of HEV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sarradin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6-8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background.

  7. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  8. Effect of nano-scaled rabbit bone powder on physicochemical properties of rabbit meat batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobo; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2018-02-27

    To explore a new method of deep processing and to improve the value of rabbit bone, the authors prepared a nano-scaled rabbit bone powder by dry ball milling and compared the effect of different particle sizes of rabbit bone powder (fine-scaled (236.01 ± 5.99) μm, superfine-scaled (65.92 ± 1.71) μm, nano-scaled (502.52 ± 11.72) nm) on the nutritional characteristics, pH, color, water-holding capacity, textural and rheological attributes of rabbit meat batter. The rabbit bone powder significantly affected nutritional characteristics of meat batters; in particular, it increased the contents of calcium, regardless of particle size. Additionally, the rabbit meat batter, which contained 20 g kg -1 of the nano-scaled rabbit bone, had the lowest centrifugal loss and cooking loss among the treatments. Based on the textural and rheological attributes of the rabbit meat batters, the addition of 20 g kg -1 nano-scaled rabbit bone was the best treatment, which are very important for deep processing of rabbit bone in the rabbit meat industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Arruzazabala,M.L.; Noa,M.; Menéndez,R.; Más,R.; Carbajal,D.; Valdés,S.; Molina,V.

    2000-01-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with...

  10. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101160

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  11. ANTIBODY POLYCLONAL PRODUCTION ON RABBIT ANTI-OVINE PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN (Rabbit anti-ovPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Setiatin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detect PAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT, DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl 160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as a placebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume with complete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected at mutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginal ear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measured using Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immune response among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could be concluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG at molecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as a major protein for producing antibodi.

  12. Investigations of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, BAFF and its receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available B-cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF is a major contributor to survival of B lymphocytes during development and maturation. A relationship between circulating BAFF levels and disease activity has been reported in patients with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Clinical trials targeting BAFF or its receptors are currently in progress. In order to further characterize a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of SLE, we investigated the expression of BAFF and its receptors in non-inbred, pedigreed rabbits derived from breeding and selection based on autoantibody responses. We immunized rabbits related to previous groups that developed autoantibodies and inflammatory responses after immunizations with peptides synthesized on multiple antigen-branched polylysine backbones. Blood and sera collected before immunization and after boosts were used for health monitoring, analyses of serum autoantibody responses by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied by flow cytometry and were the source of mRNA for quantitative PCR analyses. We hypothesized that BAFF mRNA expression and serum BAFF levels measured indirectly through BAFF receptor binding might increase in autoantibody-producing rabbits. Immunized rabbits developed elevated levels of leucocyte populations, anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies. BR3 mRNA levels in total PBMC decreased and BAFF levels remained low and unchanged in most immunized rabbits. By flow cytometry, percentages of BAFF positive cells decreased. Percentages of transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI decreased in most rabbits from all the immunized groups. The rabbit is an important model for human autoimmune and infectious diseases, and a high quality draft rabbit genome assembly was recently completed. Human disease models developed in non-inbred pedigreed animals are better able to reflect the complexities

  13. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Mackey, Calvin; Van Der Pol, William J.; Skinner, Daniel; Morrow, Casey D.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Rowe, Steven M.; Swords, William E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC) defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9) for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis. Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9), which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4). Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02). Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL) depth (p < 0.0001) and mucus transport (p = 0.0044) compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001). The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales) dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia) by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway-surface liquid

  14. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS.Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9 for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT, and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis.Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9, which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4. Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02. Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL depth (p < 0.0001 and mucus transport (p = 0.0044 compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001. The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05.Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway

  15. Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Cauquil, L; Gidenne, T

    2013-09-01

    In rabbits, the bacterial and archaeal community of caecal ecosystem is composed mostly of species not yet described and very specific to that species. In mammals, the digestive ecosystem plays important physiological roles: hydrolysis and fermentation of nutrients, immune system regulation, angiogenesis, gut development and acting as a barrier against pathogens. Understanding the functioning of the digestive ecosystem and how to control its functional and specific diversity is a priority, as this could provide new strategies to improve the resistance of the young rabbit to digestive disorders and improve feed efficiency. This review first recalls some facts about the specificity of rabbit digestive microbiota composition in the main fermentation compartment, and its variability with some new insights based on recent molecular approaches. The main functions of the digestive microbiota will then be explained. Finally, some possible ways to control rabbit caecal microbiota will be proposed and a suitable timing for action will be defined.

  16. Mapping the intermediate digestion phases of human healthy intestinal contents from distal ileum and caecum at fasted and fed state conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Fatouros, Dimitrios G; Vertzoni, Maria

    2017-01-01

    collected from distal ileum and caecum of two healthy volunteers under fasted and fed state conditions. KEY FINDINGS: In samples collected both in the fasted and fed states, Cryo-TEM study revealed the presence of large spherical unilamellar and occasionally bi-lamellar and oligolamellar vesicles...

  17. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aldini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. METHODS: The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. RESULTS: Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  18. Modulatory effect of intestinal polyamines and trace amines on the spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated ileum and colon rings of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Manuel; Suárez, Lorena; Andrés, María Teresa; Flórez, Blanca Henar; Bordallo, Javier; Riestra, Sabino; Cantabrana, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Background : Gastrointestinal motility modulatory factors include substances of the intestinal content, such as polyamines and trace amines (TAs), the focus of this study. Methods : The amines of food, intestinal content and from faecal bacteria of Swiss mice were determined by HPLC and functionally characterised in isolated distal ileum and medial colon rings. Results : Mouse food and intestinal content contain polyamines (spermidine>putrescine>spermine) and TAs (isoamylamine>cadaverine). Intestinal bacteria mainly produce putrescine and cadaverine. The amines inhibited the spontaneous motility of the ileum (0.1-3 mM) and colon rings (0.01-3 mM, with lower IC 50 ), with: spermine~isoamylamine~spermidine. Spermine inhibition was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive, while isoamylamine was TTX-sensitive, suggesting neural control. Mainly in the ileum, isoamylamine (3 mM) elicited acute effects modified by TTX, atropine and propranolol, and suppressed by spermine (3 mM), not being localized at the smooth muscle level. The amines assayed (3 mM), except putrescine and cadaverine in the ileum and isoamylamine in the colon, antagonised acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1 mM)-elicited phasic contractions. Isoamylamine and spermine in colon relaxed KCl (100 mM)-elicited tonic contractions, suggesting an effect on smooth muscle, but did not justify the suppression of motility caused by spermine and isoamylamine. Conclusions : Polyamines and TAs of the intestinal content might act on chemosensors and modulate intestinal peristalsis.

  19. Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uribe, Juber Herrera; Collado-Romero, Melania; Zaldívar-López, Sara

    2016-01-01

    -regulated genes of the FXR pathway (e.g., NR1H4, FABP6, APOA1, SLC10A2), indicating disruption of the bile acid absorption in ileum. This result was confirmed by decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum of infected pigs. Ileal inflammatory gene expression changes peaked at 2 dpi and tended...

  20. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  1. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v modulates gene expression in the ileum of pigs: prediction of crosstalk between intestinal immune cells and sub-mucosal adipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M.M.; Gross, G.; Liu, Yapin; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Niewold, T.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    To study host–probiotic interactions in parts of the intestine only accessible in humans by surgery (jejunum, ileum and colon), pigs were used as model for humans. Groups of eight 6-week-old pigs were repeatedly orally administered with 5 × 1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (L. plantarum 299v)

  2. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  3. Effect of divergent selection for uterine capacity on embryonic survival and development at 30 h post-mating in unilaterally ovariectomized rabbit females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine capacity has been proposed as an indirect way to increase litter size. The aim of this work is to study the effect of a divergent selection for uterine capacity (UC on reproductive traits at 30 h post mating in unilaterally ovariectomized (ULO females. A total of 62 ULO females from the high line (selected to increase UC and 39 ULO females from the low line (selected to decrease UC were used. Ovulation rate was estimated as the number of corpora haemorrhagica and early embryonic survival was estimated as the ratio between number of embryos and ovulation rate. No differences in ovulation rate and early embryonic survival at 30 h post mating were found between high and low lines. Selection for UC did not change the embryonic stage of development either, the majority of embryos being at 4-cell stage. Additionally, the embryos were evaluated according to morphological criteria and more than 95% of the embryos were evaluated as good or fair quality. No differences in embryonic morphological criteria between high and low lines were found either. Thus, selection for UC did not modify the early embryonic survival and development in ULO females at 30 h post mating.

  4. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit production for small-holders and commercial rabbit production. Rabbits for this study were obtained from heterogeneous populations reared in south-western Nigeria, and a total of fifty- six adult ...

  5. Covalent immobilization of rabbit-antiaflatoxin-antibodies onto the poly-acrylamideacrylonitrile as well as hybrid material UREASIL and developing an optical immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavova M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe a covalent immobilization of antibodies onto the poly- acrylamide-acrylonitrile or hybrid material UREASIL and creation of optical immunosensor for determination of aflatoxin Bl. For this purpose, mouse-anti-aflatoxin B1 antibodies with oxidized carbohydrate moieties were covalently immobilized on the membranes of polyacrylamide- polyacrylonitrile copolymer, as well as the hybrid material UREASIL. To determine the affinity> binding of the immobilized antibody with afatoxin Bl was used "sandwich" method. Associated with the immobilized antibody sought ingredients interact with a surplus of secondary’ signal antibodies. The described method has been developed as a model system, which can easily be applied for the determination of aflatoxins in samples of different origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that in the establishment of biosensor was used hybrid material UREASIL.

  6. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  8. Nitrite therapy prevents chlorine gas toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Ricart, Karina; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2017-04-05

    Chlorine (Cl 2 ) gas exposure and toxicity remains a concern in military and industrial sectors. While post-Cl 2 exposure damage to the lungs and other tissues has been documented and major underlying mechanisms elucidated, no targeted therapeutics that are effective when administered post-exposure, and which are amenable to mass-casualty scenarios have been developed. Our recent studies show nitrite administered by intramuscular (IM) injection post-Cl 2 exposure is effective in preventing acute lung injury and improving survival in rodent models. Our goal in this study was to develop a rabbit model of Cl 2 toxicity and test whether nitrite affords protection in a non-rodent model. Exposure of New Zealand White rabbits to Cl 2 gas (600ppm, 45min) caused significant increases in protein and neutrophil accumulation in the airways and ∼35% mortality over 18h. Nitrite administered 30min post Cl 2 exposure by a single IM injection, at 1mg/kg or 10mg/kg, prevented indices of acute lung injury at 6h by up to 50%. Moreover, all rabbits that received nitrite survived over the study period. These data provide further rationale for developing nitrite as post-exposure therapeutic to mitigate against Cl 2 gas exposure injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand. IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand

  10. Evidence-Based Rabbit Housing and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-01

    Because most research on rabbit husbandry, welfare, and nutrition was performed on production animals, evidence for best practices in pet rabbits is scarce, and guidelines must be based on transfer of results, deduction, and common sense. Rabbits benefit from being kept with at least one conspecific; from large enclosures and multistory hutches; from drinking water offered ad libitum in open dish drinker systems; and from receiving hay ad libitum, with restricted amounts of fresh grass, herbs, or green leafy vegetables, and a high-fiber complete diet. Offering hay ad libitum bears several advantages and should be considered a matter of course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 in rabbits after extracapsular extraction of lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the development of posterior capsular opacification and the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 after extracapsular extraction of lens in rabbits. Methods: Extracapsular extraction of lens was performed in 30 New Zealand rabbits. Aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 were repeatedly determined with RIA and ophthal-moscopic as well as slit-lamp examination were repeatedly performed to detect any posterior capsular opacification developed on dl, d3, 1w, 2w, 1 month, 3 month posteperatively. Results: The aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 increased gradually after operation, reached the peak on d7-d14, then gradually returned to within normal range by 2nd or 3rd month. Beginning from one month post-operatively, posterior capsular opacification was observed in some rabbits. By the end of 3rd month, Grade I opacification was developed in 5 rabbits, Grade H in 9 rabbits with Grade III (fundus view obliterated) in 14 rabbits. Peak IL-1β and IL- 6 content values were positively correlated with grading of future opacification. Conclusion: IL-1β and IL-6 might play important roles in the development of posterior capsular opacification after lens extraction in rabbits. (authors)

  12. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  13. Behavioral testing and litter effects in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, H G; Agyemang, A A; Romantsik, O; Sandgren, R; Karlsson, H; Gram, M; Vallius, S; Ley, D; van den Hove, D L A; Bruschettini, M

    2018-02-23

    Behavioral testing provides an essential approach in further developing our understanding of brain structure and function. The aim of our study was to outline a more expanded approach to cognition- and anxiety-related behavior in the rabbit. Twenty-one 70-day old rabbits (13 female, 8 male) were exposed to open field test, dark-light box test and object recognition testing with variations in inter-trial-interval, olfactory recognition and object location testing. Independent T-tests were used to compare data by individual baseline characteristics, i.e. birth weight, weight at testing, sex, litter #, litter size. In the open field test, median time spent in the center was 3.64 s (0.84-41.36) for the 9 rabbits who entered the center; median distance moved in the arena was 874.42 cm (54.20-3444.83). In the dark light box test, 12 rabbits entered the light compartment. In the object recognition task, rabbits spent significantly less time exploring the familiar object compared to the novel (0.40 s [0-2.8] vs. 3.17 s [1.30-32.69]; P = 0.003) when using a 30-min inter-trial interval, as well with a 90-min inter-trial interval: 0.87 s [0-7.8] vs. 7.65 s [0-37.6] (P = 0.008). However, recognition was lost when using a 24-h inter-trial interval (time spent exploring the familiar object: 3.33 [0-10.90]; novel object:3.87 [1.15-48.53]; n.s). In the object location task and in olfactory object recognition task, median discrimination indexes were 0.69 (-1 to 1) and 0.37 (-0.38 to 0.78) respectively, higher than level expected by chance (P Litter size >3 during the neonatal period was associated with increased explorative behavior in the dark light box test (P = 0.046) and in the visual object recognition task (P = 0.005), whereas body weight and sex were not. Settings and outcome measures for multiple behavioral tests, providing reference values and considerations for future developmental studies are reported. Discrimination and memory in the rabbit

  14. Experimental Study of the Pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida Capsular Type B in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, S; Verma, L; Sharma, M; Asrani, R K; Kumar, S; Chahota, R; Verma, S

    2015-01-01

    The increased frequency of isolation of Pasteurella multocida capsular type B from rabbitries in north-western India prompted this investigation into the role of this organism in inducing disease in rabbits. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups of five animals. Group I rabbits were infected intranasally (IN) with 1 ml of inoculum containing 2 × 10(5) colony forming units/ml, while rabbits in group II were given 1 ml phosphate buffered saline IN. The rabbits in group I developed respiratory distress, increased rectal temperature and severe dyspnoea, with death occurring 24-48 h post infection. The main pathological findings were severe congestion and haemorrhage in the trachea, fibrinopurulent pneumonia, bacteraemia and septicaemia. The nasal secretions of all group I animals contained P. multocida. These observations indicate that in addition to P. multocida capsular types A and D, P. multocida capsular type B can also be highly pathogenic for rabbits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the ability of an experimental model to induce bacterial rhinosinusitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Eduardo Landini Lutaif; Campos, Carlos Augusto Correia de; Silva, Leonardo da; Dolci, Ricardo Landini Lutaif; Dolci, José Eduardo Lutaif

    2014-01-01

    For decades, animals have been used in sinonasal experimental models, and the practice has increased substantially in the last few years. This study aimed to assess the pathogenesis of infectious process and medication efficiency to treat rhinosinusitis. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed experimental model to induce an acute bacterial sinonasal infectious process through histological analysis and sinus secretion cultures. This was an experimental study with 22 New Zealand rabbits, divided into: group A (six rabbits), group B (seven rabbits), group C (seven rabbits), and group D (control group with two rabbits). Rhinosinusitis was induced by the insertion of a synthetic sponge into the right nasal cavity of 20 animals (study groups), followed by the instillation of bacterial strains (50% Staphylococcus sp. and 50% Streptococcus sp.). The groups were euthanized within 10 days (group A), 17 days (group B), and 30 days (groups C and D). All the rabbits of the study group developed acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, which was diagnosed through macroscopic evaluation, histological analysis, and sinus secretion culture. The proposed model is technically simple to perform, it is similar to the rhinogenic model in human beings, and it is highly efficient to reproduce an acute bacterial sinus infection. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  17. Production of lesions in rabbit spinal cord with microwave hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.H.; Popovic, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a variety of injury models in different species to produce spinal cord lesions by trauma or ischemia has often given rise to conflicting or inconclusive data. A new model has been developed in rabbits. Spinal cord lesions were produced in selected spinal cord segments of male New Zealand white rabbits by non-invasive irradiation with microwaves in the near field at 915 MHz. Graded injuries of predictable severity can be produced by the non-invasive induction of moderate hyperthermia in the thoracic spinal cord at precise dosage levels of temperature elevation and duration. Histological changes in microwave-induced hyperthermia closely parallel those seen in traumatic lesions of the human spinal cord, as well as those produced in animals with the classical weight-drop method of Allen. In addition to grading the spinal cord lesions with respect to residual neurological function, dose-response observations made with somatosensory evoked responses, blood-spinal cord barrier tracers, and neurohistological and enzyme histochemical preparations, suggest that it will be possible to use this approach to develop a standardized, calibrated model in rabbits to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of spinal cord injury

  18. Knowledge of reproduction management practices among rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-four (44) commercial rabbit farmers from two urban centers (Abeokuta and Ijebu-Ode) in Ogun State were studied in this research. Majority (63.64%) are small-scale farmers with a stock size of between 20 and 50 animals. About 27% of the farmers have a stock size of 52-100 rabbits while only 9.09% have a stock size ...

  19. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  20. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

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    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  1. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.

