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Sample records for developing effective chronic

  1. [Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

    2012-07-01

    During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W; Krzyzanowski, M W; Wojtyniak, B

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  3. The effect of control and self-medication of chronic gout in a developing country.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmawan, John; Rasker, Johannes J.; Nuralim, Hendri

    2003-01-01

    Objective:: We describe a 10 year observation of the effect of control of hyperuricemia compared with self-medication alone in patients with chronic gout. Methods: We studied 299 consecutively self-referred Malayo-Polynesian men with chronic gout, mean age 35 ± 14.3 SD years. Subjects comprised 228

  4. Effects of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on fetal growth and development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venditti Carolina C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously, and can also be acquired from many exogenous sources: ie. cigarette smoking, automobile exhaust. Although toxic at high levels, low level production or exposure lends to normal physiologic functions: smooth muscle cell relaxation, control of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, anti- inflammatory and anti-apoptotic events. In pregnancy, it is unclear at what level maternal CO exposure becomes toxic to the fetus. In this study, we hypothesized that CO would be embryotoxic, and we sought to determine at what level of chronic CO exposure in pregnancy embryo/fetotoxic effects are observed. Methods Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed to continuous levels of CO (0 to 400 ppm from conception to gestation day 17. The effect on fetal/placental growth and development, and fetal/maternal CO concentrations were determined. Results Maternal and fetal CO blood concentrations ranged from 1.12- 15.6 percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb and 1.0- 28.6%COHb, respectively. No significant difference was observed in placental histological morphology or in placental mass with any CO exposure. At 400 ppm CO vs. control, decreased litter size and fetal mass (p Conclusions Exposure to levels at or below 300 ppm CO throughout pregnancy has little demonstrable effect on fetal growth and development in the mouse.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Cornish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®. With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day or distilled water (dH2O. The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  6. Development of a strontium chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lawrence, Gary S; Elphick, James R; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    There are no national water-quality guidelines for strontium for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in North America or elsewhere. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of strontium to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 75 mg/L to 15 000 mg/L. The majority of chronic effects occurred at concentrations above 11 mg/L; however, calculation of a representative benchmark was confounded by results from 4 studies indicating that chronic effects occurred at lower concentrations than all other studies, in 2 cases below background concentrations reported for US and European streams. Two of these studies, including 1 reporting effects below background concentrations, were repeated and found not to be reproducible; chronic effects occurred at considerably higher strontium concentrations than in the original studies. Studies with narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish were not repeated; both studies reported chronic effects below background concentrations, and both studies had been conducted by the authors of 1 of the 2 studies that were repeated and shown to be nonreproducible. Studies by these authors (3 of the 4 confounding studies), conducted over 30 yr ago, lacked detail in reporting of methods and results. It is thus likely that repeating the toad and goldfish studies would also have resulted in a higher strontium effects concentration. A strontium chronic effects benchmark of 10.7 mg/L that incorporates the results of additional testing summarized in the present study is proposed for freshwater environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. Effects of chronic inflammatory reaction status on the development of complications in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Caili; Wei Feng; Shi Ping; Li Guiling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of serum contents of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and the development of complications (anemia, malnutrition, atherosclerosis) in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Serum IL-6, TNF-α (with RIA) and CRP, IL-10 (with ELISA) levels were determined in 126 patients with chronic renal failure and 36 controls. Blood hemoglobin, albumin, glucose and triglycerides levels were also determined in all these patients. Echocardiography was performed in 95 patients. Results: (1) Serum contents of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were all significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 6mmol/L, n=83) were significantly higher than those in the corresponding patients without anemia, malnutrition and hyperglycemia ( all P 1.71mmol/L, n=68), the levels were lower than those in patients without high TG (P<0.001 for IL-6, P<0.01 for CRP and IL-10). In patients with aortic arteriosclerosis shown on echocardiography (n=37), levels of the markers were higher than those in patients without arteriosclerosis (n=58) (P<0.001 for IL-10, P<0.001 for CRP and IL-6, P<0.05 for TNF-α). Correlation studies showed that levels of all the four markers were negatively correlated with levels of hemoglobin and albumin, TNF-α levels were correlated with levels of glucose and CRP, IL-6, IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with triglyceride levels. (3) Levels of each of the pro-inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α) were correlated with levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (r=0.463, 0.546 and 0.402 respectively). Conclusion: (1) Serum levels of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were increased in patients with chronic renal failure. (2) Levels of these markers were correlated in some degree with the development of complications (anemia, malnutrition, arteriosclerosis......) in the patients. (3) Levels of pro-inflammatory markers were correlated with levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. (authors)

  8. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  9. Effects of chronic mild stress on the development of drug dependence in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Mariusz; Gruca, Piotr; Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Magdalena; Litwa, Ewa; Willner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There is high comorbidity between depression and addiction. Features of addiction relevant to depression have been studied extensively, but less is known about features of depression relevant to addiction. Here, we have studied the effects of chronic mild stress (CMS), a valid animal model of depression, on measures of physical and psychological dependence resulting from subchronic treatment of rats with three drugs of abuse that act through disparate neurobiological mechanisms: morphine, nicotine and diazepam. In animals not treated subchronically with drugs of abuse, CMS increased the withdrawal-like effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone, but not those of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine or the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil. In animals treated subchronically with drugs of abuse, CMS exacerbated, precipitated and conditioned withdrawal effects associated with all three antagonists. CMS also potentiated withdrawal-induced and cue-induced place aversions associated with all three antagonists. All of the effects of CMS were reversed by chronic treatment with the specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. These results suggest that treatment of comorbid depression, although not a primary treatment for addiction, may facilitate other treatments for addiction, by decreasing the severity of withdrawal symptoms and the likelihood of relapse.

  10. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  11. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis

  12. Biological effect of 60Co chronic irradiation on different development stage in common wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youliang; Yang Pinghua; Xie Yukang

    1991-01-01

    Common wheats were irradiated in 60 Co garden at the stages of plant mature sporophyte, gametophyte and zygote-young embryo during the growing cycle. The biological effects of M 1 and M 2 was significantly related to the development stage of irradiation. When irradiated in the phase of zygote-young embryo, the emergence rate of M 2 was greatly influenced, but the irradiation had a little effect on the fertility of M 1 . The rate of seedling emergence in M 2 can be used for determining optimal dose of irradiation. The rate of micro-nuclei cells were low in the root tip cells of M 1 and seedling cells of M 2 . The M 1 is the major generation of irradiation injury. The irradiation injury of M 2 is minor. M 2 is the first generation for mutant selection. The generation gradation of chronic irradiation was discussed

  13. Effects of chronic treatment with valproate and oxcarbazepine on testicular development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Ali; Ekinci, Ozgür; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Gürgen, Seren Gulsen; Ekinci, Ozalp; Erdogan, Deniz; Coskun, Zafer Kutay; Tunc, Lutfi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on testicular development in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 14 rats each. Each group received the following via gavage over 90 days: group 1, tap water (control group); group 2, VPA (300mg/kg/day); group 3, OXC (100mg/kg/day). After sacrifice, body, testicular and epididymidis weights were measured. Testes were sampled, fixed and processed, and quantitative morphometric analysis of Sertoli cells, spermatocytes and spermatids was performed in stages II, V and XII by histopathological examination. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to transform growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and p53, and the apoptotic index was assessed using the TUNEL method. Testis and relative testis weights were significantly lower in the VPA group compared to the control group (p0.05). Apoptotic cell counts and p53 immunoreaction were significantly high and TGF-β1 expression was significantly lower in the VPA group compared to that of the control group (p0.05). Our results show that VPA treatment from prepuberty to adulthood significantly negatively affects spermatogenesis, not only by reducing testicular weight, but also by increasing apoptotic death and p53 and decreasing TGF-β1 activation. OXC has a minimal side effect on testicular development. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina): long-term physiological effects of chronic hypoxia during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-15

    Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21). We hypothesized that hypoxic development would modify posthatching body mass, metabolic rate, and cardiovascular physiology in juvenile snapping turtles. Yearling H10 turtles were significantly smaller than yearling N21 turtles, both of which were raised posthatching in normoxic, common garden conditions. Measurement of postprandial cardiovascular parameters and O2 consumption were conducted in size-matched three-year-old H10 and N21 turtles. Both before and 12 h after feeding, H10 turtles had a significantly lower fH compared with N21 turtles. In addition, V̇o2 was significantly elevated in H10 animals compared with N21 animals 12 h after feeding, and peak postprandial V̇o2 occurred earlier in H10 animals. Pm of three-year-old turtles was not affected by feeding or hypoxic embryonic incubation. Our findings demonstrate that physiological impacts of developmental hypoxia on embryonic reptiles continue into juvenile life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  16. Differential effects of chronic ingestion of tritiated water on prenatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1990-01-01

    Female rats were given tritiated drinking water (3 microCi/ml) from 30 days before mating up to and throughout pregnancy. At this low dose, the course and the outcome of pregnancy were normal. The differences between newborn body and cerebral weights of the treated rats and those of control animals were on the borderline of significance. In contrast, cerebral DNA and cerebral protein were highly significantly lower. In 30-35% of the treated population the DNA and protein values were more than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean values for the control population. Thus the number of the progeny of the mothers exposed to tritiated water that were considered to have outstandingly low levels of DNA and protein was 14-17 times greater than in the control group. The irradiated population also had 3-5% of severely affected individuals with cerebral DNA and protein values more than 2 SD below the mean of the experimental population. However, even in this irradiated population, a certain number of individuals did not show the effects of radiation as indicated by DNA and protein values that were not lower than the mean values of the control population. These animals may represent those individuals in which normal (control) populations would have cerebral DNA and protein levels well above the average (by 1 to 2 SD), but here, because of prenatal irradiation, were about average. If so, this lack of effect of irradiation cannot be caused by protection against radiation. However, at present, a differential repair mechanism of protection in those animals (or their mothers) that showed little or no effect of irradiation cannot be excluded

  17. Effects of glutamate and α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists on the development of neurotoxicity produced by chronic rotenone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mesbah; Danysz, Wojciech; Schmidt, Werner Juergen; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inhibition of complex I by rotenone in rats represents a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether neramexane (NMDA, nicotinic α9/α10 and 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist), idazoxan (α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or 2-methyl-6-(phenyl-ethyl)-pyrimidine (MPEP, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist) prevents rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like behaviours and neurochemical changes in rats. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered over 60 days together with saline, neramexane (5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.), idazoxan (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or MPEP (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.). The same doses of neramexane, idazoxan and MPEP were administered to rats treated with vehicle instead of rotenone. Treatment-related effects on parkinsonian-like behaviours, such as hypokinesia/rigidity and locomotor activity, were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in rats from each experimental group. Over the 60-day treatment period, the rotenone + saline treated animals developed hypokinesia, expressed as an increase in the bar and grid descent latencies in the catalepsy test, and a decrease in locomotor activity. Neramexane and idazoxan partially prevented the development of catalepsy in rotenone-treated rats. Co-administration of MPEP with rotenone resulted only in a decrease in descent latency in the grid test on day 60. Chronic rotenone treatment reduced concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the anterior striatum, which was blocked by co-treatment with neramexane or idazoxan but not with MPEP. Only neramexane treatment blocked the rotenone-induced decrease in dopamine levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In conclusion, neramexane and idazoxan counteracted to some extent the development of parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemical alterations in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development assay: Effects of chronic 4-tert-octylphenol or 17ß-trenbolone exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a Tier II test guideline being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thy...

  19. Effects of chronic exposure of seeds and seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis Thaliana by low doses of γ-radiation on plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the results of research on the effect of chronic γ-irradiation in small doses on A. Thaliana seedlings and seeds growth and development. Exposure rate for the seeds was 0,45 mGy/h (total absorbed dose 30 cSv) and 0,18 mGy/h for seedlings (total absorbed dose 3 cSv). Statistically significant differences in the germination capacity, in the time of primary leaf rosette formation, in the hypocotyl length were revealed between irradiated and control seedlings. Plants from irradiated seeds differed by the higher growth rate of stem, they flowered and fruited earlier, but they also characterized on average shorter vegetative cycle in comparison with control plants. In our experiments it is shown significant impact of chronic low doses of γ-irradiation of seeds and seedlings on the ontogeny in A. Thaliana and on the parameters that reflect the growth and development of the irradiated plants

  20. Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Feasibility and effects of newly developed balance control trainer for mobility and balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hyun; Byun, Seung Deuk; Kim, Chul Hyun; Go, Jin Young; Nam, Hyeon Uk; Huh, Jin Seok; Jung, Tae Du

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effects of balance training with a newly developed Balance Control Trainer (BCT) that applied the concept of vertical movement for the improvements of mobility and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group (n=20) underwent training with a BCT for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks, in addition to concurrent conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) underwent only conventional therapy for 4 weeks. All participants were assessed by: the Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), 10-meter Walking Test (10mWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Korean Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Manual Muscle Test (MMT) before training, and at 2 and 4 weeks of training. There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except knee extensor power at 2 weeks of treatment, and in all parameters except MBI which showed further statistically significant progress in the experimental group over the next two weeks (pgait in ambulatory chronic stroke patients. Furthermore, it may provide additional benefits when used in conjunction with conventional therapies.

