WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing international standards

  1. ISO Published First International Space Standard Developed By China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, a subsidiary of China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and China Astronautics Standard Institute jointly developed a standard for launch-vehicle-to-spacecraft flight environments telemetry data processing, which was published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in January 2009 issued with series number ISO 15862:2009.

  2. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in

  3. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology based on International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd and 3rd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator, technical standard, design of evaluation model were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  4. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  5. Recent international developments regarding standardization of food irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation at its 1976 and 1979 meetings, published by WHO/FAO/IAEA in 1977 and 1980 are discussed in relation to the Recommended Codex International General Standard for Irradiated Food and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, which are based on them. The texts of these documents are appended. The problem of labelling irradiated foods is discussed

  6. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  7. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  8. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  9. Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

  10. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  11. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  12. Using ASBO International's Standards To Map Your Professional Growth and Development Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Explores various definitions of what constitutes a profession and what characteristics determine a professional. Identifies the need for continued professional growth and development related to the new Association of School Business Officials, International, "Professional Standards" (2001). Examples illustrate how individual school business…

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS IN CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPEAN AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassios P. Bellas

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the developments in the process of introduction of the International Accounting Standards (IAS) mainly in the countries of central-eastern Europe. These countries are now going through a stage of developing basic infrastructure in most of the areas of economic activity and especially in the financial markets. In particular, this article presents the business environment of developing countries and highlights problems arising in the entire financial sector of these co...

  14. Scientific Assessment Activities Conducted by Food Safety Agencies to Support Domestic and International Standards Development

    OpenAIRE

    Saunier, Rozenn

    2014-01-01

    Scientific risk assessment is fundamental to the development of national and international food safety standards which are based upon the outcomes of a formal risk analysis process. In France, for example, scientific risk analysis is achieved through a two-step process. At the outset, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) uses its competencies in risk assessment, research, monitoring and reference to provide scientific opi...

  15. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in...

  16. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  17. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  18. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  19. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  20. Safety practices and standards, developments and incentives for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some main points arising during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the CEC are explained. The authors stress the importance of studies of depressurization accidents and the appearance of probabilistic analysis methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations, by the Commission's own experts as well as by external experts, bring up possible pragmatic approaches to improving the harmonization of the safety rules and practices at the European level. Some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the CEC are surveyed and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the European Community, in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (with examples) and on national work on the development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Of the technical issues that influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear power, the following are dealt with more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: measures to prevent or mitigate accident conditions of internal or external origin; the application of the regulatory 'strictly radiological' and 'as low as reasonably achievable' population dose limits for normal effluent releases; and the validity of the permissible doses for occupational exposure. Finally, the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, and in the definition of safety research programmes are discussed. Some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter of equipment failure rate data collection, are examined

  1. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  2. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  3. Standardized efficiency. Further development of international standardization of efficiency classes of electric motors and drive systems; Genormte Energieeffizienz. Aktuelle Weiterentwicklung der internationalen Normung zu Wirkungsgradklassen von Elektroantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponick, Bernd [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik

    2011-07-01

    The international standardization of efficiency classes for electric motors and the efficiency legislation of the European Union based on this standardization have already influenced the development of standard motors for industrial applications significantly. On initiative of the European Commission, the next edition of the respective standard, which is currently elaborated, will incorporate also other types of electrical machines into the system of efficiency classes, which is currently restricted to standard cage induction motors. In a parallel standardization project, a new system of efficiency classes for converter fed power drive systems is being developed. These activities have important consequences for the development of new series of electric motors and the further development of electrical drive technology for industrial applications, which are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Labour Standards and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Kis-Katos; Günther G. Schulze

    2002-01-01

    Can a case be made for the imposition of international minimum labour standards? And if so, on what grounds? The authors systematically present the existing theoretical and empirical arguments for and against introducing minimum labour standards on the international level, and discuss whether trade sanctions are the instrument of choice to improve labour standards around the world.

  5. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  6. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan Volodymyr L.; Posokhov Igor M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management...

  7. China and IEC international standardization activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhongmin; Guo Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    @@ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products. Moreover, according to the 2005 statistics by the World Bank, the population of countries participating in the IEC activities accounts for 92% of the world total and their trade volume accounts for 95% of the global total.

  8. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  9. Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zehri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

  10. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  11. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for s...

  12. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting? 543.24 What are the minimum internal control... Minimum Internal Control Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 184 /...

  13. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting? 543.24 What are the minimum internal... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards...

  14. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-01

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  15. ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR PARTICLE SIZING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Xu

    2004-01-01

    This introductory article describes how typically an ISO International Standard is made and the activity of the technical committee (TC 24/SC 4) responsible to establish International Standards related to particle sizing methods.

  16. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian...

  17. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the...

  18. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  19. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR...

  20. Development of a hand- transmitted vibration measurement instrument to perform tests in medical equipment according to the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005 Ed.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, F. F.; Moriya, H. T.; Moraes, J. C. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    According to the sub clause 9.6.3 of the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005, medical electrical equipment must provide means of protection against hazardous hand- transmitted vibrations. Compliance of this sub clause is checked by using a vibration measurement instrument in accordance with ISO 5349-1-2001 standard. The present article describes the development of a vibration measurement instrument to perform vibration measurements tests in medical equipments.

  1. Costs of research and development in the view of the Accounting Act and the International Accounting Standard ? 38 “Intangible Assets”

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozak

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical analysis of the evidence and the presentation of the costs information of research and development as an integral part of innovation, resulting from the application for the purposes of the reporting rules of the Accounting Act and International Accounting Standard 38 Intangible Assets.

  2. SETTING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN HUMAN RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu-George BOCEAN; Cătălina Soriana SITNIKOV

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization, more organizations are expanding internationally, which makes human resources increasingly mobile and global. In this context, managing workforce governed by a global culture is becoming increasingly difficult for the organization's human resources departments from the country of origin. Harmonization of human resource management practices and procedures through development of standards in this area is essential to ensure processes effectiveness and quality impro...

  3. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  4. The final steps towards an international standard for land administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Uitermark, H.T.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) moved forward to the FDIS stage (FDIS = Final Draft International Standard): ISO FDIS 19152. This is the last stage before becoming an International Standard (expected in July 2012), after a four year standards development process within ISO/TC211 (Geograp

  5. Preliminary report on the international conference for the development of standards for the treatment of anorectal malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holschneider, A; Hutson, J; Pena, A; Bekhit, E; Chatterjee, S; Coran, A; Davies, M; Georgeson, K; Grosfeld, J; Gupta, D; Iwai, N; Kluth, D; Martucciello, G; Moore, S; Rintala, R; Smith, ED; Sripathi, DV; Stephens, D; Sen, S; Ure, B; Grasshoff, S; Boemers, T; Murphy, F; Soylet, Y; Dubbers, M; Kunst, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are common congenital anomalies seen throughout the world. Comparison of outcome data has been hindered because of confusion related to classification and asssessment systems. Methods: The goals of the Krinkenbeck Conference on ARM was to develop standards f

  6. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.;

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S...... carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions...

  7. International Standardization Activities for Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haruo Okamura

    2003-01-01

    International standardization activities for Optical Amplifiers at IECTC86 and ITU-T SG15 are reviewed. Current discussions include Optical Amplifier safety guideline, Reliability standard, Rest methods of Noise and PMD, Definitions of Raman amplifier parameters and OA classification.

  8. International Standards in Vocational Education and Training for Financial Services Sector to Ensure Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the Triple E Project developed by EBTN for the purpose to work out qualifications standards for finance services sector in the focus of sustainable development and environmental safety. The Triple E is based on the three instruments – European qualification framework and concept of learning outcomes (EQF, credit system (ECVET and quality assurance (EQAVET for vocational education and training. These three systems are the building blocks of European policy in vocational education and qualifications system with the task to strengthen the integration processes in the European educational area. They also take into account the concept of UNESCO in the field of education and sustainable development. Besides, the article traces the history of relations between educational providers, employers and public authorities in the Russian Federation in the context of setting requirements for learning outcomes and qualifications. The concepts of qualification, velocity of changes in educational standards, the establishment of a national system of qualifications of the Russian Federation, the emergence of professional standards are carefully analyzed. Current and potential problems in the assessment of qualifications are referred to. It is stressed that the volume of open data in the area of professional development, education and labor should be increased and the quality thereof significantly improved.

  9. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, Erwin; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the development time is reduced by over 50% while maintaining an appropriate quality level for achieving interoperability in practice. The Instant Standard concept for development of data standards is des...

  10. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  11. EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DENTISTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Standards are produced for many different products and services, and may be created for company, national, regional or global application. In Europe there are three different categories of standard: International standard – a standard adopted by an international standardization organization; European standard – a standard adopted by a European standardization body; National standard – a standard adopted by a national standardization body and made available to the public. Harmonized standards play a special role in the EU. A harmonised standard is a European standard elaborated on the basis of a request from the European Commission to a recognised European Standards Organisation to develop a European standard that provides solutions for compliance with a legal provision. Most standards for dental materials have been harmonized through a so-called cumulative standard (EN 1641:2009 - Dentistry - Medical devices for dentistry - Materials. This European Standard specifies general requirements for materials used in the practice of dentistry for the restoration of the form and function of the dentition and which are medical devices. A multiplicity of laws, standards, and recommendations regulate the marketing of medical devices. The medical doctor and the dentist should be informed about the European and international standards concerning medical devices and use only those for which appropriate information is available. The manufacturer/importer is responsible for its products and is potentially liable for damages.

  12. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  13. What is wrong with international standards on social protection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, F.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution I will investigate whether something is wrong with international social standards and if so, what exactly is wrong, and what are the best ways to remedy the defects. I will do so with respect to the social standards developed by global international organisations, i.e. the Unite

  14. Promoting Technical Innovation, Protecting Intellectual Property & Developing International Standard Press Conference on CAS Standard-Household Electric Double-driver Washing Machine Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On April 26th, 2005, the 5th World Intellectual Property Day, the China Association for Standardization (CAS) held the press conference on CAS standard--Household Electric Double-driver Washing Machine in Diao Yu Tai State Guest House in Beijing.

  15. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    L. Stanislavská; K. Margarisová,; K. Štastná

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate social responsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms of which the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental and social aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottom line concept. The norms and standards are in the...

  16. International Management Accounting Standards Promote Business Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno BEKE

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international management accounting information systems and their contribution to standardization and harmonization in business practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the management accounting standards promote management decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the po...

  17. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  18. DISCUSSION ON STRATEGIES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Foreword With the development of the economic globalization, the standard becomes one of the important means to improve technologies, economies and trade in the whole world. International standards play the unsubstituted role in ensuring products quality, enhancing markets creditability, keeping fair competition as well as speeding up commodity circulation and promoting global market development.

  19. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ISO 26000

    OpenAIRE

    Антошко, Тарас Р.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the peculiarities of corporate social vivdpovidlnosti. Determining the main directions of its implementation. Identified the need to develop standards for corporate social responsibility.  The main components of the standard of corporate social responsibility.

  20. Development and validation of a computerized algorithm for International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walden, K; Bélanger, L M; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    2016-01-01

    a standardized method to accurately derive the level and severity of SCI from the raw data of the ISNCSCI examination. The web interface assists in maximizing usability while minimizing the impact of human error in classifying SCI. SPONSORSHIP: This study is sponsored by the Rick Hansen Institute and supported...... by funding from Health Canada and Western Economic Diversification Canada....

  1. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  2. Impact of international voluntary standards on smallholders’ market participation in developing countries: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Loconto, Allison Marie; Dankers, Cora

    2014-01-01

    The study found that the empirical evidence is limited to the analysis of mainly three standards: GlobalGAP, fair trade and organic. Moreover, most studies focus on two commodities: coffee and horticulture products. While there is a decent range of geographic cover, the majority of studies focus on a handful of countries: Mexico, Kenya, Peru, Costa Rica and Uganda. This study adopts an impacts pathway model to organize and analyze the trends found in the empirical evidence. The results can be...

  3. Why Should Workers Know More about International Labour Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Zdenek

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness and importance of international labor standards for workers; workers' participation in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) standard-setting activities and in the implementation of international labor standards; and the ILO's procedures of supervision. (CT)

  4. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  5. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Personas have become a well-known method for IT-designers when developing new products. However, the vast majority of personas constructed are created from a mono-cultural (Western) perspective, representing users from a single national culture at a time. Due to the growing global market......, international companies show an increasing interest in creating international personas, but research on personas in a global context is still limited. To address this gap, this paper first offers a review on articles addressing international personas, and second it presents an empirical Danish study...... on IT companies’ strategies when going abroad to new markets. Third, inspired by practice theory, the article discusses whether the persona method could benefit from creating narratives related to practices enacted by international users....

  6. International Labour Standards. A Workers' Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Concerned with the standard-setting work of the International Labor Organization (ILO), this manual is chiefly intended to provide guidance for worker's education instructors and trade union officials. It contains nine chapters: (1) the ILO origins and history are traced and the structure is explained; (2 & 3) procedures for the origination and…

  7. Renewal Through Internal Development

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    The product portfolios of the west European and US economies are aging as their firms have not been able to develop new business in growth areas fast enough. This has lowered the growth rate of the Western economies. This is a study of major Swedish companies that have renewed their product portfolios by internal development. Some of the ventures have been developed into successful business areas, which have guaranteed the survival of the company, others have failed. The book include case stu...

  8. Internal Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how camps can cultivate staff from among the camper ranks. Outlines questions to consider in deciding whether internal leadership development (ILD) is appropriate and feasible. Describes elements of successful ILD programs and six training techniques to maximize ILD: leadership by example, delegation of responsibility, role-playing,…

  9. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  10. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej eKácha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for international quality standards in medical travel: minimum standards of health care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility and patient-centeredness. Several cultural challenges are subsequently introduced that may pose a barrier to the development of the guidelines and should be additionally taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances the benefits to patients and providers, which is urgently needed given the rapid growth in this industry.

  11. [International standardization of laboratory information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, T

    1997-06-01

    The standardization of clinical laboratory information systems is one of the most difficult but important subjects for clinical laboratory community and laboratorians. International Standard Organization (ISO) has the projects in this field (JTC1/SC7) which is the part of approach to the international laboratory standardization (ISO/TC 212). US NCCLS and European CEN/TC 251 are working under ISO/TC 212. In the United States, the National Academy for Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) had started recently to organize the international collaboration program on the subject. The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP)'s Council of Laboratory Informatics had joined this program in 1995. NACB/AACC's Ad Hoc Committee which was organized in 1996 is now trying to collect the general opinions ("what and how") through their internet home page. The current status of the works on the standardization of clinical laboratory information systems in the U.S., Europe, and Japan is reviewed briefly in this article. HL7 electronic data exchange specification and clinical testing coding systems such as LOINC coding project and JSCP's coding project are also reviewed. PMID:9306712

  12. Problems with the implementation of international standards for financial reporting and international audit standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Janka

    2012-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are designed for application in the financial reports with general purpose and the other financial reporting in all profit-oriented entities. The International Auditing Standards (IAS) are setting out the framework for carrying out the review process of financial reporting from entities referred to audit in order to verify the authenticity of the information and raising up the credibility of financial statements. Quality implementation...

  13. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stanislavská

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

  14. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  15. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  16. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  17. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  18. Organizations Contributing to Development of Library Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Henriette D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a variety of institutions and groups that affect promulgation of library standards, including standards organizations (American National Standards Institute, International Organization for Standardization); library associations (American Library Association); national and international committees, government agencies (National Bureau of…

  19. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaseem, A.; Forland, F.; Macbeth, F.; Ollenschlager, G.; Phillips, S.; Wees, P.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. In

  20. China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of International Standard Day, China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum was held in Beijing from September 26th to September 28th.