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    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available Fur is an important genetically-determined characteristic of domestic rabbits; rabbit furs are of great economic value. We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination.Transcriptome analysis included de novo assembly, gene function identification, and gene function classification and enrichment. We obtained 74,032,912 and 71,126,891 short reads of 100 nt, which were assembled into 377,618 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (N50=680 nt. Based on BLAST results with known proteins, 50,228 sequences were identified at a cut-off E-value ≥ 10-5. Using Blast to Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, we obtained several genes with important protein functions. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes were obtained by transcriptome analysis of plaice and un-plaice phenotype animals; 209 additional differentially expressed genes were not found in any database. These genes included 49 that were only expressed in plaice skin rabbits. The novel genes may play important roles during skin growth and development. In addition, 99 known differentially expressed genes were assigned to PI3K-Akt signaling, focal adhesion, and ECM-receptor interactin, among others. Growth factors play a role in skin growth and development by regulating these signaling pathways. We confirmed the altered expression levels of seven target genes by qRT-PCR. And chosen a key gene for SNP to found the differentially between plaice and un-plaice phenotypes rabbit.The rabbit transcriptome profiling data provide new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rabbit skin growth and development.

  2. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  3. Chronic psychological stress induces vascular inflammation in rabbits.

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    Lu, Xiao Ting; Liu, Yun Fang; Zhao, Li; Li, Wen Jing; Yang, Rui Xue; Yan, Fang Fang; Zhao, Yu Xia; Jiang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. It is unclear, however, whether psychological stress contributes to vascular inflammation. Here, we examined the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on vascular inflammation in rabbits. One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into control and stress groups. UCMS was induced by a set of defined adverse conditions applied in a shuffled order for 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks, and rabbits were killed 24 h after the end of the UCMS protocol. Expression of different inflammatory molecules was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. UCMS resulted in depression-like behaviors, decreased body weight gain, and hypertension with no significant effects on serum lipids. Aortic mRNA and protein expression for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein were increased. UCMS increased circulating concentrations of corticosterone, TNF-α, and CRP throughout. Moreover, stress downregulated the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. At 16 weeks of UCMS, macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation in the subendothelial space were detected in the aorta. In cultured murine vascular smooth muscle cells, treatment with serum from stressed rabbits significantly increased phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and upregulated expression of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 mRNAs, in which the effect was blunted by a TNF-α neutralizing antibody or p38 and JNK inhibitors. Our results indicate that chronic psychological stress induces vascular inflammation via TNF-α and p38/JNK pathways, which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  4. Enalaprilat and enalapril maleate eyedrops lower intraocular pressure in rabbits.

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    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Thorisdóttir, Sigridur; Fridriksdóttir, Hafrun; Stefánsson, Einar

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to develop low-viscosity aqueous eyedrops containing enalaprilat and its prodrug enalapril maleate in solution, and to evaluate the eyedrops in rabbits. Aqueous eyedrops with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin containing 0.01-2.9% (w/v) enalaprilat, 1.0% (w/v) enalapril maleate with cyclodextrin or 0.5% (w/v) timolol were prepared. The eyedrops were administered to rabbits and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at various time intervals after the administration and the results (mean of 10 experiments +/- standard error of the mean) are expressed as the change from baseline (24.7 +/- 3.3 mmHg). Enalaprilat possessed sufficient stability to be formulated as an aqueous eyedrop solution with a shelf-life of several years at room temperature. The maximum decline in IOP after topical administration of one drop of 2.9% enalaprilat solution was 6.2 +/- 0.7 mmHg at 4 hours after administration. Duration of activity exceeded 10 hours. A 1% enalaprilat solution lowered IOP by 4.4 +/- 0.8 mmHg at 4 hours after administration and had similar duration, and was more potent than 0.5% timolol. The enalapril maleate eyedrops resulted in delayed action, showing maximum potency at 10-22 hours after administration and duration of up to 32 hours. Enalaprilat eyedrops lower IOP in rabbits. The decline in IOP is proportional to the concentration of dissolved enalaprilat in low-viscosity aqueous eyedrop formulations.

  5. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

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    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  6. Development of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in transitory cholinergic neurons, starburst amacrine cells, and GABAergic amacrine cells of rabbit retina, with implications for previsual and visual development of retinal ganglion cells.

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    Famiglietti, Edward V; Sundquist, Sarah J

    2010-03-01

    Starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the only acetylcholine (ACh)-releasing amacrine cells (ACs) in adult rabbit retina, contain GABA and are key elements in the retina's directionally selective (DS) mechanism. Unlike many other GABAergic ACs, they use glutamic acid decarboxlyase (GAD)(67), not GAD(65), to synthesize GABA. Using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate the apoptosis at birth (P0) of transitory putative ACs that exhibit immunoreactivity (IR) for the ACh-synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), GAD(67), and the GABA transporter, GAT1. Only a few intact, displaced ChAT-immunoreactive SAC bodies are detected at P0. At P2, ChAT-IR is detected in the two narrowly stratified substrata of starburst dendrites in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Quantitative analysis reveals that in the first postnatal week, only a small fraction of SACs cells express ChAT- and GABA-IR. Not until the end of the second week are they expressed in all SACs. At P0, a three-tiered stratification of GABA-IR is present in the IPL, entirely different from the adult pattern of seven substrata, emerging at P3-P4, and optimally visualized at P13. At P0, GAD(65) is detectable in normally placed AC bodies. At P1, GAD(65)-IR appears in dendrites of nonstarburst GABAergic ACs, and by P5 is robust in the adult pattern of four substrata in the IPL. GAD(65)-IR never co-localizes with ChAT-IR. In a temporal comparison of our data with physiological, pharmacological, and ultrastructural studies, we suggest that transitory ChAT-immunoreactive cells share with SACs production of stage II (nicotinic) waves of previsual synchronous activity in ganglion cells (GCs). Further, we conclude that (1) GAD(65)-immunoreactive, non-SAC GABAergic ACs are the most likely candidates responsible for the suppression of stage III (muscarinic/AMPA-kainate) waves and (2) DS responses first appear in DS GCs, when about 50% of SACs express ChAT- and GABA-IR, and in 100% of DS GCs, when expression occurs in all SACs.

  7. Therapeutic immunisation of rabbits with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV virus-like particles (VLP induces regression of established papillomas

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    Rybicki Edward P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is overwhelming evidence that persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV is the main risk factor for invasive cancer of the cervix. Due to this global public health burden, two prophylactic HPV L1 virus-like particles (VLP vaccines have been developed. While these vaccines have demonstrated excellent type-specific prevention of infection by the homologous vaccine types (high and low risk HPV types, no data have been reported on the therapeutic effects in people already infected with the low-risk HPV type. In this study we explored whether regression of CRPV-induced papillomas could be achieved following immunisation of out-bred New Zealand White rabbits with CRPV VLPs. Rabbits immunised with CRPV VLPs had papillomas that were significantly smaller compared to the negative control rabbit group (P ≤ 0.05. This data demonstrates the therapeutic potential of PV VLPs in a well-understood animal model with potential important implications for human therapeutic vaccination for low-risk HPVs.

  8. Recurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ileum diagnosed by elevation of serum SCC: report of a case.

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    Mino, Kazuhiro; Kamii, Naoki; Kawanishi, Norio; Okada, Tadao; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the intestine is extremely rare. This report describes a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the small intestine. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy owing to the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a pelvic mass after conservative treatment. The affected ileum was resected, and histopathological examination revealed proliferation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma at the submucosal area with no adenocarcinoma component. At the 4th month after the operation, the level of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was elevated. At 6 months after the operation, the serum SCC value was further elevated, and enhanced CT revealed two new pelvic tumors with enhancement at the mesentery and free space. A second laparotomy was performed 8 months after the operation. Histopathological examination showed differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as in the first operation. The level of serum SCC decreased at the 28th postoperative day. Chemotherapy including carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed as an adjuvant regimen. The patient has experienced no recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma for 55 months.

  9. Interaction of αβ-Methylene ATP with the Cholinergic Twitch Response in the Guinea-Pig Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, direct effects of the P2X purinoceptor agonist αβ-methylene ATP (αβ-meATP) and effects on the cholinergic twitch response of the electrically stimulated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum, were investigated. αβ-meATP (1, 3, and 10 µmol/l) induced short-lasting contractions on its own, followed by an inhibition of the twitch response during its presence in the organ bath. The inhibitor of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels, apamin (100 nmol/l), prevented the inhibitory effect of αβ-meATP on the twitch response, whereas tetraethylammonium (300 µmol/l), a blocker of voltage-gated K+ channels and an inhibitor at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, augmented the inhibitory effect of αβ-meATP on the twitch response. It is concluded, that there is a functional interaction between P2X receptors and nicotinic receptors in the LMMP strip, and that a major part of the excitatory input to the cholinergic motor neuron evoking the twitch response is purinergic and not nicotinergic. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Localization of substance P binding sites in submucous plexus of guinea pig ileum, using whole-mount autoradiography

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    Burcher, E.; Bornstein, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Whole mounts of guinea pig ileum submucosa were incubated with radiolabeled tachykinins, and binding sites were visualized using autoradiography. Very dense specific binding for (/sup 125/I)-Bolton-Hunter substance P (BHSP) was observed over ganglia of the submucous plexus, with weaker binding over internodal strands. Dense specific binding was also seen over occasional strands of circular muscle, with weak binding over clumps of mucosa. Although very weak binding was seen over some large blood vessels, no binding was associated with smaller blood vessels. Localization of binding was absent in whole-mounts coincubated with 1 microM substance P, used to define nonspecific binding. Localization of BHSP-specific binding was also abolished in whole-mounts coincubated with 1 nM substance P, but not with 1 nM neurokinin B, suggesting that binding was probably to an NK-1 tachykinin receptor. In whole-mounts incubated in (/sup 125/I)-iodohistidyl neurokinin A (INKA) or (/sup 125/I)-Bolton-Hunter neurokinin B (BHNKB), no specific binding over ganglia was observed. These binding sites for BHSP are probably identical with the neuronal substance P receptors mediating mucosal ion transport.

  11. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1). PMID:28928787

  12. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction

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    Paulo Alexandre Nunes-Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae, popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1±1.8, 50.2±2.0, and 68.9±2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM, increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0±3.2 and 85.1±2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1.

  13. Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition.

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    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to integrate human clinical, genotype, mRNA microarray and 16 S rRNA sequence data collected on 84 subjects with ileal Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases in order to interrogate how host-microbial interactions are perturbed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery. Both RNA and DNA were extracted from the mucosal biopsy samples. Patients were genotyped for the three major NOD2 variants (Leufs1007, R702W, and G908R and the ATG16L1T300A variant. Whole human genome mRNA expression profiles were generated using Agilent microarrays. Microbial composition profiles were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. The results of permutation based multivariate analysis of variance and covariance (MANCOVA support the hypothesis that host mucosal Paneth cell and xenobiotic metabolism genes play an important role in host microbial interactions.

  14. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

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    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  15. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

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    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  16. The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum

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    Kamila Szymanska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, galanin (GAL, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT—used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART, was studied by the double immunofluorescence method. Both doses of BPA affected the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons. The observed changes depended on the type of enteric plexus but were generally characterized by an increase in the number of cells immunoreactive to the particular substances. More visible fluctuations were observed after treatment with higher doses of BPA. The results confirm that even low doses of BPA may influence the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons and are not neutral for living organisms.

  17. The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Kamila; Makowska, Krystyna; Gonkowski, Slawomir

    2018-03-20

    Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method. Both doses of BPA affected the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons. The observed changes depended on the type of enteric plexus but were generally characterized by an increase in the number of cells immunoreactive to the particular substances. More visible fluctuations were observed after treatment with higher doses of BPA. The results confirm that even low doses of BPA may influence the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons and are not neutral for living organisms.

  18. The E7 protein of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus immortalizes normal rabbit keratinocytes and reduces pRb levels, while E6 cooperates in immortalization but neither degrades p53 nor binds E6AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzenmueller, Tina; Matthaei, Markus; Muench, Peter; Scheible, Michael; Iftner, Angelika; Hiller, Thomas; Leiprecht, Natalie; Probst, Sonja; Stubenrauch, Frank; Iftner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and are associated with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. A suitable animal model for papillomavirus-associated skin carcinogenesis is the infection of domestic rabbits with the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). As the immortalizing activity of CRPV genes in the natural target cells remains unknown, we investigated the properties of CRPV E6 and E7 in rabbit keratinocytes (RK) and their influence on the cell cycle. Interestingly, CRPV E7 immortalized RK after a cellular crisis but showed no such activity in human keratinocytes. Co-expressed CRPV E6 prevented cellular crisis. The HPV16 or CRPV E7 protein reduced rabbit pRb levels thereby causing rabbit p19 ARF induction and accumulation of p53 without affecting cellular proliferation. Both CRPV E6 proteins failed to degrade rabbit p53 in vitro or to bind E6AP; however, p53 was still inducible by mitomycin C. In summary, CRPV E7 immortalizes rabbit keratinocytes in a species-specific manner and E6 contributes to immortalization without directly affecting p53

  19. DETECTING PRESENCE OF C/T POLYMORPHISM AT POSITION 34 SECOND INTRON OF THE MYOSTATIN GENE IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    MARKOWSKA, Agnieszka; RAFAYOVA, Alica; TRAKOWICKA, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a negative regulator of skeletal muscles growth. It is responsible for normal development of skeletal muscles. The objective of the research was to detect variation of C/T at position 34 of the second intron of the MNST gene in rabbits. The research included 114 rabbits: 54 of them Polish Rabbits, and 60 of them White Flemish Giants, examined by means of the PCR-RFLP method using AluI restriction enzyme. We found allele C with a frequency of 0.6184 of the examine...

  20. Chemical constituents of Aristolochia constricta: antispasmodic effects of its constituents in guinea-pig ileum and isolation of a diterpeno-lignan hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Shimokawa, Satoko; Mochizuki, Matsuri; Kumamoto, Takuya; Nakanishi, Waka; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Tashima, Kimihito; Horie, Syunji; Higuchi, Yoshihiro; Dominguez, Oswaldo Pesantes

    2008-07-01

    Twenty constituents were isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform extracts of Aristolochia constricta, a plant whose aerial parts have been used empirically in folk medicine for various purposes. The inhibitory effects of these constituents on smooth muscle contraction in isolated guinea-pig ileum were studied in order to observe their antispasmodic effects. 3,4-Dibenzyldihydrofuran-type lignans [(-)-cubebin, (-)-hinokinin, and (-)-pluviatolide] and a kaurene-type diterpene [(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid] were isolated as active principals. They inhibited electrically induced and acetylcholine-induced contraction in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, 9- O-[(-)-kaur-15-en-17-oxyl]cubebin was isolated as a new diterpeno-lignan hybrid, although this constituent did not exhibit antispasmodic activity.

  1. Establishment of a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based EGFP reporter system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longquan Quan

    Full Text Available Rabbits are commonly used as laboratory animal models to investigate human diseases and phylogenetic development. However, pluripotent stem cells that contribute to germline transmission have yet to be established in rabbits. The transcription factor Oct4, also known as Pou5f1, is considered essential for the maintenance of the pluripotency of stem cells. Hence, pluripotent cells can be identified by monitoring Oct4 expression using a well-established Oct4 promoter-based reporter system. This study developed a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter system by transfecting pROP2-EGFP into rabbit fetal fibroblasts (RFFs. The transgenic RFFs were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. The EGFP expression was detected in the blastocysts and genital ridges of SCNT fetuses. Fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs were derived from the SCNT fetuses. EGFP was also reactivated in blastocysts after the second SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were obtained after reprogramming using Yamanaka's factors. The results above indicated that a rabbit reporter system used to monitor the differentiating status of cells was successfully developed.

  2. Modulatory effect of intestinal polyamines and trace amines on the spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated ileum and colon rings of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Fernández, Manuel; Suárez García, Lorena; Andrés, María Teresa; Henar Flórez, Blanca; Bordallo Landa, Javier; Riestra, Sabino; Cantabrana Plaza, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Gastrointestinal motility modulatory factors include substances of the intestinal content, such as polyamines and trace amines (TAs), the focus of this study. Methods: The amines of food, intestinal content and from faecal bacteria of Swiss mice were determined by HPLC and functionally characterised in isolated distal ileum and medial colon rings. Results: Mouse food and intestinal content contain polyamines (spermidine>putrescine>spermine) and TAs (isoamylamine>cadaverin...

  3. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  4. Protection of rabbits against cutaneous papillomavirus infection using recombinant tobacco mosaic virus containing L2 capsid epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kenneth E; Benko, Ann; Doucette, Sarah A; Cameron, Terri I; Foster, Tiffany; Hanley, Kathleen M; McCormick, Alison A; McCulloch, Michael; Pogue, Gregory P; Smith, Mark L; Christensen, Neil D

    2006-06-29

    Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) and rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) represent distantly related, cutaneous and mucosal tissue tropic papillomaviruses respectively that can infect the same host. These two viruses were used to test the effectiveness of an L2 peptide-based vaccine (aa 94-122) that was delivered on the surface of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (rTMV) particles. Groups of NZW rabbits received combinations of CRPVL2, ROPVL2 and CRPV+ROPVL2 rTMV vaccines, and were then challenged with infectious CRPV and ROPV. The rabbits developed antibodies that reacted to whole L2 protein and these sera were able to neutralize CRPV pseudovirions at half-maximal titers that were between 50 and 500. Rabbits receiving the CRPV L2 vaccine alone or in combination with ROPV L2 vaccines were completely protected against CRPV infections. Those rabbits vaccinated with the ROPV L2 vaccines showed a weak response in some rabbits against CRPV infection. These studies demonstrate that L2-based vaccines provide strong protection against experimental papillomavirus infection that is most likely based upon the induction of virus-neutralizing antibody. Notably, we observed some limited cross-protection induced by the L2 sequences tested in these vaccines. Finally, the study demonstrated that rTMV were excellent agents for the induction of strong protection in a pre-clinical disease model of papillomavirus infection.