  2. Inhibitive Effect of antibiotic-loaded beads to cure chronic osteomyelitis in developing country : Hand-made vs commercial beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hcrmawan N.; Van Horn, Jim R.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Soegijoko, Sooegijardjo; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle; Ibrahim, F; Osman, NAA; Usman, J; Kadri, NA

    2007-01-01

    Local antibiotic-loaded beads have been approved for standard treatment of orthopaedic pathogens, especially chronic osteomyelitis. Septopal (R), the only commercial local antibiotic bead available on the market, is expensive and contains only gentamicin. This study aimed to compare the in vitro

  3. Neurodevelopmental effects of chronic exposure to elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a developing visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthazer Edward S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbalances in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been increasingly correlated with a number of severe and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and Down syndrome. Although several studies have shown that cytokines have potent effects on neural function, their role in neural development is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between abnormal cytokine levels and neural development using the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system, a model frequently used to examine the anatomical and functional development of neural circuits. Results Using a test for a visually guided behavior that requires normal visual system development, we examined the long-term effects of prolonged developmental exposure to three pro-inflammatory cytokines with known neural functions: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We found that all cytokines affected the development of normal visually guided behavior. Neuroanatomical imaging of the visual projection showed that none of the cytokines caused any gross abnormalities in the anatomical organization of this projection, suggesting that they may be acting at the level of neuronal microcircuits. We further tested the effects of TNF-α on the electrophysiological properties of the retinotectal circuit and found that long-term developmental exposure to TNF-α resulted in enhanced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in tectal neurons, increased AMPA/NMDA ratios of retinotectal synapses, and a decrease in the number of immature synapses containing only NMDA receptors, consistent with premature maturation and stabilization of these synapses. Local interconnectivity within the tectum also appeared to remain widespread, as shown by increased recurrent polysynaptic activity, and was similar to what is seen in more immature, less refined tectal circuits. TNF-α treatment also enhanced the

  4. Development of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy for Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health concern that affects millions of people. There are no adequate long-term therapies for chronic pain sufferers, leading to significant cost for both society and the individual. The most commonly used therapy for chronic pain is the application of opioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but these drugs can lead to addiction and may cause side effects. Further studies of the mechanisms of chronic pain have opened the way for development of new treatment strategies, one of which is gene therapy. The key to gene therapy is selecting safe and highly efficient gene delivery systems that can deliver therapeutic genes to overexpress or suppress relevant targets in specific cell types. Here we review several promising viral vectors that could be applied in gene transfer for the treatment of chronic pain and further discuss the possible mechanisms of genes of interest that could be delivered with viral vectors for the treatment of chronic pain.

  5. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-21

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct.

  7. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems, effects of low-level chronic irradiation on embryonic development, effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems, and teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Roesijadi, G.; Emery, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is conceivable, and possible, that with increasing applications of nuclear energy, greater quantities of potentially harmful radionuclides will be released to the environment. This may be particularly true for advanced reactor designs such as the fusion reactor where radionuclides, principally tritium, may be expected to escape from the plant both in gaseous and liquid effluents in quantities significantly greater than for present PWR or BWR designs. Foreseeing such contingencies, the research programs described herein are in response to the need to measure the potential radiation effects of tritium releases on individuals, and ultimately populations and biotic communities. As a first approach, our efforts are directed to determine effects of low-level chronic exposures on developing embryo and larval stages, clearly the most radiosensitive. The anticipated increase in the release of beryllium and lithium from mining, refining, and fabrication of materials used during construction of fusion reactors has also caused concern as to potential adverse effects on the environment. Accordingly, FY-78 fusion related research will include efforts to study the metabolism of each metal in the living organism, and to determine at what levels toxicity may be expected. Fusion related research will also include preliminary experiments on the effects of low-level magnetic fields. It is conceivable that magnetic fields of 70 to 450 gauss will be encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. Also, those personnel assigned to the areas immediately surrounding the reactor may be exposed

  8. Clinical effects of chronic irradiation in conditions of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses for des adaptation syndrome development during chronic external and internal irradiation were found. Effects of small dose accumulation were established. Chronic irradiation is resulted in different dystrophic processes, psychosomatic violations and in increase of stochastic effects

  9. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  10. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxide Content of Rat Liver and Brain. ... one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally once a day for 6 weeks.

  11. The effects of short term and chronic exposure to tritiated drinking water on pre- and postnatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthens, E. van; Zamenhof, S.

    1982-01-01

    Ingestion of HTO during oocyte maturation and continued during pre-implantation time was found to depress decidual response. At birth these offspring also showed a decrease in brain cell number. When HTO was given during pregnancy only, the offspring at birth showed a similar deficit in brain cell number. Even so, we could not demonstrate a gross deficit in oocyte maturation when HTO was ingested during sexual maturity only; however, when further continued during pregnancy, the measured newborn parameters were most severely affected. In this group, cell-multiplication in the cerebrum was severely decreased, protein synthesis was decreased, and somatic growth was also highly significantly decreased. These experiments indicate that even a short-term exposure to HTO during early pregnancy (pre-implantation) alters normal development to such an extent that it is still observable at birth. During embryonic development, HTO affected the rate of actual cell division and it is apparent that the central nervous system is most vulnerable. If the exposure to HTO is prolonged, the somatic development is also severely affected. (orig./MG)

  12. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  13. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  14. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  15. Recent Worldwide Developments in eHealth and mHealth to more Effectively Manage Cancer and other Chronic Diseases – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P.; Liaw, S.-T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper is a systematic literature review intended to gain an understanding of the most original, excellent, state-of-the-art research in the application of eHealth (including mHealth) in the management of chronic diseases with a focus on cancer over the past two years. Method This review looks at peer-reviewed papers published between 2013 and 2015 and examines the background and trends in this area. It systematically searched peer-reviewed journals in databases PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Elsevier, Sage and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE Digital Library) using a set of pre-defined keywords. It then employed an iterative process to filter out less relevant publications. Results From an initial search return of 1,519,682 results returned, twenty nine of the most relevant peer reviewed articles were identified as most relevant. Conclusions Based on the results we conclude that innovative eHealth and its subset mHealth initiatives are rapidly emerging as an important means of managing cancer and other chronic diseases. The adoption is following different paths in the developed and developing worlds. Besides governance and regulatory issues, barriers still exist around information management, interoperability and integration. These include medical records available online information for clinicians and consumers on cancer and other chronic diseases, mobile app bundles that can help manage co-morbidities and the capacity of supporting communication technologies. PMID:27830236

  16. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  17. Bystander chronic infection negatively impacts development of CD8+ T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelekati, Erietta; Shin, Haina; Doering, Travis A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Ziegler, Carly G.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Dawson, Lucas; Liboon, Jennifer; Wolski, David; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A.; Katsikis, Peter D.; Shen, Hao; Roos, David S.; Haining, W. Nicholas; Lauer, Georg M.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic infections impair immune responses to unrelated pathogens and vaccines. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear and distinguishing effects on priming versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. We investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, the hallmark of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Chronic bystander infections impaired development of memory CD8+ T cells in several mouse models and humans. These effects were independent of initial priming and were associated with chronic inflammatory signatures. Chronic inflammation negatively impacted the number of bystander CD8+ T cells and their memory development. Distinct underlying mechanisms of altered survival and differentiation were revealed with the latter regulated by the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. Thus, exposure to prolonged bystander inflammation impairs the effector to memory transition. These data have relevance for immunity and vaccination during persisting infections and chronic inflammation. PMID:24837104

  18. Personality traits and chronic disease: implications for adult personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.

  19. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...... randomized patients completed the mindfulness program, while 47 remained in the control group. Data were compared at three time points: at baseline, after completion of the course/waiting period, and at the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Significant effect (Cohen's d = 0.39) was found on the primary outcome...... (nonsignificant) effect sizes were found for pain measures. There were no significant differences in the measures just after the intervention vs the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: A standardized mindfulness program (MBSR) contributes positively to pain management and can exert clinically relevant effects...

  20. A Measure of Perceived Chronic Social Adversity: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiu Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a measure that assesses negative daily social encounters. Specifically, we examined the concept of perceived chronic social adversity and its assessment, the Perceived Chronic Social Adversity Questionnaire (PCSAQ. The PCSAQ focused on the subjective processing of daily social experiences. Psychometric properties were examined within two non-clinical samples (N = 331 and N = 390 and one clinical sample (N = 86. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of the PCSAQ, which corresponds to three types of daily social stressors. The final 28-item PCSAQ was shown to be internally consistent, and to have good construct validity in terms of factor structure and group differences. It was also shown to have good concurrent validity in terms of association with outcome variables (sense of control, happiness, and mood and anxiety symptoms. Perceived chronic social adversity was also shown to be correlated with PTSD severity. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PCSAQ is a reliable, valid, and useful measure that can be used to assess negative social and clinical aspects of personal experiences. This study is an important exploratory step in improving our understanding of the relationship between the cumulative effect of negative social encounters and psychological difficulty.

  1. Development of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E.L.H.; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the development of chronic daily headache in 258 headache practice patients, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Twenty-two percent of the patients had daily headaches from the onset, and 78%

  2. Chronic effects of UV on human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic exposures and acute accidents of the skin to UV has been recognized as an important risk for skin cancers in human. Attempts have been made with mathematical models to correlate the ambient UV dose and occupational irradiations with the risk of skin cancers. Development of accurate global measurements of solar irradiance and personal dosimetry is expected in the future in order to reduce the exposure of the general population, to precise the measures to be taken for indoor and outdoor workers. (author)

  3. New developments in endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, P; Bruno, M; Poley, J W

    2012-12-01

    The aim of endoscopic therapy of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is to treat pain by draining the pancreatic duct or managing loco-regional complications. Recent decennia were characterized by continuous improvement of endoscopic techniques and devices, resulting in a better clinical outcome. Novel developments now also provide the opportunity to endoscopically treat refractory CP-related complications. Especially suboptimal surgical candidates could potentially benefit from these new developments, consequently avoiding invasive surgery. The use of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been explored in pancreatic and CP-related biliary duct strictures, resistant to conventional treatment with plastic endoprotheses. Furthermore, endosonography-guided transmural drainage of the main pancreatic duct via duct-gastrostomy is an alternative treatment option in selected cases. Pancreatic pseudocysts represent an excellent indication for endoscopic therapy with some recent case series demonstrating effective drainage with the use of a fully covered SEMS. Although results of these new endoscopic developments are promising, high quality randomized trials are required to determine their definite role in the management of chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli B A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is associated with both structural and functional pathology of the brain. A wide range of cognitive deficits has been reported in malnourished children. Effect of chronic protein energy malnutrition (PEM causing stunting and wasting in children could also affect the ongoing development of higher cognitive processes during childhood (>5 years of age. The present study examined the effect of stunted growth on the rate of development of cognitive processes using neuropsychological measures. Methods Twenty children identified as malnourished and twenty as adequately nourished in the age groups of 5–7 years and 8–10 years were examined. NIMHANS neuropsychological battery for children sensitive to the effects of brain dysfunction and age related improvement was employed. The battery consisted of tests of motor speed, attention, visuospatial ability, executive functions, comprehension and learning and memory Results Development of cognitive processes appeared to be governed by both age and nutritional status. Malnourished children performed poor on tests of attention, working memory, learning and memory and visuospatial ability except on the test of motor speed and coordination. Age related improvement was not observed on tests of design fluency, working memory, visual construction, learning and memory in malnourished children. However, age related improvement was observed on tests of attention, visual perception, and verbal comprehension in malnourished children even though the performance was deficient as compared to the performance level of adequately nourished children. Conclusion Chronic protein energy malnutrition (stunting affects the ongoing development of higher cognitive processes during childhood years rather than merely showing a generalized cognitive impairment. Stunting could result in slowing in the age related improvement in certain and not all higher order cognitive processes and may also result in

  5. Early determinants of chronic disease in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in developing countries. The extent to which this is due to a nutritional mismatch in foetal and adult life is unknown however, studies in such countries show that the risk of chronic diseases is increased in low birthweight subjects who become obese adults. Immune dysfunction is also linked to low birthweight. Therefore, in countries where communicable diseases are prevalent, infection may be exacerbated by factors acting in utero. It is also possible that the foetal growth-retarding effects of maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malaria infection may contribute to an increased risk of NCDs later in life. Low birthweight and postnatal growth faltering followed by rapid weight gain define subjects who develop NCDs. Dietary interventions at specific time points in the life course may therefore be important for reducing disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic Upper ... they are associated with a complex relationship between individual, work-related and ... in chronic upper quadrant musculoskeletal dysfunction and work productivity ...