  1. IEC PC118国际标准研究最新进展%Recent Development of International Standards Research on IEC PC118

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力科; 张东霞; 张晶

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍了IEC PC118成立的背景、建立过程、组织机构情况,以及推进标准化方面取得的成果。国际标准化方面主要介绍了PC118的历年全体大会、工作组会议过程和讨论情况。国内标准化方面重点描述了支撑PC118国际标准的科研、标委会及标准化试点工作。同时介绍了PC118已经取得的标准成果以及最新进展。最后对我国在参与PC118国际标准制定过程中面临的挑战进行了分析,为未来的国际标准工作提出了具体建议。%Firstly,background of foundation,process of establishment,organization,and the work of promoting the standardization of IEC PC118 are introduced.In the aspect of international standardization,annual plenary meetings,working group meetings and discussions of PC118 over the past years are mainly introduced.In the aspect of domestic standardization,technical research,national standard technical committee and standardization pilot work the supports international standards of PC118,are emphatically described.Meanwhile,standard achievements and the recent progress of PC118 are presented.Finally,the challenges that China are facing when participating in PC118 activities are analyzed,and specific suggestions for future work of international standards are proposed.

  2. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  3. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A T; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  4. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  5. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Kácha, Ondřej; Beáta E. Kovács; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study propos...

  6. 再论标准与标准化组织的地位和作用(二)——国家、国际标准化组织的产生发展以及WTO的影响%Re-study the Position and Role of Standards and Standardization Organizations(Ⅱ)——Development of National Standardization Organizations and International Standardization Organizations and Influence of WTO to Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks back to national standardization organizations and international standardization organizations, the relevant national standards and international standards, developed from late of thel9th Century and 20th Century along with the development of industry and world trade, and influence of WTO to standardization. It gives an analysis to the reason of creation and impetus of standardization; addresses the technical standards in the market and the status and role of standardization organizations, as well as the relationship between technical standards and technical regulations. The author proposed a point that standards and original technology in ICT industry have a kind of binding relationship, so that the standards in ICT industry are at the strategic position, created big influence to industry development.%文章对19世纪后期以及20世纪中随着产业发展和国际贸易而发展起来的国家标准化组织和国际标准化组织,相应的国家标准和国际标准,以及WTO对标准化的影响等进行了回顾;对产生标准化的原因和推动力、不同层面标准化的基本原则和方法进行了分析,对市场经济中的技术标准和标准化组织的地位和作用、技术标准和技术法规之间的关系进行了论述.笔者在文中提出ICT产业中的标准和原创技术具有绑定(binding)关系的观点,从而说明ICT产业的标准是战略性的,能够对产业发展产生重大影响.

  7. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    2010-06-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  8. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  9. International Accounting: Development, Issues, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanns-Martin W Schoenfeld

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed as a survey of international accounting for accountants and others, describing its development and scope, problems, and current attempts at international standardization. Because standardization has not progressed very far, discrepancies cause financial and managerial accounting problems for multinational enterprise – such as, the need to keep several sets of records. Selected issues – such as, translation, inflationary adjustments, and segment reporting – are examine...

  10. Standardization Bossts SGGCC Fast Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    OverviewDuring the development of State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC),standardization work is always highlighted,adhering to standardization planning as a focus in standardization work,centered on technology R&D,grid construction,production & operation,industrial development,etc.,SGCC set up a technology standards system with production process as a main line and featured by "Vertical in the end,lateral to the edge",and launched STATE GRID Corporation of China of Technical Standards System.

  11. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  12. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of Escherichia coli O157 - Part 1. Assay development and multi-center validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.; Cook, N.;

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major European research project, a diagnostic PCR assay, including an internal amplification control, was developed and validated in a collaborative trial for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rJbE O157 gene. The collabora...

  13. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  14. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defining standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data ...

  15. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defiing standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data obtained i...

  16. International environmental standards: Considerations on principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Jörn

    1994-01-01

    International environmental law is highly fragmented and national legislation differs widely. General principles for drafting environmental standards would facilitate harmonisation. The article examines the general principles that could be applied at international level.

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

  18. The Theory of International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchelli, Lisa

    Noting that the theory of international development is a paradigm, a model by which researchers guide their studies, this paper reviews various concepts of international development theory and proposes a research study that would examine mass media use in Georgia, one of the new republics born out of the death of the Soviet Union. The paper begins…

  19. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R;

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Associat......The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury...

  20. Asset Accounting According to National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Utenkova

    2014-01-01

    The Article overviews the issues of complying National Accounting Standards at the enterprises of Ukraine with International Financial Reporting Standards. Key provisions of national and international standards governing the accounting of fixed assets (NP(S)A 7 'Property, Plant, Equipment', IFRS 16 'Fixed Assets') have been analyzed. It has been found that the list of PPE regulated by both accounting standard frameworks is not identical. Specifics of fixed assets recognition, their classifica...

  1. Introduction [International evaluation of neutron cross-section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction explains the need for standards and early evaluation methods. The ENDF/B-VI evaluation procedure for the light element standards not used in the global evaluation procedure and the global evaluation procedure for the ENDF/B-VI standards are described. Suggested improvements for future standards evaluations based on the ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation process and the work leading to the new international standards evaluation are outlined

  2. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  3. IMSSA: creating an international standard for motor software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, A.; Mollet, J.; Aylwin, R.; Bertoldi, P.; Cockburn, J.; Cockrill, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Latham, NY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The international motor selection and savings analysis (IMSSA) software tool was developed as a direct result of discussions at a previous EEMODS conference concerning methods to promote use of energy-efficiency motors. Building on experience with existing software, such as MotorMaster+ (U.S.) and Eurodeem (Europe), an international collaboration was formed to develop software that would provide a universal, flexible software shell adaptable for use in any country in any language. Through the support of the sponsoring organizations: Corporacion Nacional del Cobre de Chile (Codelco); the UK Action Energy (carbon trust), the European Community - JRC; Natural Resources Canada; the US Department of Energy; and the International Copper Association, IMSSA seeks to provide industrial users of motor systems with greater access to performance and decisionmaking information concerning energy efficient motors. In addition, the focus on international collaboration provides a unique environment for further dialogue on about the global harmonization of motor testing and energy efficiency standards. This paper will examine (1) the process of developing the software by the sponsors in cooperation with Washington State University; (2) key features of the software, such as software shell flexibility and functionality, multiple databases, language and currency modules; (3) issues in creating and maintaining IMSSA for international use; (4) how the software can be used to support efficiency standards and labels; and (5) the sponsors' experiences with launching the software in Canada, Chile, the United States, and Europe. A status report on new users of the software will be provided as well as plans to extend the use of the software to additional host countries and equipment manufacturers and distributors. (orig.)

  4. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  5. International development trend of electric vehicle charging standard%电动汽车国际充电标准发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜文

    2013-01-01

    近年来,主要汽车大国纷纷开展电动汽车的研发与生产,但发展方向却不尽一致。因各国电力系统存在差异,故电动汽车在充电设备及规格、车辆设计等方面的研发方向就各不相同。对主要汽车大国日本和欧美的电动汽车充电标准进行比较研究,并对我国所应采取标准化行动提出政策建议。%In recent years, the main auto powers carry out re-search and production of electric vehicles. Though the aim to devel-op electric vehicle is the same, the development direction is not con-sistent for every country. With differences among the electric power system, research and development direction of the electric vehicle in the specifications and charging equipment, vehicle design aspects is different. To the major automobile power in Japan and Europe and the United States a comparative study of electric vehicle charging standards is compared and studied , and policy suggestions are put forward on the standardization action in China.

  6. A view on international labour standards, labour law and MSEs

    OpenAIRE

    Faundez, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Examines the extent to which international labour standards (ILS) apply to micro- and small enterprises (MSEs), as the international labour standards is the principal frame of reference for seeking guidance on the design and application of labour legislation in the national context.

  7. AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Islom Kuziev

    2011-01-01

    In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

  8. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Betz, R;

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association...

  9. Consistency of valuation reports with international valuation standards

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The graduation thesis analyses international standards of estimation values and the consistency of valuation reports sample with these standards. The graduation thesis begins with the analysis of international standards of estimation values – MSOV. The valuation reports are presented in general, according to the structure and content. The process of property estimation and the content of a valuation report are described. The valuation reports sample is analysed, as well as the deficiencies of...

  10. Prospects of implementation of "Basel III" international standards for domestic banks based on international experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Oksana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.

  11. SOLVIT AND EU INTERNAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though we are in full crisis period, Europeans live in their countries in wonderful places in terms of security, health and wellbeing. As shown by the Human Development Index (HDI, conducted by UN Development Program (UNDP which includes indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, education and standard of living, Europeans have the highest standards on the planet. Six of the ten most developed countries in the world are in Europe. EU assistance and advice services are accessed by the European citizens to find concrete answers and solutions to the problems they face on the European internal market.

  12. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of

  13. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  14. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  15. International standards and small-scale farmer behaviors: evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Lemeilleur, Sylvaine

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food quality standards in international trade is constantly increasing and has a growing influence on developing countries. A wide range of literature in development economics focused on the determinants of the standard adoption and on the debate of whether international standards exclude small-scale farmers from high-value food markets. Otherwise, when exclusion is pointed out, very little is said on how problematic such forms of exclusion are. In this paper, we use the Hir...

  16. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  17. Analysis on the Field of Sustainable Development International Standardization and the Progress%浅析社区可持续发展国际标准工作领域及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋; 刘俊华; 刘春青

    2013-01-01

    ISO/TC 268社区可持续发展标准化技术委员自从2012年成立以来,会加快了可持续发展国际标准的研制步伐。由于国内外对社区和可持续发展的理解差异较大,本文依据ISO/TC 268的工作范围明确了社区、可持续发展在国际标准化工作中的内涵,并进一步剖析了ISO/TC 268的工作范围与经济、社会、环境等领域的关系。最后,本文介绍了ISO/TC 268成立以来相关国际标准研究进展的情况。%Since it’s established in 2012, ISO/TC 268 Technical Committee for Community Sustainable Development has been accelerating to develop the international standards for sustainable development. Due to the different comprehension of the community and sustainable development at home and abroad, this paper offers the content of community and sustainable development in international standardization according to the ISO/TC 268 business scope, and it also defines the relationship between ISO/TC 268 working scope and economy, society, environment areas,etc. Finally, the paper introduces the development progress of international standards for sustainable development since the establishment of ISO/TC 268 .

  18. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  19. International Marketing Developing Publishing Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian integration in the financial Eurozone and Lithuanian publishing business development in the European Union and outside it, becomes an important problem requiring a solution. Promoting the dissemination of printed books and literacy in Lithuania and beyond, to properly introduce the achievements of Lithuania in foreign countries, it is important to ensure Lithuanian letter, educational and scientific book publishing development. The article examines the characteristics of the international marketing publishing, the world and Lithuanian state publishing houses on the basis of foreign and Lithuanian scientists theoretical insights about the instruments of international marketing opportunities, developing proposals for publishing business integration of new economic conditions.

  20. International standards for optical circuit board fabrication, assembly and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitwon, Richard; Immonen, Marika; Wang, Kai; Itoh, Hideo; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Wu, Jinhua; Zhu, Long Xiu; Yan, Hui Juan; Worrall, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The commercial adoption of electro-optical printed circuit board (EOCB) technology will be accelerated by the development of industrial and conformity standards for high volume fabrication, connector assembly and waveguide measurement. In this paper, we introduce international standardisation activities surrounding EOCBs and report on industrial processes developed for the high volume fabrication of complex EOCBs with embedded multimode polymer waveguides including a first connector standard for polymer waveguide termination. We focus on solving a serious historic problem with the measurement of optical waveguide systems, namely the lack of harmonised measurement conditions for optical waveguides, which to this day gives rise to strong inconsistencies in the results of measurements by different parties on the same waveguide. We report on the development of a standard to ensure repeatable measurement of optical waveguides, whereby we demonstrate how the application of a measurement identification system and proposed reference measurement conditions can bring variation in measurement results to within 5%, thereby serving as the basis for a formal reliable optical waveguide measurement methodology.

  1. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  2. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  3. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (PZ-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  4. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling

  5. International labour standards and management : frequently asked questions

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of what international labour standards mean for employers and managers. Covers freedom of association and the right to organize; collective bargaining; non-discrimination; forced labour; child labour; minimum wage rates; and occupational safety and health.

  6. FINANCIAL INVESTMENTS ESTIMATION IN ACCOUNTING BY INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobzeva, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes and discusses the nature and class ification of financial investments. It defines the main estimation methods by international and national standards, and discusses the main principals for identification of cost, fair and depreciation values.

  7. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  8. Private donations for international development

    OpenAIRE

    Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Charitable donations by private individuals and firms can help fund the Millennium Development Goals. What are the prospects for increasing donations for international development, whether from small-scale donors, the super-rich (as in the recent gifts by Bill Gates and Ted Turner), or the corporate sector? The Paper starts by reviewing how large are the sums currently given in OECD countries (including gifts of time) and the problems for development in competing with domestic causes. It then...

  9. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna Ozcer; Zuhal Tanrikulu

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall l...

  10. AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islom Kuziev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

  11. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 μg/cigarette and 1.5 μg/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  12. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  13. International standard problem 50: The university of Pisa contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, Marco; Lazzerini, Davide; Giannotti, Walter; D' auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The present paper deals with the participation of the University of Pisa in the last International Standard Problem (ISP) focused on system thermal hydraulic, which was led by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institution (KAERI). The selected test was a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line break carried out at the ATLAS facility. University of Pisa participated, together with other eighteen institutions, in both blind and open phase of the analytical exercise pursuing its methodology for developing and qualifying a nodalization. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the code results have been performed for both ISP-50 phases, the latter adopting the Fast Fourier Transfer Based Method (FFTBM). The experiment has been characterized by three dimensional behavior in downcomer and core region. Even though an attempt to reproduce these phenomena, by developing a fictitious three-dimensional nodalization has been realized, the obtained results were generally acceptable but not fully satisfactory in replicating 3D behavior.

  14. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  15. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  16. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  17. Einführung in die Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing : Vergleich mit den Standards des SVIR

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud, Flemming; Linsi, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Das Internal Auditing Standards Board (IASB) des Insitute of Internal Auditors ist verantwortlich für die Normengebung und Publikation der Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing SPPIA (= Standards) und die Statements on Internal Auditing Standards. Beide bilden für die Praxis der Internen Revision wichtige Referenzpunkte.

  18. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  19. The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements. PMID:20205118

  20. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  1. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  2. Ensuring global standards for medical graduates: a pilot study of international standard-setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Ben-David, Miriam Friedman; De Champlain, Andre; Hodges, Brian; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Schwarz, M Roy

    2005-05-01

    Increasing physician and patient mobility has led to a move toward internationalization of standards for physician competence. The Institute for International Medical Education proposed a set of outcome-based standards for student performance, which were then measured using three assessment tools in eight leading schools in China: a 150-item multiple-choice examination, a 15-station OSCE and a 16-item faculty observation form. The purpose of this study was to empanel a group of experts to determine whether international student-level performance standards could be set. The IIME convened an international panel of experts in student education with specialty and geographic diversity. The group was split into two, with each sub-group establishing standards independently. After a discussion of the borderline student, the sub-groups established minimally acceptable cut-off scores for performance on the multiple-choice examination (Angoff and Hofstee methods), the OSCE station and global rating performance (modified Angoff method and holistic criterion reference), and faculty observation domains (holistic criterion reference). Panelists within each group set very similar standards for performance. In addition, the two independent parallel panels generated nearly identical performance standards. Cut-off scores changed little before and after being shown pilot data but standard deviations diminished. International experts agreed on a minimum set of competences for medical student performance. In addition, they were able to set consistent performance standards with multiple examination types. This provides an initial basis against which to compare physician performance internationally.