  5. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  6. Vaginal agenesis and rectovestibular fistula. Experience utilizing distal ileum for the vaginal replacement in these patients, preserving the natural fecal reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Luis; Cogley, Kimberly; Calisto, Juan L; Santos, Karla; Ruiz, Alejandro; Zornoza, María

    2016-11-01

    The association of rectovestibular fistula (RVF) and vaginal agenesis (VA) presents a diagnostic and management challenge. The vaginal replacement is usually performed with rectum or sigmoid, which are the natural fecal reservoirs; thus, the fecal control could be affected. We present our experience utilizing ileum to preserve the rectum and sigmoid. We performed a retrospective study of eight patients with RVF and VA treated from May 2011 to June 2015 at two colorectal centers, at Pittsburgh and Mexico. We recorded the age at diagnosis of VA, treatment, presence of other associated malformations and outcome. Eight of forty-nine girls with RVF had an associated VA (16.3%). Three patients had a timely diagnosis and five a delayed diagnosis. Six patients were submitted to a vaginal replacement with ileum and achieved fecal control. Two are waiting for surgery. A high index of suspicion of vaginal agenesis helps in a timely diagnosis in girls with RVF. The use of ileum allows for preservation of the fecal reservoirs, thus optimizing the chance for fecal control in patients with anorectal malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Loss of ileum decreases serum fibroblast growth factor 19 in relation to liver inflammation and fibrosis in pediatric onset intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2015-06-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF) associated liver disease (IFALD) is uncertain, we therefore investigated the role of FGF19 and pro-inflammatory cytokines has on this disease state. Serum FGF19, IL-6 and, TNF-α were measured in 52 IF patients at median age 6.0 years (IQR 2.2-13) after 10 months (4.1-39) on parenteral nutrition (PN). Thirty-nine patients underwent liver biopsies. In IF patients, FGF19 concentrations were lower and those of IL-6 and TNF-α higher compared to healthy matched controls (p ⩽ 0.001 for all). FGF19 concentrations were further decreased in patients without a remaining ileum [37 pg/ml (IQR 30-68) vs. 74 (35-135) p=0.028], and correlated with remaining ileum length (r = 0.333, p = 0.018) and markers of cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.552 to -0.643, p pediatric onset of IF, total or partial loss of ileum decreases serum FGF19 concentration corresponding to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, along with increased cholesterol synthesis. In contrast, serum IL-6 increases during PN and may associate with concurrent cholestasis. These data suggests that FGF19 may contribute to the pathogenesis of IFALD. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquaporin-4 Is Downregulated in the Basolateral Membrane of Ileum Epithelial Cells during Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Induced Diarrhea in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Yang, Longfei; Su, Weiheng; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Xin; Zhou, Haizhu; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Kaiqi; Ma, Hongxia

    2018-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are opportunistic pathogens that colonize the small intestine, produce enterotoxins and induce diarrhea. Some aquaporins (AQPs), such as AQP3 and AQP8, have been reported to participate in diarrhea by decreasing cellular influx in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. AQP4 is another important water channel in the GI tract, but its role in ETEC-induced diarrhea has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated the potential roles of AQP4 in ETEC-induced diarrhea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting showed that AQP4 was expressed in the mouse ileum, but not in the duodenum or jejunum while immunohistochemical staining showed that AQP4 localized to the basolateral membrane of ileum epithelial cells. Using an ETEC-induced mice diarrhea model, we demonstrated that both AQP4 mRNA level and the AQP4 protein level in the ileum decreased gradually over a time course of 7 days. These results suggest that AQP4 plays a role in the pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea by mediating water transport. PMID:29375520

  9. Aquaporin-4 Is Downregulated in the Basolateral Membrane of Ileum Epithelial Cells during Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Induced Diarrhea in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are opportunistic pathogens that colonize the small intestine, produce enterotoxins and induce diarrhea. Some aquaporins (AQPs, such as AQP3 and AQP8, have been reported to participate in diarrhea by decreasing cellular influx in the gastrointestinal (GI tract. AQP4 is another important water channel in the GI tract, but its role in ETEC-induced diarrhea has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated the potential roles of AQP4 in ETEC-induced diarrhea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting showed that AQP4 was expressed in the mouse ileum, but not in the duodenum or jejunum while immunohistochemical staining showed that AQP4 localized to the basolateral membrane of ileum epithelial cells. Using an ETEC-induced mice diarrhea model, we demonstrated that both AQP4 mRNA level and the AQP4 protein level in the ileum decreased gradually over a time course of 7 days. These results suggest that AQP4 plays a role in the pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea by mediating water transport.

  10. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordahl, J.N.; Gorthy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Eyes of young New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated with 2000 rads of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and the eyes removed at 2, 8, 16, and 30 days post-irradiation for electron microscopic analysis. Lenses were treated histochemically for acid phosphatase localization to examine the role of lysosomal enzymes in the early development of radiation cataracts. Intercellularly located acid phosphatase reaction product, noted in the epithelium and subjacent cortex, was more prevalent after irradiation, especially in central and transitional epithelial zones. In the central zone small vesicles typically were most numerous in areas of extensive intercellular reaction product. The occurrence of discrete packets of reaction product within the vesicles and the adjoining intercellular space, plus the resemblance of the peripheral vesicles to small Golgi vesicles also containing reaction product, suggested an exocytotic release of the enzyme. These appearances suggest that lysosomal hydrolases are released extracellularly by a secretory mechanism accelerated by radiation and that these hydrolases may play a role in both physiological and pathological functions of the lens. (author)

  12. Stereoselective degradation kinetics of tebuconazole in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Jing; Dang, Ziheng; Lv, Chunguang; Jia, Guifang; Li, Li; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2007-02-01

    Tebuconazole[(RS)-1-p-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol] is a potent triazole fungicide and consists of a pair of enantiomers. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of tebuconazole was investigated in rabbits by intravenous (iv) injection. The concentrations of (-)-(R)-tebuconazole and (+)-(S)-tebuconazole in plasma and tissues were determined by HPLC with a cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase. Enantioselective analysis methods for this fungicide in plasma and tissues were developed and validated. Good linearities were obtained over the concentration range of 0.25-25 mg/l for both enantiomers. The degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation of the (+)-(S)-tebuconazole was much faster than that of the (-)-(R)-tebuconazole in plasma after administration of racemic tebuconazole. This study also indicated that environmental assessment of enantiomeric degradation may be needed to fully evaluate risks of tebuconazole use. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, D E; Ravis, W R; Clark, C H

    1987-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline HCl (OTC) was studied in rabbits. After 10 mg of OTC/kg of body weight was administered IV, the distribution half-life was 0.06 hour, terminal half-life was 1.32 hours, volume of distribution area was 0.861 L/kg, and total body clearance was 0.434 L/kg/h. After 10 mg of OTC/kg was given IM, the absorption half-life was 2.09 hours, extent of absorption was 71.4%, and total body clearance of the absorbed fraction was 0.576 L/kg/h. Based on these kinetic data, a dosage of 15 mg of OTC/kg, every 8 hours was developed. This dose given IM for 7 consecutive days resulted in observed steady-state maximum and minimum concentrations (mean +/- SD) of 4.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml and 3.2 +/- 0.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. Twice this dose (30 mg of OTC/kg, every 8 hours) given IM caused anorexia and diarrhea.

  14. Effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Caixia; Feng Yan; Gu Tao; Li Chunmei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. Methods: VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe in 48 New Zealand white rabbits, and the rabbit hepatic carcinoma models were thus established. The rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups with 12 rabbits in each group. After hepatic arterial catheterization was completed physiological saline (control group), Lipiodol (Group A), Ad-p53 (Group B) and Lipiodol+Ad-p53 (Group C) were respectively infused into the rabbits of four groups via common hepatic artery. One week after the procedure the rabbits were sacrificed and the livers were removed for the determination of matrix metalloprotein-2 (MMP-2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of the tumor with immunohistochemistry technique. Results: The tumor growth in study groups (group A, B and C) was markedly suppressed, which was significantly different in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF in group B and C were significantly lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF of the rabbits with metastasis were markedly higher than those without metastasis(P < 0.05). MMP-2 bore a certain relationship with VEGF and PCNA (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of the positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF indicates that the tumor possesses higher possibility for developing metastasis, proliferation and vascular formation. The interventional treatment with Adp53 or Lipiodol+Ad-p53 can inhibit the growth, metastasis and vascular formation of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19 : 800-804) (authors)

  15. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Coura Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  16. [Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, André Coura; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Dantas, Ivan de Picole; Dorgam, João Vicente; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Tamashiro, Edwin; Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  18. Performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaned rabbits with average initial weights of 540g to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of processed tallow (Detarium microcarpum) seed meal. The design of the experiment ...

  19. Selected HIV-1 Env trimeric formulations act as potent immunogens in a rabbit vaccination model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne Bendixen

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an ad......Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence...

  20. Development of a new experimental model of intramuscular electrical stimulation of the diaphragm in rabbits Desenvolvimento de um novo modelo experimental de estimulação elétrica intramuscular do diafragma em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guellner Ghedini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an animal model of diaphragmatic electrical stimulation able to generate an appropriate ventilatory support through the direct implantation of electrodes in the diaphragm (electroventilation. METHODS: Six New Zealand female rabbits (2-3 kg were placed on mechanical ventilation. Then, a laparotomy was performed in order to identify the motor points in each hemidiaphragm, followed by the implantation of the electrodes for diaphragmatic stimulation. We tested two types of electrodes according to the conduction of electrical stimulation: unipolar and bipolar. The electrodes were placed on different occasions in the same animals and tested with current intensities of 20, 26 and 32 mA. Each current intensity was repeated three times for 10 respiratory cycles with 1 minute interval between each cycle, and 5 minutes for new current intensity. We recorded the relationship between current intensity and inspiratory volume. RESULTS: The electrodes adequately stimulate the diaphragm and obtain inspired volumes using different intensity currents. The bipolar electrode generated inspiratory volumes as high as 4.5 times of baseline while the unipolar electrode reached up to 3.5 times of baseline. CONCLUSION: This model has proved to be effective for studying the performance of the diaphragm under different electrical stimulations using different set of electrodes.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo animal de estimulação elétrica diafragmática capaz de gerar um suporte ventilatório adequado através da implantação direta de eletrodos no diafragma (eletroventilação. MÉTODOS: Seis coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia (2-3 kg foram colocadas em ventilação mecânica. Através de uma laparotomia foram identificados os pontos motores em ambas as cúpulas diafragmáticas, seguido pela implantação dos eletrodos para estimulação diafragmática. Foram testados dois tipos de eletrodos de acordo com a condução do estímulo elétrico: unipolar e

  1. Absence of peristalsis in the ileum of W/W(V) mutant mice that are selectively deficient in myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tadashi; Misawa, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Takaki, Miyako

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that the enteric nervous system plays a key role in the generation of gastrointestinal peristaltic movements. Recently, the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been found to be essential in the generation of spontaneous gastrointestinal movements. However, the role of ICC in the mechanisms involved in the generation of peristaltic movements is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to reveal how pacemaker myenteric ICC (ICC-MY) and the enteric nervous system contribute to the mechanisms involved in the generation of intestinal peristalsis. We compared spontaneous peristaltic movements of the ileum in wild type (WT) mice with those in W/W(V) mutant mice which are selectively deficient in ICC-MY. Simultaneous recordings were made from both the circular and longitudinal muscle of a 4-cm long segment of ileum under hydrostatic pressure of 0--0.5 cm H(2)O. Mechanical activity and continuous video-images of the ileum were compared between WT and W/W(V) mutant mice under control conditions, in the presence of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and after tetrodotoxin (TTX). In the WT mouse ileum, peristaltic waves to propagate from the oral to the anal end were frequently observed. The frequency of these peristaltic waves and their associated synchronous longitudinal and circular muscle contractions was increased by L-NAME. The peristaltic waves were abolished by TTX. In the W/W(V) mutant mouse ileum, no peristaltic waves to propagate from the oral to the anal end were observed in control and even after L-NAME, although the local spontaneously generated longitudinal and circular muscle contractions were enhanced by L-NAME. These local contractions were not abolished by TTX. The results presented here suggested that ICC-MY are essential for the generation of spontaneous intestinal peristaltic movements. It is conceivable that ICC-MY may determine the polarity of the excitation of the intestine such that longitudinal and

  2. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Tucker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET. Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer 124I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain.

  3. Modeling Rabbit Responses to Single and Multiple Aerosol ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Survival models are developed here to predict response and time-to-response for mortality in rabbits following exposures to single or multiple aerosol doses of Bacillus anthracis spores. Hazard function models were developed for a multiple dose dataset to predict the probability of death through specifying dose-response functions and the time between exposure and the time-to-death (TTD). Among the models developed, the best-fitting survival model (baseline model) has an exponential dose-response model with a Weibull TTD distribution. Alternative models assessed employ different underlying dose-response functions and use the assumption that, in a multiple dose scenario, earlier doses affect the hazard functions of each subsequent dose. In addition, published mechanistic models are analyzed and compared with models developed in this paper. None of the alternative models that were assessed provided a statistically significant improvement in fit over the baseline model. The general approach utilizes simple empirical data analysis to develop parsimonious models with limited reliance on mechanistic assumptions. The baseline model predicts TTDs consistent with reported results from three independent high-dose rabbit datasets. More accurate survival models depend upon future development of dose-response datasets specifically designed to assess potential multiple dose effects on response and time-to-response. The process used in this paper to dev

  4. Attenuation of diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits with a highly selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor lacking significant antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sendobry, Sandra M; Cornicelli, Joseph A; Welch, Kathryn; Bocan, Thomas; Tait, Bradley; Trivedi, Bharat K; Colbry, Norman; Dyer, Richard D; Feinmark, Steven J; Daugherty, Alan

    1997-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis because of its localization in lesions and the many biological activities exhibited by its products. To provide further evidence for a role of 15-LO, the effects of PD 146176 on the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits were assessed. This novel drug is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme in vitro and lacks significant non specific antioxidant properties.PD 146176 inhibited rabbit reticulocyt...

  5. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of bisphosphonates in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luurila, S.; Kautiainnen, S.; Ylitalo, P.; Ylitalo, R. [Univ. of Tamperer, Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    Clodronate, pamidronate and etidronate are commonly used bisphosphonates, which accumulate extensively in arteries and some other tissues. We compared their pharmacokinetics in rabbits with those of tiludronate, the drug newly introduced to clinical use. The {sup 14}C-labelled drugs were given intravenously and plasma drug levels were monitored for up to 24 hr. The dose-related plasma concentrations of tiludronate and etidronate were clearly higher and decreased more slowly than those of clodronate and pamidronate (P<0.001). Already at 5 min., the concentrations of tiludronate and etidronate were higher than those of clodronate and pamidronate (P=0.016). At 24 hr, plasma concentration of tiludronate was 12{+-}6.6%, of etidronate 18{+-}2.5%, of clodronate 0.8{+-}0.2%, and of pamidronate 1.4{+-}0.4% of the dose per body weight. With the same dose (25 mg/kg), absolute AUC{sub 0-24hr} for tiludronate and etidronate was 9-11 times larger than for clodronate. AUC{sub 0-24hr} for pamidronate (2.5 mg/kg) was 11% of that for clodronate. Plasma clearance of tiludronate and etidronate was 9-15 times slower than that of clodronate and pamidronate. At 24 hr, the mean tissue-to-plasma ratio of tiludronate for aorta was 1.2-1.6. For bone, spleen, liver and kidneys the ratio varied from 5.4 to 52.6. The results suggest that 1) tiludronate and etidronate are removed from plasma much slower than clodronate and pamidronate, and 2) the potential of tiludronate to concentrate in arteries and bone is generally smaller than previously found with the other bisphosphonates. (au) 26 refs.

  7. Effects of mercuric chloride and methyl mercury on cholinergic neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messori, E.; Liuzzi, M.; Tonini, M.; Candura, S.M.; D'Agostino, G.; Castoldi, A.F.; Manzo, L.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were examined on basal mechanical activity and electrically-induced neurogenic cholinergic contractions (twitch contractions) in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strips from guinea-pig distal ileum. Both compounds at 0.3-3 μM slightly enhanced the amplitude of twitch contractions in ∼50% preparations. This effect was probably due to facilitation of acetylcholine (ACh) release since 0.1 and 1 μM mercurials increased electrically-evoked tritium outflow from [ 3 H]choline preloaded muscle layer with attached myenteric plexus. Conversely, higher mercury concentrations inhibited twitch contractions (HgCl 2 IC 50 = 21.3±6.4 μM; MeHg IC 50 = 45.1±5.5 μM), as well as contractions to exogenous ACh (0.1 μM) in resting preparations, and concomitantly increased the basal tone. The former effects possibly reflected an anti muscarinic activity of mercury, while the latter was related to alterations of calcium homeostasis in the effector cells. Indeed, the effect of HgCl 2 on basal tone was antagonized by the Ca 2+ entry blocker nifedipine (3, 10, 30 nM), indicating Hg-induced facilitation of Ca 2+ influx through voltage-dependent channels. On the whole, our results suggest that cholinergic neuromuscular transmission and Ca 2+ -dependent mechanisms underlying smooth muscle contractility are targets for mercury toxicity in the intestine. (au) 51 refs

  8. Effects of mercuric chloride and methyl mercury on cholinergic neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messori, E.; Liuzzi, M.; Tonini, M. [Univ. of Pavia, Dept. of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, Div. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pavia (Italy); Candura, S.M. [Univ. of Pavia, Dept. of Preventive, Occupational and Community Medicine, Pavia (Italy); D`Agostino, G. [Univ. of Pavia, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Pavia (Italy); Castoldi, A.F.; Manzo, L. [Pavia Medical Centre, Inst. of Care and Scientific Research, Toxicology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were examined on basal mechanical activity and electrically-induced neurogenic cholinergic contractions (twitch contractions) in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strips from guinea-pig distal ileum. Both compounds at 0.3-3 {mu}M slightly enhanced the amplitude of twitch contractions in {approx}50% preparations. This effect was probably due to facilitation of acetylcholine (ACh) release since 0.1 and 1 {mu}M mercurials increased electrically-evoked tritium outflow from [{sup 3}H]choline preloaded muscle layer with attached myenteric plexus. Conversely, higher mercury concentrations inhibited twitch contractions (HgCl{sub 2} IC{sub 50} = 21.3{+-}6.4 {mu}M; MeHg IC{sub 50} = 45.1{+-}5.5 {mu}M), as well as contractions to exogenous ACh (0.1 {mu}M) in resting preparations, and concomitantly increased the basal tone. The former effects possibly reflected an anti muscarinic activity of mercury, while the latter was related to alterations of calcium homeostasis in the effector cells. Indeed, the effect of HgCl{sub 2} on basal tone was antagonized by the Ca{sup 2+} entry blocker nifedipine (3, 10, 30 nM), indicating Hg-induced facilitation of Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent channels. On the whole, our results suggest that cholinergic neuromuscular transmission and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanisms underlying smooth muscle contractility are targets for mercury toxicity in the intestine. (au) 51 refs.