  7. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seoub Hong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments.

  8. Chronic pancreatitis: diagnosis, classification, and new genetic developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, B; Whitcomb, D C

    2001-02-01

    The utilization of recent advances in molecular and genomic technologies and progress in pancreatic imaging techniques provided remarkable insight into genetic, environmental, immunologic, and pathobiological factors leading to chronic pancreatitis. Translation of these advances into clinical practice demands a reassessment of current approaches to diagnosis, classification, and staging. We conclude that an adequate pancreatic biopsy must be the gold standard against which all diagnostic approaches are judged. Although computed tomography remains the initial test of choice for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, the roles of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are considered. Once chronic pancreatitis is diagnosed, proper classification becomes important. Major predisposing risk factors to chronic pancreatitis may be categorized as either (1) toxic-metabolic, (2) idiopathic, (3) genetic, (4) autoimmune, (5) recurrent and severe acute pancreatitis, or (6) obstructive (TIGAR-O system). After classification, staging of pancreatic function, injury, and fibrosis becomes the next major concern. Further research is needed to determine the clinical and natural history of chronic pancreatitis developing in the context of various risk factors. New methods are needed for early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, and new therapies are needed to determine whether interventions will delay or prevent the progression of the irreversible damage characterizing end-stage chronic pancreatitis.

  9. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  10. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  11. The effect of PPE-induced emphysema and chronic LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-LEIDEN mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Wong, M.C.; Wagenaar, G.T.M.; Plomp, J.J.; Eck, M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Berbée, J.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation, airways obstruction and emphysema, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the contribution of these individual COPD components to this increased risk is unknown. Therefore,

  12. [The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Fujioka, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.

  13. [Development of a prediabetic state under chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭtenko, V V; Konopel'niuk, V V; Savchuk, O M; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in key parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which correspond to the clinical picture that accompanies the development of prediabetic condition on the background of chronic alcohol intoxication. From the analysis of glycemic curves obtained during the insulin-glucose test, a speed of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues increased at the 1st day (1.5 fold) and the third day (1.3 fold) of administration of alcohol solution. At the later periods, at 7 and 11 days of ethanol administration, a decreased rate of glucose uptake in animals with chronic alcohol intoxication was detected. We also detected an increased content of serotonin in the blood serum and a decreased (1.2 fold) serotonin content in rat brain during the whole period of development of chronic alcohol intoxication.

  14. Development of a chronic care ostomy self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long-term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality-of-life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies.

  15. Development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Krouse, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality of life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies. PMID:23104143

  16. Physiotherapeutic methods in treating patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome: current and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic abacterial prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome is one of the most common diseases in urological practice. Physical factors are widely used in treatment of this pathology. This literature review is devoted to study of role of physiotherapeutic methods in treatment of chronic abacterial prostatitis and prospects for development of this therapeutic direction.

  17. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of the Chronic Pain Coding System (CPCS) for Characterizing Patient-Clinician Discussions About Chronic Pain and Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Chen, Meng; Matthias, Marianne S; Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    To describe the development and initial application of the Chronic Pain Coding System. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Six primary care clinics in northern California. Forty-five primary care visits involving 33 clinicians and 45 patients on opioids for chronic noncancer pain. The authors developed a structured coding system to accurately and objectively characterize discussions about pain and opioids. Two coders applied the final system to visit transcripts. Intercoder agreement for major coding categories was moderate to substantial (kappa = 0.5-0.7). Mixed effects regression was used to test six hypotheses to assess preliminary construct validity. Greater baseline pain interference was associated with longer pain discussions (P = 0.007) and more patient requests for clinician action (P = 0.02) but not more frequent negative patient evaluations of pain (P = 0.15). Greater clinician-reported visit difficulty was associated with more frequent disagreements with clinician recommendations (P = 0.003) and longer discussions of opioid risks (P = 0.049) but not more frequent requests for clinician action (P = 0.11). Rates of agreement versus disagreement with patient requests and clinician recommendations were similar for opioid-related and non-opioid-related utterances. This coding system appears to be a reliable and valid tool for characterizing patient-clinician communication about opioids and chronic pain during clinic visits. Objective data on how patients and clinicians discuss chronic pain and opioids are necessary to identify communication patterns and strategies for improving the quality and productivity of discussions about chronic pain that may lead to more effective pain management and reduce inappropriate opioid prescribing. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Development of sarcoidosis during adalimumab therapy for chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Stefanie; Welsh, Belinda; Foley, Peter

    2011-08-01

    A 38-year-old woman developed clinical, biochemical, radiological and histopathological evidence of cutaneous and pulmonary sarcoidosis 5 months after commencing adalimumab for chronic plaque psoriasis. Signs and symptoms resolved within 3 months of cessation of adalimumab. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Development and testing of recipes suitable for patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The main objectives of the study were to develop and test recipes that meet the nutritional requirements of and are acceptable to patients with chronic renal failure. The secondary objectives were to determine gender and racial differences in the participants' responses during consumer sensory testing. Design: ...

  1. Altered Pulmonary Lymphatic Development in Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNellis, Emily M.; Mabry, Sherry M.; Taboada, Eugenio; Ekekezie, Ikechukwu I.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphatic development in chronic lung disease (CLD) has not been investigated, and anatomy of lymphatics in human infant lungs is not well defined. Hypothesis. Pulmonary lymphatic hypoplasia is present in CLD. Method. Autopsy lung tissues of eighteen subjects gestational ages 22 to 40 weeks with and without history of respiratory morbidity were stained with monoclonal antipodoplanin and reviewed under light microscopy. Percentage of parenchyma podoplanin stained at the acinar level was determined using computerized image analysis; 9 CLD and 4 control subjects gestational ages 27 to 36 weeks were suitable for the analysis. Results. Distinct, lymphatic-specific staining with respect to other vascular structures was appreciated in all gestations. Infants with and without respiratory morbidity had comparable lymphatic distribution which extended to the alveolar ductal level. Podoplanin staining per parenchyma was increased and statistically significant in the CLD group versus controls at the alveolar ductal level (0.06% ± 0.02% versus 0.04% ± 0.01%, 95% CI −0.04% to −0.002%, P CLD. It is suggested that the findings, by expanding current knowledge of CLD pathology, may offer insight into the development of more effective therapies to tackle CLD. PMID:24527433

  2. The effect of chronic exposure to 238Pu(IV) citrate on the embryonic development of carp and fathead minnow eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of plutonium to the developing fish egg. A quantitative analysis of the uptake of 238 Pu(IV) citrate by carp eggs indicated that plutonium is accumulated in the egg and reaches a concentration factor of approx 4 at hatching (72hr after exposure begins). Autoradiographs made from carp eggs that had been exposed to 238 Pu revealed that, although some plutonium was concentrated on the egg chorion, plutonium that penetrated the chorion was uniformly distri-buted throughout the perivitelline fluid, embryo and yolk sac. Using the uptake data for carp eggs, dose conversion factors were calculated for both carp eggs and fathead minnow eggs exposed to 238 Pu during embryological development. These values were 2100 rad/μCi/ml and 7500 rad/μCi/ml for carp and fathead minnows, respectively. Experiments were conducted in which both carp and fathead minnow eggs were exposed to plutonium in solution during embryogenesis; the percentage of eggs hatching, the number of abnormal larvae produced, and the survival of larvae were used as indicators of radiation toxicity. Concentrations in excess of 1 μCi/ml were required to prevent both species of eggs from hatching. It is concluded that fish eggs developing in natural aquatic ecosystems contaminated with plutonium probably do not receive a significant dose from the plutonium alpha radioactivity. Future analysis of fecundity and the production of abnormalities in the offspring of larvae exposed during embryological development would provide an additional degree of sensitivity to the toxicity test system used in this study. (author)

  3. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.

  4. Puberty development among children and adolescents with chronic disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia; Tamimi, Waleed; Tamim, Hani; Al Mutair, Angham; Felimban, Naila; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Shoukri, Mohamed; Al Alwan, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with chronic health conditions are now surviving into adolescence and adulthood because of advancing health care. These chronic health conditions are generally known to impact a child's growth and development, including pubertal development. In Saudi Arabia, chronic diseases are prevalent, yet no reports of pubertal onset and its relation to chronic illness are available. The aim of this study was to explore pubertal development among Saudi children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Cross-sectional study conducted at schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2006. Those students whose parents reported that their son/daughter had a chronic illness and/or was taking a long-term medication underwent a physical examination to determine sexual maturity rating and growth parameters. Of 1371 students who participated in the study, 155 (11.3%) had a chronic illness. Of those, 79 (51%) were male, and the mean SD age of all the students was 11.4 (2.4) years. Ninety (58%) students were taking medication for their health condition. Bronchial asthma was reported to be the most common chronic condition (n=66; 42.6%), followed by blood disorders (n=41; 26.5%). Fifty-three (34%) students were overweight or obese. For male gonadal (G) development, the mean age of boys with G stage 2 was 11.7 years; stage 3: 13.5 years; stage 4: 14.1 years; and stage 5: 14.6 years. For female breast (B) development, the mean age of girls with B stage 2 was 10.7 years; stage 3: 11.3 years; stage 4: 12.4 years; and stage 5: 14.1 years. The pubic hair development for both boys and girls was similar to the corresponding gonadal or breast development, respectively. The age of onset of pubertal development for both boys and girls with a chronic illness are within normal limits. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity may contribute to this phenomenon, yet further studies should consider the effects of disease severity and chronicity and medication use as possible

  5. Comparison of clinical and cost-effectiveness of psoralen + ultraviolet A versus psoralen + sunlight in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis in a developing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khandpur, Sujay; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Vinod K; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2013-04-01

    Psoralen + ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy is an established modality for psoriasis. As India is a tropical country that has good availability of natural sunlight psoralen + sunlight (PUVAsol) may be a more convenient option. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of PUVA versus PUVAsol in chronic plaque psoriasis. Cases of chronic plaque psoriasis with body surface area ≥10% or Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) ≥10, excluding erythrodermic or pustular psoriasis, were randomized to receive either PUVA or PUVAsol, with endpoint being the achievement of PASI 90 or completion of 12 weeks treatment, whichever is earlier. Cost analysis was also undertaken. Thirty-six cases (16 in PUVA and 20 in PUVAsol group) completed treatment. In the PUVA group, 15 cases (93.75%) responded to therapy while in the PUVAsol group, 15 (75%) responded (P = 0.29). Mean baseline PASI in the PUVA and PUVAsol groups was 16 and 14.4, respectively, and at endpoint was 1.62 and 3.77. There was a significantly greater reduction in PASI in the PUVA group at 2 and 4 weeks but at 8 and 12 weeks and endpoint, it was comparable. Treatment failure occurred in 6.25% and 25% of cases respectively (P = 0.29). Side effects were higher with PUVA. Total cost of therapy was significantly higher in the PUVA group (P = 0.002). Cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.72 with PUVA and US$0.37 with PUVAsol. Both PUVA and PUVAsol were equally efficacious, with PUVAsol being twice as cost effective. Hence, PUVAsol may be recommended as treatment for psoriasis in a developing economy such as India. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients.

  7. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  8. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  9. Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high-risk or low-risk populations in South Africa. M Brand, AJ Woodiwiss, F Michel, HL Booysen, OHI Majane, MJ Maseko, MG Veller, GR Norton ...