  3. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  4. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  5. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  6. Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

  7. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  8. International efforts to develop biospecimen best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jimmie B; Caboux, Elodie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Variables introduced during the processes involved in biospecimen collection, processing, storage, and analysis are among the potential sources of bias in biomarker research. International efforts are under way to develop best practices to standardize biospecimen handling protocols. In general, documents on best practices address three major recurring themes: technical best practices on infrastructure and specimen handling, recommendations on informatics and data management, and recommendations on ethical, legal, and social issues. There are many areas of agreement among various international efforts, but no single set of practices has emerged as a unifying document. The ethical, legal, and social issues are particularly difficult to harmonize due to the many country-specific issues that are governed by a variety of local and federal rules and regulations. Given the increasingly international nature of research involving biomarkers and biospecimens, it will be necessary to continue to cooperate in the development of harmonized evidence-based best practices. Several international organizations including the International Cancer Genome Consortium are engaged in such efforts.

  9. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  10. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development of standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances (researches on preservation stability and the valuing methods related to pure substance standard substances, mixed standard substances and composition type standard substances); 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu kanren hyojun busshitsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (junbusshitsu hyojun, kongo hyojun oyobi soseigata hyojun busshitsu ni kakawaru hozon anteisei, nezuke hoho nado ni tsuite no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on researching and developing standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances. Environmental contamination due to environmental hormones has a large number of scientifically unclear points. These points are related to the basic conditions for the existence of living organisms, whereas serious impacts transcending the generations are feared. In addition, the environmental hormones have been observed in water quality, water bottom quality, and living environments for aquatic animals. Standardization in technologies to measure them, and arrangement of standard substances are demanded strongly. Based on these circumstances, evaluations were given on the following matters: determination of purity of the reference substances with regard to the standard solutions of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate among the standard substances required for the measurement, establishment of methods for measuring impurities and preparing the standard solutions, establishment of the methods to measure concentrations of the standard solutions, and the preservation stability of the standard solutions. As a result, standard solutions with accurate concentrations and excellent stability were developed. In addition, development was performed on the composition type standard substance for which a certified value was given to PCB in soil. (NEDO)

  12. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej eKácha; Beáta E. Kovács; Cormac eMcCarthy; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Christopher eDobyns; Elisa eHaller; Saba eHinrichs; Kai eRuggeri

    2016-01-01

    Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study ...

  13. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  14. Minutes: ANSI Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-29

    Minutes of the April 29, 1980, meeting of the American National Standards Institute steering committee on solar energy standards development are given. Attachments include correspondence from individuals and organizations which primarily describe the Solar Public Interest Coordination Committee (SPICC) and its recent activities. Also a report on the meeting of the ANSI subcommittee on international activity is attached. (WHK)

  15. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  16. Standardization on an international level; Die Norm als Wegbereiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-10-08

    Air-filled solar collector are used worldwide in the most varied applications and with good results. What is lacking, however, is an international standard that would ensure wider sales and better exports. This standardisation project will be undertaken by Fraunhofer ISE and the Canadian association Cansia. (orig.)

  17. 我国医学实验室认可与相关国际标准动态%Recent development of the medical laboratory accreditation in China and the related international standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冬梅; 翟培军

    2009-01-01

    Medical laboratory accreditation with ISO 15189 has brought up concerns from various interest parties in China. It is a common concern for both Accreditation Body (AB) and Medical Laboratory (ML) on how to ensure and improve the accreditation work scientifically and effectively. It will help us to find a way to solve the problem and to find the right way for the development of the medical laboratory accreditation if we study the drafting, implementation and apphcation of the international standards which found the basis of the accreditation scheme. This article will give the reader a brief introduction of the ISO/ TC212, which is the technical committee of international standard organization responsible for drafting and revising ISO 15189, medical laboratory accreditation related international standard documents, and the recent status and the future development of the medical laboratory accreditation in China. We hope this article can give some information for the medical laboratory stuffs and the professionals in laboratory medicine on their research work of the technique and the trend of development in medical laboratory management and medical laboratory accreditation.%我国医学实验室ISO 15189认可工作在国内得到了各方越来越多的关注,如何确保和提高认可的科学性和有效性,将是认可机构和医学实验室共同面临的课题,从认可制度建立的基础即国际要求和国际标准的制定、实施和应用方面进行分析研究,有利于我们找到正确的解决方案和未来发展方向.本文对负责ISO 15189起草的国际标准化组织(ISO/TC212)、医学实验室认可相关国际标准文件、我国医学类实验室认可的现状及展卑等方面的动态做一个简单而概括的介绍,为医学实验室工作人员及行业专家在医学实验室管理和认可方面的技术及发展趋势研究提供一些基本的信息.

  18. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Dallas, Texas at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Completion of this cycle results in the 2012 edition of the... Areas. ICC 700: National Green Building Standard. The maintenance process for ICC Standards such as ICC... the International Green Construction Code which will become part of the family of 2012...

  19. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  20. Development of standard digital images for pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jeong; Choi, Byung-Soon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Choong-Ki; Park, Jai-Soung; Tae, Seok; Hering, Kurt Georg

    2011-11-01

    We developed the standard digital images (SDIs) to be used in the classification and recognition of pneumoconiosis. From July 3, 2006 through August 31, 2007, 531 retired male workers exposed to inorganic dust were examined by digital (DR) and analog radiography (AR) on the same day, after being approved by our institutional review board and obtaining informed consent from all participants. All images were twice classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) 2000 guidelines with reference to ILO standard analog radiographs (SARs) by four chest radiologists. After consensus reading on 349 digital images matched with the first selected analog images, 120 digital images were selected as the SDIs that considered the distribution of pneumoconiosis findings. Images with profusion category 0/1, 1, 2, and 3 were 12, 50, 40, and 15, respectively, and a large opacity were in 43 images (A = 20, B = 22, C = 1). Among pleural abnormality, costophrenic angle obliteration, pleural plaque and thickening were in 11 (9.2%), 31 (25.8%), and 9 (7.5%) images, respectively. Twenty-one of 29 symbols were present except cp, ef, ho, id, me, pa, ra, and rp. A set of 120 SDIs had more various pneumoconiosis findings than ILO SARs that were developed from adequate methods. It can be used as digital reference images for the recognition and classification of pneumoconiosis. PMID:22065894

  1. Latest Developments in LED Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtseven, M. Berker; Onaygil, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    The LED light sources can be stated as the most promising technology for the last decade from the lighting technology point of view. In order to compare LED chips and LED products from different manufacturers and achieve reproducible results, all of the manufacturers shall measure their LEDs or LED based products using same methodology. In this study, it is aimed to explain measurement and performance standards for LED chips and LED based Solid State Lighting products.

  2. International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the intern

  3. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    ) on a multinational corporation’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) management practices. We investigate standard compliance by comparing the stated intention of the use of the GRI with its actual use and the consequent effects within the firm. Based on an in-depth case study, our findings illustrate......This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firm’s intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI...

  4. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  5. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of systems for detecting gene recombination products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kumikae seihin kenshutsu system no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the studies on the basic conditions for gene recombination products, and methods of determining content of the purchased gene recombination products in agricultural products, conducted to promote the standardization of the gene recombination product detection systems. Soybean is taken up as the gene recombination product to be studied, in which the samples containing the gene recombination product at 5, 0.5, 0.1 and 0% are prepared, and qualitatively analyzed by the DNA extraction and PCR method. No band is detected. For the quantitative examination by the real-time PCR method, the SYBRGeen, Taqman and hybridization probe methods are used to study the PCR conditions. The sample DNA extracted by the DNA Extraction kit for GMO Detection Ver.2 from the sample containing the RoundupReady{sup TM} soybean is quantitatively analyzed by the real-time PCR method for GMO content, which has produced the results for promotion of the standardization. (NEDO)

  6. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body

  7. Tangible fixed assets in Czech accounting regulation and International standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vojířová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis, I will discuss the comparison of reporting of tangible fixed assets in according Czech accounting regulation and according to International Financial Reporting Standards. In the first part the tangible fixed assets are described according to the Czech legal accounting regulation. After that are defined the main differences in reporting of tangible fixed assets in comparison with IFRS. In next part I focus on the specific issue of reporting tangible fixed assets in real ...

  8. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  9. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  10. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  11. Standards : challenges for collection development and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jange, Suresh; Kademani, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the role of standards affecting all walks of modern life as a basic foundation to ensure uniformity, reliability and excellence of a product, quality or service in order to achieve overall efficiency and economy of the nation. Collection development policy of standards has been discussed at length providing comprehensive list of secondary sources of standards and points out the role of Information Handling Service (IHS) -A solution for meting all types of standards both governmental...

  12. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  13. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  14. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  17. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  18. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  19. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  20. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’ programme of the National Initiative for Sustainable Development (NIDO), running which runs from January 2003 – August 2005. The objective of this programme is to concretise, in cooperation with 22...

  1. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Esch, van, H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published in the Dutch journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses, written by Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels.

  2. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  3. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  4. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  5. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.16 What are the minimum internal control... to adhere to tribal internal control standards applicable to the goods and services the vendor...

  6. BSIM-making the first international standard MOSFET model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ChenMing

    2008-01-01

    BSIM (Berkeley Short-Channel IGFET) became the first international industry standard model for simulation of MOS integrated circuits in 1997. The cumulative sales of ICs that have been designed with the aid of BSIM and produced for com-puting, communication, consumer, and industrial applications is estimated to be around 400 billion US dollars. From 0.35 um CMOS to multi-gate FinFET, BSIM serves a wide range of technologies. Many China educated researchers have con-tributed to its success.

  7. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for keno... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.10 What are the minimum internal control standards for... procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this section, as...

  8. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  9. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  10. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for card... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.9 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  11. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for table... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  12. The Revised International Basic Safety Standards and Their Potential Impact on Radiation Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Revised International Basic Safety Standards (international BSS) were published as an interim edition in November 2011. The international BSS cover radiation protection in all uses of radiation and have an important role in many countries, especially in the developing world. Issues of particular relevance for the next decade, addressed in the international BSS include responsibilities for patient radiation protection, justification for medical exposure of individual patients, imaging of asymptomatic individuals for the early detection of disease, software that can influence the delivery of medical exposure, diagnostic reference levels, voluntary safety reporting systems, radiological reviews, personal monitoring and the dose limit for the lens of the eye. The international BSS should provide an effective regulatory basis for radiation protection in medicine for the next decade, but effective implementation is needed. Further, the international BSS not only set the basic requirements but also provide the foundation for enabling additional actions to continuously improve radiation protection in medicine. (author)

  13. ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND THE IAS GOVERNING IN GLOBAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Niculina Rosu-Hamzescu

    2012-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IRFS) represents a set of accounting standards, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Many of the standards belonging to the IRFS are commonly known under the name “international accounting standards”. The present paper approaches aspects regarding both the IASB governing and the international accounting standards, focusing on the regulations, resolutions reports and working documents of the European Commission and the ...

  14. To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies’ and consumers’ points of view are presented. The importance of resolving this issue cannot be underestimated as it as an impact on segmentation i...

  15. Convergence Between Kazakhstan’S Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015. Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the necessity of arranging the systematization of existing rules and regulations covering financial activity in the Republic, eliminating discrepancies between the national regulatory framework and international standards, and determining clear security guarantees for foreign investors’ financial activity in the Republic. The research results are primarily focused on the development of public finance management theory. Theories and conclusions present in the study can be used in the educational processes of economic and legal institutions and in the policymaking activity of public finance management bodies.

  16. Kingdom of Bhutan - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this report are: (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to pr...

  17. Bhutan - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this report are: (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to pr...

  18. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  19. Development of Performance Standards: A Practical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan G.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a broad training format undertaken by a public jurisdiction for the successful development of performance standards. The three-hour course includes a lecture, a simulation exercise, and a discussion of the appraisal interview. (Author/CH)

  20. International and domestic experience of the development reporting segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Ivchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the stages of formation and development of segment reporting as a form of financial statements of the enterprise, namely the evolution of international standards and the emergence of segment reporting in Ukraine, its role in providing the information needs of users. Based on a comparative analysis of national and international regulations that govern the exercise of the preparation and filing of segmental reporting are defined by their relationship , common and distinctive features , proved the need to coordinate National accounting standart 29 "Financial Reporting by Segments" with the requirements of international practice . First of all it is necessary to avoid the collision feeding segmental reports by enterprises that focus on the international market and use international financial reporting standards.

  1. 76 FR 46217 - Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). ] Information on Service for Individuals With Disabilities For information on... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping...

  2. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI...

  3. Compendium on Partnerships for International Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThis compendium presents reflection essays written by participants of the module Partnerships for International Sustainable Development of the Postgraduate Course “International Sustainable Development 2013” for professionals in business and society. This module was organized by t

  4. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  5. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  6. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY... Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen...

  7. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for... utilized, alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described...

  8. 25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo? (a) Bingo Cards—(1) Inventory of bingo paper. (i) The bingo paper...

  9. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II... delay of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming... sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled...

  10. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  11. The International Development in Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔志宏

    2014-01-01

    This report mainly focuses Chinese accounting system and structure.In order to analysis and evaluate the Chinese accounting system and struc-ture,a brief history of the development of Chinese accounting system will be given to know the background of Chinese accounting system development process.

  12. International Financial Reporting Standard 5 - Non-Current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Luka Crnkovic; Ivo Mijoc; Drazen Cucic

    2007-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standard 5 has the working title Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations. This fi nancial reporting standard also represents a new group of standards along with the previous four, including existing International Accounting Standard, regardless if it concerns existing or revised standards, as a wish for further coordination of accounting regulations on world level. This idea is a concretisation of the wishes of International Accounting St...

  13. Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

  14. CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, P J

    1973-01-01

    CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

  15. AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born – IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

  16. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Na

  17. Strengthen Construction of Standardization to Promote Development of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenhuan

    2006-01-01

    The importance and several principles in the enterprises standardization work were described. The significance of adopting advanced international standardization system and of perfecting the standardization management system was also discussed.

  18. International financial reporting standards and American generally accepted accounting principles: the convergence lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslana Kuzina

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adopting process in different countries. Special attention has been paid to the processes taking place in the United States. In recent years there have been numerous attempts to assess the impact of IFRS on the developed and developing capital markets, and to use the results of this assessment as arguments in the debate about the effectiveness of regulat...

  19. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M; Barry, Catherine P; Choi, Won S; Abravaya, Klara B; Schneider, George J; Ho, Shiaolan Y

    2016-06-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  20. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  1. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi;

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... standard on coastal engineering practice....

  2. Simultaneous Development of Sci-Tech Innovation and Technical Standards for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zijian

    2012-01-01

    Chinese standards system of electric vehicles was initiated in 1998.Along with the large-scale science and technology innovation and R&D in 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan period,this standards system has experienced the development process from the adoption of the international standards and advanced foreign standards to the independent research,development and revision of standards.Nowadays around 50 standards concerning electric vehicles have been developed,and the system is almost complete with the same progressing pace as the international ones.