  9. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  10. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  11. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  12. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  13. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  14. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Oxley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  15. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... The results obtained in this study revealed that up to 30% of the cooked MSM can be included in the diets of weaner rabbits without any deleterious effect on rabbit performance. Key words: Processed Mucuna seed meal, diets, rabbits, response. INTRODUCTION. The demand for protein of animal origin in ...

  16. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  17. Performance and digestibility of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaner crossbred rabbits were allocated to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of 100, 75, 50 and 25% levels of soybean cheese waste/maize offal diet (SBW). 100% rabbit meal served as control. Each rabbit received chopped Bracharia decumbens hay ad libitum. Water was ...

  18. Effect of genotype on growth traits of rabbits | Oke | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype effect on growth traits of rabbits were investigated in a randomised complete block design using one hundred and twenty - 10-week-old breeding rabbits. The breeds of rabbits used were New Zealand white, Dutch, chinchilla and were characterized using body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), shoulder to tail (ST), ...

  19. Duodenal atresia with apple-peel configuration of the ileum and absent superior mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saša, Radović V; Ranko, Lazovic; Snezana, Crnogorac; Lidija, Banjac; Djordje, Suhih

    2016-09-05

    Embryologically, duodenal atresia results from inadequate recanalisation and proliferation of gut epithelius in the 6th week of gestation, while apple-pee atresia of small bowel is a consequence of a vascular accident in subsequent embryonic development, and the two are rather rarely manifested as a joint clinical entity. We present here a 29 week preterm boy admitted to the intensive care unit due to breathing difficulties and low birthweight. Following clinical, radiographic and ultrasound examination, he was diagnosed with duodenal obstruction and subjected to surgical treatment. The exploration of abdominal cavity verified duodenal atresia in the second portion with the absence of third and fourth portions of duodenum, superior mesenteric artery, as well as apple-peel atresia of jejunum. Resection of the apple-peel segment of jejunum was done and the continuity of digestive tube was established by the end-to-end duodeno-ileal anastomosis. This rare case of ours questions the embryology of duodenal atresia suggesting that a mesenteric vascular disruption phenomenon in subsequent embryonic life might be the aetiological factor.

  20. On-farm euthanasia practices and attitudes of commercial meat rabbit producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica; Percival, Aaron; Tapscott, Brian; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-16

    Appropriate and timely on-farm euthanasia is the responsibility of the producer, working together with their herd veterinarian. Unfortunately, validated methods for euthanasia of commercial meat rabbits are lacking and there are few educational materials available for producer training. Because euthanasia must be performed in a timely fashion to minimise suffering, it is critical to ensure that methods used are aesthetic, humane and effective. We surveyed Canadian meat rabbit producers for current on-farm euthanasia practices as well as attitudes towards the methods they employed and thoughts on novel euthanasia techniques. Surveys were distributed with a response rate of 26 per cent (n=26). Blunt force trauma was the most common euthanasia method used (54 per cent), followed by assisted manual cervical dislocation (31 per cent). Half of producers admitted to not having a euthanasia method in place for all age groups of rabbits, instead electing to let sick and injured rabbits die on their own. While some producers reported feeling highly skilled and satisfied with their current euthanasia method, 58 per cent reported concerns with their current method and 42 per cent desired alternative methods to be developed. Responses to additional questions on training and awareness of euthanasia resources indicated that veterinarians are not part of on-farm euthanasia planning for meat rabbits. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  2. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  3. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation, expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells from rabbits' bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Eleotério

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tissue engineering has been a fundamental technique in the regenerative medicine field, once it permits to build tri-dimensional tissue constructs associating undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (or mesenchymal stromal cells - MSCs and scaffolds in vitro. Therefore, many studies have been carried out using these cells from different animal species, and rabbits are often used as animal model for in vivo tissue repair studies. However, most of the information available about MSCs harvesting and characterization is about human and murine cells, which brings some doubts to researchers who desire to work with a rabbit model in tissue repair studies based on MSCs. In this context, this study aimed to add and improve the information available in the scientific literature providing a complete technique for isolation, expansion and differentiation of MSCs from rabbits. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs from humerus and femur of rabbits were obtained and to evaluate their proliferation rate, three different culture media were tested, here referred as DMEM-P, DMEM´S and α-MEM. The BMMCs were also cultured in osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic induction media to prove their multipotentiality. It was concluded that the techniques suggested in this study can provide a guideline to harvest and isolate MSCs from bone marrow of rabbits in enough amount to allow their expansion and, based on the laboratory experience where the study was developed, it is also suggested a culture media formulation to provide a better cell proliferation rate with multipotentiality preservation.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Gene and Association with Non-specific Digestive Disorder in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fu Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP12 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 12 serves as a suppressor factor in the inflammatory response and protects the host against inflammation-induced damage. In the present study, we aimed to study the polymorphisms of NLRP12 gene and its association with susceptibility to non-specific digestive disorder (NSDD in rabbits. We re-sequenced the entire coding region of the rabbit NLRP12 gene and detected a total of 19 SNPs containing 14 synonymous and five non-synonymous variations. Among them, the coding SNP (c.1682A>G, which would carry a potential functional implication, was subsequently subjected to genotyping for case-control association study (272 cases and 267 controls. The results revealed that allele A was significantly protective against NSDD with an odds ratio value of 0.884 (95% confidence interval, 0.788 to 0.993; p = 0.038. We also experimentally induced NSDD in growing rabbits by feeding a fibre-deficient diet and subsequently investigated NLRP12 mRNA expression. The mRNA expression of NLRP12 in healthy status was significantly higher than that in severe NSDD (p = 0.0016. The highest expression was observed in individuals carrying the protective genotype AA (p = 0.0108. These results suggested that NLRP12 was significantly associated with the NSDD in rabbits. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NLRP12 involving in the development of rabbit NSDD requires further research.

  6. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  7. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Bretlau, P

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump and an o......The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump...

  8. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  9. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  10. Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine V Houser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV is a zoonotic betacoronavirus that was first detected in humans in 2012 as a cause of severe acute respiratory disease. As of July 28, 2017, there have been 2,040 confirmed cases with 712 reported deaths. While many infections have been fatal, there have also been a large number of mild or asymptomatic cases discovered through monitoring and contact tracing. New Zealand white rabbits are a possible model for asymptomatic infection with MERS-CoV. In order to discover more about non-lethal infections and to learn whether a single infection with MERS-CoV would protect against reinfection, we inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV and monitored the antibody and inflammatory response. Following intranasal infection, rabbits developed a transient dose-dependent pulmonary infection with moderately high levels of viral RNA, viral antigen, and perivascular inflammation in multiple lung lobes that was not associated with clinical signs. The rabbits developed antibodies against viral proteins that lacked neutralizing activity and the animals were not protected from reinfection. In fact, reinfection resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, without an associated increase in viral RNA titers. Interestingly, passive transfer of serum from previously infected rabbits to naïve rabbits was associated with enhanced inflammation upon infection. We further found this inflammation was accompanied by increased recruitment of complement proteins compared to primary infection. However, reinfection elicited neutralizing antibodies that protected rabbits from subsequent viral challenge. Our data from the rabbit model suggests that people exposed to MERS-CoV who fail to develop a neutralizing antibody response, or persons whose neutralizing antibody titers have waned, may be at risk for severe lung disease on re-exposure to MERS-CoV.

  11. Methods of epithelial tissue culture in albino rabbit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anarluki J

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research of various methods of epithelial tissue culture we've studied five French Albino rabbits with an average of 8 weeks. In order to evaluate and control growth and proliferation of autologus cultured tissue samples were obtained on 1st, 5th and 8th days. After fixation of these samples and passing them through various processes, histologic sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H-E and studied by light microscope, we succeeded in developing the original donor surface by 18 times.

  12. Determination of sirolimus in rabbit arteries using liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rodila, Ramona; Watson, Pamela; Ji, Qin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2007-10-01

    Sirolimus, an effective immunosuppressive agent, is used for drug eluting stents. During stent development, an analytical method for the determination of sirolimus in tissue needs to be established. Normally, tissue samples are homogenized and then analyzed against the calibration standards prepared in a tissue homogenate. This approach provides insufficient control of the homogenization process. In this paper, tissue quality control samples were introduced for the optimization of the homogenization process during method development, but also allowance for the performance evaluation of the entire analytical process. In addition, a new approach using rabbit blood as a homogenization medium was developed to stabilize sirolimus in rabbit tissue homogenates. Calibration standards and quality controls were prepared by spiking different sirolimus working solutions into rabbit blood. Homogenization quality control samples were prepared by injecting other sirolimus working solutions into empty test tubes and pre-cut arteries within pre-defined masses. A high-throughput homogenization procedure was optimized based on the specific chemical properties of sirolimus. The linear dynamic range was between 49.9 pg/mL and 31.9 ng/mL to accommodate the expected artery homogenate concentrations. Additionally, quality controls in rabbit blood were also used in the extraction to support the calibration standards. The accuracy and precision of the quality controls in rabbit blood reflect the extraction performance and the accuracy and precision of the homogenization tissue quality controls reflect the overall performance of the method. The mean bias was between -4.5 and 0.2% for all levels of quality controls in the blood and between 4.8 and 14.9% for all levels of the homogenization tissue quality controls. The CVs of all concentration levels were < or =5.3% for the quality controls in blood and < or =9.2% for the homogenization tissue quality controls. The method was successfully

  13. Effects of cloned-cattle meat diet on reproductive parameters in pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Im, Gi-Sun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Park, Eung-Woo; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Soo-Bong; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the effects of a diet containing cloned-cattle meat on the reproductive parameters in pregnant rabbits. The artificially inseminated rabbits (gestation day 0) were fed a diet containing 5% or 10% of normal or cloned-cattle meat during the gestation period. Rabbits fed commercial pellet (no additional supplementations) were used as the control. Supplementation of cloned-cattle meat diets did not have any toxicologically significant effects on reproductive performance in dams (body weight, clinical signs, organ weight, and cesarean section analysis). And it also did not affect on fetal development (body and placental weight, and external, visceral and skeletal findings) compared to the controls. The only difference was a food consumption in the first week of gestation for all meat-based diet groups (pmeat. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT.

  15. Experimental Lyme disease in rabbits: spirochetes found in erythema migrans and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, A N; Steere, A C; Brownstein, D G

    1984-01-01

    In attempts to produce experimental Lyme disease, 33 rabbits were inoculated with Lyme spirochetes by tick feeding or from tick organ homogenates or cultures. Two rabbits developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation, in one instance 2 days after injection of a tick organ homogenate and in the other instance, 17 days after feeding of infected Ixodes dammini ticks. Spirochetes were seen in skin biopsy specimens of the second lesion with Warthin-Starry and immunoperoxidase stains. Spirochetes were also recovered from blood cultures of two additional rabbits 2 weeks post-inoculation. These findings are characteristic of early Lyme disease in humans and give additional support for the spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. Images PMID:6480108

  16. Changes in cytochrome P450 gene expression and enzyme activity induced by xenobiotics in rabbits in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Palócz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As considerable inter-species differences exist in xenobiotic metabolism, developing new pharmaceutical therapies for use in different species is fraught with difficulties. For this reason, very few medicines have been registered for use in rabbits, despite their importance in inter alia meat and fur production. We have developed a rapid and sensitive screening system for drug safety in rabbits based on cytochrome P450 enzyme assays, specifically CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A6, employing an adaptation of the luciferin-based clinical assay currently used in human drug screening. Short-term (4-h cultured rabbit primary hepatocytes were treated with a cytochrome inducer (phenobarbital and 2 inhibitors (alpha-naphthoflavone and ketoconazole. In parallel, and to provide verification, New Zealand white rabbits were dosed with 80 mg/kg phenobarbital or 40 mg/kg ketoconazole for 3 d. Ketoconazole significantly increased CYP3A6 gene expression and decreased CYP3A6 activity both in vitro and in vivo. CYP1A1 activity was decreased by ketoconazole in vitro and increased in vivo. This is the first report of the inducer effect of ketoconazole on rabbit cytochrome isoenzymes in vivo. Our data support the use of a luciferin-based assay in short-term primary hepatocytes as an appropriate tool for xenobiotic metabolism assays and short-term toxicity testing in rabbits.

  17. Rabbit N-acetyltransferase 2 genotyping method to investigate role of acetylation polymorphism on N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, David W; Doll, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit was the initial animal model to investigate the acetylation polymorphism expressed in humans. Use of the rabbit model is compromised by lack of a rapid non-invasive method for determining acetylator phenotype. Slow acetylator phenotype in the rabbit results from deletion of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene. A relatively quick and non-invasive method for identifying the gene deletion was developed and acetylator phenotypes confirmed by measurement of N- and O-acetyltransferase activities in hepatic cytosols. Rabbit liver cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of sulfamethazine (p = 0.0014), benzidine (p = 0.0257), 4-aminobiphenyl (p = 0.0012), and the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP; p = 0.002) at rates significantly higher in rabbits possessing NAT2 gene than rabbits with NAT2 gene deleted. In contrast, hepatic cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid (an N-acetyltransferase 1 selective substrate) at rates that did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between rabbits positive and negative for NAT2. The new NAT2 genotyping method facilitates use of the rabbit model to investigate the role of acetylator polymorphism in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amine drugs and carcinogens.

  18. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  19. Wild rabbit restocking: Suitable acclimation conditions foster adaptive behaviour and improve survival of captive reared rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Machado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild rabbit is a very important species in the Mediterranean region. Its relevance is both ecological, being a keystone species —prey for several predators— and economic, as it is the most important and the most managed small game species among mammals in the Iberian Peninsula. Although both researchers and game managers claim restocking operations have moderate to low success, it is still one of the management measures often used by conservationists and hunters to recover or boost wild rabbit populations. The high mortality usually verified in the first days after release is the main limiting factor in rabbit restocking. Based on practical research, protocols have improved, pointing out good practices and suggestions to increase success. Adopting soft instead of hard-release protocols has been proven to increase short-term survival after liberation. Aware that purchased rabbits seldom display a quick adaptation to the field, we performed two restocking experiments with different conditions (acclimation period and park size in order to compare the outcomes in terms of survival rate. The rabbit batch that experienced a longer acclimation period in a larger park showed higher survival rates, as well as more frequent and much larger spatial movements. These results suggest that proper conditions during acclimation may contribute to the success of wild rabbit restocking operations.

  20. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  1. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  2. Histopathological changes in female rabbits administered with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological examination of the tissues revealed mild pulmonary oedema and peribronchial lymphocytic infiltration of the lungs, hepatization of the liver, disruption of cardiac architecture, generalised cell necrosis and erosion of the villi of the small intestine. All the rabbits that survived gained weight, which is indicative ...

  3. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  4. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  5. Construction of Rabbit Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha; Lee, Jong Seo; Shim, Hyunbo

    2018-01-01

    Rabbits have distinct advantages over mice as a source of target-specific antibodies. They produce higher affinity antibodies than mice, and may elicit strong immune response against antigens or epitopes that are poorly immunogenic or tolerated in mice. However, a great majority of currently available monoclonal antibodies are of murine origin because of the wider availability of murine fusion partner cell lines and well-established tools and protocols for fusion and cloning of mouse hybridoma. Phage-display selection of antibody libraries is an alternative method to hybridoma technology for the generation of target-specific monoclonal antibodies. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies from nonmurine species can readily be obtained by constructing immune antibody libraries from B cells of the immunized animal and screening the library by phage display. In this article, we describe the construction of a rabbit immune Fab library for the facile isolation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies. After immunization, B-cell cDNA is obtained from the spleen of the animal, from which antibody variable domain repertoires are amplified and assembled into a Fab repertoire by PCR. The Fab genes are then cloned into a phagemid vector and transformed to E. coli, from which a phage-displayed immune Fab library is rescued. Such a library can be biopanned against the immunization antigen for rapid identification of high-affinity, target-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Phytase activity in rabbit cecal bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Břeňová, Natalia; Suchorská, O.; Mrázek, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 111-114 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0673 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbit * cecal bacteria Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  7. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya A. Nassar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits.

  8. Intercellular junctions in rabbit eye ora serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobeschi, L; Freymuller, E; Smith, R L

    2006-10-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to describe and localize the intercellular junctions in the ora serrata region of albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. Eyes of albino and pigmented rabbits were fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Light and electron microscope examination was carried out on semithin and ultrathin sections. The ora serrata region showed adherens, gap and tight junctions in the retinal and ciliary margins of albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. In the retinal margin, zonulae adherens between Müller cells and photoreceptors are associated with tight junctions. In the ciliary margin, epithelial cells are joined by adherens, gap and tight junctions localized between apical and apicolateral cell membranes. Tight junctions appear as zonulae occludens in the non-pigmented apicolateral cell membranes and as tight focal junctions between pigmented and non-pigmented apical cell membranes. Between the ciliary and retinal margins there are adherens and tight focal junctions which attach pigmented apical cell membranes to adjacent cells. There were no differences in the distribution of intercellular junctions between albino and pigmented rabbits.