  10. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  11. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  12. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on cognition in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria; Gomez, Juan; Beck, Kevin; Bowman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement. Moreover, stress often enhances female performance in some of these cognitive tasks. Memory in females is not affected by stress in non-spatial memory tasks like recognition memory and temporal order recognition memory while males show impaired memory following stress. We discuss possible bases for these sex-dependent differences including the use of different strategies by the sexes to solve cognitive tasks. Whether the sex differences result from changes in non-mnemonic factors is also considered. Sex-dependent differences in alcohol and drug influences on stress responses are also described. Finally, the role of neurally derived estradiol in driving sex differences and providing resilience to stress in females is shown. The importance of determining the nature and extent of sex differences in stress responses is that such differences may provide vital information for understanding why some stress related diseases have different incidence rates between the sexes and for developing novel therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  14. Development of an enhanced health-economic model and cost-effectiveness analysis of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat® fixed-dose combination for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selya-Hammer, C. (Carl); Gonzalez-Rojas Guix, N. (Nuria); M. Baldwin (Michael); Ternouth, A. (Andrew); M. Miravitlles; M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); Goosens, L.M.A. (Lucas M.A.); N. Büyükkaramikli (Nasuh); Acciai, V. (Valentina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat® FDC with tiotropium alone for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Italian health care setting using a newly

  15. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermarck, Elias; Frias, Rafael; Skrzypczak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Seven beagles in a colony of dogs had chronic diarrhea for at least 30 days. The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose. When the treatment was discontinued, the diarrhea reappeared in 3 weeks. The feces remained abnormally loose in all dogs treated with metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, or doxycycline and prednisone. The diet was then changed for 10 days from a highly digestible moist pet food to a dry food developed for normal adult dogs. The feces again became firmer, although still loose in some dogs. The period was then extended to 3 month, but the fecal consistency continued to fluctuate from ideal to diarrhea. The dogs were treated a 2nd time with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. The feces then became significantly firmer and remained so throughout a 3-month follow-up. We conclude that the combination of diet and tylosin was more effective than either agent alone in control of chronic diarrhea.

  16. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: understanding the factors associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2017-04-28

    The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP.

  17. Systematic review of positive youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Chung, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The Positive Youth Development (PYD) framework has been successfully used to support at-risk youth. However, its effectiveness in fostering positive outcomes for adolescents with chronic illness has not been established. We performed a systematic review of PYD-consistent programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Data sources included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Guided by an analytic framework, we searched for studies of PYD-consistent programs serving adolescents and young adults aged 13 through 24 with chronic illness. References were screened iteratively with increasing depth until a focused cohort was obtained and reviewed in full. The authors separately reviewed the studies using structured analysis forms. Relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Fifteen studies describing 14 programs were included in the analysis. Three comprehensive programs included all 3 core components of a PYD program, including opportunities for youth leadership, skill building, and sustained connections between youth and adults. Four programs were primarily mentoring programs, and 7 others focused on youth leadership. Programs served youth with a variety of chronic illnesses. The quality and type of evaluation varied considerably, with most reporting psychosocial outcomes but only a few including medical outcomes. The PYD-consistent programs identified in this review can serve as models for the development of youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Additional study is needed to evaluate such programs rigorously with respect to both psychosocial and health-related outcomes. PYD-consistent programs have the potential to reach youth with chronic illness and promote positive adult outcomes broadly.

  18. Effect of chronic nonmalignant pain on highway driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, D S; van Wijck, A J M; Wille, F; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L; Kalkman, C J; Olivier, B; Volkerts, E R

    2006-05-01

    Most pain patients are treated in an outpatient setting and are engaged in daily activities including driving. Since several studies showed that cognitive functioning may be impaired in chronic nonmalignant pain, the question arises whether or not chronic nonmalignant pain affects driving performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic nonmalignant pain on actual highway driving performance during normal traffic. Fourteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain and 14 healthy controls, matched on age, educational level, and driving experience, participated in the study. Participants performed a standardized on-the-road driving test during normal traffic, on a primary highway. The primary parameter of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). In addition, driving-related skills (tracking, divided attention, and memory) were examined in the laboratory. Subjective assessments, such as pain intensity, and subjective driving quality, were rated on visual analogue scales. The results demonstrated that a subset of chronic nonmalignant pain patients had SDLPs that were higher than the matched healthy controls, indicating worse highway driving performance. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in highway driving performance between the groups. Further, chronic nonmalignant pain patients rated their subjective driving quality to be normal, although their ratings were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls. No significant effects were found on the laboratory tests.

  19. Effect of chronic pain on fentanyl self-administration in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L Wade

    Full Text Available The development of opioid addiction in subjects with established chronic pain is an area that is poorly understood. It is critically important to clearly understand the neurobiology associated with propensity toward conversion to addiction under conditions of chronic pain. To pose the question whether the presence of chronic pain influences motivation to self-administer opioids for reward, we applied a combination of rodent models of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia and opioid self-administration. We studied fentanyl self-administration in mice under three conditions that induce chronic mechanical hyperalgesia: inflammation, peripheral nerve injury, and repeated chemotherapeutic injections. Responding for fentanyl was compared among these conditions and their respective standard controls (naïve condition, vehicle injection or sham surgery. Acquisition of fentanyl self-administration behavior was reduced or absent in all three conditions of chronic hyperalgesia relative to control mice with normal sensory thresholds. To control for potential impairment in ability to learn the lever-pressing behavior or perform the associated motor tasks, all three groups were evaluated for acquisition of food-maintained responding. In contrast to the opioid, chronic hyperalgesia did not interfere with the reinforcing effect of food. These studies indicate that the establishment of chronic hyperalgesia is associated with reduced or ablated motivation to seek opioid reward in mice.

  20. The effects of chronic stress on the human brain: From neurotoxicity, to vulnerability, to opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, Sonia J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France

    2018-04-01

    For the last five decades, science has managed to delineate the mechanisms by which stress hormones can impact on the human brain. Receptors for glucocorticoids are found in the hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex, three brain regions involved in memory processing and emotional regulation. Studies have shown that chronic exposure to stress is associated with reduced volume of the hippocampus and that chronic stress can modulate volumes of both the amygdala and frontal cortex, suggesting neurotoxic effects of stress hormones on the brain. Yet, other studies report that exposure to early adversity and/or familial/social stressors can increase vulnerability to stress in adulthood. Models have been recently developed to describe the roles that neurotoxic and vulnerability effects can have on the developing brain. These models suggest that developing early stress interventions could potentially counteract the effects of chronic stress on the brain and results going along with this hypothesis are summarized. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transition from Acute to Chronic Tinnitus: Predictors for the Development of Chronic Distressing Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute tinnitus and its transition to chronic tinnitus are poorly investigated, and factors associated with amelioration versus exacerbation are largely unknown. Aims of this study were to identify early predictors for the future development of tinnitus severity.MethodPatients with tinnitus of no longer than 4 weeks presenting at an otolaryngologist filled out questionnaires at inclusion (T1, as well as 3 (T3, and 6 months (T4 after tinnitus onset. 6 weeks after onset, an interview was conducted over the phone (T2. An audiogram was taken at T1, perceived tinnitus loudness, and tinnitus-related distress were assessed separately and repeatedly together with oversensitivity to external sounds and the levels of depression and anxiety. Furthermore, coping strategies with illness were recorded.ResultsComplete remission until T4 was observed in 11% of the 47 participants, while voiced complaints at onset were stable in the majority. In the subgroup with a relevant level of depression at T1, tinnitus-related distress worsened in 30% until T4. For unilateral tinnitus, perceived loudness in the chronic condition correlated strongly with hearing loss at 2 kHz on the tinnitus ear, while a similar correlation was not found for tinnitus located to both ears or within the head.ConclusionResults suggest early manifestation of tinnitus complaints, and stress the importance of screening all patients presenting with acute tinnitus for levels of depression and tinnitus-related distress. Furthermore, hearing levels should be monitored, and use of hearing aids should be considered to reduce tinnitus loudness after having ascertained that sound sensitivity is within normal range.

  2. Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Potential Effects of Alchornea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The open field test showed that sub-chronic administration increased rearing behavior significantly at the dose of 250 mg/kg/28 days but had no effect on grooming. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract has no toxicological effect as observed on hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters even at the ...

  3. Studies on chronic effect on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.K.; Kang, T.U.; Yun, Y.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Koh, J. W.; Kim, J.W.; Ryu, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic harzard of Co-60 low dose irradiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be a major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages as specified below were exposed to 60 m rads/week, 500 m rads/biweek of whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period and each period from the 1st week to the 3rd week to the 52nd week, from the 6th week to the 52nd week and from the 22nd week to the 52nd week after the birth. All the experimental mice were autopsied immediately after sacrificed at the 52nd week. And all of their major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells-W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  4. Development of porcine model of chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslawska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Kiczak, Liliana; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Bania, Jacek; Tomaszek, Alicja; Zacharski, Maciej; Sambor, Izabela; Dziegiel, Piotr; Zysko, Dorota; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-11-17

    There are few experimental models of heart failure (HF) in large animals, despite structural and functional similarities to human myocardium. We have developed a porcine model of chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Homogenous siblings of White Large breed swine (n=6) underwent continuous right ventricular (RV) pacing at 170 bpm; 2 subjects served as controls. In the course of RV pacing, animals developed a clinical picture of HF and were presented for euthanasia at subsequent stages: mild, moderate and end-stage HF. Left ventricle (LV) sections were analyzed histologically and relative ANP, BNP, phospholamban and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a transcript levels in LV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. In the course of RV pacing, animals demonstrated reduced exercise capacity (time of running until being dyspnoeic: 6.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4 min), LV dilatation (LVEDD: 4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 6.7 ± 0.4 cm), impaired LV systolic function (LVEF: 69 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 7 %), (all baseline vs. before euthanasia, all p<0.001). LV tissues from animals with moderate and end-stage HF demonstrated local foci of interstitial fibrosis, congestion, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and atrophy, which was not detected in controls and mild HF animals. The up-regulation of ANP and BNP and a reduction in a ratio of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a and phospholamban in failing myocardium were observed as compared to controls. In pigs, chronic RV pacing at relatively low rate can be used as an experimental model of HF, as it results in a gradual deterioration of exercise tolerance accompanied by myocardial remodeling confirmed at subcellular level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  6. Effect of ancestry on interleukin-10 haplotypes in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camile de Barros; Barroso, Regina Fatima Feio; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodrigues; Garcia, Patricia Aleixo; Pinto, Pablo Diego do Carmo; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro Dos; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea Kely Campos

    2017-06-01

    Chronic periodontitis is caused by an inflammatory reaction of the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone. This inflammation is caused by periodontopathic bacteria located in the subgingival biofilm, resulting in inflammatory reactions that may lead to loss of attachment. This tissue destruction is a consequence of host immune and inflammatory responses to specific periodontal pathogens and their metabolic products. Cytokines modulate the immune response, altering its efficiency in the competition against pathogens and increasing periodontal susceptibility. This study investigated genetic polymorphisms in Interleukin 10 (A-1082G, C-819T and C-592A) in 205 individuals from an admixed Brazilian population. A significantly increased risk of developing chronic periodontitis was observed in individuals with low IL-10 production and Amerindian ancestry. These results suggest that the polymorphisms A-1082G, C-819T, and C-592A, which are associated with ancestry, are involved in the susceptibility to the development of chronic periodontitis in an admixed northern Brazilian population.