  3. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  4. An International Development Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    1969-01-01

    Main focus of the Center is "the application of science and technology to the solution of problems faced by people in less-developed areas of the world. Adapted from paper presented at ASEE Annual Meeting, The Pennsylvania State University, June, 1969. (Author/WM)

  5. Biodiversity, International Tourism and development

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We analyze whether biodiversity is increasing the receipts of tourism and beneficial for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The underlying assumption is that a rich biodiversity provides a comparative advantage for most LDCs. We use a simple trade theory framework. The model is supported by an empirical analysis. The main findings are that first LDCs seem to have a comparative advantage in (sustainable) tourism, that second incidence of birds as the probably best explored taxonomic group has a...

  6. 国内外碳排放管理标准化进展%The Progress of International and National Carbon Emission Management Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈健华; 鲍威; 孙亮; 郭慧婷

    2014-01-01

    Standardization, as a very effective tool, plays a more and more important supporting role in promoting China's policy implementation in addressing climate change and other issues. This paper summarizes the international situation and progress, and analyzes the international development tendency of carbon emission management standardization. Correspondingly, the national situation and progress of carbon emission management standardization is reviewed including involvement of international standardization, establishment of national standardization committee, development of national standards and so on. And the policy suggestions are raised to strengthen the standardization work in the fields of addressing climate change during the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

  7. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  8. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  9. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  10. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete, R.; Patterson, E.

    2010-06-01

    The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS) was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards) for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation). An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

  11. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Tripathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

  12. General Survey for Lightning Protection Standards Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The introduction of IEC/TC81 Thunderstorms are natural weather phenomena and there are no devices or methods capable of preventing lightning discharges. Lightning flashes striking structures or services entering the structures, or striking earth nearby are hazardous to people, to the structures themselves, their contents and installations, as well as to services.Hence lightning protection is very important for national economic development. The international trade in lightning protection measures integrat ed in plants or buildings is of increasing importance:more than 500 million USD, world wide are estimated today; consequent loss, where protection measures are not provided, is some order of magnitude higher.The number of countries where lightning protection is required either by law or by insurance companies is growing. Some countries have conflicting national rules and many developing countries do not have the relevant international standards, making the need for such standards all the more urgent.

  13. Importance of the Application of International Accounting Standards in Kosovo Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdin Maloku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS is an example of accounting standardization among countries with different institutional frameworks and enforcement rules. IAS, though, create a common language for defining, interpreting and publication of financial statements in the whole world. Furthermore, their aim is “to provide a standardized and coherent sight of the companies to the shareholders and investors”. After the war in Kosovo has been a positive move towards the development of accounting. Accounting system based on IAS cannot be avoided by Kosovo as part of the European and international transactions. However, financial reporting situation of businesses in Kosovo continues to be unsatisfactory. Implementation of accounting requirements among businesses remains a challenge and there was little improvement in recent years. The Kosovo Financial Reporting Council (KCFR as a regulatory body that sets accounting standards has neither the human nor the technical capacity to meet its responsibilities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clearer picture on the financial reporting environment in Kosovo, the challenges facing Kosovo in terms of financial reporting and the importance of adopting International Accounting Standards in Kosovo businesses.

  14. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and International Criminal ...

  15. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  16. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  17. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries a

  18. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological... International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing... entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part...

  19. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field. PMID:26897850

  20. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  1. White Paper: functionality and efficacy of wrist protectors in snowboarding—towards a harmonized international standard

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Frank I; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Greenwald, Richard M.; Russell, Kelly; Simpson, Frank I; Schulz, David; Langran, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The wrist is the most frequently injured body region among snowboarders. Studies have shown that the risk of sustaining a wrist injury can be reduced by wearing wrist protection. Currently, there are a wide variety of wrist protection products for snowboarding on the market that offer a range of protective features. However, there are no minimum performance standards for snowboarding wrist protectors worldwide. The International Society for Skiing Safety convened a task force to develop a Whi...

  2. EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS APPLICATION FOR NON FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF ALBANIA.

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM BINAJ; ILIR BINAJ; IRINI LIMAJ

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the application of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for non financial institutions using domestic and foreign companies’ observations from Albania, a developing country with an open economy but with limited enforcement capabilities. This paper intends to present benefits and challenges from the IFRS adoption and evaluate IFRS application for non financial institutions in Albania. The study was conducted as an exploratory research through 15 interview...

  3. Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-01-01

    From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

  4. The Trends of the International Arbitration Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Peizhong; Zhou Yanbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The international arbitration, as a kind of the methods to resolve the disputes in the international society,is flourished in recent years. On the basis of the international arbitration's features, the jurisdiction to relevant to the political issues is omission in the session of the disputes. Increasing of the disputes express to the globalization of the economy in the world. Not only do the position of the arbitration and the parties of the cases come from the region, but also the Europe as the traditional arbitration center,replaced by the Pacific/Asia region. The reason of the trend developing for the international arbitration results from the international arbitration's feature--- the forum is neutral, treaty ensures enforcement abroad and no appeal, limited discover. Less time consuming, greater degree of the voluntary compli-ance, procedure is less costly and the result are more predictable.

  5. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect... Internal Control in the Federal Government, 2013 Exposure Draft, is available and can be downloaded...

  6. 25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.13 What are the minimum internal control..., alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by...

  7. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting AGENCY... (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen Kociolek, Assistant Director,...

  8. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  9. Regulatory Competition Among Accounting Standards Within and Across International Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder; Journal Accounting

    2002-01-01

    Most financial reporting jurisdictions across the world allow a local monopoly in financial reporting standards for publicly held corporation. In the United States, for example, the statutory authority over these standards is vested in the Securities and Exchange Commission, who delegates the task of writing standards to the Financial Accounting Standards Board, retaining an oversight function for itself. In some countries these standards are specified through statutes in varying levels of de...

  10. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  11. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights:A case study of local production in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Pr...

  12. Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Miner; Charles Borduin; David Prescott; Helle Bovensmann; Renate Schepker; Reinmar Du Bois; Joann Schladale; Reinhard Eher; Klaus Schmeck; Thore Langfeldt; Arina Smit; Friedemann Pfäfflin

    2006-01-01

    Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO) at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003). These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman ...

  13. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... Office (GAO) is seeking public comments on the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control... standards continue to meet the needs of government managers and the audit community it serves,...

  14. Inequality of living standards in Russia: internal and international context (the early 1990s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the relationship of social groups about income distribution and goods consumption. It is dedicated to the internal and international aspects of inequality of living standards in Russia during the period of capitalist transformations of 1990-2000’s. Problems of the dynamics of inequality in living standards are analyzed. Methods of comparative analysis and comparison of performance indicators with normative social standards are used. On this basis, the population is classified into social groups and then follows the analysis of their social position. Such indicators are used: income inequality by consumption; inequality by housing, by education and health care availability. Russia is compared with countries of G20. Social inequality reasons in Russia are revealed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicated that the high social inequality in Russia undermines the ability of a large part of the population to be «included» in economic growth, for it limits access to its results. In such situation, an attempt to solve both the problem of speeding up economic growth and the eradication of poverty cannot lead to success if appropriate measures to reduce social inequality are not developed and implemented.

  15. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  16. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  17. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  18. Use of IAEA safety standards in the development of European safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The harmonisation of safety standards at an EU level is not a new idea. Work has gone on since 1975. Much of this work has been inseparable from the work on standards done at the IAEA. A set of basic safety principles were published by the Commission in 1981 that tied safety to the legally binding 'basic safety standards' for radiation protection adopted under Chapter III of the Euratom Treaty. Parallel and similar work was being carried out at the IAEA. Starting from a very similar base, the two activities have more recently developed differently, the IAEA worked on the further development and revision of nuclear safety standards while the European Commission activities tended more towards the practical harmonisation of general safety requirements for design and operation. The EU has basic safety standards for radiation protection. These are nearly identical to those developed by the ICRP and used by the IAEA, but are binding within the EU territory. Why a push for common standards now? The Nuclear Safety Convention highlighted the benefits of an international nuclear safety regime. The EU Member States realised that the task of assessing nuclear safety in the countries candidate for accession was hampered by lack of common standards or practices. The European Parliament called on the EU to adopt common safety standards (in July 2002). The Member States themselves agreed that a high level of nuclear safety is needed throughout the EU (Laeken Summit). The European Court of Justice ruling of December 2002 clearly stated that EU could not artificially separate radiation protection from nuclear safety. The IAEA is currently clarifying and ordering its numerous safety requirements and guidelines. The European Commission and many Member States are involved in the work. Once the IAEA has completed this process we will implement the results in the EU, but in a binding way. (author)

  19. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  20. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Standards Between Different Countries Considering the Development of International Rivers%基于国际河流开发的国家水质标准差异对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞锦宇; 耿雷华; 田英

    2013-01-01

    就国际河流相邻国家用水特点,分析我国与俄罗斯在地表水用于生活饮用水和农田灌溉水2个方面的水质标准进行对比分析,具体分析这2个标准在两国之间的总体差异和具体指标差异.分析的总体结论是俄罗斯的水质标准在项目分类、具体评价指标方面比我国丰富,具体指标的限值要稍严于我国标准.针对两国水质标准的不同,分析在国际河流开发利用中可能导致的冲突及这种差异对我国的影响,并从社会经济发展需求、水资源开发及相关政策关注重点等方面揭示两国水质标准存在差异的原因,为有效解决由于水质标准差异导致的争端提供科学依据.%According to the water-using features of adjacent countries,Water quality standards including the drinking water and the irrigation water quality standards between China and Russia are compared to analyze the affection to our country and the reasons causing the difference of standards.As a conclusion,water quality standards of Russia are stricter than the ones of China,not only the index category but also the limited values of index.All work will serve for settling water quality conflicts of the international rivers between China and Russia due to the different water quality standards.

  1. Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

  2. The Impact of International Standardization on the Rules of Entry for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannan, Judith Proctor

    1975-01-01

    The major provisions of the International Serials Data System and International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are presented and related to present rules of entry for serials as detailed in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. (Author)

  3. Long-term Assets Reporting according to International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Piskačová, Patricie

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on long-term assets reporting according to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and its interpretation, practical view and other aspects connected with international reporting. The aim of the thesis is to characterize accounting and reporting treatment for property, mostly used by the entity for more than one year, in accordance with IFRS. From the comparison Czech Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards given in discu...

  4. Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Teichmann (Hans); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInternational standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual (Engl

  5. On the validation of solids represented with the international standards for geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, H.

    2013-01-01

    The international standards for geographic information provide unambiguous definitions of geometric primitives, with the aim of fostering exchange and interoperability in the geographical information system (GIS) community. In two dimensions, the standards are wellaccepted and there are algorithms (

  6. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

  7. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I;

    2000-01-01

    A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards...... for the tested sample by enzymatic hydrolysis of the same sample (with known concentration) in (18)O-water. A mathematical algorithm was developed which uses the isotopic patterns of the substance, the internal standard, and the substance/internal standard mixture for accurate quantitation of the substance...

  8. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  9. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning…

  10. Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

  11. Knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration......, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product...... multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more...

  12. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  13. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

  14. Money laundering prevention : from international standards to Finnish banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuustie, Heta

    2015-01-01

    Money laundering is an international issue as the estimated amount of money laundered globally per year is 2-5% of the global GDP. Money laundering is a consequence of almost all profit generating crime, and thus can occur anywhere in the world. Many international instruments have been established to combat money laundering. This thesis describes money laundering, money laundering prevention, and how Finnish banks are obliged by the law to prevent money laundering. The purpose of this thes...

  15. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  16. The administration of ISO 10444: International Standard Technical Report Number. Activities and Cooperations of the International Registration Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Ulrike (FIZ); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1998-01-01

    Established end of 1994, the International Registration Authority is implementing the ISRN (International Standard Technical Report Number) system. In addition to the well-adopted and well-running numbering systems ISSN and ISBN the ISRN registration has the goal to make grey literature, especially scientific reports, better accessible by an improved identification system. FIZ Karlsruhe in Germany took over the task of the International Agency and started to build a network of national agenci...

  17. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kareš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

  18. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  19. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  20. International standards for tuberculosis care: relevance and implications for laboratory professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M; Daley, P; Hopewell, P C

    2007-04-01

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems. PMID:17582176

  1. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BY COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experience of application of international financial reporting standards in different countries with economies in transition. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of international financial reporting standards for financial reporting for Ukrainian companies are based on this experience.

  3. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-01-01

    The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union a...

  4. MECHANISM FOR INTRODUCTION OF GMP INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS INTO THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Ovcharenko, T.; Yermolayeva, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the article the modern consisting and problems of the introduce international standards of GMP in pharmaceutical sector of the national economy is analyzed. The article suggests the ways for improving the international standards system that positively influences on the medicine quality of provision in Ukraine.

  5. Enhancing Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions: The Role of International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kern Alexander; Rahul Dhumale

    2001-01-01

    The threat of systemic risk in international financial markets necessitates the establishment of universal standards for corporate governance of financial institutions. This paper addresses some important issues and concepts in the governance of multinational financial institutions and why international standards are needed to guide financial institutions in assessing and protecting against risk in financial markets. It acknowledges that different structural approaches to corporate governance...

  6. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...

  7. 15. APPLICATION OF THE ALKALINE COMET ASSAY IN HUMAN BIOMONITORING: INTERNAL STANDARD AND GLOBAL REPAIR PHENOTYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@An internal standard, composed of untreated an ethy1 methane sulfonate treated K562 cells was validated for its application in comet analysis of human biomonitoring samples. Firstly, the different levels of variability which may influence the damage levels of the internal standards were assessed. Three experimenters performed the comet assay with cells coming from the same set of untreated

  8. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William;

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  9. Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to pe...

  10. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we

  11. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    . Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

  12. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. PMID:24013124

  13. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization; X-Strahlen, Radiometer und Hauteinheitsdosis. Die Entwicklung der Messverfahren und Masseinheiten fuer Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Physik von den Anfaengen bis zur internationalen Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glessmer-Junike, Simone

    2015-01-22

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of

  14. Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations%Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Perey

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has emerged from research laboratories and is now being accepted in other domains as an attractive way of visualizing information. Before AR can be used in the mass market, there are a number of obstacles that need to be overcome. Several of these can be overcome by adopting open standards. A global grassroots community seeking open, interoperable AR content and experiences began to take shape in early 2010. This community is working collaboratively to reduce the barriers to the flow of data from content provider to AR end user. Standards development organizations and industry groups that provide open interfaces for AR meet regularly to provide updates, identify complementary work, and seek harmonization. The community also identifies deployer and implementer needs, communicates requirements, and discusses emerging challenges that could be resolved with standards. In this article, we describe current activities in international standards-development organizations. We summarize the AR standards gap analysis and shed light on special considerations for using standards in mobile AR.

  15. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  16. Development of standard definitions for surveillance of complications related to blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Land, K; Robillard, P; Wiersum-Osselton, J

    2016-02-01

    Standard definitions of donor reactions allow each blood establishment to monitor donor adverse events and compare with other organizations to develop best practices. The ISBT Haemovigilance Working Party leads a multi-organizational effort to update the 2008 ISBT standard for surveillance of complications related to blood donation. Revised definitions have been developed and endorsed by the ISBT, AABB, International Haemovigilance Network (IHN) and other international organizations. PMID:26361365

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. 78 FR 987 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Hazardous Articles (COSTHA) Dangerous Goods Advisory Council (DGAC) Dow Chemical Company (Dow) Fuel Cell... (IMDG) Code, the International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe.... Background PHMSA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) under Docket HM-215L (77 FR 49167,...