  9. Inflammatory bowel diseases phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 genotype are associated with shifts in human ileum associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Li

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that Crohn's disease (CD-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1-V3 and V3-V5, were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A. The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤ 0.05 with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides--E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These

  10. Co‐occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free‐ranging domestic cats: Prey responses to an exotic predator removal program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2018-01-01

    The Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) is one of many endangered endemic species of the Florida Keys. The main threats are habitat loss and fragmentation from sea‐level rise, development, and habitat succession. Exotic predators such as free‐ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) pose an additional threat to these endangered small mammals. Management strategies have focused on habitat restoration and exotic predator control. However, the effectiveness of predator removal and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications and restoration have not been evaluated. Between 2013 and 2015, we used camera traps to survey marsh rabbits and free‐ranging cats at 84 sites in the National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. We used dynamic occupancy models to determine factors associated with marsh rabbit occurrence, colonization, extinction, and the co‐occurrence of marsh rabbits and cats during a period of predator removal. Rabbit occurrence was positively related to freshwater habitat and patch size, but was negatively related to the number of individual cats detected at each site. Furthermore, marsh rabbit colonization was negatively associated with relative increases in the number of individual cats at each site between survey years. Cat occurrence was negatively associated with increasing distance from human developments. The probability of cat site extinction was positively related to a 2‐year trapping effort, indicating that predator removal reduced the cat population. Dynamic co‐occurrence models suggested that cats and marsh rabbits co‐occur less frequently than expected under random conditions, whereas co‐detections were site and survey‐specific. Rabbit site extinction and colonization were not strongly conditional on cat presence, but corresponded with a negative association. Our results suggest that while rabbits can colonize and persist at sites where cats occur, it is the number of individual cats at a site that

  11. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight and perirenal fat thickness (5%. Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%, but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males.

  12. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vicente, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight) and perirenal fat thickness (5%). Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%), but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males.

  13. Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in HumansSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaum S. Booth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]. Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum–lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. Methods: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi–specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry. Results: No differences were observed in cell yields and phenotypes in LPMC CD8+-TM subsets following Ty21a immunization. However, Ty21a immunization elicited LPMC CD8+ T cells exhibiting significant S Typhi–specific responses (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17A, and/or CD107a in all major TM subsets (T-effector/memory [TEM], T-central/memory, and TEM-CD45RA+, although each TM subset exhibited unique characteristics. We also investigated whether Ty21a immunization elicited S Typhi–specific multifunctional effectors in LPMC CD8+ TEM. We observed that LPMC CD8+ TEM responses were mostly multifunctional, except for those cells exhibiting the characteristics associated with cytotoxic responses. Finally, we compared mucosal with systemic responses and made the important observation that LPMC CD8+ S Typhi–specific responses were unique and distinct from their systemic counterparts. Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of S Typhi–specific responses in the human terminal ileum mucosa and provides novel insights into the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a immunization. Keywords: Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells, Multifunctional T Cells, CD8+-T Memory Cells, Typhoid, Vaccines

  14. The Relaxant Effect of Seed's Essential Oil and Oleo-Gum-Resin of Ferula Assa-Foetida on Isolated Rat's Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Sm; Hejazian, Sh; Dashti-R, Mh

    2014-03-01

    In Iranian folk medicine, several plants are used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea and spasm. One of these herbal medications are the essential oil yielded from seeds of Ferula assa-foetida L. and an oleo-gum-resin known as asafetida, which is exudated from its root. F. assa-foetida grows wildly in south and central mountains of Iran. In this study, relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses. A total of 5 cm of ileum was removed and sets for recording its isotonic contractions. The amplitude of contractions induced by different doses of asafoetida and essential oil before and after exposing the specimens with cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach) was evaluated. The relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses (0.1 0.2 and 0.3%). All statistical analysis was by GraphPad Prism 5 (San Diego, California) and comparisons were made by means of the analysis of variances followed by Tukey's test. The statistical significance was considered as P essential oil has significant antispasmodic action against cumulative concentrations of 10(-12) up to 10(-2) M Ach. In spasmolytic evaluation, our findings showed that the essential oil derived from F. assa-foetida seed in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.3% significantly reduced Ach (10(-4) M) induced contractions. Exposure to the 0.2% and 0.3% asafoetida, reduced the percentage of maximum contraction induced by 10(-4) M Ach to 43% and 12% respectively, which this reduction was statistically significant. The results of the present study, supports the traditional claim of asafoetida as an antispasmodic therapeutic.

  15. Secretion of saliva by the rabbit mandibular gland in vitro: the role of anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Hunter, M

    1981-01-01

    and ductal modification with a recently developed technique for isolation and perfusion of the rabbit mandibular gland. Neither of the major extracellular anions (Cl- or HCO-3) is essential for primary fluid secretion. HCO-3 can be removed altogether and replaced with Cl- without diminution in secretory rate...

  16. Abnormalities of blood platelets in rabbits with dietary hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, E.; Dalal, K.; Carpenter, D.; Brennan, K.; Yee, T.; Mazoyer, B.; Leven, R.; Ebbe, S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from observations of rabbits that were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The purpose of the project was to develop an animal model that would be appropriate to use in the imaging of vascular lesions by positron emission tomography or other techniques

  17. Selected HIV-1 Env Trimeric Formulations Act as Potent Immunogens in a Rabbit Vaccination Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Bowles, Emma; Buonaguro, Luigi; Grevstad, Berit; Vinner, Lasse; Vereecken, Katleen; Parker, Joe; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Biswas, Priscilla; Vanham, Guido; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an

  18. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  19. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  20. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  1. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  2. Decreased expression of serotonin in the jejunum and increased numbers of mast cells in the terminal ileum in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen-Hao; Dong, Lei; Luo, Jin-Yan; Gong, Jun; Li, Lu; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Han, Shui-Ping

    2007-12-07

    To investigate if there are changes in serotonin (5-HT) levels, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and mast cells in small intestinal mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D, n = 20), or constipation-predominant (IBS-C, n = 18) IBS patients and healthy controls (n = 20) underwent colonoscopy and peroral small intestinal endoscopy, and mucosal samples were obtained at the descending part of the duodenum, proximal end of jejunum and terminal ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemistry and immunohistochemical methods were used to detect 5-HT content, EC cells and mast cells. (1) There were no differences in the number and distribution of EC cells between IBS patients and the normal group. (2) The mucosal 5-HT contents at the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in IBS-C patients were 182 +/- 90, 122 +/- 54, 61 +/- 35 ng/mg protein, respectively, which were all lower than those in the normal group (256 +/- 84, 188 +/- 91, and 93 +/- 45 ng/mg protein, respectively), with a significant difference at the jejunum (P power field (hpf), respectively, which were significantly more than that in the normal group (29.8 +/- 4.4/hpf) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the numbers of mast cells at the other two parts between IBS patients and the normal group. The numbers of mast cells in IBS-C, IBS-D, and normal groups were all significantly higher at the ileum (38.7 +/- 9.4, 35.8 +/- 5.5, 29.8 +/- 4.4/hpf, respectively) than at the duodenum (19.6 +/- 4.7, 18.5 +/- 6.3, 19.2 +/- 3.3/hpf, respectively, P < 0.001). The changes in the 5-HT signaling pathway at the jejunum of IBS-C patients and the increase in mast cells in patients with IBS at the terminal ileum may offer evidence to explain the pathogenesis of IBS.

  3. Plastic bezoar in the terminal ileum: a case report and imaging findings; Plastibezoar no ileo terminal: relato de caso e aspectos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio de; Abikair Filho, Jorge [Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Werlang, Henrique Zambenedetti [MedImagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: hzwerlang@gmail.com; Bergoli, Pedro Martins [SIDI - Servico de Investigacao Diagnostica, RS (Brazil)

    2006-04-15

    A 2 year old child presented with persistent abdominal pain and was referred to imaging studies. The abdominal ultrasound showed a hyper echogenic mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography scan showed a mass with very unusual density in the distal ileum. The patient was submitted to laparotomy and a large plastic bezoar was removed. In the medical literature, stomach bezoar, especially trichobezoar is a well known and described finding. No other case of plastic bezoar has been reported in similar imaging studies in the literature reviewed.(author)

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion is influenced by perfusate glucose concentration and by a feedback mechanism involving somatostatin in isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Hartmann, Bolette; Mineo, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    isolated perfused porcine ileum (n=17). Effluents were measured for GLP-1 and SS. Perfusion pressure and motility were recorded. Investigated parameters included spontaneous fluctuations, changes in perfusate glucose concentrations (3.5, 5, 11 mM) and addition of insulin (1 nM). We also investigated...... the effect of proglucagon products, glucagon (10 nM), GLP-1 and GLP-2 (0.1, 1, and 10 nM) on GLP-1 and SS secretion, as well as on glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), peptide YY (PYY) and GIP secretion, all possible product of L-cells or neighbour cells. Perfusate glucose concentration dose...

  5. Effects of partial hepatectomy on the distal ileum in rats Estudio de las repercusiones en el íleon distal de la resección hepática parcial en la rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Rodríguez Sanz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: hepatectomy, both partial resection and transplant, has greatly developed and advanced during the last years as a result of a better understanding of surgical anatomy and the progress of technological means; it has also allowed a widening of surgical indications, including living-donor liver transplantation. The aims of our study was to assess the morphological impact of partial hepatectomy on the distal ileum, since the liver and intestine behave as a unit from an anatomical, functional, and metabolic point of view. Material and methods: twenty-four Wistar rats were used; they were divided into two groups, a control and an experimental group (30, 90, and 180 days. We studied changes occurred in the distal ileum after a 70% liver resection, taking 4 parameters into account. Results: an important drop in total thickness occurred at the ileum wall in the experimental group (p Introducción: la cirugía hepática, tanto la resección parcial como el trasplante se ha desarrollado y ha avanzado enormemente en los últimos años, gracias al mayor conocimiento de la anatomía quirúrgica y al progreso de los medios tecnológicos, permitiendo ampliar cada vez más las indicaciones quirúrgicas incluyendo el trasplante hepático de donante vivo. Nuestro objetivo es estudiar las repercusiones morfológicas que la hepatectomía parcial produce sobre el íleon distal, ya que el hígado y el intestino se comportan como una unidad anatómica, funcional y metabólica. Material y métodos: se han utilizado 24 ratas de la raza Wistar divididas en 2 grupos, el grupo control y el grupo experimental (30, 90 y 180 días. Se han estudiado los cambios en el íleon distal después de una hepatectomía parcial del 70%, valorando 4 parámetros. Resultados: se produce una disminución significativa de la altura total de la pared del íleon en el grupo experimental (p<0,001. La altura de la vellosidad no tuvo diferencias significativas respecto al grupo

  6. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  7. A Novel Cystometric Model of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction After Rabbit Pelvic Floor Noxious Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Dubin, Andrew H; Levin, Robert M; De, Elise J B

    2016-01-01

    Although a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms is described in the literature, the mechanism and pathways need further characterization. We developed an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction after noxious stimulation of the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle. Fifteen female adult rabbits were evaluated with cystometry (CMG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings from the PC muscle. Cystometry/EMG was performed before and after treatment animal (n = 11) received noxious pelvic floor electrical stimulation through the PC EMG electrode, and controls (n = 4) underwent sham needle placement. Two animals underwent S3 dorsal rhizotomy to demonstrate that the observed results required afferent innervation. Voiding changes were demonstrated in 9 of 11 rabbits after stimulation. Most of the rabbits (7/9) exhibited a prolonged-dysfunctional voiding pattern with larger capacity (mean, 17 mL [SEM, ±8 mL]), longer intercontractile interval (227% [SEM, ±76%]) and duration (163% [SEM, ±20%]), and increased postvoid residual (24 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). The remaining dysfunctional rabbits (2/9) exhibited an overactive-dysfunctional voiding pattern with lower capacity (-26 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]), shortened intercontractile interval (16% [SEM, ±9%]) and duration (56% [SEM, ±30%]), and decreased postvoid residual (-27 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). Nonresponder rabbits (2/11) were relatively unchanged in their micturition cycles after stimulation. Rhizotomy animals were acontractile and filled until overflow incontinence occurred. Using noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic musculature, we were able to produce an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction in most rabbits as hallmarked by a larger bladder capacity, an increased intercontractile interval, and prolonged contraction duration.

  8. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  9. Real-time computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided solitary lung tumor model in a rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byeong Hyeon; Young, Hwan Seok; Quan, Yu Hua; Rho, Ji Yun; Eo, Jae Seon; Han, Kook Nam; Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Koo

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical studies of lung cancer require suitable large-animal models to allow evaluation and development of surgical and interventional techniques. We assessed the feasibility and safety of a novel rabbit lung cancer model of solitary tumors, in which real-time computed tomography fluoroscopy is used to guide inoculation of VX2 carcinoma single-cell suspensions. Thirty-eight rabbits were divided into four groups according to the volume of the VX2 tissue or cell suspension, the volume of lipiodol, the volume of Matrigel, and the injection needle size. The mixtures were percutaneously injected into rabbit lungs under real-time computed tomography fluoroscopy guidance. Two weeks later, VX2 lung carcinomas were confirmed via positron emission tomography/computed tomography, necropsy, and histology. Real-time computed tomography fluoroscopy allowed the precise inoculation of the tumor cell suspensions containing lipiodol, while the use of Matrigel and a small needle prevented leakage of the suspensions into the lung parenchyma. Solitary lung tumors were successfully established in rabbits (n = 22) inoculated with single-cell suspensions (150 μL), lipiodol (150 μL), and Matrigel (150 μL) using a 26-gauge needle. This combination was determined to be optimal. Pneumothorax was observed in only two of the 38 rabbits (5.3%), both of which survived to the end of the study without any intervention. Real-time computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided inoculation of VX2 single-cell suspensions with lipiodol and Matrigel using a small needle is an easy and safe method to establish solitary lung tumors in rabbits.

  10. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  11. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  12. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: Case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-04-12

    1. Development of prodrug of paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over 4-week time period with improved compliance. 2. Key aim of work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. 3. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (n = 10)). A serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and analysed for paliperidone using LC-MS/MS assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. 4. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of T max occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e., AUC (0-28) days) were 18597 (Wistar), 21865 (SD) and 18120 (rabbits) ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). 5. Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  13. Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Thurgood

    Full Text Available Although high frequency ventilation (HFV is an effective mode of ventilation, there is limited information available in regard to lung dynamics during HFV. To improve the knowledge of lung function during HFV we have developed a novel lung imaging and analysis technique. The technique can determine complex lung motion information in vivo with a temporal resolution capable of observing HFV dynamics. Using high-speed synchrotron based phase contrast X-ray imaging and cross-correlation analysis, this method is capable of recording data in more than 60 independent regions across a preterm rabbit lung in excess of 300 frames per second (fps. This technique is utilised to determine regional intra-breath lung mechanics of preterm rabbit pups during HFV. Whilst ventilated at fixed pressures, each animal was ventilated at frequencies of 1, 3, 5 and 10 Hz. A 50% decrease in delivered tidal volume was measured at 10 Hz compared to 1 Hz, yet at the higher frequency a 500% increase in minute activity was measured. Additionally, HFV induced greater homogeneity of lung expansion activity suggesting this ventilation strategy potentially minimizes tissue damage and improves gas mixing. The development of this technique permits greater insight and further research into lung mechanics and may have implications for the improvement of ventilation strategies used to support severe pulmonary trauma and disease.

  14. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruzazabala, M L; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; Más, R; Carbajal, D; Valdés, S; Molina, V

    2000-07-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia also protects against the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Male New Zealand rabbits weighing 1.5 to 2 kg were randomly divided into three experimental groups which received 25 or 200 mg/kg policosanol (N = 7) orally for 60 days with acacia gum as vehicle or acacia gum alone (control group, N = 9). All animals received a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5%) during the entire period. Control animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, macroscopic lesions and arterial intimal thickening. Intima thickness was significantly less (32.5 +/- 7 and 25.4 +/- 4 microm) in hypercholesterolemic rabbits treated with policosanol than in controls (57.6 +/- 9 microm). In most policosanol-treated animals, atherosclerotic lesions were not present, and in others, thickness of fatty streaks had less foam cell layers than in controls. We conclude that policosanol has a protective effect on the atherosclerotic lesions occurring in this experimental model.

  15. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruzazabala M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia also protects against the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Male New Zealand rabbits weighing 1.5 to 2 kg were randomly divided into three experimental groups which received 25 or 200 mg/kg policosanol (N = 7 orally for 60 days with acacia gum as vehicle or acacia gum alone (control group, N = 9. All animals received a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5% during the entire period. Control animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, macroscopic lesions and arterial intimal thickening. Intima thickness was significantly less (32.5 ± 7 and 25.4 ± 4 µm in hypercholesterolemic rabbits treated with policosanol than in controls (57.6 ± 9 µm. In most policosanol-treated animals, atherosclerotic lesions were not present, and in others, thickness of fatty streaks had less foam cell layers than in controls. We conclude that policosanol has a protective effect on the atherosclerotic lesions occurring in this experimental model.

  16. Lung morphometry, collagen and elastin content: changes after hyperoxic exposure in preterm rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic and collagen fiber deposition increases throughout normal lung development, and this fiber network significantly changes when development of the lung is disturbed. In preterm rats and lambs, prolonged hyperoxic exposure is associated with impaired alveolization and causes significant changes in the deposition and structure of elastic fibers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of hyperoxic exposure on elastic and collagen fiber deposition in the lung interstitial matrix and in alveolarization in preterm rabbits. METHODS: After c-section, 28-day preterm New-Zealand-White rabbits were randomized into 2 study groups, according to the oxygen exposure, namely: Room air (oxygen = 21% or Oxygen (oxygen > 95%. The animals were killed on day 11 and their lungs were analyzed for the alveolar size (Lm, the internal surface area (ISA, the alveoli number, and the density and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: An increase in the Lm and a decrease in the alveoli number were observed among rabbits that were exposed to hyperoxia with no differences regarding the ISA. No difference in the density of elastic fibers was observed after oxygen exposure, however there were fewer collagen fibers and an evident disorganization of fiber deposition. DISCUSSION: This model reproduces anatomo-pathological injuries representing the arrest of normal alveolar development and lung architecture disorganization by just a prolonged exposition to oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: In the preterm rabbit, prolonged oxygen exposure impaired alveolization and also lowered the proportion of collagen fibers, with an evident fiber network disorganization.