  7. Development of an enhanced health-economic model and cost-effectiveness analysis of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat® fixed-dose combination for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya-Hammer, Carl; Gonzalez-Rojas Guix, Nuria; Baldwin, Michael; Ternouth, Andrew; Miravitlles, Marc; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen; Goosens, Lucas M A; Buyukkaramikli, Nasuh; Acciai, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat(®) FDC with tiotropium alone for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Italian health care setting using a newly developed patient-level Markov model that reflects the current understanding of the disease. While previously published models have largely been based around a cohort approach using a Markov structure and GOLD stage stratification, an individual-level Markov approach was selected for the new model. Using patient-level data from the twin TOnado trials assessing Tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat(®) FDC versus tiotropium, outcomes were modelled based on the trough forced expiratory volume (tFEV1) of over 1000 patients in each treatment arm, tracked individually at trial visits through the 52-week trial period, and after the trial period it was assumed to decline at a constant rate based on disease stage. Exacerbation risk was estimated based on a random-effects logistic regression analysis of exacerbations in UPLIFT. Mortality by age and disease stage was estimated from an analysis of TIOSPIR trial data. Cost of bronchodilators and other medications, routine management, and costs of treatment for moderate and severe exacerbations for the Italian setting were included. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted over a 15-year time horizon from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. Aggregating total costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each treatment cohort over 15 years and comparing tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat(®) FDC with tiotropium alone, resulted in mean incremental costs per patient of €1167 and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €7518 per additional QALY with tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat(®) FDC. The lung function outcomes observed for tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat(®) FDC in TOnado drove the results in terms of slightly

  8. Effect of chronic 85Kr exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; DeFord, H.S.; Ballou, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed continuously for 15 mo to 85 Kr atmospheres have received measured dose rates of 2750, 370, and 38 rad/yr. With more than 75% of the rats still alive, there has been no dose-related effect on weight gain but a probably significant effect on survival

  9. Effect of uranium chronic exposure on the moult in crayfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout any ecological risk assessment, one can try to establish a link between pollutant in the ecosystem and adverse biological effects. A number of methodological approaches are based on the development of the use of bio-markers such as the enzyme activity measurements (biotransformation enzymes, antioxidant enzymes) and/or bioaccumulation markers (metal in target-organs). These data allow obtaining an early-warning signal of exposure and potential involved effects and help risk management. However, the effects at higher hierarchical levels (organism or population) are not frequently considered because they tend to occur after longer exposure periods. On the basis of previous results obtained to quantify uranium biokinetics in the crayfish Orconectes limosus and to understand the influence of the exposure pathway, a chronic exposure experiment was performed for 100 days at an environmentally relevant uranium concentration in water (low level concentration ranging from?? to 100 nM). The main effect studied was focused on the moult; moulted animals being the most sensitive to pollutants. Effects on the moult process were assessed in terms of occurrence, delay, and success. Preliminary results that indicated no induction of the moult by U exposure and better survival rate to uranium exposure must be confirmed. Simultaneously, both enzymatic bio-markers of effect quantifying the oxidative status (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidases) and markers of exposure (uranium distribution at organs and cellular levels and MET observations) were studied. Results obtained from complementary experiments on the uranium fluxes all over moult states were used to discuss the link between bio-markers responses and observed effects on the moult. (author)

  10. Effect of uranium chronic exposure on the moult in crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Throughout any ecological risk assessment, one can try to establish a link between pollutant in the ecosystem and adverse biological effects. A number of methodological approaches are based on the development of the use of bio-markers such as the enzyme activity measurements (biotransformation enzymes, antioxidant enzymes) and/or bioaccumulation markers (metal in target-organs). These data allow obtaining an early-warning signal of exposure and potential involved effects and help risk management. However, the effects at higher hierarchical levels (organism or population) are not frequently considered because they tend to occur after longer exposure periods. On the basis of previous results obtained to quantify uranium biokinetics in the crayfish Orconectes limosus and to understand the influence of the exposure pathway, a chronic exposure experiment was performed for 100 days at an environmentally relevant uranium concentration in water (low level concentration ranging from?? to 100 nM). The main effect studied was focused on the moult; moulted animals being the most sensitive to pollutants. Effects on the moult process were assessed in terms of occurrence, delay, and success. Preliminary results that indicated no induction of the moult by U exposure and better survival rate to uranium exposure must be confirmed. Simultaneously, both enzymatic bio-markers of effect quantifying the oxidative status (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidases) and markers of exposure (uranium distribution at organs and cellular levels and MET observations) were studied. Results obtained from complementary experiments on the uranium fluxes all over moult states were used to discuss the link between bio-markers responses and observed effects on the moult. (author)

  11. Overview of recent developments in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple advances have been made in our understanding of pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. These developments in the laboratory include new prognostic markers, risk stratification of the disease and newer therapeutic agents in CLL. These advances in CLL have come a long way in the past three decades since the development of Rai and Binet clinical staging systems. Important strides in the pathobiology, from defining mutational status of IGHV, to B-cell receptor (BCR signaling pathways and CLL microenvironment have made a major difference in our understanding of this disease. Mutational status of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IGHV, CD38 and Zap-70, chromosomal aberrations and newer mutations, are the most clinically relevant prognostic markers. Chemoimmunotherapy (CIT has become the treatment of choice for young and fit CLL patients. Various inhibitors of BCR signaling pathways and immunomodulatory drugs have shown efficacy in clinical trials. The most recent advance is the use of chimeric antigen receptor therapy (CAR based on autologous T-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, CLL remains an incurable disease today. Coordinated developments between laboratory and clinic will hopefully translate into a cure for CLL. This short review focuses on advances in prognostication and therapy in CLL.

  12. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  13. Developments in managing severe chronic pain: role of oxycodone–naloxone extended release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Guido Fanelli,1 Andrea Fanelli2 1Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, University of Parma, Parma, 2Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Policlinico S Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Chronic pain is a highly disabling condition, which can significantly reduce patients’ quality of life. Prevalence of moderate and severe chronic pain is high in the general population, and it increases significantly in patients with advanced cancer and older than 65 years. Guidelines for the management of chronic pain recommend opioids for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain in patients whose pain is not responsive to initial therapies with paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite their analgesic efficacy being well recognized, adverse events can affect daily functioning and patient quality of life. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC occurs in 40% of opioid-treated patients. Laxatives are the most common drugs used to prevent and treat OIC. Laxatives do not address the underlying mechanisms of OIC; for this reason, they are not really effective in OIC treatment. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist with low systemic bioavailability. When administered orally, naloxone antagonizes the opioid receptors in the gut wall, while its extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism ensures the lack of antagonist influence on the central-mediated analgesic effect of the opioids. A prolonged-release formulation consisting of oxycodone and naloxone in a 2:1 ratio was developed trying to reduce the incidence of OIC maintaining the analgesic effect compared with use of the sole oxycodone. This review includes evidence related to use of oxycodone and naloxone in the long-term management of chronic non-cancer pain and OIC. Keywords: chronic pain, opioid-induced constipation, opioids, oxycodone–naloxone

  14. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  15. Effect of hemodialysis on total antioxidant status of chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal failure is accompanied by oxidative stress, which is caused by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense. Aim: To assess the effect of hemodialysis (by cellulose membrane dialyzer) on plasma total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of patients in chronic ...

  16. Differential effect of opioids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staahl, Camilla; Dimcevski, Georg; Andersen, Søren Due

    2007-01-01

    and morphine on experimental pain in patients with pain caused by chronic pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients took part in this blinded, cross-over study. The analgesic effects of morphine (30 mg, oral), oxycodone (15 mg, oral) and placebo were tested against multimodal (mechanical, thermal...

  17. effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction (CUC) and the role of tobacco leaves was studied on the gastric ... CUC-T fed group showed 80% reduction but the pyloric glands in group fed with CUC-NT were not reduced. ... The concoction was given orally through a plastic tube as reported by other authors.

  18. effect of chronic consumption of powdered tobacco (snuff)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... The effect of chronic consumption of tobacco powder on anxiety, fear and social ... only, while the test group received mixed feed of 1gram powdered tobacco per ..... alkaloid, nicotine decrease tension and depressive feelings and promote the ... Ethnologically based animal models of anxiety disorders.

  19. Chronic aquatic effect assessment for the fungicide azoxystrobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Zafar, M.I.; Matser, A.M.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ecological effects of a range of chronic exposure concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin in freshwater experimental systems (1270 L outdoor microcosms). Intended and environmentally relevant test concentrations of azoxystrobin were 0, 0.33, 1, 3.3, 10, 33 µg ai/L, kept at

  20. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Draba nemorosa extract (DNE) on oxidative stress and hemodynamics in rats with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Adriamycin was used to establish CHF in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Six groups of SD rats were used in this study: control group, CHF group, captopril ...

  1. New developments in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takkenberg, R. B.; Weegink, C. J.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Reesink, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B affects approximately 400 million people in the world with a substantial disease burden like liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment for chronic hepatitis B has improved dramatically in the last decade, resulting in more patients achieving a state of

  2. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval

  3. Impact of obesity on development of chronic renal allograft dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Jalali, Ghanbar Ali Raiss; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2009-01-01

    Obesity in nontransplant patients has been associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and proteinuria. To determine whether renal transplant recipients with an elevated BMI have worse long term graft survival, we prospectively studied 92 patients transplanted between April 1999 and July 2000. Weight (Wt) and height of the patients were recorded prior to transplantation and two weeks, one, two and three years post transplantation. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and blood pressure were checked monthly, while triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were obtained 3 monthly for 3 years post transplantation. Graft dysfunction was defined as serum Cr > 1.8 mg/dL. While BMI and Wt of the patients before transplantation did not show any significant correlation with chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD), patients with higher Wt and BMI two weeks after transplantation showed an increased risk of developing CRAD during the three year post transplant independent of other risk factors (P< 0.05). Patients with greater Wt loss in the first two weeks post transplantation showed a decreased risk of developing CRAD in the following 3 years (P< 0.001). Our study suggests that high Wt and BMI are significantly associated with worse graft survival 3 years post renal transplantation. (author)

  4. Effect of chronic 85Kr exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; Deford, H.S.; Gerk, R.E.; Ballou, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Rats are being exposed continuously for their life span to three concentrations of 85 Kr: 3 x 10 -3 , 3 x 10 -4 , and 3 x 10 -5 μCi/ml. A group of treated controls exposed to room air completes the study. No effects of treatment have been observed up to 70 days postexposure

  5. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  6. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3 H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125 I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  7. Headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects of chronic hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Ozge, Cengiz; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalin, Osman Ozgür; Unal, Ozgür; Ozgür, Eylem S

    2006-02-01

    The frequency and characteristics of headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clear and there are only a few studies that have assessed the relationship between chronic hypoxaemia and headache. We performed this study in order to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of headache in COPD patients. A total of 119 patients, with a mean age of 63.4 +/- 8.2 years, diagnosed with moderate or severe stable COPD were included in the study. Overall 31.9% of the patients complained of headache and 45.4% were reported to have sleep disorders. There were significant effects of family history of COPD, having other systemic disorders or sleep disorders (snoring, bruxism, restless leg syndrome, etc.) and laboratory data of chronic hypoxaemia and airway obstruction on headache co-morbidity. In conclusion, possibly being a specific subtype of elderly headache, headache in patients with moderate or severe COPD is a common problem and future studies are needed to obtain more knowledge about its pathophysiological and clinical basis.

  8. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  9. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  10. [Effectiveness of fenspiride in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorokhova, T D; Medvedeva, I V; Lapik, S V; Solov'eva, O G; Gracheva, E Iu; Iusupova, R S

    2001-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of moderate severity were investigated for two months for assessment of fenspiride activity. Examination of the patients (age 42.6 +/- 5.3) took place before and after fenspiride therapy. In comparison to the control group, fenspiride patients showed improvement of external respiration function: FEV 1, FVC, FEF 50-75, PEF increased. Dienic conjugates, malonic dialdehyde levels decreased, alpha-tocopherol in platelet membranes rose, functional activity of platelets fell. Side effects were rare and not serious. It is concluded that fenspiride has an antiinflammatory effect, reduces bronchoconstriction and depresses platelet aggregation, is well tolerated. Fenspiride is an effective drug for the treatment of moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of benign Wirsung duct strictures treatment in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaski, Dariusz; Hać, Stanisław; Marek, Iwona; Kobiela, Jarosław; Kostro, Justyna; Adrych, Krystian; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2018-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an important problem for modern medicine, the healthcare system (Poland - NFZ) and the national insurance system (Poland - ZUS). The chronic nature of the disease, the lack of targeted treatment and the low mortality rate lead to an accumulation of patients who demand expensive treatment, both conservative and invasive. Rising costs in health care are forcing the need for a more cost-effective method of treatment. The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective calculation of costs in both surgical and endoscopic treatment, hospital stay, healthcare, and public insurance of patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Parallel quality of life analysis was performed. It was possible to develop a cost-effective therapeutic algorithm for patients with an uncomplicated stricture of Wirsung's duct within the Polish health care system. In Poland, the hospital costs of endoscopic treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis were higher than those of the surgical treatment group despite both resulting in a similar life quality. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, it was shown that surgical intervention is a more cost-effective therapy than endotherapy. Furthermore, patients with benign stricture of the main pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis should not be treated with endotherapy for longer than 12 months.