  19. Seeing power in international development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    through which the World Bank could promote its favoured vision of political culture in a local setting (here urban planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh), an alternative account is generated that reveals a will to power among the international development community, realised through the construction of knowledge...... is proposed, combining a governmentality perspective with Stewart Clegg's theory of circuits of power. The framework is applied in a case study of experimentation by the World Bank with a new tool for Environmental Policy Integration (EPI). Rather than conceptualising the EPI tool as a governmental technology....... This alternative approach suggests that the primary motivation for the will to power is not, as a neo-colonial perspective might suggest, power over developing countries, but relational power at the international scale. It is concluded that the narrative generated through our hybrid analytical perspective...

  20. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...... more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market....

  1. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the

  2. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard) of Business Accounting (PSBA) Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards - the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text o...

  3. International development perspectives for the 90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, G

    1991-01-01

    Addressing the Pakistani Society of Development Economists during its 7th Annual General Meeting, Gamani Corea discusses the prospects for international development in the decade of the 90s. Corea served as a chairman of the UN General Assembly's committee in charge of drafting a Strategy for the 90s. He explains that the Strategy begins against the backdrop of failure. Regarded as the "decade of despair" or the "lost decade," the 80s witnessed the developing world move backwards in terms of development. Projections for the 90s are not very optimistic. East Asian countries are expected to continue rapid growth, and South East Asia may see modest growth. But for the remainder of the developing world -- especially Africa and Latin America -- the prospects are bleak. External indebtedness continues to stifle progress. A repetition of the 80s could have serious consequences, not only for developing countries but the world as a whole, warns Corea. Turmoil -- even revolution -- could easily break out. Migration, refugees, terrorism, and drug trafficking would affect developed countries. While developing countries must take the lead in confronting the obstacles to development, developed countries must not abandon them. The international community must address questions of external debt, the flow of resources, world trade, and market access. Furthermore, as the Strategy makes clear, 3 issues also require special attention: 1) The "knowledge gap." Science and technology have become a crucial element in economic progress, but the knowledge gap between North and South continues to increase. 2) Industrial and agricultural development. And 3) social development -- the alleviation of poverty, the improvement of human resources, and protection of the environment. PMID:12285363

  4. International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we enter the 21st century, the vast amount of new information accumulated on the levels and effects of exposures to ionizing radiation and on the safety of radiation sources and a number of developments have brought radiation protection to the attention of the public and its political representatives. New radio epidemiological and radiobiological findings roughly corroborate previous estimates of the risks attributable to radiation exposure. A number of events have had a lasting effect on public perception of the potential danger from radiation exposure. These were primarily the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986 with its unprecedented transboundary contamination. In some countries, the public were concerned about the safe transport of radioactive materials. The safe management of radioactive waste also developed into an issue of public debate and the disposal of high level radioactive waste came to a standstill because of concern over potential radiation exposure. Accidents with radiation sources used in medicine and industry also attracted widespread attention from the public and governments. Furthermore, the 1980s saw the rediscovery of natural radiation as a cause of concern for health: some dwellings were found to have surprisingly high levels of radon in air; natural radiation exposure of some non-radiation-related workers were discovered to be at levels much higher than the occupational limits specified in radiation protection standards. In line with these developments, a number of significant scientific strides were taken in the 1990s at the international level. On the one hand, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reviewed the global levels and effects of radiation exposure. This highly respected body is responsible for keeping the highest UN body, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), informed about these levels and effects. In 1993, UNSCEAR presented its

  5. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  6. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  7. Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

  8. International development workshops. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

  9. International development workshops. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

  10. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  11. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  12. Codex as the Basis for National Standards and International Harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTIOIN   For the past decade, International Food Trade has been entering in a new era whereby world-wide food exchanges, including both raw materials from agriculture and manufactured products from food and drink industry, are much important now both in terms of quantity, diversity and quality of food than at any other time in history. Furthermore, this is the first time that multilateral agreements, signed and in progress of implementation by a large majority of countries throughout the world cover world exchanges of foods.

  13. Codex as the Basis for National Standards and International Harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRAISIDTONTISIRIN; CHRISTOPHELEPRETRE; 等

    2001-01-01

    For the past decade,International Food Trade has been entering in a new era whereby world-wide food exchanges,including both raw materials from agriculture and manufactured products from food and drink industry,are much improtant now both in terms of quantity,diversity and quality of food than at any other time in history,Furthermore,this is the first time that multilateral agreements,signed and in progress of implementation by a large majority of countries throughout the wold cover world exchanges of foods.

  14. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  15. Coordinating International Standards: The Formation of the ISO

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, JoAnne, 1951-; Murphy, Craig N.

    2007-01-01

    In the article on €ܓtandardizationÂ€Ý in the 14th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Paul Gough Agnew, the long-time Secretary of the American Standards Association (ASA), argued: In the flow of products from farm, forest, mine, and sea through processing and fabricating plants, and through wholesale and retail markets to the ultimate consumer, most difficulties are met at the transition points€Ӣpoints at which the product passes from department to department within a company, or is ...

  16. A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

    2011-01-01

    In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009...

  17. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  18. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  19. Technical developments in international satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. P.

    At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

  20. International migration and development in Mexican communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J; Kandel, W; Parrado, E A; Massey, D S

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical and empirical literature generally regards international migration as producing a cycle of dependency and stunted development in sending communities. Most migrants' earnings are spent on consumption; few funds are channeled into productive investment. We argue that this view is misleading because it ignores the conditions under which productive investment is likely to be possible and profitable. We analyze the determinants of migrants' savings and remittance decisions, using variables defined at the individual, household, community, and macroeconomic levels. We identify the conditions under which U.S. earnings are repatriated to Mexico as remittances and savings, and indicate the factors leading to their productive investment.

  1. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ..., 2013 in Dallas, TX at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. This will be followed by the Public Comment Hearings... Action Hearings in Dallas, TX at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel and the Public Comment Hearings in Atlantic... Fuel Gas Code. International Green Construction Code. International Mechanical Code. ICC...

  2. Lessons from the development of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cohen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement filled a major gap in the international protection system for uprooted people. Whether their development holds lessons for those seeking to develop standards in the migration field remains a question to explore.

  3. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  4. Quantitative determination of titin and nebulin in poultry meat by SDS-PAGE with an internal standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewska Gras, J.; Kijowski,; Schreurs, F.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    The method of quantitative determination of titin and nebulin in chicken meat by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique was developed by application of β-galactosidase as the internal standard. The method was tested first on marker protein samples of known concentrations (myosin, transferrin, glutamic d

  5. Instrumental photon activation analysis of coal fly ashes using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all interfering reactions were eliminated completely. (author) 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  6. Developing competency in interns for endotracheal intubation: An educational article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Harsha Dhirubhai; Suthar, Nilay N; Gajjar, Mehul P; Thakor, Advait V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our existing undergraduate curriculum lacks developing competency for endotracheal intubation. Even though it is a lifesaving procedure, interns are exposed only during their posting in anesthesia or emergency medicine and so, when need arises, they fail to perform endotracheal intubation and it leads to catastrophes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop competency in interns for endotracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on fifty interns of medical college. Lecture and demonstration were used for cognitive domain and one-to-one training and practice on manikin for affective and psychomotor domains, respectively. Live demonstration on patients was done whenever possible. Gain in knowledge was evaluated by pre- and post-test using standardized validated questionnaire. Skills were assessed by direct observation of procedural skill on manikin, split in steps: Laryngoscopy, intubation, and ventilation. Session was evaluated using feedback questionnaire and Likert scale. Results: Interns showed mean marks of 8.12 ± 1.63 in pretest compared to 13.86 ± 1.06 of posttest with a gain of 34.8% (P = 0.0001), which is highly significant. Twenty-two percent interns completed all steps correctly in the first attempt, 62% in the second attempt, while 16% required third attempt to correctly complete all steps. Conclusion: This training developed competency for basic knowledge and practice of endotracheal intubation in interns adequately on manikin. Training for endotracheal intubation should be carried out at the beginning of internship before they go for clinical practice and repeated during their rotation of Anesthesia and Emergency Medicine Department, so they can retain their competency for it and can do later on whenever required. PMID:27563588

  7. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt. PMID:27405171

  8. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  9. THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

  10. The Achievements of Participating International Standardization Activities Made by Chinese Electrotechnical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Standardization Research Dept of China

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese electrotechnical industry includes power generation equipment, power transmission and distribution equipment, multi-purpose equipment, and basic electrical material. The industry has 46 national technical committees (TC) and sub-committees (SC), which mirrors to 70 TCs and SCs of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). During the past five years, leaded by Standardization Administration of China (SAC),China Electrical Equipment Industry Association (CEEIA) obtained many great achievements in promoting participation of international standardization activities by improving unified management and concentrating industrial strength:

  11. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research...

  12. International financial reporting standards and American generally accepted accounting principles: the convergence lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kuzina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adopting process in different countries. Special attention has been paid to the processes taking place in the United States. In recent years there have been numerous attempts to assess the impact of IFRS on the developed and developing capital markets, and to use the results of this assessment as arguments in the debate about the effectiveness of regulation of corporate reporting, in particular about the introduction of a mandatory requirement to use global accounting standards. Two main regulatory bodies inthe corporate reporting area in the world – The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC and the Board of Trustees of the IFRS Foundation – use the results of academic research based on empirical observations of IFRS use onwards from 2005 to support its position on possible benefits from the introduction of global reporting standards and recommendations on different approaches to the practical implementation of this idea. Analysis of the preparatory process for the adoption of IFRS in the United States is required for error analysis of IFRS implementation in Ukraine.

  13. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  14. Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

  15. The role of food standards in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    of the emergence of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing, (ii) the effects of various forms of vertical coordination on household welfare and (iii) the consequences of the concurrent emergence of food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. The first paper, Food Standards are Good...... — for Middle-Class Farmers, joint with Henrik Hansen, estimates the impact of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing using the data from the Vietnamese pangasius sector. In this paper we estimate both the average effect as well as the effects on poorer and richer farmers using the instrumental variable quantile...... likelihood estimator. The results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming creates opportunities for economic growth, but the additional effort is required to make the contracts more...

  16. Ecological Residence Standards and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Habitation environment standards are both ancient and new. Caves, tents and cottages comprise the three initial kinds of human domestic environment, corresponding to the three primary forms of society: hunting,nomadism and farming.

  17. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... (60 FR 15845), designated the U.S. Department of Agriculture as the agency responsible for informing... Session in Langkawi, Malaysia, from February 25-March 1, 2013. The reference document is REP 13/FO. The... strengthening of food control infrastructures; recommend to the Commission the development of...

  18. Standardization Promotes Enterprises' Independent Innovation and International Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guifen YANG; Linghong MENG

    2007-01-01

    @@ Erdos Group, a large-scale enterprise group with more than 20,000 employees, was developed and expanded from Yih Ju League Cashmere Factory set up and put into production in 1981. Its "Erdos" brand, the first brand in Chinese cashmere textile industry, has won the title of "Chinese Famous Brand".

  19. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m-3. Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. The 'National Action Plan concerning Radon 2012-2020'(1), approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 2011, has paved the way for the implementation of the new international standards on the protection of the public against radon. One of the main measures in this action plan involves a revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance (RPO) of 1994, which is implemented by the cantons. (authors)

  20. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’

  1. 75 FR 9647 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... non-emergency two-stroke lean burn (2SLB) >500 HP located at a major source of HAP emissions, New or... Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 41 / Wednesday, March 3, 2010... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  2. 75 FR 13715 - Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Seafarers, 1978, in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59354). Comments on the NPRM were due... the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers... Rulemaking (NPRM) on the Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on...

  3. International Labour Standards and Technical Co-Operation: The Case of Special Public Works Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…

  4. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  5. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  6. GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral similarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as an effe...

  7. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Quantification with a Photobleached Internal Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Gadd, Jennifer C.; Fujimoto, Bryant S.; Sandra M Bajjalieh; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    In cellular and molecular biology, fluorophores are employed to aid in tracking and quantifying molecules involved in cellular function. We previously developed a sensitive single-molecule quantification technique to count the number of proteins and the variation of the protein number over the population of individual sub-cellular organelles. However, environmental effects on the fluorescent intensity of fluorophores can make it difficult to accurately quantify proteins using these sensitive ...

  8. 75 FR 59281 - Recognition of Foreign Certificates Under the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Recognition of Foreign Certificates Under the International Convention on Standards of... Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended,...

  9. International standards on working postures and movements ISO 11226 and EN 1005-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.; Dul, J.

    2007-01-01

    Standards organizations have given considerable attention to the problem of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The publication of international standards for evaluating working postures and movements, ISO 11226 in 2000 and EN 1005-4 in 2005, may be considered as a support for those involved in

  10. Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjers, G. G.; Galambos, J. P.; Bohnet, M. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Christiansen, W. H.; Wurden, G. A.; Wright, B. L.; Smith, R. J.

    1992-10-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas. In the TIP scheme, a probe is fired, using a two-stage light gas gun, through a hot plasma at velocities up to 5 km/s, and makes direct, local measurements of the internal magnetic field structure. The data are relayed to the laboratory optical detection system using an incident laser that is directed through a Faraday rotator payload acting as a magneto-optic sensor. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing the probe size, limiting the time that the probe is in the hot plasma, and encasing the probe with a diamond cladding. The degree to which the diamond probe cladding is susceptible to ablative effects will determine the plasma density and temperature regime in which the TIP diagnostic can be used. If the TIP suffers significant ablation it is an indication that the diagnostic is not usable on this hot and dense of a plasma (or that greater velocity must be imparted to the probe to further minimize the time that it is in the plasma). A quantitative experimental study of the ablation rates of diamond is planned as part of the TIP development. The integrated TIP system will be functional in 1992 and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Tech. 15, 9 (1989)] at the University of Washington.

  11. International Education and Development: Histories, Parallels, Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education has been a priority sector when considering foreign aid allocationsince the 1970s. The stated objective has been to ensure universal access to basic education, with a more recent emphasis on quality and outcomes. Aware that these goals will not be met universally, the major actors involved in the post-2015 debate are turning back to the concept of learning. In this chapter, we briefly review major scholarly work and strategic papers that have shaped the discourse and policies of international development organisations and national actors over the past four decades. We discuss how the central notions of skills, learning, and both formal and non-formal education have evolved in conjunction with ideological shifts. We examine the tensions between public and private education as well as between individualised and standardised delivery modes. We further look at (big data and online education promises. To conclude, we question the current focus of major stakeholders on post-2015, post-EFA agendas. As several articles in this special issue underscore, national policies and local practices are largely driven by persistent political economy dynamics while the influence of ‘the global agenda’ tends to remain confined to the international cooperation community itself.

  12. Importance of the Application of International Accounting Standards in Kosovo Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Erdin Maloku; Arta Hoti; Besnik Livoreka; Sevdie Alshiqi

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS) is an example of accounting standardization among countries with different institutional frameworks and enforcement rules. IAS, though, create a common language for defining, interpreting and publication of financial statements in the whole world. Furthermore, their aim is “to provide a standardized and coherent sight of the companies to the shareholders and investors”. After the war in Kosovo has been a positive move towards the develo...

  13. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598... DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic development... the planned use of HUD EZ Grant Funds must meet one of the following economic development...