  17. Adverse reactions in a population of Sydney pet rabbits vaccinated against rabbit calicivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, T; Phalen, D; Toribio, J-Alml

    2015-11-01

    To determine the general clinical presentation and incidence of adverse reactions to Cylap® RCD vaccinations, of a nature serious enough for veterinary attention, in a Sydney population of pet rabbits. A retrospective survey using hospital databases. Nine veterinary hospitals in Sydney participated in a database search for the number of rabbits vaccinated within a 2-year period. The hospitals involved had an identified interest in rabbit medicine and included general, specialist and teaching hospitals. Details of the rabbit, vaccination event and any possible reaction were collected and analysed. Of 933 events recorded in 705 rabbits, 17 (1.8%) adverse reactions were observed. Of the adverse events, local injection site reactions (alopecia, abrasions and scabbing) were most common. Other reactions, including systemic signs of gastrointestinal tract stasis, lethargy and forelimb lameness, were also documented. Overall, rabbits presented for vaccination were mostly male (57.7%) and desexed (71.3%), with an average age of 28.1 months (median 19.0, range 1.4-149.8 months) and an average weight at first vaccination of 2.12 kg (median 2.08 kg, range 0.18-5.6 kg). A significant association between increasing age and decreased incidence of adverse events was demonstrated (P value, 0.038). The benefits of vaccination against RCV outweigh the risks of an adverse reaction occurring. Data from this study show that adverse reactions occur infrequently, are generally mild and self-resolving, and decrease in incidence with increasing age. These results are similar to previous field research on wild rabbit colonies and reports from government and industry. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle

  19. A bladder diverticulum model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Süleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Özaydın, Seyithan; Başdaş, Cemile Beşik; Özaydın, İpek; Erdoğan, Cankat; Sander, Serdar

    2016-10-01

    Shuttling of some of the bladder volume into the bladder diverticulum (BD) can cause urinary retention, lower urinary tract dysfunction, infection, and stone formation. This experimental study is the first to create a rabbit BD to study micturition physiology (urodynamics and pathology) that mimics clinical findings. The study included 16 New Zealand adult male rabbits in the BD group and 16 sham-operated controls. BD creation consisted of a lower midline laparotomy and bladder entry via the spacing between the detrusor muscle fibers and the mucosa, posterolaterally from the bladder wall. The detrusor was excised to provide a mucosal prolapsus, creating a narrow BD neck (Figure). The sham group underwent bladder exposure with a midline incision. All rabbits underwent urodynamic study preoperatively and postoperatively, consisting of postmicturition residue (PMR), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), voiding detrusor pressure (VPdet), filling detrusor pressure (FPdet), compliance, and urine flow (Qflow). The animals were then sacrificed and their bladders assessed for pathology and stone formation. Preoperative MBC, Pdet, and Qmax were within reference ranges. No animals had PMR or urinary tract infections (UTIs). The BD group showed urodynamic and pathologic bladder changes, including decreased (28%) cystometric bladder capacity and compliance (Sham: 26.8 ± 0.4; BD: 4.46 ± 1.08, p = 0.0001) and increased post-void residual PMR (8.3 ± 2.4 mL). Pathology revealed increased bladder detrusor thickness correlated with urodynamic findings of increased filling detrusor pressures (Sham: 1.58 ± 0.2; BD: 4.89 ± 0.93, p = 0.0001). Urodynamics revealed intermittent BD bladder contraction during the filling phases. Eight BD group rabbits had UTIs; five had stone formation (4-9 mm). In the literature, it has not been determined whether lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) could cause diverticula, or if a congenital diverticula could be reason for LUTD. Anatomical

  20. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Effect on digestion and performance of dietary protein content and of increased substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean protein concentrate in starter diets for young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2007-06-01

    mortality and presence of C. perfringens were unaffected. Our results suggest that a reduction in dietary CP, resulting in reduced lumenal flows of nitrogen through the ileum, may be beneficial for young rabbits and limit the numbers of potentially harmful bacteria in the lower gut. Modulation of dietary CP should be contemplated as a strategy to increase the intestinal health in rabbits.

  2. Study in rabbits of portal circulation by a radioisotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a precocius - and noninvasive method for the detection of portal circulation alterations by means of time interval measurements between the rectal administration of radiotracers and their detection in liver and head is aimed at. The pertecnetate ( 99 sup(m)Tc)- and iodate ( 131 I) absorption by the terminal large intestine was tested in 22 rabbits. The time iinterval between rectal administration of the radiotracer and its appearance in liver and head was determined in 12 rabbits, by external detection with a scintillation camera. The same parameters were studied in 9 animals submitted to the ligature of the portal vein. Iodate and pertecnetate are absorbed by the terminal large intestine, the pertecnetate absorption being significantly smaller than that of iodate. The pertecnetate distribution volume is smaller than that of iodate; the rectum - liver - and rectum - head time intervals is increased in animals with the ligature of portal vein. Application of the method to larger animals will permit the necessary improvements for its utilization as a precocius - noninvasive - and inocuous test in the evaluation of alteration of the human portal circulation. (Author) [pt

  3. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kikkawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1 was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm.

  4. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall......Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption....... At this low concentration net mucosa-to-serosa Li+ absorption was insignificant when the ambient Na+ concentration was 115 mM, although the gall-bladder had a significant Li+ permeability (2.7 X 10(-5) cm s-1) and a significant mucosa-to-serosa Li+ gradient developed as a result of fluid absorption. Net Li...

  5. Effects of prostaglandin E1 on callus formation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinsky, Pawel V; Sirotin, Ivan V; Skoroglyadov, Alexandr V; Ivkov, Alexey V; Oettinger, Alexandr P; Krynetskiy, Evgeny E; But-Gusaim, Alexandr B; Roth, Andreas J

    2015-09-10

    Recent research has focused on identifying chemical modulators of osteogenesis. We present initial findings on the osteoinductive properties of prostaglandin Е1 (Vasaprostan), using a rabbit model. Data were collected on callus formation in 14 male rabbits. These were divided into two groups (control and treatment) with 7 animals in each group. In all animals, the right tibia was fractured using a standardized protocol and stabilized by an intramedullary nail. Treatment group received a 5 μg/kg subcutaneous injection of PGE1/day during 10 postoperative days. Visual and radiological evaluation of callus formation was prospectively collected. After 30 days, all animals were killed and the tibia specimens were examined histologically. In all the treatment group animals, fractures were consolidated radiologically by day 30. No treatment group animals and two control group animals were excluded form the experiment. In the control group, 4 animals demonstrated slower callus formation than the main group. Two control group animals were excluded from the experiment on the 20th day due to wound infection; one developed a nonunion. The mean coefficient of bone callus thickening in the main group was 2.08 (±0, 16) and 1.77 (±0.05) (p prostaglandin E1 compared to the control group. Prospective radiological analysis was corroborated by histologic evaluation.

  6. Detection of acute cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by magnetic induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Jin, G.; Qin, M.X. [College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wan, Z.B. [Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wang, J.B.; Wang, C.; Guo, W.Y. [College of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an, China, College of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an (China); Xu, L.; Ning, X.; Xu, J.; Pu, X.J.; Chen, M.S. [College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhao, H.M. [Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China, Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-02-17

    Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH) is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world, emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. The system measures the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS) between the electromagnetic signals on two coils. ACH was induced in 6 experimental rabbits and edema was induced in 4 control rabbits by stereotactic methods, and their intracranial pressure and heart rate were monitored for 1 h. Signals were continuously monitored for up to 1 h at an exciting frequency of 10.7 MHz. Autologous blood was administered to the experimental group, and saline to the control group (1 to 3 mL) by injection of 1-mL every 5 min. The results showed a significant increase in MIPS as a function of the injection volume, but the heart rate was stable. In the experimental (ACH) group, there was a statistically significant positive correlation of the intracranial pressure and MIPS. The change of MIPS was greater in the ACH group than in the control group. This high-sensitivity system could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume. The MIPS was significantly related to the intracranial pressure. This observation suggests that the method could be valuable for detecting early warning signs in emergency medicine and critical care units.

  7. Inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (Myrtaceae) on the acetylcholine induced contraction of isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayinde Buniyamin; Josephine, Owolabi Omonkhelin

    2012-04-01

    Using steam distillation method, the volatile oils of Eucalyptus citriodora and Callistemon citrinus were obtained and their chromatographic profiles examined in hexane: ethylacetate (4:1; 7:3) and hexane-chloroform (7:3). The effects of the volatile oils on acetylcholine (Ach) induced contraction of the rat isolated ileum were investigated based on the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oil of E. citriodora in treating diarrhoea. Relative to the weight of the fresh leaves (200g in each case), E. citriodora produced 0.75% of the volatile oil while the C. citrinus yielded 0.5%. Combination of hexane-ethylacetate (4:1) gave the best resolution of the constituents as E. citriodora produced six major spots while Callistemon citrinus produced three. The concentration-dependent contractions of the ileum produced by the increasing concentration of the Ach were observed to be remarkably attenuated in the presence of the volatile oils at 5 and 10 mg/ml. At 5mg/ ml, the volatile oils of E. citriodora and C. citrinus independently reduced the Ach maximum contraction to 74.11 ± 12.4 and 19.05 ± 5.17% respectively. At 10mg/ml, the volatile oils further significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the contraction induced by the Ach. The results obtained validated the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oils particularly that of E. citriodora in reducing ilea contractions occasioned by diarrhoea. However, C. citrinus volatile oil seems to be more effective.

  8. Hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the electrical twitch response in the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid; Holzer-Petsche, Ulrike

    2014-08-08

    Longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strips of the guinea-pig ileum were used to investigate the nature of the hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the twitch response. All preparations were set up in Tyrode solution and intermittent longitudinal twitch contractions were evoked by single pulse electrical field stimulation. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, at 300 μmol/l and 1 mmol/l augmented the twitch contractions by 21% and 35%, respectively. First we tested for a possible nicotinic drive onto an inhibitory neuronal component to the longitudinal smooth muscle cells. However, guanethidine (5 μmol/l), naloxone (1 μmol/l), or l-NAME (300 μmol/l) were without effect on the hexamethonium-induced augmentation. The P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), 25-100 μmol/l, without altering the control twitch responses, dose-dependently reduced the hexamethonium-induced augmentation; at 100 μmol/l a statistically significantly inhibition was observed. Based on these functional experiments we found no evidence that blocking nicotinic transmission removed a tonic adrenergic, opioidergic or nitrergic inhibitory input to the longitudinal muscle. However, we provide evidence for a hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the P2 purinergic input to cholinergic motoneurons of the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle. The P2-nicotinic receptor interaction presents a novel modulatory mechanism to cholinergic myenteric motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  10. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  11. Atividade da amilase no intestino delgado de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido antes e após desmame = Amylase activity in the small intestine of rabbits fed with diets containing starch levels before and after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Garcia de Faria

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a atividade amilásica em coelhos após a desmama, foram utilizados 200 animais da Raça Nova Zelândia Branco, submetidos a diferentes padrões de alimentação desde a fase de lactação. Quarenta deles foram abatidos aos 35 dias de idade e 80, aos 50 e aos 70 dias de idade. Para modular o padrão de consumo de leite e ração antes da desmama, as ninhadas equalizadas em 8 láparos do nascimento até ao 16º dia de idade, a partir desta idade, até a desmama, foram submetidos à alta e baixa disponibilidade de leite, mantendo ninhadas com 4 ou 8 láparos recebendo dietas com nível normal (15% e alto (24% de amido. A partir da desmama, os animais de cada um dos 4 padrões de alimentação até a desmama passaram a receber as mesmasdietas com níveis normal e alto de amido, em um esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (ninhadas submetidas à baixa e alta disponibilidade de leite versus dois níveis de amido na dieta até a desmama versus doisníveis de amido na dieta após a desmama. Os resultados mostraram que a manutenção de ninhadas com 4 ou 8 animais entre o 16º e 35º dia de lactação não modificou (P>0,05 a atividade da amilase em qualquer das idades avaliadas após o desmame. O uso de dietas com alto teor de amido durante a lactação aumentou (POne experiment was carried out to study the amylase activity in the small intestine (jejunum and ileum of rabbits from litters maintained on different feeding patterns. Two hundred White New Zealand rabbits were analyzed, out of which 40 35- days-old rabbits, 80 50-days-old rabbits and 80 70-days-old rabbits were slaughtered. To modulate the pattern of feed and milk intake before weaning, the litters were modulated for eight young rabbits until 16 days old. From 16 days until weaning, they were submitted to low or high milkavailability, litters maintained with four or eight young rabbits receiving diets containing normal or high starch level. The animals were distributed in a factorial design 2

  12. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    B. Mariamf, 0. Leo, J-D Franssen and J. Urbain. Depart. : Biologie Molfculaire, U.L.B. Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale , 67, rue des Chevaux, B...SPECIFICITY. Authors : B. Mariaml and J. Urbain. Depart. : Biologie Molfculaire, U.L.B., Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale , 67, rue des Chevaux, B 1640 Rhode...SINGLE RABBIT. Authors : M.Wikler and J. Urbain. Depart. : Biologie Mol~culaire, U.L.B., Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale ,67, rue des Chevaux, B 1640

  13. Nonstimulated rabbit phonation model: Cricothyroid approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Valenzuela, Carla V; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    To describe a nonstimulated in vivo rabbit phonation model using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and uninterrupted humidified glottal airflow to produce sustained audible phonation. Prospective animal study. Six New Zealand white breeder rabbits underwent a surgical procedure involving an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous airflow delivered to the glottis. Phonatory parameters were examined using high-speed laryngeal imaging and acoustic and aerodynamic analysis. Following the procedure, airflow was discontinued, and sutures remained in place to maintain the phonatory glottal configuration for microimaging using a 9.4 Tesla imaging system. High-speed laryngeal imaging revealed sustained vocal fold oscillation throughout the experimental procedure. Analysis of acoustic signals revealed a mean vocal intensity of 61 dB and fundamental frequency of 590 Hz. Aerodynamic analysis revealed a mean airflow rate of 85.91 mL/s and subglottal pressure of 9 cm H2 O. Following the procedure, microimaging revealed that the in vivo phonatory glottal configuration was maintained, providing consistency between the experimental and postexperimental laryngeal geometry. The latter provides a significant milestone that is necessary for geometric reconstruction and to allow for validation of computational simulations against the in vivo rabbit preparation. We demonstrate a nonstimulated in vivo phonation preparation using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous humidified glottal airflow in a rabbit animal model. This preparation elicits sustained vocal fold vibration and phonatory measures that are consistent with our laboratory's prior work using direct neuromuscular stimulation for evoked phonation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:1589-1594, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  15. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  17. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  18. Nephrocalcinosis in rabbits - correlation of ultrasound, computed tomography, pathology and renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, B.; Pushpanathan, C. [Janeway Child Health Centre, St. Johns`s (Canada). Radiology Dept.; Husa, L. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns`s (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to induce nephrocalcinosis (NC) in rabbits with phosphate, vitamin D, oxalate and furosemide, to determine the effect of renal function and to correlate detection of ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) with pathology. Materials and methods. Seventy-five immature New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups of 15. In each group, 5 animals were controls and 10 were given oral phosphate, furosemide, vitamin D or oxalate, furosemide, vitamin D or oxalate. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed at 3-6 weeks, and 5 rabbits of each test group were withdrawn from the substance. Weekly US was performed as well as US, CT and measurement of serum creatinine at the time of nephrectomy and prior to planned demise. Results. A todal of 140 kidneys in 75 rabbits had both pathological and US correlation, with CT correlation in 126. Forty rabbits developed nephrocalcinosis with early (post nephrectomy at 3-6 weeks) or late (post demise at 10-20 weeks) phatological correlation obtained in 53 kidneys. Forty-one of these kidneys were from test animals: 23 developed NC early, 18 late. Twelve controls developed NC; 4 early, 8 late. Comparing US and CT to phatology, the sensitivity was 96% for US, 64% for CT. Specificity was 85% for US and 96% for CT. In 109 kidneys, information on serum creatinine level was available to correlate with phatology. The mean creatinine level was 138 mmol/l for those with NC and 118 mmol/l for those without NC (P<0.001).

  19. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  20. A hyperoxic lung injury model in premature rabbits: the influence of different gestational ages and oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Munhoz Manzano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to study bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The preterm rabbit is a low-cost, easy-to-handle model, but it has a high mortality rate in response to the high oxygen concentrations used to induce lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rates of two models of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rabbits. METHODS: Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 28 or 29 (full term  = 31 days. The premature rabbits in the 28-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂ ≥95%, and the rabbits in the 29-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂  = 80% for 11 days. The mean linear intercept (Lm, internal surface area (ISA, number of alveoli, septal thickness and proportion of elastic and collagen fibers were quantified. RESULTS: The survival rates in the 29-day groups were improved compared with the 28-day groups. Hyperoxia impaired the normal development of the lung, as demonstrated by an increase in the Lm, the septal thickness and the proportion of elastic fibers. Hyperoxia also decreased the ISA, the number of alveoli and the proportion of collagen fibers in the 28-day oxygen-exposed group compared with the control 28-day group. A reduced number of alveoli was found in the 29-day oxygen exposed animals compared with the control 29-day group. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-day preterm rabbits had a reduced mortality rate compared with the 28-day preterm rabbits and maintained a reduction in the alveoli number, which is comparable to BPD in humans.

  1. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  2. Effect of feed restriction on performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment assessed the effect of feed restriction in rabbits on performance and economic viability of the activity. Sixty New Zealand White rabbits, weaned at 33 days and slaughtered at 81 days of age, were used. The design was of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were, as follows: 1 - free feeding, 2 - feed restriction from 35 to 40 days of age (50 g/d/rabbit, 3 - feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit and 4 - feed restriction from 33 to 40 days (50 g/d/rabbit and from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit. There was no difference in the performance and carcass parameters, indicating that there was compensatory growth in the rabbits that suffered feed restriction. The best gross margin was obtained with feed restriction from 54 to 61 days age. Feed restriction in growing rabbits can be adopted at different ages because it does not interfere negatively in the performance and carcass parameters. In two periods and from 51 to 61 days, feed restriction was more economically viable for the sale of live and slaughtered rabbits, respectively.