  12. Regenerative toxicology: the role of stem cells in the development of chronic toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas-Jorda, David; Louisse, Jochem; Pistollato, Francesca; Zagoura, Dimitra; Bremer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Human stem cell lines and their derivatives, as alternatives to the use of animal cells or cancer cell lines, have been widely discussed as cellular models in predictive toxicology. However, the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities and carcinogenesis has not received great attention so far, despite growing evidence indicating the relationship of stem cell damage to adverse effects later in life. However, testing this in vitro is a scientific/technical challenge in particular due to the complex interplay of factors existing under physiological conditions. Current major research programs in stem cell toxicity are not aiming to demonstrate that stem cells can be targeted by toxicants. Therefore, this knowledge gap needs to be addressed in additional research activities developing technical solutions and defining appropriate experimental designs. The current review describes selected examples of the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities in the brain, heart or liver and in the development of cancer. The presented examples illustrate the need to analyze the contribution of stem cells to chronic toxicity in order to make a final conclusion whether stem cell toxicities are an underestimated risk in mechanism-based safety assessments. This requires the development of predictive in vitro models allowing the assessment of adverse effects to stem cells on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  13. A microsimulation model for the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.; Boessen, R.; Fishwick, D.; Klein Entink, R.H.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Van Duuren-Stuurman, B.; Warren, N.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is thought to affect over one million people in Great Britain. The main factor contributing to the development of COPD is tobacco smoke. This paper presents a microsimulation model for the development of COPD, incorporating

  14. A microsimulation model for the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.; Boessen, R.; Fishwick, D.; Klein Entink, R.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Warren, N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is thought to affect over one million people in Great Britain. The main factor contributing to the development of COPD is tobacco smoke. This paper presents a microsimulation model for the development of COPD, incorporating

  15. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PIDOTIMOD IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of effective and safe immunomodulators for prophylaxis and treatment of frequently ailing children is pidotimod (Imunorix. Efficacy of the drug in pediatric practice was studied in more than 3200 patients with acute and recurrent respiratory infections. The article shows reasonability of pidotimod administration in children with acute and chronic bronchitis. This fact was confirmed with doubleblinded placebo-controlled studies. Treatment with pidotimod results in decreased terms of recovery of chronic bronchitis exacerbation, shortening of exacerbation. Realization of stable effect is related to recovery of key functions of inborn and adaptive immunity, it begins in 15 days after intake of the drug in therapeutic dose. Prophylactic doses of pidotimod should be used during next 30–60 days.Key words: children, bronchitis, pidotimod, immunity, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:139-143

  16. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  17. Chronic atherosclerotic mesenteric ischemia that started to develop symptoms just after anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, M; Matsuzaki, M; Fuchinoue, A; Urabe, N; Kawagoe, N; Takemoto, I; Tanaka, H; Watanabe, T; Miyazaki, T; Takeuchi, M; Honda, Y; Nakanishi, K; Urita, Y; Shimada, N; Nakajima, H; Sugimoto, M; Goto, T

    2012-05-01

    An 83-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department with acute urticaria and sudden shortness of breath approximately 30 min after taking rectal diclofenac potassium for lumbago. After treatment with adrenaline and corticosteroids, the patient became hemodynamically stable and left the hospital on the next day. She attended our hospital 1 week after the onset of anaphylaxis because of repeated postprandial epigastric pain. No abnormal lesions were found in endoscopy. Radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by atherosclerosis and abundant collateral arteries between the celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. Patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia usually present with a clinical syndrome characterized by painful abdominal cramps and colic occurring typically during the postprandial phase. Fear of eating resulted in malnutrition. She was prescribed proton pump inhibitor, digestants, anticholinergic agents, serine protease inhibitors, prokinetics, antiplatelet agents and transdermal nitroglycerin intermittently, but these had no beneficial effects. It was most probable that this patient with chronic atherosclerotic mesenteric ischemia was suffering from functional abdominal pain syndrome induced by anaphylaxis. Since psychiatric disorders were associated with alterations in the processing of visceral sensation, we facilitated the patient's understanding of functional abdominal pain syndrome with the psychologist. Postprandial abdominal pain gradually faded after administration of these drugs and the patient left the hospital. Developing a satisfactory patient-physician relationship was considered more effective for the management of persistent abdominal pain caused by complicated mechanisms.

  18. Chronic Atherosclerotic Mesenteric Ischemia That Started to Develop Symptoms Just after Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department with acute urticaria and sudden shortness of breath approximately 30 min after taking rectal diclofenac potassium for lumbago. After treatment with adrenaline and corticosteroids, the patient became hemodynamically stable and left the hospital on the next day. She attended our hospital 1 week after the onset of anaphylaxis because of repeated postprandial epigastric pain. No abnormal lesions were found in endoscopy. Radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by atherosclerosis and abundant collateral arteries between the celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. Patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia usually present with a clinical syndrome characterized by painful abdominal cramps and colic occurring typically during the postprandial phase. Fear of eating resulted in malnutrition. She was prescribed proton pump inhibitor, digestants, anticholinergic agents, serine protease inhibitors, prokinetics, antiplatelet agents and transdermal nitroglycerin intermittently, but these had no beneficial effects. It was most probable that this patient with chronic atherosclerotic mesenteric ischemia was suffering from functional abdominal pain syndrome induced by anaphylaxis. Since psychiatric disorders were associated with alterations in the processing of visceral sensation, we facilitated the patient’s understanding of functional abdominal pain syndrome with the psychologist. Postprandial abdominal pain gradually faded after administration of these drugs and the patient left the hospital. Developing a satisfactory patient-physician relationship was considered more effective for the management of persistent abdominal pain caused by complicated mechanisms.

  19. The dichotomous effect of chronic stress on obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic diseases are linked to chronic stress and low socio-economic status. The mechanistic link between stress and obesity has not been clarified, partly due to the inherent complexity exemplified by the bidirectional effect of stress on eating and body weight. Recent studies focusing on adaptive-thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function support a dichotomous relationship to explain the impact of stress on obesity: stress promotes obesity in the presence of hyperph...

  20. Concentration- and age-dependent effects of chronic caffeine on contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Rachel L.; Braak, David; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic caffeine exerts negligible effects on learning and memory in normal adults, but it is unknown whether this is also true for children and adolescents. The hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory, undergoes extensive structural and functional modifications during pre-adolescence and adolescence. As a result, chronic caffeine may have differential effects on hippocampus-dependent learning in pre-adolescents and adolescents compared with adults. Here, we characterized the effects of chronic caffeine and withdrawal from chronic caffeine on hippocampus-dependent (contextual) and hippocampus-independent (cued) fear conditioning in pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult mice. The results indicate that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence enhances or impairs contextual conditioning depending on concentration, yet has no effect on cued conditioning. In contrast, withdrawal from chronic caffeine impairs contextual conditioning in pre-adolescent mice only. No changes in learning were seen for adult mice for either the chronic caffeine or withdrawal conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence can alter learning and memory and as changes were only seen in hippocampus-dependent learning, this suggests that the developing hippocampus may be sensitive to the effects of caffeine. PMID:25827925

  1. Concentration- and age-dependent effects of chronic caffeine on contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Rachel L; Braak, David; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic caffeine exerts negligible effects on learning and memory in normal adults, but it is unknown whether this is also true for children and adolescents. The hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory, undergoes extensive structural and functional modifications during pre-adolescence and adolescence. As a result, chronic caffeine may have differential effects on hippocampus-dependent learning in pre-adolescents and adolescents compared with adults. Here, we characterized the effects of chronic caffeine and withdrawal from chronic caffeine on hippocampus-dependent (contextual) and hippocampus-independent (cued) fear conditioning in pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult mice. The results indicate that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence enhances or impairs contextual conditioning depending on concentration, yet has no effect on cued conditioning. In contrast, withdrawal from chronic caffeine impairs contextual conditioning in pre-adolescent mice only. No changes in learning were seen for adult mice for either the chronic caffeine or withdrawal conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence can alter learning and memory and as changes were only seen in hippocampus-dependent learning, which suggests that the developing hippocampus may be sensitive to the effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Back to Basics: The Effect of Healthy Diet and Exercise on Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease. Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews and other original articles using the National Center for Biotechnical Information database. The success in management of chronic disease lies in a physician's ability to educate patients and effective utilization of the resources available to that provider. Patient accountability for their individual chronic disease states is a problem related to patient education, patient participation, access to care, and payment resources. Financial, racial, and socioeconomic barriers must be addressed in the creation of an effective plan. Teaching on the importance of diet and exercise needs to occur early in life and be continually reinforced for successful outcomes. In the last 10 years, there has not been a significant study suggesting a single successful model of diet and exercise that can control chronic diseases. Cardiac, diabetic, and cancer patients have reduced hospital admissions, improved diabetic control, and improved quality of life scores related to coordinated diet and exercise programs, however. Patients may be unwilling or unable to be accountable for health care coordination. The development of exercise and obesity prevention policies and the adjustment in financial rewards to health care organizations will have a major impact in implementing these programs over the next 10 years.

  3. Protracted effects of chronic stress on serotonin dependent thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission in the brain and to alter body temperature. Body temperature is controlled in part, by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (mPOA). To investigate the effect of chronic stress on 5HT and how it affects body temperature regulation, we examined whether exposure to a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm (CUS) produces long-term alterations in thermoregulatory function of the mPOA through decreased 5HT neurotransmission. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 21 days of CUS. Four days after last stress exposure, basal body temperature in the home cage and body temperature in a cold room maintained at 10°C were recorded. CUS rats had significantly higher subcutaneous basal body temperature at 13:00 h compared to unstressed (NoStress) rats. Whereas the NoStress rats were able to significantly elevate body temperature from basal levels at 30 and 60 min of exposure to the cold room, the CUS rats showed a hypothermic response to the cold. Treatment during CUS with metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, blocked stress-induced decrease in body temperature in response to the cold challenge. CUS also decreased 5HT transporter protein immunoreactivity in the mPOA and 5HT2A/C agonist injection into the mPOA after CUS exposure caused stressed rats to exhibit a sensitized hyperthermic response to cold. These results indicate that CUS induced changes to the 5HTergic system alters mPOA function in thermoregulation. These findings help explain mechanisms underlying chronic stress induced disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome wherein long lasting thermoregulatory deficits are observed. PMID:26414686

  4. Protracted effects of chronic stress on serotonin-dependent thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission in the brain and to alter body temperature. The body temperature is controlled in part, by the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of chronic stress on 5HT and how it affects body temperature regulation, we examined whether exposure to a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) paradigm produces long-term alterations in thermoregulatory function of the mPOA through decreased 5HT neurotransmission. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 21 d of CUS. Four days after the last stress exposure, basal body temperature in the home cage and body temperature in a cold room maintained at 10 °C were recorded. The CUS rats had significantly higher subcutaneous basal body temperature at 13:00 h compared to unstressed (NoStress) rats. Whereas the NoStress rats were able to significantly elevate body temperature from basal levels at 30 and 60 min of exposure to the cold room, the CUS rats showed a hypothermic response to the cold. Treatment during CUS with metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, blocked stress-induced decrease in body temperature in response to the cold challenge. CUS also decreased 5HT transporter protein immunoreactivity in the mPOA and 5HT2A/C agonist injection into the mPOA after CUS exposure caused stressed rats to exhibit a sensitized hyperthermic response to cold. These results indicate that the CUS induced changes to the 5HTergic system alter mPOA function in thermoregulation. These findings help us to explain the mechanisms underlying chronic stress-induced disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome wherein long lasting thermoregulatory deficits are observed.