  14. Assessing the quality of decision support technologies using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Elwyn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids. DESIGN: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. SETTING: There has been increasing use of decision support technologies--adjuncts to the discussions clinicians have with patients about difficult decisions. A global interest in developing these interventions exists among both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. It is therefore essential to have internationally accepted standards to assess the quality of their development, process, content, potential bias and method of field testing and evaluation. METHODS: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five researcher-members of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration worked together to develop the instrument (IPDASi. In the fourth Stage (reliability study, eight raters assessed thirty randomly selected decision support technologies. RESULTS: IPDASi measures quality in 10 dimensions, using 47 items, and provides an overall quality score (scaled from 0 to 100 for each intervention. Overall IPDASi scores ranged from 33 to 82 across the decision support technologies sampled (n = 30, enabling discrimination. The inter-rater intraclass correlation for the overall quality score was 0.80. Correlations of dimension scores with the overall score were all positive (0.31 to 0.68. Cronbach's alpha values for the 8 raters ranged from 0.72 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas based on the dimension means ranged from 0.50 to 0.81, indicating that the dimensions, although well correlated, measure different aspects of decision support technology quality. A short version (19 items was also developed that had very similar mean scores to IPDASi and high correlation

  15. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation? (a) The surveillance...

  16. 25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations? (a) The surveillance system...

  17. 25 CFR 542.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.23 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Tier A gaming operations...

  18. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  19. Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs: Evidence form Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Obaidat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian auditors complied with all auditing standards with some variance in the degree of compliance among them. The results indicated that further measures and steps could be taken to improve the ISA compliance.

  20. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis

    2009-01-01

    What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…

  1. National and international drawing standards: moving toward better alignment with Y14. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicovich, P A

    1980-01-01

    The task of revising the national standard on Dimensioning and Tolerancing, begun seven years ago, required close coordination between the Y14.5 Subcommittee and the US expert members who participated in related activities of the International Organization for Standardization. The revised drawing standard about to be issued reflects additional international alignments in areas of metrication, symbology, and conventions. Differences remain in the prescribed symbol for indicating a datum feature and in a Principle of Independency, the latter unacceptably absolving size limits from controlling the geometric form of an individual feature. More US member experts will be needed on the Y14.5 Subcommittee to uphold US viewpoints in the writing of international drawing standards of a pragmatic kind.

  2. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  3. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  4. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  5. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  6. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  7. International Framework AgreementsAn analysis of the international framework agreement as an instrument for improving working standards in global business operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt G. Colenbrander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international framework agreement is a relatively new instrument, used by global trade unions to respond to the impact of globalization on the business operations of companies operating worldwide. This way, they address an issue (inter-national legislators and regulators have difficulties dealing with. This paper combines information available from existing literature with empirical data derived from interviews with relevant actors and desk research. It aims to analyse the present state of the international framework agreement as an instrument and to formulate conclusions with regard to conditions an international framework agreement has to fulfil in order to be able to meet its objectives. Although in general the emergence of international framework agreements is perceived as a positive development with the potential of improving fundamental working standards in global business operations, some comments have been made in literature that are confirmed and fleshed out by the empirical data presented in this paper. These comments address the substantive content of the agreement, and emphasise the relevance of implementation and monitoring processes, both in the contracting company’s organisation and in its supply chain. They stress the relevance of investigating which parties are involved in these processes. If the issues identified in literature and in this paper are properly considered, the international framework agreement can be a compelling tool for global trade unions to pursue their aims. Unfortunately, research demonstrates that not all existing international framework agreements deal with these issues and some appear to achieve no direct practical impact at all.

  8. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  9. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Motivated by and accelerating the globalization process, product development is increasingly taking place in international firms with employees of various nationalities and aimed at international markets. This poses a number of new managerial challenges. This paper draws together literature...... on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated...... with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number...

  10. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  11. A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009 in Ukraine are detected.

  12. Basic Ideas on the Development of Safe Service Life Standard for Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    GB/T 21097.1 General Rules about the Safe Service Life and Recycling of Household and Similar Electrical Appliances has been promulgated and implemented.The development of the standard has gone through a few main stages,including basic framework,fundamental requirements,supplementation of details and actual implementation.In China,the safety standards for household appliances are basically identical with IEC 60335 standards and cover a wide range of products.Basically,the standards have got in line with international level and have been identically applied for several years.However,there have been no corresponding standards or specific rules concerning the safe service life of household appliances in the international community including industrially developed countries.

  13. Product Development and Internal Standardization Platform Construction of Furniture Industry%家具企业产品开发与内部标准化平台建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世栋; 关惠元

    2013-01-01

    以质量功能展开方法为切入点,结合家具制造业的特点,对家具产品开发过程中,如何构建以顾客需求为导向的标准化平台,提升产品质量和市场竞争力、降低成本以及提高生产效率进行了方法和理念上的探索和分析.为家具企业内部建设高水平的标准化平台搭建了初步的理论框架,给出了具有可操作性的方法和工具.%Taking Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as the breakthrough point and combining with the features of furniture industry, authors of this paper explore and analyze the methods and concepts about how to establish the standardization platform on the basis of customer demand, how to enhance the product quality and market competitiveness, how to lower the cost, and how to improve the productivity. The initial theoretical framework for building high-level standardization platform in furniture industry is established, and the operable methods and tools are proposed.

  14. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  15. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  16. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  17. Evaluation of image qualities on the international standard video-conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Yoshikazu; Ogushi, Yoichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yamauchi, Kazunobu

    2003-12-01

    International standard-based video-conferencing systems are widely used in telemedicine activities worldwide. Through our experiences with these systems, it is apparent that the image quality is high enough to conduct educational and conferential sessions. However, because the terminals are intended for common use, we evaluated their qualities. After having an international standard system evaluated by a general practitioner using medical images, we prepared non-medical graphic images to examine the characteristics of the video-conferencing equipment. ROC (Receiver Operation Characteristic) analysis was employed for the evaluation. We concluded that the international standard video-conferencing systems are of sufficient quality for medical presentations, and that their interactivity and the use of proper software will aid the understanding of images in specific medical areas. PMID:15326877

  18. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  19. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AUDITING STANDARDS REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENT OF CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Marioara Avram

    2011-01-01

    In the research contract, no.60C from 21.12.2009, concluded between the University of Craiova and EURO TYRES MANUFACTURING LTD. from Drobeta Turnu Severin, in the section International Auditing Standards regarding the Environment of Control, the aspects of how auditors approach the environment of control within the audit mission were analyzed. The responsibilities of top management include maintaining some adequate accounting and internal control systems, selecting and applying accounting pol...

  1. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  2. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  3. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  4. Disclosure of Liabilities in Brazil in Light ofInternational Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ivone Gonçalves Luiz; Ãlvaro Augusto Ricardino Filho; Luciene Santana

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the use of liability disclosure concepts,according to the standards introduced by the Intergovernmental Working Group ofExperts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (UN-ISAR) in 1997.We analyzed the financial statements of the ten best Brazilian companies classifiedby the ANEFAC/FIPECAFI/SERASA Transparency Award for 2003, considered by acommittee of specialists as having the best accounting publications for that year. Byexamining the content of the...

  5. International experience of green development in Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Lin; Hu, Jie; Du, Bingzhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Sun, Chuanzhun; Wu, Ruizi; Long, Xin; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western Chi

  6. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  7. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, “non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development”. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundation’s Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that “The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities.” Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. “Adhering to standards costs more” - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. “Standards stifle innovation” - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth

  8. Mengukur Tingkat Kesesuaian antara Standar Akuntansi Keuangan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards per 1 Januari 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available International accounting topic was rare to adress between accounting practices, especially International Accounting Standard. It occured due to the restrictive source and difficulty in finding the source. However, recently the standard has been an addressed issue since Indonesia Chartered of Accountant (IAI plans to comply the Indonesia Accounting Standard (SAK with the International Financialreporting(IFRSon1stJanuary2012.The purpose of the research is to measure the compliance of the (SAK per 1st January 2008 with the IFRS per 1st January 2008 and attain the association between those two standards. Hence, the difference between the two standards and the neccessary steps to be taken for complying can be obtained. The methodology will be used in the paper are Jaccard’s Coefficients, Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient,Euclidean Distances.The sample for the paper will be 43 accounting issues adressed on both standards that have been chosen and investigated. The paper concludes that there are significant equalities (75% between SAK per 1st January 2008 and IFRS 1st January 2008. (using Jaccard’s Coefficients. Due to several problems that have been found in the research, the author wish that the further researchers could widen the research’s samples, so the result will be more accurate and comprehensive. 

  9. International standards - vector for good practices in broadcasting organizations in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    GHERGHEL Monica

    2009-01-01

    Joining the professional standards (financial audit, evaluation etc.) – required – with the ISO management standards (quality, environment, occupational safety and health, etc.) – considered voluntary – support organizations in meeting mandatory requirements and market penetration. Fulfilling the standards, the organizations can develop an effective strategy to reduce costs and enhance business reputation.

  10. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  11. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issued. (c) The internal audit or accounting departments shall review the reports required in paragraph... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum...

  12. Standards for Professional Development: A Sociocultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Much research and theory has focused on improving the academic success of students at-risk for failure due to poverty, limited English proficiency, and/or background knowledge and experiences which do not map easily onto school expectations. Several studies have led to significant advances in understanding basic learning processes, including the social and cultural foundations of cognitive development. Rather than focusing on presumed student deficits, researchers have focused on ways that sc...

  13. Climate-Related Standards and Multilateral Finance for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Di Leva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses climate-related standards that development finance institutions establish or apply to projects supported by their investments. It focuses particularly on multilateral development banks given their major role in providing finance to developing countries, where the bulk of the world’s fastest growing emissions are taking place. It looks at proposed and recently adopted standards, as well as different perspectives developed and developing countries have regarding these standards. It also discusses how these standards might be impacted by the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC negotiations and concludes that there will be continuing challenges to implement these standards unless developed countries fulfill their pledge of expected finance.

  14. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  15. FLUORESCENT X-RAY-ANALYSIS OF URANIUM USING INTERNAL STANDARD AND FILTER METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Arikan, P.; Özmen, A.

    1987-01-01

    Interna1 standard and filter methods for fluorescent X-ray analysis of uranium in ores are investigated. In the first method, successful application of strontium K-X internal standard line for uranium L-X analyte line is carried out. Standardization with strontium eliminated the absorption-enhancement effect in analysis. In the second method, strontium and thorium are chosen as filters for uranium L-X and K-X fluorescent rays respectively. Attenuation (Hull) filters are used to remove ULβ, UK...

  16. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  17. Improving chip-to-chip precision in disposable microchip capillary electrophoresis devices with internal standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidulock, Allison C.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    To realize portable systems for routine measurements in point-of-care settings, MCE methods are required to be robust across many single-use chips. While it is well-known internal standards (ISTDs) improve run-to-run precision, a systematic investigation is necessary to determine the significance of

  18. International standard on auditing 800 the auditor`s report on special purpose audit engagements

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVA, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the main characteristics of the international standard on auditing 800. ISA 800 explains requirements by making a report on financial statements prepared in accordance with another comprehensive basis of accounting, on a component of financial statements, on compliance with contractual agreements or reports on summarized financial statements.

  19. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  20. 75 FR 53457 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    .... The proposed rules would harmonize the Coast Guard's design, construction, and performance standards... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand.... Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. International Trade Impacts...

  1. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge;

    1982-01-01

    , was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...

  2. 75 FR 47520 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32612). That notice proposed revisions to... Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the standards of performance for stationary compression ignition and spark ignition...

  3. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, O

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  4. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  5. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  6. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  7. Meeting international standards : A cultural approach in implementing the mini-CEX effectively in Indonesian clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical schools all over the world try to adapt their programs to meet international standards. However, local culture might hamper innovation attempts. Aims: To describe challenges in implementing the mini-CEX in Indonesia and investigate its effect on students' clinical competence. Met

  8. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  9. Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report examines how performance standards in reading and math on PLAN[R], the organization's college and career readiness assessment for 10th graders, compare to performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide assessment of 15-year-old students' academic achievement. The results show that the performance…

  10. Development and Demand Analysis of Convention and Exhibition Industry Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the necessity and urgency of accelerating convention and exhibition industrial standardization on the basis of an analysis of the industry demands, developing tendencies, and existing problems during development.

  11. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO STANDARDIZATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Blinov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes educational standards as the key concept of modern education; their interrelation with the national qualifications system and professional standards being considered. The authors denote the reasons for changing the conceptual approach to the standard developments, and demonstrate the possible ways of educational quality assurance.Diversification and mobility of the modern qualifications along with the fast technological changes affects the educational content and knowledge acquisition, and requires the variable and flexible educational  curricula and management. The global development trends, concerning the educational quality standards, involve their orientation on the learning outcomes, which should be taken into account while developing the Federal State Educational Standards of the fourth generation. The authors reveal the structure of the future standard, outline its implementation stages, and demonstrate the mechanism guaranteeing the regulatory legal provision of professional education. 

  12. Intern Develops Small, Inexpensive Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) student Intern Julian Brown is just 21 years old, but don’t let his young age and boyish charm fool you. He is a serious scientist and is working to build a star tracking system at NPS designed to help very small satellites determine their orientation in space.

  13. Developing Intercultural Learners through the International Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susan G.

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural competence is an increasingly desired and necessary skill in a globalized world. While competence is a complex concept to define and assess, this study examines specific dimensions of the intercultural learning of students in the School of International Studies (SIS) at the University of the Pacific. Students undergo both an…

  14. Preparing and Developing Community College International Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner; Valeau, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership training for future senior United States (US) community college leaders is an ongoing focus of US community college education. Leadership training is also a focus of US university international educators. Community college literature has assumed that full-time positions at community colleges devoted to overseeing and implementing…

  15. Development of archetypes of international marketing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis K. S. Lim; Frank Acito; Alexander Rusetski

    2006-01-01

    The extant business literature contains three separate characterizations of international marketing strategy: standardization–adaptation, concentration–dispersion, and integration–independence. These characterizations have, for decades, informed researchers, students, and practitioners alike of the strategic options a multinational firm might have in formulating its cross-border marketing approaches. Although useful, these characterizations have yet to be unified within an integrative classif...

  16. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  17. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for neomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for neomycin. Ten laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate material, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 2(nd) IS for neomycin was used as a standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3(rd) IS for neomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2012 with an assigned potency of 19,050 IU per vial. The 3(rd) IS for neomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  18. Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003. These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman & Dwyer, 1990; Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Hindman, et al. 1996, were refined by a committee of professionals at the Fifth International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment (Coleman et al., 2000.With these standards in place, the Governing Board of IATSO designated a committee in summer 2004 to develop similar standards for treatment of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. This committee consisted of representatives from a number of countries with differing traditions of sexual offender treatment and juvenile justice, including Austria, Germany, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States. Developing standards of care for juvenile populations can be a challenging endeavor. Adolescence is a time of rapid change, and thus, there is great heterogeneity in those youths who commit acts that can be defined as sexual offenses. These differences are influenced by the developmental stage of the youth, which may roughly parallel age, and multiple environmental factors. Additionally, studies conducted outside North America find higher base rates of re-offense than those within North America (e.g. Nisbet, Wilson, & Smallbone, 2004; Langstrom & Grann, 2000. This is likely the case because definitions of who is a juvenile offender, what behaviors are sexual crimes, and how the juvenile justice system is organized can differ substantially across countries. These Standards of Care, which were adopted by the membership at the General Assembly of the

  19. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

  20. Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Järvi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

  1. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  2. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshkovski, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the article, the author analyzes the impact of globalization on the transformation of international migration flows in the Russian Federation. The author considers the features of global trends in international migration in Russia: increasing involvement of Russia and its regions in the international migration, the qualitative changes in the structure of migration flows, the increasing role of international migration as a factor of the country's demographic development.