  3. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  4. Exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides induces embryotoxicity in mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeľová, Janka; Šefčíková, Zuzana; Čikoš, Štefan; Špirková, Alexandra; Kovaříková, Veronika; Koppel, Juraj; Makarevich, Alexander V; Chrenek, Peter; Fabian, Dušan

    2017-12-01

    The potential toxicity of neonicotinoids (thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin) as well as related commercial products Calypso 480SC (thiacloprid mixture), Mospilan 20SP (acetamiprid mixture) and Agita 10WG (thiamethoxam mixture) on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos was evaluated. During in vitro tests, isolated 2-cell stage mice embryos were cultured in media with various concentrations of active compounds or commercial products until blastocyst formation. As found using stereomicroscopic examination, all neonicotinoids at highest (100μM) concentration negatively affected embryonic development (Pneonicotinoids is in the order of thiacloprid>acetamiprid, thiomethoxam>clothianidin. Thiacloprid impairs development and quality of both mouse and rabbit preimplantation embryos, and shows embryotoxicity even at acute reference dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Iliac artery myointimal hyperplasia in rabbits submitted to angioplasty and treated with Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Jânio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manoel Ricardo Sena; Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; Castro, Aldemar Araújo; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2016-02-01

    to assess post-angioplasty myointimal hyperplasia in iliac artery of rabbits treated with extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. we conducted a randomized trial in laboratory animals for five weeks of follow-up, developed in the Vivarium of Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We used rabbits from the New Zealand breed, subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and angioplasty of the external iliac artery, randomized into two groups: M200 Group (n=10) - rabbits treated with 200mg/kg/day of Moringa oleifera leaves extract orally; SF group (n=10) - rabbits treated with 0.9% saline orally. After five weeks, the animals were euthanized and the iliac arteries prepared for histology. Histological sections were analyzed by digital morphometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test. The significance level was 0.05. there was no significant difference in myointimal hyperplasia between M200 and SF groups when comparing the iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty. there was no difference of myointimal hyperplasia between groups treated with saline and Moringa oleifera after angioplasty.

  6. Changes in cecal microbiota and mucosal gene expression revealed new aspects of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

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    Christine Bäuerl

    Full Text Available Epizootic Rabbit Enteropathy (ERE is a severe disease of unknown aetiology that mainly affects post-weaning animals. Its incidence can be prevented by antibiotic treatment suggesting that bacterial elements are crucial for the development of the disease. Microbial dynamics and host responses during the disease were studied. Cecal microbiota was characterized in three rabbit groups (ERE-affected, healthy and healthy pretreated with antibiotics, followed by transcriptional analysis of cytokines and mucins in the cecal mucosa and vermix by q-rtPCR. In healthy animals, cecal microbiota with or without antibiotic pretreatment was very similar and dominated by Alistipes and Ruminococcus. Proportions of both genera decreased in ERE rabbits whereas Bacteroides, Akkermansia and Rikenella increased, as well as Clostridium, γ-Proteobacteria and other opportunistic and pathogenic species. The ERE group displayed remarkable dysbiosis and reduced taxonomic diversity. Transcription rate of mucins and inflammatory cytokines was very high in ERE rabbits, except IL-2, and its analysis revealed the existence of two clearly different gene expression patterns corresponding to Inflammatory and (mucin Secretory Profiles. Furthermore, these profiles were associated to different bacterial species, suggesting that they may correspond to different stages of the disease. Other data obtained in this work reinforced the notion that ERE morbidity and mortality is possibly caused by an overgrowth of different pathogens in the gut of animals whose immune defence mechanisms seem not to be adequately responding.

  7. Iliac artery myointimal hyperplasia in rabbits submitted to angioplasty and treated with Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Cipriano Rolim

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess post-angioplasty myointimal hyperplasia in iliac artery of rabbits treated with extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Methods : we conducted a randomized trial in laboratory animals for five weeks of follow-up, developed in the Vivarium of Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We used rabbits from the New Zealand breed, subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and angioplasty of the external iliac artery, randomized into two groups: M200 Group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 200mg/kg/day of Moringa oleifera leaves extract orally; SF group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 0.9% saline orally. After five weeks, the animals were euthanized and the iliac arteries prepared for histology. Histological sections were analyzed by digital morphometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test. The significance level was 0.05. Results : there was no significant difference in myointimal hyperplasia between M200 and SF groups when comparing the iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty. Conclusion : there was no difference of myointimal hyperplasia between groups treated with saline and Moringa oleifera after angioplasty.

  8. Magnetic inductive phase shift: a new method to differentiate hemorrhagic stroke from ischemic stroke on rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingguang; Jin, Gui; Ma, Ke; Qin, Mingxin; Zhuang, Wei; Sun, Jian

    2017-05-30

    The major therapy for ischemic stroke is thrombolytic treatment, but severe consequences occur when this method is used to treat hemorrhagic stroke. Currently, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to differentiate between two types of stroke, but these two methods are ineffective for pre-hospital care. We developed a new brain diagnostic device for rabbits based on electromagnetic induction to non-invasively differentiate two types of stroke. The device includes two coils and a phase difference measurement system that detects the magnetic inductive phase shift (MIPS) value to reflect the tissue's condition. The hemorrhage model was established through the injection of autologous blood into the internal capsule of a rabbit's brain. Ischemia was induced in the brain of a rabbit by bilateral carotid artery occlusion. Two types of animal models were measured with our device. The MIPS value gradually decreased with increasing injected blood and increased with ischemia time. The MIPS changes induced by the two types of strokes were exact opposites, and the absolute values of MIPS variation in the hemorrhagic and the ischemic groups were significantly larger than those of the normal control group (P stroke from hemorrhagic stroke on rabbit brain in a non-invasive, continuous, and bulk monitoring manner by using a simple and inexpensive apparatus.

  9. Bacterial and Pneumocystis Infections in the Lungs of Gene-Knockout Rabbits with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

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    Jun Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology, we recently produced a number of rabbits with mutations in immune function genes, including FOXN1, PRKDC, RAG1, RAG2, and IL2RG. Seven founder knockout rabbits (F0 and three male IL2RG null (−/y F1 animals demonstrated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, characterized by absence or pronounced hypoplasia of the thymus and splenic white pulp, and absence of immature and mature T and B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Complete blood count analysis showed severe leukopenia and lymphocytopenia accompanied by severe neutrophilia. Without prophylactic antibiotics, the SCID rabbits universally succumbed to lung infections following weaning. Pathology examination revealed severe heterophilic bronchopneumonia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in several animals, but a consistent feature of lung lesions in all animals was a severe interstitial pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis oryctolagi, as confirmed by histological examination and PCR analysis of Pneumocystis genes. The results of this study suggest that these SCID rabbits could serve as a useful model for human SCID to investigate the disease pathogenesis and the development of gene and drug therapies.

  10. A new technique for long time catheterization of sacral epidural canal in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Yüksel; Aydın, Zeynep; Taşdöğen, Aydın; Karcı, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to develop a simple and practical technique for chronic sacral epidural catheterization of rabbits. We included ten rabbits weighing 2-2.5 kg in the study. After anesthesia and analgesia, we placed an epidural catheter by a 2 cm longitudinal skin incision in the tail above the sacral hiatus region. We confirmed localization by giving 1% lidocaine (leveling sensory loss and motor function loss of the lower extremity). The catheter was carried forward through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed at the neck. Chronic caudal epidural catheter placement was succesful in all rabbits. The catheters stayed in place effectively for ten days. We encountered no catheter complications during this period. The localization of the catheter was reconfirmed by 1% lidocaine on the last day. After animals killing, we performed a laminectomy and verified localization of the catheter in the epidural space. Various methods for catheterization of the epidural space in animal models exist in the literature. Epidural catheterization of rabbits can be accomplished by atlanto-occipital, lumbar or caudal routes by amputation of the tail. Intrathecal and epidural catheterization techniques defined in the literature necessitate surgical skill and knowledge of surgical procedures like laminectomy and tail amputation. Our technique does not require substantial surgical skill, anatomical integrity is preserved and malposition of the catheter is not encountered. In conclusion, we suggest that our simple and easily applicable new epidural catheterization technique can be used as a model in experimental animal studies.

  11. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki [and others

    2000-12-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1}{center_dot}min{sup -1}) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8{+-}0.5 months) with {sup 13}N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67{+-}0.72 vs 4.26{+-}1.12 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92{+-}2.00 vs 9.27{+-}2.91 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16{+-}0.37 vs 2.18{+-}0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  12. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8±0.5 months) with 13 N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml·min -1 ·g -1 ) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67±0.72 vs 4.26±1.12 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92±2.00 vs 9.27±2.91 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16±0.37 vs 2.18±0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  13. Reduced Intimal Hyperplasia in Rabbits via Medical Therapy after Carotid Venous Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Semih; Bahcivan, Muzaffer; Gol, Mehmet Kamil; Erenler, Behice H.; Kolbakir, Fersat; Keceligil, Hasan T.

    2009-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is a major cause of restenosis after the interventional or surgical treatment of occlusive arterial disease. We investigated the effects of clopidogrel, calcium dobesilate, nebivolol, and atorvastatin on the development of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits after carotid venous bypass surgery. We divided 40 male New Zealand rabbits into 4 study groups and 1 control group. After occluding the carotid arteries of the rabbits, we constructed jugular venous grafts between the proximal and the distal segments of the occluded artery. Thereafter, group 1 (control) received no medication. We administered daily oral doses of clopidogrel to group 2, calcium dobesilate to group 3, nebivolol to group 4, and atorvastatin to group 5. The rabbits were killed 28 days postoperatively. The arterialized jugular venous grafts were extracted for histopathologic examination. Intimal thicknesses were 42.87 ± 6.95 μm (group 2), 46.5 ± 9.02 μm (group 3), 34.12 ± 5.64 μm (group 4), and 48.37 ± 6.16 μm (group 5), all significantly less than the 95.12 ± 9.93 μm in group 1 (all P < 0.001). Medial thicknesses were 94 ± 6 μm (group 2), 101.5 ± 13.52 μm (group 3), 90.5 ± 9.69 μm (group 4), and 101.37 ± 7.99 μm (group 5), all significantly thinner than the 126.62 ± 13.53 μm in group 1 (all P < 0.001). In our experimental model of carotid venous bypass grafting in rabbits, clopidogrel, calcium dobesilate, nebivolol, and atorvastatin each effectively reduced the development of intimal hyperplasia. Herein, we discuss our findings and review the medical literature. PMID:19876413

  14. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  15. Detection of thrombosis and plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model by using 3.0 T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaohai; Zhang Zhaoqi; Zhao Lei; Zhao Quanming; Shang Jianfeng; Feng Tingting; Zeng Conghe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the imaging of the thrombosis after pharmacological triggering of plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into an experimental group (n=16) and a control group (n=4). The aortic wall injuries were induced by an intravascular balloon in experimental group rabbits after high cholesterol diet. The pharmacological triggering with Russell's viper venom and histamine was performed after 3 months of establishment of model. All of the animals underwent pre-trigger and post-trigger MR examinations including 3D time of fight (3D TOF), T 1 WI, T 2 WI and post contrast T 1 WI. Euthanasia was performed in all rabbits and gross anatomy and histological specimen of aorta were obtained. Comparing the location and length of the thrombus between MRI images and histopathology was used Pearson test. Comparing the calculated indexes of abdominal aorta between rabbits with and without thrombosis was used AVONA test and LSD-t test. Results: After triggering, 8 in 14 survived rabbits developed thrombosis in experimental group, meanwhile, no thrombus was found in control group. The accuracy of multi-sequences MRI for detecting of thrombus was 87.1% (27/31). MRI data correlated with the histopathology regarding thrombus length (r=0.85, P 2 vs. (8.93±5.36) mm 2 , P<0.01]. Conclusion: MRI is useful tool to determine the thrombosis and plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model. (authors)

  16. Panton-Valentine leukocidin does play a role in the early stage of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lipinska

    Full Text Available Despite epidemiological data linking necrotizing skin infections with the production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, the contribution of this toxin to the virulence of S. aureus has been highly discussed as a result of inconclusive results of in vivo studies. However, the majority of these results originate from experiments using mice, an animal species which neutrophils--the major target cells for PVL--are highly insensitive to the action of this leukocidin. In contrast, the rabbit neutrophils have been shown to be as sensitive to PVL action as human cells, making the rabbit a better experimental animal to explore the PVL role. In this study we examined whether PVL contributes to S. aureus pathogenicity by means of a rabbit skin infection model. The rabbits were injected intradermally with 10(8 cfu of either a PVL positive community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate, its isogenic PVL knockout or a PVL complemented knockout strain, and the development of skin lesions was observed. While all strains induced skin infection, the wild type strain produced larger lesions and a higher degree of skin necrosis compared to the PVL knockout strain in the first week after the infection. The PVL expression in the rabbits was indirectly confirmed by a raise in the serum titer of anti-LukS-PV antibodies observed only in the rabbits infected with PVL positive strains. These results indicate that the rabbit model is more suitable for studying the role of PVL in staphylococcal diseases than other animal models. Further, they support the epidemiological link between PVL producing S. aureus strains and necrotizing skin infections.

  17. Biology of three species of the Meccus phyllosomus complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae fed on blood of hens and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, life time, number of blood meals to molt, mortality, feeding time and postfeed defecation delay for each instar of Meccus phyllosomus, M. mazzottii, and M. bassolsae, life-cycle were evaluated and compared in two cohorts of each of those three species, fed on hens or rabbits. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among cohorts fed on hens respect to cohorts fed on rabbits in M. phyllosomus and M. mazzottii and the average time of hatching was 21.5 days for cohorts fed on hens and 22.5 for cohorts fed on rabbits. Average egg-to-adult development times were no significant (p > 0.05 different between both cohorts of M. phyllosomus and M. mazzotti, independent of the blood meal source. The average span in days for each instar fed on hens was not significantly different to the average span for each instar fed on rabbits, when comparisons were made by species. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from 1 to 6 in both cohorts of each species. The mortality rates were higher on older nymphs, in both cohorts of M. phyllosomus and M. bassolsae, whereas they were higher on first instar nymphs on M. mazzottii. Mean feeding time was no significant (p > 0.05 different in triatomines fed on hens or fed on rabbits, when each species were compared separately. A similar number of nymphs of each cohort, completed the cycle. Defecation delay was no significant (p > 0.05 different when cohorts fed on hens and fed on rabbits were compared by species. Most of the studied parameters showed no significant (p > 0.05 differences among those cohorts fed on hens and for fed on rabbits, which could mean a high degree of association of those species with birds as much as mammals, under wild conditions, increasing their capacity to colonize human dwellings.

  18. Spasmolytic activity of lapachol and its derivatives, α and β-lapachone, on the guinea-pig ileum involves blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Lapachol, α and β-lapachone are naphthoquinones extracted from species of Tabebuia that have shown antiinflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer and trypanosomicidal properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the spasmolytic effect of these naphthoquinones on the guinea-pig ileum, since other naphthoquinones are known to depress the contractile activity of smooth muscles. Lapachol, α and β-lapachone inhibited the phasic contractions induced by both carbachol (IC50 = 1.5 ± 0.2 x 10-4; 7.3 ± 0.9 x 10-5 and 3.2 ± 0.5 x 10-5 M, respectively and histamine (IC50 = 3.6± 0.5; 3.6 ± 0.7 and 3.3 ± 0.6 x 10-5 M, respectively. These compounds also relaxed the ileum pre-contracted with KCl (EC50 = 1.2 ± 0.4; 4.3 ± 0.8 and 2.7 ± 0.2 x 10-5 M, respectively; carbachol (EC50 = 2.6 ± 0.7; 3.5 ± 0.5 and 2.2 ± 0.7 x 10-5 M, respectively or histamine (EC50 = 3.0 ± 0.8; 1.1 ± 0.3 and 3.3 ± 0.6 x 10-5 M, respectively in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is probably due to inhibition of calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca v. β-lapachone antagonized (pD'2 = 5.73 ± 0.12; slope = 1.51 ± 0.05 CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. The finding that β-lapachone inhibited the tonic contractions induced by S-(--Bay K8644 (EC50 = 1.4 ± 0.1 x 10-5 M is suggestive that the L-type CaV is involved. In conclusion, lapachol, α and β-lapachone showed non-selective spasmolytic activity in guinea-pig ileum, and β-lapachone exerts this effect by to blockade of L-type CaV channels.

  19. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  20. Simian rhesus rotavirus is a unique heterologous (non-lapine) rotavirus strain capable of productive replication and horizontal transmission in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, M; Estes, M K; Conner, M E

    2000-05-01

    Simian rhesus rotavirus (RRV) is the only identified heterologous (non-lapine) rotavirus strain capable of productive replication at a high inoculum dose of virus (>10(8) p.f.u.) in rabbits. To evaluate whether lower doses of RRV would productively infect rabbits and to obtain an estimate of the 50% infectious dose, rotavirus antibody-free rabbits were inoculated orally with RRV at inoculum doses of 10(3), 10(5) or 10(7) p.f.u. Based on faecal virus antigen or infectious virus shedding, RRV replication was observed with inoculum doses of 10(7) and 10(5) p.f.u., but not 10(3) p.f.u. Horizontal transmission of RRV to one of three mock-inoculated rabbits occurred 4-5 days after onset of virus antigen shedding in RRV-infected rabbits. Rabbits infected at 10(7) and 10(5), but not 10(3), p.f.u. of RRV developed rotavirus-specific immune responses and were completely (100%) protected from lapine ALA rotavirus challenge. These data confirm that RRV can replicate productively and spread horizontally in rabbits. In attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of the unusual replication efficacy of RRV in rabbits, the sequence of the gene encoding the lapine non-structural protein NSP1 was determined. Sequence analysis of the NSP1 of three lapine rotaviruses revealed a high degree of amino acid identity (85-88%) with RRV. Since RRV and lapine strains also share similar VP7s (96-97%) and VP4s (69-70%), RRV might replicate efficiently in rabbits because of the high relatedness of these three gene products, each implicated in host range restriction.

  1. Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol in naive and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia.