  5. Development and validation of a chronic copper biotic ligand model for Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Melissa L.; Vigneault, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    A biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict chronic Cu toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia was developed and tested. The effect of cationic competition, pH and natural organic matter complexation of Cu was examined to develop the model. There was no effect of cationic competition using increasing Ca and Na concentrations in our exposures. However, we did see a significant regression of decreasing toxicity (measured as the IC25; concentration at which there was a 25% inhibition of reproduction) as Mg concentration increased. However, taking into account the actual variability of the IC25 and since the relative increase in IC25 due to additional Mg was small (1.5-fold) Mg competition was not included in the model. Changes in pH had a significant effect on Cu IC25, which is consistent with proton competition as often suggested for acute BLMs. Finally, natural organic matter (NOM) was added to exposures resulting in significant decreases in toxicity. Therefore, our predictive model for chronic Cu toxicity to C. dubia includes the effect of pH and NOM complexation. The model was validated with Cu IC25 data generated in six natural surface waters collected from across Canada. Using WHAM VI, we calculated Cu speciation in each natural water and using our model, we generated 'predicted' IC25 data. We successfully predicted all Cu IC25 within a factor of 3 for the six waters used for validation

  6. Developing a framework to generate evidence of health outcomes from social media use in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    While there is an abundance of evidence-based practice (EBP) recommendations guiding management of various chronic diseases, evidence suggesting best practice for using social media to improve health outcomes is inadequate. The variety of social media platforms, multiple potential uses, inconsistent definitions, and paucity of rigorous studies, make it difficult to measure health outcomes reliably in chronic disease management. Most published investigations report on an earlier generation of online tools, which are not as user-centered, participatory, engaging, or collaborative, and thus may work differently for health self-management. The challenge to establish a sound evidence base for social media use in chronic disease starts with the need to define criteria and methods to generate and evaluate evidence. The authors' key objective is to develop a framework for research and practice that addresses this challenge. This paper forms part of a larger research project that presents a conceptual framework of how evidence of health outcomes can be generated from social media use, allowing social media to be utilized in chronic disease management more effectively. Using mixed methods incorporating a qualitative literature review, a survey and a pilot intervention, the research closely examines the therapeutic affordances of social media, people with chronic pain (PWCP) as a subset of chronic disease management, valid outcome measurement of patient-reported (health) outcomes (PRO), the individual needs of people living with chronic disease, and finally translation of the combined results to improve evidence-based decision making about social media use in this context. Extensive review highlights various affordances of social media that may prove valuable to understanding social media's effect on individual health outcomes. However, without standardized PRO instruments, we are unable to definitively investigate these effects. The proposed framework that we offer outlines

  7. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  8. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, Wilma; Swinkels, Jantijn; Hogeveen, Henk

    2007-11-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model included the probability of cure after treatment, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, transmission of infection to other cows, and physiological effects of the infection. Using basic input parameters for Dutch circumstances, the average economic costs per cow of an untreated chronic subclinical mastitis case caused by Str. uberis in a single quarter from day of diagnosis onwards was euro109. With treatment, the average costs were higher (euro120). Thus, for the average cow, treatment was not efficient economically. However, the risk of high costs was much higher when cows with chronic subclinical mastitis were not treated. A sensitivity analysis showed that profitability of treatment of chronic subclinical Str. uberis mastitis depended on farm-specific factors (such as economic value of discarded milk) and cow-specific factors (such as day of diagnosis, duration of infection, amount of transmission to other cows and cure rate). Therefore, herd level protocols are not sufficient and decision support should be cow specific. Given the importance of cow-specific factors, information from the current model could be applied to automatic decision support systems.

  9. Developing experimental protocols for chronic irradiation studies: the application of a good practice guide framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.D.; Knowles, J.D.; Whittaker, J.H.; Copplestone, D.; Malcolm, H.M.; Bielby, S.; Zinger, I.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) project collated information on the transfer, dosimetry, and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. A major output from the project is the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED). A review of the information contained within FRED highlighted that information on the effects of low-dose, chronic exposure was, at best, fragmentary. However, these data are required to define the dose effect relationships needed to underpin the assessment tools that are being developed. To address this requirement, a series of four Good Practice Guides (GPGs) has been produced as part of a protocol development framework. This framework aims to harmonise experimental approaches, with a view to ensuring that all necessary data on appropriate endpoints are collected, so that dose effect relationships can be determined. The GPGs cover test species selection, endpoint selection, radiation exposure and experimental design considerations. A key is used to guide researchers through the GPGs and the decisions made are recorded on an output pro-forma. The completed pro-forma forms the basis of the experimental protocol. The pro-forma also indicates the information that should be included when presenting the results of the experiment. Standardising approaches ensures that results are comparable between experiments and that they are suitable for determining dose effect relationships. This protocol development framework has been adopted by the UK Environment Agency as a document upon which future Agency-funded experimental work on the effects of chronic, low-level exposure to ionising radiation will be based. It is hoped that the framework will gain acceptance in the wider scientific community and facilitate addressing the knowledge gaps that have been identified in order that successful protection of non-human biota can be demonstrated. (author)

  10. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    OpenAIRE

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP ...

  11. Analgesic effect of clobazam in chronic low-back pain but not in experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliessbach, J; Vuilleumier, P H; Siegenthaler, A; Bütikofer, L; Limacher, A; Juni, P; Zeilhofer, H U; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Curatolo, M

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain is frequently associated with hypersensitivity of the nervous system, and drugs that increase central inhibition are therefore a potentially effective treatment. Benzodiazepines are potent modulators of GABAergic neurotransmission and are known to exert antihyperalgesic effects in rodents, but translation into patients are lacking. This study investigates the effect of the benzodiazepine clobazam in chronic low-back pain in humans. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of GABA modulation on chronic low-back pain and on quantitative sensory tests. In this double-blind cross-over study, 49 patients with chronic low-back pain received a single oral dose of clobazam 20 mg or active placebo tolterodine 1 mg. Pain intensity on the 0-10 numeric rating scale and quantitative sensory tests were assessed during 2 h after drug intake. Pain intensity in the supine position was significantly reduced by clobazam compared to active placebo (60 min: 2.9 vs. 3.5, p = 0.008; 90 min: 2.7 vs. 3.3, p = 0.024; 120 min: 2.4 vs. 3.1, p = 0.005). Pain intensity in the sitting position was not significantly different between groups. No effects on quantitative sensory tests were observed. This study suggests that clobazam has an analgesic effect in patients with chronic low-back pain. Muscle relaxation or sedation may have contributed to the effect. Development of substances devoid of these side effects would offer the potential to further investigate the antihyperalgesic action of GABAergic compounds. Modulation of GABAergic pain-inhibitory pathways may be a potential future therapeutic target. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  12. 78 FR 15371 - Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0962] Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop AGENCY... therapies to treat signs and symptoms related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic...

  13. The Impact of Chronic Illness on Psychosocial Stages of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, E. Virginia, Ed.; Shevlin, Kathleen M., Ed.

    This book addresses critical issues regarding the impact of chronic illness and disability on human development. It was written for health care professionals who help chronically ill and disabled persons deal with the psychological and social as well as the biological aspects of their illness or disability. An expanded version of Erik Erikson's…

  14. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke S. Reichwaldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  15. Developing an active implementation model for a chronic disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidth, Margrethe; Christensen, Morten Bondo; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction and diffusion of new disease management programs in healthcare is usually slow, but active theory-driven implementation seems to outperform other implementation strategies. However, we have only scarce evidence on the feasibility and real effect of such strategies in complex primary care settings where municipalities, general practitioners and hospitals should work together. The Central Denmark Region recently implemented a disease management program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which presented an opportunity to test an active implementation model against the usual implementation model. The aim of the present paper is to describe the development of an active implementation model using the Medical Research Council's model for complex interventions and the Chronic Care Model. We used the Medical Research Council's five-stage model for developing complex interventions to design an implementation model for a disease management program for COPD. First, literature on implementing change in general practice was scrutinised and empirical knowledge was assessed for suitability. In phase I, the intervention was developed; and in phases II and III, it was tested in a block- and cluster-randomised study. In phase IV, we evaluated the feasibility for others to use our active implementation model. The Chronic Care Model was identified as a model for designing efficient implementation elements. These elements were combined into a multifaceted intervention, and a timeline for the trial in a randomised study was decided upon in accordance with the five stages in the Medical Research Council's model; this was captured in a PaTPlot, which allowed us to focus on the structure and the timing of the intervention. The implementation strategies identified as efficient were use of the Breakthrough Series, academic detailing, provision of patient material and meetings between providers. The active implementation model was tested in a randomised trial

  16. The effectiveness of balneotherapy in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Engin; Ökmen, Burcu Metin; Özkuk, Kağan; Taşoğlu, Özlem; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of balneotherapy (BT), which is applied in addition to physical therapy (PT), in the treatment of chronic neck pain. Sixty patients with chronic neck pain were divided into study (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups. All of the patients in both groups were treated with a 15-session standard PT program consisting of hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Patients in the study group were also treated with a 15-session BT program lasting 20 min/day in addition to the standard PT program. Visual analogue scale (VAS), modified neck disability index (mNDI), and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) scores of all patients were evaluated at three different times as pretreatment, posttreatment, and posttreatment third week. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients in different groups before treatment. Intragroup analysis revealed significant improvement in all parameters for both of the groups at all time intervals. Intergroup analysis uncovered the superiority of the study group. According to the results of this study, BT in combination with PT is superior to PT alone in reducing pain and disability and improving quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain.

  17. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  18. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management program for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josephine Engels; F. van Dijk; Yvonne Heerkens; J. van der Gulden; S. Detaille

    2010-01-01

    Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic

  19. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, Sarah I.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Engels, Josephine A.; Heerkens, Yvonne F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  1. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-12-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.

  2. Development and Validation of an Online Program for Promoting Self-Management among Korean Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus is second only to tobacco as a known human carcinogen. However, chronic hepatitis B usually does not produce symptoms and people feel healthy even in the early stages of live cancer. Therefore, chronically infected people should perceive it as a serious health problem and move on to appropriate health behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an online program for promoting self-management among Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B. The online program was developed using a prototyping approach and system developing life cycle method, evaluated by users for their satisfaction with the website and experts for the quality of the site. To evaluate the application of the online program, knowledge and self-management compliance of the subjects were measured and compared before and after the application of the online program. There were statistically significant increases in knowledge and self-management compliance in the user group. An online program with high accessibility and applicability including information, motivation, and behavior skill factors can promote self-management of the patient with chronic hepatitis B. Findings from this study allow Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B to engage in proactive and effective health management in the community or clinical practice.

  3. Chronic Oral Capsaicin Exposure During Development Leads to Adult Rats with Reduced Taste Bud Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelian, Jacquelyn M; Samson, Kaeli K; Sollars, Suzanne I

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sensory interaction between gustatory and trigeminal nerves occurs in the anterior tongue. Surgical manipulations have demonstrated that the strength of this relationship varies across development. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that affects fibers of the somatosensory lingual nerve surrounding taste buds, but not fibers of the gustatory chorda tympani nerve which synapse with taste receptor cells. Since capsaicin is commonly consumed by many species, including humans, experimental use of this neurotoxin provides a naturalistic perturbation of the lingual trigeminal system. Neonatal or adults rats consumed oral capsaicin for 40 days and we examined the cross-sensory effect on the morphology of taste buds across development. Rats received moderate doses of oral capsaicin, with chronic treatments occurring either before or after taste system maturation. Tongue morphology was examined either 2 or 50 days after treatment cessation. Edema, which has been previously suggested as a cause of changes in capsaicin-related gustatory function, was also assessed. Reductions in taste bud volume occurred 50 days, but not 2 days post-treatment for rats treated as neonates. Adult rats at either time post-treatment were unaffected. Edema was not found to occur with the 5 ppm concentration of capsaicin we used. Results further elucidate the cooperative relationship between these discrete sensory systems and highlight the developmentally mediated aspect of this interaction. Chronic exposure to even moderate levels of noxious stimuli during development has the ability to impact the orosensory environment, and these changes may not be evident until long after exposure has ceased.

  4. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  5. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  6. Effect of rajyoga meditation on chronic tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran; Girgla, Kawalinder K; Chalana, Harsh; Singh, Harjot

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is the most common type of headache with no truly effective treatment. This study was designed to correlate the additive effect of meditation on CTTH patients receiving medical treatment. 50 patients (aged 18-58 years) presenting with a clinical diagnosis of CCTH, were divided in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=30) received 8 lessons and practical demonstration of Brahmakumaris spiritual based meditation known as Rajyoga meditation for relaxation therapy, in addition to routine medical treatment (analgesics and muscle relaxants). Group 2 (n=20) patients received analgesics and muscle relaxants twice a day but no relaxation therapy in the form of meditation. Both groups were followed up for 8 weeks period. The parameters studied were severity, frequency and duration of CCTH, and their headache index calculated. Patients in both groups showed a highly significant reduction in headache variables (Pheadache, duration & frequency in Group 1 was 94%, 91% and 97% respectively whereas in Group 2 it was 36%, 36% and 49% respectively. Headache relief as calculated by headache index was 99% in Group 1 as compared to 51% in Group 2. Even Short term spiritual based relaxation therapy (Rajyoga meditation) was highly effective in causing earlier relief in chronic tension headache as measured by headache parameter.