  3. Development of internal communication management in a digital environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Kajan, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis examines the development possibilities and opportunities in the field of internal communication management in Nordea Bank, a global financial institution, from the perspective of intranet mediated digital communication. Internal communication management in this thesis refers to the strategic framework and practices of governing internal organiza-tional communication. The study has taken a holistic view on the interaction of the digital working environment, internal commun...

  4. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shelydko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.

  5. Professional development of international classroom lecturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    With a rapidly growing number of students learning and lecturers teaching through a language other than their own first language, there is equally a growing need to consider how lecturers are trained to teach in the international classroom where students have a range of different linguistic...... and cultural backgrounds. The training of higher education teachers (lecturers) vary considerably from one country – or even higher education institution – to the other, and the overarching picture changes from mandatory to voluntary programmes to no programmes at all. Where they exist, they have different...... rationales, content, structure, target groups, etc. It is therefore difficult to get a clear picture and to compare programmes and their impact (cf. e.g. Simon & Pleschová 2013). When it comes to the teachers of international programmes, the picture becomes even more complicated. Lecturers often teach...

  6. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  7. Development and implementation of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique institution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards has been commented on at length by both technicians and politicians. IAEA safeguards have variously been extolled as a great international break-through and model for other arms control verification regimes and alternatively as a not very credible arrangement with many weaknesses and contradictions and which cannot, essentially by definition, do the job it's supposed to do. The 1981 bombing by Israel of the safeguarded Iraqi research reactor at Tuwaitha is used by both extremes to support their positions. As a physicist who has been working in this area, among others, for several years it seems to me that neither side is giving the reality of IAEA safeguards a fair deal. The bottom line on safeguards is to ensure that nuclear material, especially plutonium or highly enriched uranium (>20% U-236 but usually 93% U-235) under safeguards, is not used to make nuclear explosives or to further other military purposes. In the first instance they are pretty good and do represent a major concession by sovereign states; but the structure of the safeguards regime was designed in another era. The system has its flaws technically, but it is also a political system which, because of its dual nature can and does do a very useful and important job for the international community

  8. Russian Law on Discrimination in Employment: Can it be Compatible with International Labor Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lyutov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Law concerning discrimination in employment in Russia was expected to undergo a serious transformation after the fall of the Soviet system, when the Iron Curtain was lifted and the country became more open to Western legal concepts and international law. Nevertheless, most existing anti-discrimination norms in Russian law are based on the traditional concept of “uniformity and differentiation in regulation of labor” that is ill-suited to meet the challenges of amarket economy and the emergence of employment by privately owned enterprises which may have greater motivation to discriminate than state-owned-enterprises. The aim of the author is not to present an encyclopedic overview of all aspects of the topic of discrimination, but rather to concentrate on the most significant areas in which Russian law and practices diverge from international labor standards. To do so, this article analyzes current Russian legislation and landmark cases concerning gender, disability, age and some other areas of discrimination in employment with respect to their effectiveness and conformity to international labor standards on the matter. The issues of a clear definition of discrimination in employment, of protection from indirect discrimination, and of alleviation from the burden of proof are also examined. The author concludes this work by offering the reader several suggestions about how to harmonize Russian domestic law on employment discrimination with international labor standards while giving due respect to national legal and societal traditions and the current economic environment.

  9. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  10. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  11. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  12. Strengthening Standardized Construction of Bank Card, Integrating with International Financial Circles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Following the accession to the WTO of China,bank card industry faces new competition pressure and challenges. At present, the most outstanding problem we face is, how to narrow the gap of development between the international bank card industry and that of China and keep up with fast-developing paces of international bank card as soon as possible. Objectively speaking, bank card industry of our country is still at the initial stage.

  13. Internal Supply Chain: Process and Performance Measurement Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Saija-Riitta

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development project of the case company’s internal supply chain. The case company is a Finnish family-owned company manufacturing and importing consumer and professional goods as well as functioning as an agency for large international companies, small and middle sized industrial companies and wholesalers. The purpose of the project was to develop specifically the internal supply chain of the own manufactured products and the performance measurement for it. The ...

  14. Swap transactions as a financial tool, their recognition as international accounting standard 39 and display in financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kablan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in international financial markets concern both developed countries and developing countries closely. The transactions of institutions arising from of commercial activities display a more complex and more risky state in line with international economic developments. The globalization trend in the world economy, the extreme fluctuations in currencies, interests and product prices have rendered closely following up the developments in financial tools mandatory. Taking advantage of derivative financial tools which increase the revenue of assets by taking future risks into consideration, impact a decrease in debt costs and has the purpose of transferring risks are of vital importance with respect to the successful management of companies. At the present time in which international commerce, free market economy and globalization has gained in importance, one of the derivative products used in risk management and have a wide implementation area is swap transactions. Swap transactions can be expressed as a financial transaction including the exchange of interest, foreign currency or both between two or more parties. Swap transactions in particular are used for purposes such as protection against risks due to interest rates and exchange rates, ensuring low cost financing, changing the debt structure and entering different markets. In this study, the generally defined characteristics of swap transactions, which have an important standing within financial risk management and have been rapidly developing in the world in recent years and their recognition according to the International Accounting Standard 39 concerning the recognition of swap transactions, which has in particular termed the study have been focused on. In the framework of the standard, interest swap and foreign currency swap implementation study were included with respect to the matter.

  15. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  16. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  17. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs

  18. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  19. Heteromer score – using internal standards to assess the quality of proteomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient which reflects the reproducibility of the anal......In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient which reflects the reproducibility...... of the method used to collect the data, requires no special sample preparation and can be used retrospectively on old datasets. It can be used for quality control, to indicate when a change becomes significant or identify complexes whose stoichiometry has been perturbed during the experiment....

  20. International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2003-01-01

    as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards...

  1. Development of the Nurse Practitioner Standards for Practice Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas; Donoghue, Judith; Heartfield, Marie; Bryce, Julianne; Cox, Darlene; Waters, Donna; Gosby, Helen; Kelly, John; Dunn, Sandra V

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the context and development of the new Nurse Practitioner Standards for Practice in Australia, which went into effect in January 2014. The researchers used a mixed-methods design to engage a broad range of stakeholders who brought both political and practice knowledge to the development of the new standards. Methods included interviews, focus groups, surveys, and work-based observation of nurse practitioner practice. Stakeholders varied in terms of their need for detail in the standards. Nonetheless, they invariably agreed that the standards should be clinically focussed attributes. The pillars common in many advanced practice nursing standards, such as practice, research, education, and leadership, were combined and expressed in a new and unique clinical attribute. PMID:26162455

  2. An Essay on the Emergence of the International Gold Standard, 1870-80

    OpenAIRE

    Flandreau, Marc

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an exploration of the theory of endogenous regime changes which takes as an illustration the making of the classical gold standard. The international gold-based fixed exchange rate regime that surfaced during the 1870s has traditionally been interpreted as resulting from a mix of structural factors (Kindleberger (1993)), free-rider problems (Kenwood and Lougheed (1972)), transaction costs considerations (Redish (1992)), or political economy forces (Gallarotti (1990)). This paper...

  3. Aligning Taxation and International Financial Reporting Standards: Evidence from Italian Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gavana Giovanna; Guggiola Gabriele; Marenzi Anna

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effect of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards results (IFRS) as the base for the regional business tax (IRAP). Analysing the unconsolidated financial statements of non-financial Italian listed companies, we simulate the change in the IRAP base where companies move from Italian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to IFRS. The results show that the impact of the use of IFRS for the computation of tax figures is relatively important and that the secto...

  4. Understanding the case of international labour standards – methodological insights into an ongoing debate

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    "By globalization, national economies strengthen their ties towards each other; the same process causes growing interdependence" (Duwendag 2003, p. 119). Internationally agreed standards are regularly called for to guide and direct the process of globalisation. E. g. the German Vice-chancellor (who is also the minister responsible for labour market regulation) warned that profit-orientation threatened democracy if it would not allow for social responsibility of employers (Muentefering 2005). ...

  5. Review of practical implementation issues relating to international financial reporting standards: Case study on Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Reto; et al.

    2008-01-01

    This case study presents the context, application and enforcement of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) in Switzerland. It begins with an introduction to the Swiss legal framework by presenting the requirements for accounting, reporting, and auditing. It then examines the application and enforcement of IFRS in Switzerland, particularly for listed companies. It concludes with a summary and an overview of expected amendments to the legal framework. The study notes that the regul...

  6. Assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) System in Public Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Orajaka Ugochukwu; Ezeliora Mmaduabuchi Martin

    2015-01-01

    The study assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) system in Public organizations in Anambra state, Nigeria. The data was collected through questionnaires and secondary sources of data. It was analyzed using correlations and goodness of fit tests. The results show that it has high significance value thereby accepting the testing hypotheses. However, the results were recommended for wider use and applicability in public organizations, specifically in anambra s...

  7. Model Innovation of Process Based on the Standard e-commerce International GS1

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Sanjuan Martinez; Luz Andrea Rodríguez Rojas; Cristina Pelayo G. Bustelo; Giovanny Mauricio Tarazona Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the design and characterization of management model for MSMEs, based on e-commerce and the GS1 international e-com standard. The first part contextualizes electronic commerce and its impact on domestic industry, and briefly describes the B2B e-commerce model used in Colombia. Subsequently the first step to apply the model is presented, which corresponds to the design of a diagnostic methodology that evaluates the technological, technical, commercial and administrative ...

  8. Analysis of alloy composition by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using liquid and thin layer techniques with an internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of high concentrations of elements (main constituents) in copper/nickel/manganese alloy samples was developed. The method uses samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed as a solution and thin layer after evaporating. The high level of uncertainty caused by sample preparation imprecision was reduced using strontium Kα line as an internal standard for all tested elements. We compared XRF calibration curves and results from samples prepared as solid materials (disks), alloy chip solutions in special cups, alloy chip solutions evaporated from filter disks, and alloy chips that had been milled with abrasive and then pelletized. The results were compared with those from standard wet titration and gravimetric methods recommended for the samples. The thin layer method was found suitable for control of alloy compositions. Sample preparation involved: preparing alloy solution 1 g/100 mL with 0.2 g of IS, dropping 50 μL of the solution onto the filter disk and evaporation The calibration curves obtained using IS were characterized with residual standard deviation 0.13–0.25% m/m (less than 1% relative) that was required for this application. - Highlights: ► Thin layer WD-XRF method for analyzing high concentration of elements. ► Analysis of CuMnNi alloys using WD-XRF thin layer technique. ► Analysis of liquids using internal standard WD-XRF thin layer technique. ► Imprecision correction in WD-XRF thin layer technique using internal standard.

  9. Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  10. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Development of barcode system for internal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tarapur Atomic Power Station unit-3 and 4, which is 540 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, tritium is produced in primary heat transport system and moderator system. Tritium is a major contributor to the internal dose. Internal dose contributes about 30% of the collective dose. Internal dose monitoring and its control are important to control the collective dose. Estimation of internal dose is done by analysis of bioassay samples of radiation workers. In a month, about 7000 bioassay samples are analysed for the internal dose assessment during normal operation, and about 12000 during the biennial shut down of the reactor. To enhance the sample preparation and counting performance, minimize the entry errors and reduce the processing time, barcode based label generation system was developed for the internal dose monitoring. This paper discusses about the use of barcode system in the internal dose monitoring at TAPS 3 and 4. (author)

  12. Development theory and changes in the international system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development theory has undergone several changes over the last two decades. However, the international reality has changed more profoundly. The increased heterogeneity of the developing world, the diverse experience of economic success among some developing countries, the new geography of global poverty, the increased multipolarity of the international system and the wider spheres of international public assets are just some of these changes. Thus, it is necessary to think again about the development process and the strategies that are required to promote economic and social change. This article represents an attempt to contribute to that reflection.

  13. No silver bullet in international development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development economics has started to propose solutions to the problem of development in underdeveloped countries since the 17th century. Over time, various solutions have been proposed by many different development researchers and economists. Most of these solutions have the common characteristic of looking for a so-called “silver bullet” to the problem of development, that is to say a single solution to be applied to all underdeveloped countries, which over time might be freedom, foreign aid, good governance or other single approach. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, being development generally intended as a sort of “adequate level of production of goods and services by public and private subjects in a given country”, the solution to the problem of development cannot be a single one, given that the basic theory of production in economics in based on 4 factors of production (entrepreneurship, labor, capital and land, so that the level and quality of these 4 factors and all the sub-factors influencing them (such as the climate in the case of land or the culture in the case of entrepreneurship will be the real responsible for the development process in a country.

  14. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  15. Implementation of International Standards for Environmental Management in Visegrad Countries: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URBANIEC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper  aims  at  identifying  the  importance  and  relevant  practices related  to  international  standards  for  environmental  management  system  (EMS  in the  countries  of  the  Visegrad  Group  (including  Slovakia,  the  Czech  Republic,  Poland and Hungary. A  review  of  mainstream  literature  on  EMS  will  be conducted followed by document-based research as well  as statistics database used as  the  methodological  approach.  Data  will  be  gathered  through  the  evaluation  of Eurostat database and ISO Surveys. The  international  comparison  facilitates  the  evaluation  of current implementation  of  EMS  as  well  as  contributes  to  the  identification  of  the  main possibilities  and  limitations  for  its  development.  The  implementation  of  EMS according  to  the  ISO  14000  and  EMAS  can  help  companies  to  find  solutions  that support processes of environmental changes with the purpose to improve corporate innovativeness and competitiveness. This work is limited to the evaluation of  statistical data. Further, the detailed empirical research based on case study approach and indepth semi-structured interviews is needed to explain the difficulties experienced and benefits accrued during implementation of EMS. This  article  contributes  to  existing  literature  on corporate sustainable development by applying environmental management systems to the practices of entrepreneurs that have a goal of environmental sustainability.

  16. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius. PMID:23107530

  17. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  18. 3D cadastre in the Netherlands: Developments and international applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.; Ploeger, H.; Van Oosterom, P.

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the cadastral system extension for registration of 3D rights and restrictions in the Netherlands fitting within the ISO 19152, Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) final draft international standard. The implementation will be conducted in two

  19. International certification in developing countries: the role of internal and external institutional pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Mahelet G

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the different internal and external institutional factors that affect the decision of businesses in developing countries to adopt international certification (IC). Past studies focus on pressure from international laws, the role of multinationals, and businesses mimicking practices of their counterparts in developed countries. This paper finds that, in addition to these external factors, internal factors may have a significant role. Even though environmental regulation is weak in developing countries, governments do not ignore industrial pollution and casualties. They respond by increasing bureaucratic regulations for businesses and this can affect the decision to adopt IC. Furthermore, internal pressure may come from workers' unions that push for a safe and healthy working environment.

  20. Digital guide to developing international software

    CERN Document Server

    Grou

    1991-01-01

    Already in use by hundreds of independent vendors and developers, here at your fingertips are the groundbreaking packaging and design guidelines that Digital recommends and uses for products headed overseas.

  1. United States Agency for International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get involved and lend a hand. Partner Find business and funding opportunities. Comment Make a general inquiry or suggest an ... and Development Review USAID Forward Progress Data Resources Evaluation Strategy and ... Involved Careers

  2. Essays in International Trade and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dragusanu, Raluca Ecaterina

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies different aspects of the interaction between developed and developing countries in global supply chains. The first chapter studies the matching between importing and exporting firms in global supply chains. I construct a novel dataset that links firm-level information of Indian manufacturing exporters from the CMIE-Prowess database with firm-level information of their US importers from the Longitudinal Business Database. The data highlights three key facts that are c...