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    Bradford eGutting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (>100LD50 of Bacillus anthracis (Ames spores immediately following exposure through 36 hours. The primary goal of collecting the data was to support investigators in developing computational models of inhalational anthrax disease. Rabbits were vaccinated prior to exposure with the human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA or were sham-vaccinated, and were then exposed in pairs (1 sham and 1 AVA so disease kinetics could be characterized in equally-dosed hosts where one group is fully protected and is able to clear the infection (AVA-vaccinated, while the other is susceptible to disease, in which case the bacteria are able to escape containment and replicate uncontrolled (sham-vaccinated rabbits. Between 4-5% of the presented aerosol dose was retained in the lung of sham- and AVA-vaccinated rabbits as measured by dilution plate analysis of homogenized lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. After 6 and 36 hours, >80% and >96%, respectively, of the deposited spores were no longer detected in BAL, with no detectable difference between sham- or AVA-vaccinated rabbits. Thereafter, differences between the two groups became noticeable. In sham-vaccinated rabbits the bacteria were detected in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN 12 hours post exposure and in the circulation at 24 hours, a time point which was also associated with dramatic increases in vegetative CFU in the lung tissue of some animals. In all sham-vaccinated rabbits, bacteria increased in both TBLN and blood through 36 hours at which point in time some rabbits succumbed to disease. In contrast, AVA-vaccinated rabbits showed

  2. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  3. Effects of red grape skin and seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Mortensen, Alicja; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    skin and seed extract (GSE) on the development of atherosclerosis. WHHL rabbits received either semisynthetic diet (casein based) or semisynthetic diet added GSE over a period of 15 wk. Plasma lipids and aortic cholesterol accumulation were measured. Feeding semisynthetic diet was associated...... response to semisynthetic diet and, furthermore, retarded the development of aortic atherosclerosis in males as demonstrated by significantly lower cholesterol content in the abdominal part....

  4. Changes in cytochrome P450 gene expression and enzyme activity induced by xenobiotics in rabbits in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Orsolya Palócz; Orsolya Farkas; Paul Clayton; György Csikó

    2017-01-01

    [EN] As considerable inter-species differences exist in xenobiotic metabolism, developing new pharmaceutical therapies for use in different species is fraught with difficulties. For this reason, very few medicines have been registered for use in rabbits, despite their importance in inter alia meat and fur production. We have developed a rapid and sensitive screening system for drug safety in rabbits based on cytochrome P450 enzyme assays, specifically CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A6, employing an a...

  5. Study of 99Tcm-annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dayong; Zhang Wenyan; Bian Yanzhu; Hu Yujing

    2013-01-01

    To study 99 Tc m -Annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits and uptake of 99 Tc m -Annexin V in fresh and old venous thrombus. Rabbits (n=15) were randomly grouped into 3 groups (the fresh thrombus group, old thrombus group, and control group). The rabbits of two thrombus groups developed inferior vena cava thrombus models by operations. The control group received sham operation. The fresh thrombus group and control group rabbits were injected 99 Tc m -Annexin V after operating 1 d; the old thrombus group 14 d. After 1 h all rabbits were killed by injecting overdose pentobarbital sodium. The thrombus (or the inferior vena cava about 3 cm below inferior pole of right kidney level in the control group rabbits), blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava (except the control group), thigh muscle, stomach, myocardium, pulmonary, liver, kidney, spleen, bone and small intestine were obtained from all group rabbits. The ex tissue and blood were weighed and measured by a Well-type detector. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood) was calculated by the above data. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and thigh muscle ratios were calculated by percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood). The test was used to compare the fresh thrombus group and old thrombus group by SPSS 17.0. The percentage of' the injected dose per gram of thrombi (0.01894± 0.002 16% ID/g) in the fresh thrombus group was higher than the old thrombus group (0.00473±0.001 28% ID/g), P<0.05. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and muscle ratios (3.42±1.06, 26.32±13.60, 31.23 ±16.00, 111.62±52.23) in the fresh thrombus group were higher than the old thrombus group (0.98±0.09, 5.12±2.01, 6.25±2.38, 21.82±5.93), P<0.05 for all. All the thrombi of the fresh thrombus group were confirmed

  6. in New Zealand white rabbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, No. 63 Agricultural Road,. Zhengzhou 450002, People's Republic of China. Abstract. Zygote arrest 1 (Zar1) is an oocyte-specific maternal-effect gene. Previous studies indicate that Zar1 plays important role in early embryo development, but ...

  7. A strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR for Australian rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses uncovers a new recombinant virus variant in rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R N; Mahar, J E; Read, A J; Mourant, R; Piper, M; Huang, N; Strive, T

    2018-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI.1a strain, GI.1a-K5 (also known as 08Q712), was released nationwide in March 2017 as a supplementary tool for wild rabbit management. To discriminate between these lagoviruses, a highly sensitive strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed, which allows fast, cost-effective and sensitive detection of the four pathogenic lagoviruses currently known to be circulating in Australia. In addition, we developed a universal RT-qPCR assay to be used in conjunction with the multiplex assay that broadly detects all four viruses and facilitates quantification of viral RNA load in samples. These assays enable rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic lagoviruses in the Australian context. Using these assays, a novel recombinant lagovirus was detected in rabbit tissue samples, which contained the non-structural genes of GI.1a-Aus and the structural genes of GI.2. This variant was also recovered from the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The impact of this novel recombinant on Australian wild lagomorph populations and its competitiveness in relation to circulating field strains, particularly GI.2, requires further studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  9. The mechanisms for tachykinin-induced contractions of the rabbit corpus cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Junji; Hirano, Katsuya; Naito, Seiji; Kanaide, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms for the contractions induced by tachykinins (substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB)) in the rabbit corpus cavernosum strips, using fura-PE3 fluorimetry and α-toxin permeabilization. Tachykinins induced contractions in the rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency order was SP>NKA>NKB. The tachykinin-induced contractions were enhanced by phosphoramidon (PPAD), an endopeptidase inhibitor, but not by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME). The NK1 receptor selective antagonist, SR 140333 significantly inhibited the tachykinin-induced contractions. Although the NK2 receptor selective antagonist, SR 48968 alone did not influence the effects of tachykinins, it potentiated the inhibitory effect of SR 140333. The NK3 receptor selective antagonist, SR142801 had no effect. In the rabbit corpus cavernosum, tachykinins induced sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and tension in normal PSS, while only small transient increases in [Ca2+]i and tension were observed in Ca2+-free solution. In α-toxin permeabilized preparations, tachykinins induced an additional force development at a constant [Ca2+]i. These results indicated that in the rabbit corpus cavernosum: (1) Tachykinins induced contractions by increasing both the [Ca2+]i and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity; (2) The tachykinin-induced [Ca2+]i elevations were mainly due to the Ca2+ influx; (3) Tachykinin-induced contractions were mainly mediated through the activation of NK1 receptor expressed in the rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, and affected by the endopeptidase activity and (4) Tachykinins may thus play a role in controlling the corpus cavernosum tone. PMID:12411416

  10. Ultrastructural changes of the peritoneum in a rabbit model of peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Natasa; Zunić-Bozinovski, Snezana; Trpinac, Dusan; Krstić, Slobodan; Oprić, Dejan; Trbojević-Stanković, Jasna; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2013-11-01

    The number of patients with end-stage renal diseases treated with chronic dialysis is increasing over the last years. Long-term peritoneal dialysis is associated with progressive development of structural and functional alterations of peritoneal membrane. The aim of the study was to analyze ultrastructural alterations of mesothelial monolayer and submesothelial tissue in a modified nonuremic experimental model of peritoneal dialysis in rabbits. The study was performed on 5 healthy Chinchilla rabbits. Surgical procedures of implantation and removal of peritoneal catheter, prevention of catheter clothing, prevention of infection and dialysate instillation were performed according to previously described protocols. Peritoneal tissue samples were collected upon catheter placement and removal after a 5-week follow-up and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. The rabbits tolerated anesthesia, surgical procedure and the applied regimen of dialysate instillations well. The animals recovered completely and no adverse effects were noted. In the animals treated with peritoneal dialysis instillations, TEM revealed alterations of the mesothelial monolayer and submesothelial tissue. The mesothelial cells in direct contact with dialysis fluid were prone to shrinking. They lost the typical cobblestone morphology and assumed a flattened shape. The mesothelial cells were often detached from the basement membrane. These cells showed euchromatic nuclei, higher number of microvilli in their apical part and very numerous vesicles. A higher quantity of collagen fibers was noticed in the peritoneal lamina propria in close relation to the basement membrane of mesothelium. The nuclei of the fibroblasts were also euchromatic. Numerous mitochondria, granules and vesicles were present in their cytoplasm. The used rabbit model of peritoneal dialysis is simple, practical to perform, reproducible, not expensive and not requiring advanced devices. It is suitable for

  11. Production of double antibody for radioimmunoassay (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da.

    1993-01-01

    A second antibody (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum) to be used in RIAs in which the first antibody is raised in rabbits was produced. For this production, initially the IgG was isolated from rabbit serum and purified by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Four sheep were immunized with 500 u g of purified rabbit IgG, emulsified in Freund Complete Adjuvant and administered by multisite subcutaneous injections. These injections were repeated at 20-days intervals and blood samples (40 ml) were taken from the jugular vein 10 days after the boosts for the evaluation of the antisera title. After each four boosts a great bleeding was done by the same route. Approximately 500 ml of serum were obtained in each bleeding per animal. The antisera were evaluated by the human thyrotropin RIA developed at IPEN laboratories employing reagents provided by NIDDKD, USA. These evaluations referred to the determination of the antisera title and of the ideal concentration of carrier IgG, to the study of the kinetic of precipitation and to the confirmation of the inexistent cross-reactivity with human IgG, in comparison with a reference antiserum of know precipitation characteristics supplied by the Radioassay System Laboratories. Approximately 3,6 l of antiserum (sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum) were produced from the four sheep, which presented title and precipitation characteristics very similar to those exhibited by the imported commercial product, even presenting higher titles. The results obtained in this work indicated that it was created enough experience for the production of this biological reagent for RIA, that could be done integrally in the country in greater scale, and at a very reduced cost. (author). 81 refs, 36 figs, 33 tabs

  12. Intermittent stretch training of rabbit plantarflexor muscles increases soleus mass and serial sarcomere number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Dominique; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2015-06-15

    In humans, enhanced joint range of motion is observed after static stretch training and results either from an increased stretch tolerance or from a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. We investigated the effects of an intermittent stretch training on muscle biomechanical and structural variables. The left plantarflexors muscles of seven anesthetized New Zealand (NZ) White rabbits were passively and statically stretched three times a week for 4 wk, while the corresponding right muscles were used as nonstretched contralateral controls. Before and after the stretching protocol, passive torque produced by the left plantarflexor muscles as a function of the ankle angle was measured. The left and right plantarflexor muscles were harvested from dead rabbits and used to quantify possible changes in muscle structure. Significant mass and serial sarcomere number increases were observed in the stretched soleus but not in the plantaris or medial gastrocnemius. This difference in adaptation between the plantarflexors is thought to be the result of their different fiber type composition and pennation angles. Neither titin isoform nor collagen amount was modified in the stretched compared with the control soleus muscle. Passive torque developed during ankle dorsiflexion was not modified after the stretch training on average, but was decreased in five of the seven experimental rabbits. Thus, an intermittent stretching program similar to those used in humans can produce a change in the muscle structure of NZ White rabbits, which was associated in some rabbits with a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. In vitro tissue engineering of lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial cells and rabbit cornea stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To reconstruct the lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial (HAE cells and rabbit cornea stroma in vitro using tissue engineering technology.METHODS: Human amnia taken from uncomplicated caesarean sections were digested by collagenase to obtain HAE cells, and the cells were cultured to proliferate. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were removed by n-heptanol to make lamellar matrix sheets. The second passage of HAE cells were cultured on the corneal stroma sheets for 1 or 2 days, then transferred to an air-liquid interface environment to culture for 2 weeks. Tissue engineered lamellar cornea (TELC morphology was observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining; its ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM; corneal epithelial cell-specific keratin 3 and keratin 12 were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy.RESULTS:HAE cells grew on the rabbit corneal stroma, forming a monolayer after 1-2 days. About 4-5 layers of epithelial cells developed after 2 weeks of air-liquid interface cultivation, a result similar to normal corneal epithelium. Rabbit corneal stromal cells were significantly reduced after one week, then almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks. TEM showed desmosomes between the epithelial cells; hemidesmosomes formed between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. SEM revealed that the HAE cells which grew on the lamellar cornea had abundant microvilli. The tissue-engineered cornea expressed keratin 3 and keratin 12, as detected by immunofluorescence assay.CONCLUSION: Functional tissue-engineered lamellar corneal grafts can be constructed in vitro using HAE cells and rabbit corneal stroma.

  14. In vitro tissue engineering of lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial cells and rabbit cornea stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li; Qin, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    To reconstruct the lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells and rabbit cornea stroma in vitro using tissue engineering technology. Human amnia taken from uncomplicated caesarean sections were digested by collagenase to obtain HAE cells, and the cells were cultured to proliferate. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were removed by n-heptanol to make lamellar matrix sheets. The second passage of HAE cells were cultured on the corneal stroma sheets for 1 or 2 days, then transferred to an air-liquid interface environment to culture for 2 weeks. Tissue engineered lamellar cornea (TELC) morphology was observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; its ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); corneal epithelial cell-specific keratin 3 and keratin 12 were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy. HAE cells grew on the rabbit corneal stroma, forming a monolayer after 1-2 days. About 4-5 layers of epithelial cells developed after 2 weeks of air-liquid interface cultivation, a result similar to normal corneal epithelium. Rabbit corneal stromal cells were significantly reduced after one week, then almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks. TEM showed desmosomes between the epithelial cells; hemidesmosomes formed between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. SEM revealed that the HAE cells which grew on the lamellar cornea had abundant microvilli. The tissue-engineered cornea expressed keratin 3 and keratin 12, as detected by immunofluorescence assay. Functional tissue-engineered lamellar corneal grafts can be constructed in vitro using HAE cells and rabbit corneal stroma.

  15. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  16. Rabbit respiratory system: clinical anatomy, physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A; Orosz, Susan E

    2011-05-01

    Rabbits are obligate nose breathers due to their epiglottis positioned rostrally to the soft palate. Any obstruction within the nasal cavity will produce a respiratory wheeze with increased respiratory effort. Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rabbits. This article focuses on these diseases and their causative pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  18. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  19. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  20. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  1. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacteriological investigation of microorganisms of public health importance associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit house in Ibadan. A total of 144 swab samples were collected from which 160 bacterial isolates were recovered. E. coli, (20%) showed the highest ...

  2. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  3. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  4. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  5. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 15): Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Rabbits, or lagomorphs, resemble rodents. But unlike rodents they have relatively large hind legs, large ears, a short fluffy tail, and 2 sets of upper incisors. Like rodents their incisors grow continually. They can either walk or hop, and are fleet and elusive when evading predators. They normally are silent but are capable of several different vocalizations. Rabbits...

  6. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial using twenty four cross bred 8-9 weeks old rabbits was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cerelac waste - CW (a by-product of the infant food industry considered as waste) on the performance and organ characteristics of growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 serving ...

  7. The reservoir status of rabbits for the maintenance of Ehrlichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reservoir status of rabbits for a strain of Ehrlichia ruminantium was investigated using six experimental and four controlled rabbits. Each of the experimental animals was intraperitoneally inoculated with 1.5 ml of infective blood from a febrile goat. The effect of the parasite on body weight, packed cell volume, total protein ...

  8. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  9. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  10. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to detect Giardia spp. as zoonotic helminth as Giardiosis has been recognised as the one of the important parasitic diarrhoea among children as cross transmission may occur between human and rabbits. Other helminths in rabbits may causes ill health and sometimes proved fatal. Faecal samples ...

  11. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced ... scintigraphic images of the healthy rabbits' lungs were taken, and pulmonary embolism was experimentally induced by ... and pulmonary embolism, lung ventilation scans can be performed using.

  12. Growth response and nutrient digestibility of pre-pubertal rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the growth response and nutrient digestibility in rabbit bucks fed cottonseed cake (CSC)-based diets supplemented with vitamin E. 64 weanling rabbit bucks, aged five to six weeks and weighing averagely 511.28 g were involved in the study. The bucks were randomly allocated to eight ...

  13. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  14. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on stressed rabbit plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract has been shown to have antioxidant and lipid lowering effects in animal studies. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the lipid profile of rabbits subjected to stress. The rabbits were stressed by suspension for 2 minutes, twice ...

  15. Characterization of a Heterogeneous Population of Rabbits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to describe prolificacy and litter characteristics of a Nigerian heterogeneous population of rabbits. Data on 535 kits sired by 10 bucks and 48 does across three parities were used to characterize this population of rabbits for prolificacy, pre-weaning litter traits and kit survival under on-station ...

  16. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rabbits were divided into four treatment groups of six rabbits each and randomly assigned to four diets containing 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30% cooked Mucuna seed meal (MSM) processed by boiling for 60 min starting from the boiling point of water, dried and grounded with hammer mill. Measurements taken were ...

  17. Effects of Charcoal Inclusion on the Performance of Growing Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of charcoal inclusion in the diet of growing rabbits fed Acacia pod meal (APM) diet. Eighteen (18) growing rabbits of mixed breeds (give the crosses) and sexes with an average initial weight of 5202±0.25g were used for this study in a completely randomized design, ...

  18. Comparison of radiation effects on weight of rabbits after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, investigated the effects of radiation on weight change in rabbit following consumption of diets mixed with fresh and thermoxidised palm oil, common diets among the people in the tropics. Two groups of rabbits each were fed with normal diets (Control group 1), Fresh palm oil diets (FPOD) and thermoxidised palm ...

  19. Performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of sugarcane peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five growing rabbits of mixed breeds and average weight of 894g were used in a seven week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated in which sugarcane peels (SCP) was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to replace maize offal. The rabbits were balanced for weight and allotted to the treatments ...

  20. Growth and Reproductive Performance of Rabbits Fed Mistletoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) rabbit does of mixed breeds aged between 5 – 6 months were used to study the effect of feeding mistletoe on feed intake, body weight and reproductive performance of rabbits. Following a pre - treatment period of two weeks during which the does were allowed to acclimatize to the environment, they were randomly ...