  3. International Tourism, development and Biodiversity: First Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Freytag; Christoph Vietze

    2006-01-01

    We analyse whether biodiversity can improve the economic growth of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by increasing the receipts of tourism as one of the world biggest and fastest growing industries. The intention of our examination is to present an alternative utilization of biodiversity, rather than hunting or the agricultural use of habitats. Our hypothesis is that tourism may be an important chance for economic growth in developing countries. We assume that biodiversity is an important fact...

  4. Xenophobia, International Migration and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Crush; Sujata Ramachandran

    2009-01-01

    In the continuing discussion on migration and development, the vulnerability of all migrant groups to exploitation and mistreatment in host countries has been highlighted along with an emphasis on protecting their rights. However, xenophobia has not yet received explicit attention although anti-migrant sentiments and practices are clearly on the rise even in receiving countries in developing regions. Despite gaps in existing empirical work, research and anecdotal evidence exposes pervasive fo...

  5. ["Expert approved international standards of evidence-based medicine": a proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspe, Heiner; Sawicki, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Section 35b of the German Code of Social Law Book V (SGB V) mentions "expert approved international standards of evidence-based medicine" (EbM). An idea which started as a reform movement in and for clinical medicine more than twenty years ago is here, from a socio-legal perspective, being utilised as a normative concept in terms of a standard-creating methodology, which is meant to form the basis for the "methods and criteria" of comparative benefit/risk assessment of medical drugs mentioned in the respective law. The present paper places the standards in a hierarchy between "description and analysis of benefits" at the bottom and, at the top, "fundamental concerns of EbM". Apart from a variety of standards, we propose seven basic principles and four fundamental concerns of EbM (pursuit of empirical truth, patient welfare, pragmatism, procedural justice). Each of the basic principles, standards, methods and criteria can be taken to substantiate the respective superordinate category (basic concerns etc.). The position and role of the standards will be explained using the example "search for and selection of literature". PMID:21129703

  6. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, T J; Bellizzi, M. C.; Flegal, K M; Dietz, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN: International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING: Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. SUBJECTS: 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Body mass ind...

  7. Developing Internal Communication in Fast-changing Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Inkeri

    2011-01-01

    Developing internal communication in fast-changing organizations is a current topic, which seems to exercise the minds of corporate people in different positions. Well-functioning internal communication and business success seem to be strongly linked. It motivates people, and only people who are motivated and enthusiastic about their work are able to perform well in their jobs and to secure the success of their employers. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of internal...

  8. A sociology of international research partnerships for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Zingerli

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the partnership concept has shaped not only international development assistance, but also the organisation of knowledge production processes in development research. This article looks beyond the rhetoric of the partnership concept by discussing the institutional conditions and individual choices that shape North–South research collaboration in the context of an international development research network. By drawing on ideas from the Sociology of Knowledge, and by distinguis...

  9. Darwin Core: an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wieczorek

    Full Text Available Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations.

  10. Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takashi; Doihara, Ryouji; Terao, Yoshiya; Takamoto, Masaki

    A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor: k = 2). The primary standard is based on a static and gravimetric method with a flying start and finish. The facility consists of two test rigs using kerosene and light oil as working fluids. The test lines for the flowmeters are 50, 100 and 150 mm in diameter and three servo positive displacement meters are used as working standards. To verify the calibration performance, a Coriolis flowmeter, a turbine meter and a positive displacement flowmeter have been calibrated at both test rigs. Furthermore, an international comparison with SP, Swedish National Testing Research Institute, was carried out. A screw-type positive displacement flowmeter was selected as the transfer standard and was calibrated at NMIJ and SP. The result shows that the two national standards at the two institutes agree within the quoted expanded uncertainties.

  11. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development

  12. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S.J. (ed.)

    1980-03-01

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development.

  13. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  14. International comparison of energy standards in the building area; Internationaler Vergleich von Energiestandards im Baubereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Balthasar, A. [Institut fuer Politikstudien Interface GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Eichhammer, W.; Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the creation, implementation and effectiveness of energy standards in Switzerland and the four European countries Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. The results of the research, which was based on interviews, documents and the literature available, are presented and commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the development of energy-standards and regulations proved to be most difficult in Switzerland as a result of heavily decentralised legislation competencies. Developments in Europe are discussed. As far as the 'sharpness' of legislation is concerned, large differences can be found between the five countries looked at. The possible export of the Swiss 'MINERGIE' standard in other European countries is examined. Recommendations are made for the further development of energy standards.

  15. Standards Serve the Olympics:Building a "Green Olympics"——Forum on Green Olympics and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On June 26th a forum entitled Green Olympics and Sustainable Development was hosted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC);Science and Technology Committee for the Games of the ⅩⅩⅨ Olympiad; General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC (AQSIQ); State Environmental Protection Administration of China; China Meteorological Administration;and the Certification and Accreditation Administration of the PRC at Beijing International Conference Hall.

  16. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  17. A study to explore internal auditors’ compliance with Quality Assurance Standards: A case of state owned corporations in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamau, Charles Guandaru

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internal Audit Department in any organization (including State Owned Corporations has a role of assisting the management in achieving their objectives and adding value to organizational operations by evaluating and improving the effective of risk management, internal controls and governance processes. To achieve this, the Internal Audit Department is required by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA to carry out a continuous internal quality assessment and an external assessment at least once in five years. The literature suggests that internal auditors in Africa including Kenya do not comply with the quality assurance standards as set by the IIA. This research collected data from 24 Internal Audit Units from State Owned Corporations regarding their compliance with quality assurance standards. The research carried out a hypothesis testing using the data collected to find out whether the audit departments in state owned corporations comply with quality assurance standards. The study found out that there is generally low compliance with quality assurance standards among most internal audit units in state owned corporations in Kenya. The research identified some of the reasons that led to low compliance to include; lack of awareness of standards; non-membership with IIA; non adoption of IPPF; age and experience of the internal audit department and understanding of the quality assurance standards.

  18. International Projects Development: From Decision Cycle to Overseas Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Gaston J.

    The major elements of the industry-based planning process can be successfully applied to the development and implementation of international projects in educational institutions. International education programs share the following fundamental structural elements with business and industry: they compete in the market place, and exist by managing…

  19. Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate ...

  20. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  1. Trends and issues in international development cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aid volume from OECD countries has set a new record. However, the assistance recorded as ODA includes categories that do not contribute to reducing poverty in developing countries. Emerging economies and private donors provide an increasing proportion of aid. Progress has been made in implementing the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in a few fields, such as untying aid, but the results do not meet expectations. The approach, too often purely technical, omits taking fully into consideration the political dimension which strongly affects aid effectiveness. The issue of overall policy coherence receives renewed attention at a time when the debate about climate change is leading development agencies to reconsider goals and strategies.

  2. AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the agriculture sustainable development for poverty reduction and raising productivity in agriculture. Agriculture is one of way the vast majority of Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia that makes their living with its high multiplier affect across the wider economy. This sector also is most capable of growing the continent???s economy in the medium term. KKN PPM Dikti gives fund to manage research in all areas including agriculture and re...

  3. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynaud Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs. It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  4. Application of the international basic safety standards to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological and regulatory developments concerning exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) during the last two decades have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. The need for radiation protection measures in work activities involving minerals and raw materials has been addressed by the IAEA in Safety Reports Series No. 49: 'Assessing the need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials'. The report identifies the industry sectors and process materials most likely to need regulatory consideration and provides information to assist regulatory bodies in establishing the necessary radiation protection measures. The industry sectors likely to require regulatory consideration are the mining and processing of uranium ore, the extraction of rare earth elements, the production and use of thorium and its compounds, the production of niobium and ferro-niobium the mining of certain ores other than uranium, the production of oil and gas, the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, the phosphate industry, the zircon and zirconia industries, the production of certain metals, coal combustion and water treatment. Regulatory control is needed for mining and processing of uranium and thorium in ores (including monazite). In other NORM industries, doses received by workers and members of the public have been found to be mostly below 1 mSv per year, and may not require the implementation of comprehensive radiation protection programmes. This is in line with the graded approach to regulation, as embodied in the 'International Basis Safety Standards for Protection against ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources' IAEA Safety Series No.115 (the BSS). A revised version of the BSS which is currently being drafted incorporates numerical criteria for the regulation of NORM. For radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th decay series, a criterion of 1 Bq/g has been

  5. Linux Distributions and Applications Analysis During Linux Standard Base Development

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Silakov

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of collecting and managing information about existing Linux distributions and applications necessary for standardizing Linux ecosystem during Linux Standard Base specification development. The approach is based on the usage of database designed on the basis of abstract model of the Linux ecosystem. The process of database schema design is described as well as design of tools for filling it with data and analytical instruments.

  6. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  7. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  8. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  9. Project finance and international energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the preference for and the features unique to project finance, one of the favoured vehicles for funding energy development. Our main focus is on the interests of project sponsors, commercial banks and host governments. Inclusion of the latter reflects the fact host governments are often leading participants in primary energy and energy-related projects; more recently, they have come to use limited recourse structures to finance local infrastructure development. Traditional analyses, whilst providing useful insights into the interests of leading project participants, are incapable of isolation a single motive or set of motives that can comprehensively account for all of the features common to this form of debt. Within an options-theoretic framework, most of these ambiguities are resolved. Risk management, long recognised as one of the primary reasons for choosing project finance over rival debt structures, is affirmed as a key explanatory factor. One the other hand, options pricing theory provides a radically different perspective on how to project finance contributes to the realisation of these objectives. (author)

  10. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  11. Malaysian Ergonomics Standards-Its Development, Awareness and Implementation- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnah MOHD YUSUFF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ergonomics standards play an important role in product and system design as it can improve their usability; provide comfort and safety for the users. The number of musculoskeletal diseases has increased in recent years in Malaysia. However, the awareness and importance of ergonomics in Malaysia is still very low among the industries. Many ergonomics standards have been adopted by SIRIM Berhad under the purview of Department of Standards Malaysia (STANDARDS MALAYSIA. However, the take-up has been slow.Method: This paper examined the role of SIRIM Berhad in developing the standards, involvement at international levels and other government agencies in promoting Ergonomics. Ergonomics awareness seminars were arranged in three localities, representing three regions, not only to disseminate information on ergonomics and standards available but also to solicit inputs from stakeholders on the problems in developing and adoption of the standards.Results: Most of the stakeholders were not aware of the standards, do not know how to implement it, and do not have people who are knowledgeable in ergonomics. Since it is not mandatory, no conscious efforts were directed towards it. The lack of research in the various areas has also hindered the development of MS standards.Conclusion: Standards are important in determining at least the minimum requirement for safety, health and comfort of workers. Creating awareness on the importance of ergonomics should be given some priority and this can be seen by the recent encouraging developments in Malaysia in the field of Ergonomics. Keywords: Standards, Ergonomics, Malaysian, Awareness

  12. Collaborating internationally on physician leadership development: why now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Ka; de Camps Meschino, Diane; Dath, Deepak; Busari, Jamiu; Bohnen, Jordan David; Samson, Lindy Michelle; Matlow, Anne; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This paper aims to highlight the importance of leadership development for all physicians within a competency-based medical education (CBME) framework. It describes the importance of timely international collaboration as a key strategy in promoting physician leadership development. Design/methodology/approach The paper explores published and Grey literature around physician leadership development and proposes that international collaboration will meet the expanding call for development of leadership competencies in postgraduate medical learners. Two grounding frameworks were used: complexity science supports adding physician leadership training to the current momentum of CBME adoption, and relational cultural theory supports the engagement of diverse stakeholders in multiple jurisdictions around the world to ensure inclusivity in leadership education development. Findings An international collaborative identified key insights regarding the need to frame physician leadership education within a competency-based model. Practical implications International collaboration can be a vehicle for developing a globally relevant, generalizable physician leadership curriculum. This model can be expanded to encourage innovation, scholarship and program evaluation. Originality/value A competency-based leadership development curriculum is being designed by an international collaborative. The curriculum is based on established leadership and education frameworks. The international collaboration model provides opportunities for ongoing sharing, networking and diversification.

  13. Collaborating internationally on physician leadership development: why now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Ka; de Camps Meschino, Diane; Dath, Deepak; Busari, Jamiu; Bohnen, Jordan David; Samson, Lindy Michelle; Matlow, Anne; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This paper aims to highlight the importance of leadership development for all physicians within a competency-based medical education (CBME) framework. It describes the importance of timely international collaboration as a key strategy in promoting physician leadership development. Design/methodology/approach The paper explores published and Grey literature around physician leadership development and proposes that international collaboration will meet the expanding call for development of leadership competencies in postgraduate medical learners. Two grounding frameworks were used: complexity science supports adding physician leadership training to the current momentum of CBME adoption, and relational cultural theory supports the engagement of diverse stakeholders in multiple jurisdictions around the world to ensure inclusivity in leadership education development. Findings An international collaborative identified key insights regarding the need to frame physician leadership education within a competency-based model. Practical implications International collaboration can be a vehicle for developing a globally relevant, generalizable physician leadership curriculum. This model can be expanded to encourage innovation, scholarship and program evaluation. Originality/value A competency-based leadership development curriculum is being designed by an international collaborative. The curriculum is based on established leadership and education frameworks. The international collaboration model provides opportunities for ongoing sharing, networking and diversification. PMID:27397746

  14. Japan's Role in International Development Cooperation for Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability Weeks 2009 Opening Symposium "International Symposium on Sustainable Development -Recommendations for Tackling the 5 Challenges of Global Sustainability-". Session 2, Toward the Expansion of an Integrated Water Management System. 2 November 2009. Sapporo, Japan.

  15. The adoption of ‘International Accounting Standard (IAS) 12 Income Taxes’: Convergence or divergence with local accounting standards in selected ASEAN countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Prem W.S. Yapa; Diane Kraal; Mahesh Joshi

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns inter-disciplinary research on questions about the socio-economic impact of the adoption and convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) with local standards in selected countries. The article approaches the research in two stages. The first stage concerns the findings and analysis relating to the general impact of the IFRS standards on Singapore and Malaysia. Findings reveal that respondents expressed reservations about cited IFRS adoption benefits...

  16. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  17. Teacher Professional Development: International Perspectives and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bautista

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nations around the world are currently embarked in deep reforms of their education systems. There is widespread agreement among policymakers, scholars, and educators that one of the keys for success during these reforms is promoting the professional development (PD of in-service teachers. Every year, governments invest astronomical amounts of money on teacher continuous learning. However, the literature shows that much of the PD offered to teachers is inefficient, having small or no effect on teaching practices and/or student learning. This monograph describes the perspectives and approaches to teacher PD of five nations heavily committed to research and/or practice in this field. Understanding how PD is structured in these nations may guide others in designing more favorable learning opportunities for their teachers. The article from United States provides a general framework regarding the features of high-quality PD and offers examples of recent effective initiatives. The four following articles describe the PD models of Australia, Hong Kong, Finland, and Singapore, among the highest-achievers in education presently. Because teacher continuous learning is a high priority in these nations, strong infrastructures for high-quality PD have been built to meet teachers’ needs and interests. The monograph closes with a contribution from Spain, the country where the journal Psychology, Society and Education is edited. The author discusses the five prior articles and reflects on how the ideas presented could improve the PD currently offered to teachers in other nations, particularly Spain.

  18. INNOVATION THROUGH (INTERNATIONAL) FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: A RESEARCH AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; VAN HAGEN, J M; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda on innovation through (international) food supply chains and networks in developing countries. It derives major topics from a multi-perspective view on international food chains (economic, technology, social/legal and environment) and from different theoretical streams dealing with chains and networks (Supply Chain Management, Industrial Organization theory and Network Theory). Three agri-supply chain projects in developing countries (Thailand, South-Afri...

  19. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  20. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.