  7. Effect of Taurine on Hemodiafiltration in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohira, Shunji; Komatsu, Mizuki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Naganuma, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Tsuchiya, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Taurine, an important factor in the living body, is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, retina and central nervous system. In the present study, its effect on cardiovascular function was specifically taken into consideration. In hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients, the effect of taurine on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), in whom dry weight was difficult to control, was evaluated. All patients who were subjected to regular HDF for 4 h three times per week at Joban hospital were included in this study. Patients with chronic heart failure, in whom dry weight was difficult to control (N = 4), were included in the evaluation of clinical status. X-ray and echocardiography were determined before and after taurine treatment. Almost all patients were taking nitric acid, warfarin, anti-platelet agents and vasopressors. Because vital signs were unstable in chronic heart failure, all cases withheld antihypertensive drugs during HDF. For unstable vital signs during HDF, pulmonary congestion was chronically recognized. After taurine was started, vital signs stabilized and lowering of dry weight was possible. In addition, X-ray and cardiac diastolic failure on echocardiography improved. Taurine was effective for CHF patients on HDF in whom dry weight was difficult to control in spite of various medications. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  8. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  9. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  10. Anticoagulation therapy a risk factor for the development of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspegren, Oskar P.; Åstrand, Ramona; Lundgren, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy.......Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy....

  11. Recent developments in epigenetics of acute and chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Marpadga A; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-08-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post-translational modifications of histones in chromatin, are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNAme and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies.

  12. Character Development Pilot Evaluation of Two Programs for Youth with Chronic Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Maslow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the pilot evaluation of two Positive Youth Development (PYD programs for youth with child onset chronic illness (COCI, reporting how the programs influenced participants’ character development. College students with COCI led high school students with COCI through activities pertaining to different aspects of growing up with a chronic illness. Participants completed the Positive Youth Development Inventory-Short Form (PYDI-S, which measures seven domains of youth perceptions of the contribution to their development from the program. Participants reported that both programs helped them the most with personal standards, which corresponds well to character development on the full version of the Positive Youth Development Inventory (PYDI. They also had high scores on prosocial behavior and future orientation, both important domains for character development. We discuss the idea that interventions promoting character development for youth with COCI are critical for promoting a positive narrative for chronically-ill youth, their parents, and society.

  13. The effectiveness of balneotherapy in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Şule Şahin; Taşoğlu, Özlem; Güneri, Fulya Demircioğlu; Özişler, Zuhal; Safer, Vildan Binay; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of balneotherapy plus physical therapy versus only physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. In this trial, 81 patients with low back pain were followed up in two groups. Patients in group I (n = 44) were treated with physical therapy alone. Patients in group II (n = 37) were treated with balneotherapy in addition to the same physical therapy protocol in group I. Patients in both groups were given a home-based standardized exercise program. The following parameters were measured: visual analog scale (0-10 cm), fingertip-to-floor distance (cm), Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form 36 quality of life scale. First evaluations were done at the time of enrollment, and second evaluations were done after accomplishment of a 3-week treatment program. There were no significant differences between the two groups for the sociodemographic features. All of the measured parameters improved in both groups. However, improvements in pain, functionality, and quality of life scores were found to be superior in the balneotherapy plus physical therapy group. For the patients with chronic low back pain, balneotherapy plus physical therapy is more effective, compared to physical therapy alone.

  14. The effects of chronic ketorolac tromethamine (toradol) on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, M J; Kucan, J O; Roth, A C; Suchy, H; Brown, R E

    1996-08-01

    Intramuscular ketorolac is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) agent for analgesia in surgical patients. Increasing numbers of surgical patients are chronically taking some form of an NSAI drug. We examined the effects of "chronic" intramuscular ketorolac on the healing of a closed linear surgical wound in the rat. Wistar rats were pretreated with 4 mg per kilogram per day ketorolac intramuscularly prior to receiving dorsal incisional wounds. The ketorolac treatment was continued and after 2 weeks the wounds were excised and separated with a tensiometer to measure mechanical properties. Breaking strength was directly measured, tensile strength was calculated, and collagen concentrations at the wound site were determined. A significant decrease in the mean breaking strength was seen in the ketorolac-treated animals when compared to controls. The ketorolac-treated animals had a mean tensile strength less than the controls, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. The mean collagen concentration of the ketorolac-treated wounds was significantly less than the untreated wounds. Use of ketorolac for just 1 week prior to surgery in rats produced a significant decrease in the breaking strength of their wounds. With the increasing use of ketorolac in surgical patients as well as the increasing use of oral NSAI drugs, more study of this effect is warranted.

  15. Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs on Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychostimulants have been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for approximately 70 years, little is known about the long term effects of these drugs on developing brain. The observable effects of psychostimulants are influenced by the timing of exposure, the age of examination after drug exposure and sex. Preclinical studies point out that chronic psychostimulant exposure before adolescence cause reverse sensitization or tolerance and this leads to reduction in stimulant effectiveness in adolesecence and adulthood. Preclinical studies show the potential long term effects of psychostimulants. But it is necessary to investigate the relationship between preclinical effects and clinical practice. A developmental approach is needed to understand the impact of pediatric medications on the brain that includes assessment at multiple ages to completely characterize the long term effects of these medications. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of psychostimulants on developing brain.

  16. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathophysiologic aspects of the development of cognitive disorders in chronic heart failure in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Pokachalova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review presents current views on pathophysiologic aspects of the formation and progression of cognitive disorders in chronic heart failure in elderly patients. Advanced age itself is an important predictor of the development of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and other diseases. Involutive changes of cardiovascular system are known to potentiate the development of chronic heart failure. Heart failure in older people usually develops gradually. Formation of the cognitive deficit in heart disease is associated with chronic cerebral ischemia as well as a cascade of neurochemical processes occurring in the brain, eventually forming a vicious circle. Often the symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to reduced stroke volume occur much earlier than congestion signs in other organs and systems. Chronic cerebral ischemia that occurs due to violation of cerebral hemodynamics, is associated with both extracerebral and intracerebral causes, which in turn contributes to the development of chronic brain hypoxia and aggravation of cognitive dysfunction. Thus, the features of the development and course of disease in people of older age groups indicate that in geriatric practice existing diagnostic schemes are not always applicable. When observing patients of elderly and senile age with chronic heart failure, during the assessment of their condition and running diagnostic tests, special attention should be payed to the earliest detection of cognitive dysfunction signs in order to correct the patient's treatment and improve quality of life.

  18. The Dichotomous Effect of Chronic Stress on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and metabolic diseases are linked to chronic stress and low socioeconomic status. The mechanistic link between stress and obesity has not been clarified, partly due to the inherent complexity exemplified by the bidirectional effect of stress on eating and body weight. Recent studies focusing on adaptive thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function support a dichotomous relation to explain the impact of stress on obesity: stress promotes obesity in the presence of hyperphagia and unchanged BAT function; stress results in weight loss and/or obesity resistance in the presence of hypophagia, or when hyperphagia is associated with BAT recruitment and enhanced thermogenesis. Mechanistically dissecting the bidirectional effects of stress on metabolic outcomes might open new avenues for innovative pharmacotherapies for the treatment of obesity-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The in vitro effect of xylitol on chronic rhinosinusitis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Lee, T; Hardcastle, T; Biswas, K; Radcliff, F; Douglas, R

    2016-12-01

    Biofilms have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and may explain the limited efficacy of antibiotics. There is a need to find more effective, non-antibiotic based therapies for CRS. This study examines the effects of xylitol on CRS biofilms and planktonic bacteria. Crystal violet assay and spectrophotometry were used to quantify the effects of xylitol (5% and 10% solutions) against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The disruption of established biofilms, inhibition of biofilm formation and effects on planktonic bacteria growth were investigated and compared to saline and no treatment. Xylitol 5% and 10% significantly reduced biofilm biomass (S. epidermidis), inhibited biofilm formation (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa) and reduced growth of planktonic bacteria (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa). Xylitol 5% inhibited formation of S. epidermidis biofilms more effectively than xylitol 10%. Xylitol 10% reduced S. epidermidis planktonic bacteria more effectively than xylitol 5%. Saline, xylitol 5% and 10% disrupted established biofilms of S. aureus when compared with no treatment. No solution was effective against established P. aeruginosa biofilm. Xylitol has variable activity against biofilms and planktonic bacteria in vitro and may have therapeutic efficacy in the management of CRS.

  20. 75 FR 55797 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting Antiviral... entitled ``Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Treatment... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection...

  1. Possible Link between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaku Nitta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clinical syndrome that consists of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Although individual components of MetS have been implicated in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD, few studies have examined the effect of combinations of the components of MetS on the development of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The prevalence of MetS is increasing worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and early detection and treatment of MetS would be a cost-effective strategy for preventing the development of CKD. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are two important features of MetS that may be associated with renal damage. Lifestyle modifications, including caloric restriction and exercise, are necessary to treat MetS. Initial antihypertensive therapy should consist of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. An improved understanding of the mechanism responsible for the association between MetS and renal damage should be helpful in determining the treatment regimens directed at cardiovascular and renal protection.

  2. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  3. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  4. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  5. Development of chronic myelocytic leukemia in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, N; Oguma, N; Tanaka, R; Kuramoto, A; Ohkita, T [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-04-01

    On the basis of the evaluation of laboratory findings in 102 cases including 20 cases which were diagnosed as very early stage chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML), chronological orders of the histopathological pictures of CML were shown as follows; myeloid occupation with Ph/sup 1/-positive cells (leucocyte count 10/sup 10//L)--basophilic leucocytosis thrombocytosis and low activity of neutrocyte-AP (1 - 2 x 10/sup 10//L)--appearance of immature granulocytes more than 5% in the peripheral blood (2 x 10/sup 10//L)--increase of serum Vit. B/sub 12/ (2.5 x 10/sup 10//L)--splenomegaly (5 x 10/sup 10//L)--appearance of subjective symptoms (7 x 10/sup 10//L or more). The relation between an actual number of Ph/sup 1/-positive cells and time of their appearance (months) can be expressed as log Y = 0.053 + 10.023. It was estimated that it takes about 8 years since one Ph/sup 1/-positive cell appears in the body until the leucocyte count becomes 10/sup 11//L and the patient consult a doctor. The idea that Ph/sup 1/-positive cells can be transformed to more malignant clones is helpful to understand the pathological feature of acute transformation of CML.

  6. Psychosocial factors and their role in chronic pain: A brief review of development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Stanley I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The belief that pain is a direct result of tissue damage has dominated medical thinking since the mid 20th Century. Several schools of psychological thought proffered linear causal models to explain non-physical pain observations such as phantom limb pain and the effects of placebo interventions. Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area. They are gaining wider acceptance and some aspects are being integrated and implemented into a number of health care systems. The most notable of these is the concept of Yellow Flags. The research to validate the veracity of such programs has not yet been established. In this paper I seek to briefly summarize the development of psychological thought, both past and present, then review current cognitive-behavioural models and the available supporting evidence. I conclude by discussing these factors and identifying those that have been shown to be reliable predictors of chronicity and those that may hold promise for the future.

  7. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentel Paul R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time.

  8. The effects of chronic low dose irradiation on drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Yuraneva, I.N.; Taskaev, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of the chronic gamma-irradiation in the dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h on the rate of genetic variability and on the life-span in the laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster with genotypic distinguishes in mobile genetic elements and defects in the DNA repair processes. It is shown that the radiation-induced alteration of the traits under study depends from genotype of investigated strains. In the different strains we have observed an increase as well as a decrease of the mutation rate and life-span. Also it was established that irradiation leads to the frequencies of the GD-sterility and mutability of the snw and h(w+) in the P-M and H-E dysgenic crosses. The obtained results suggest that mobile genetic elements play an important role in the forming of genetic effects in response to low dose irradiation. (author)

  9. Protective Effect of Self-compassion to Emotional Response among Students with Chronic Academic Stress

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    Yonghong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature has shown that self-compassion is a protective factor of an individual’s emo-tional response to chronic stress. However, this stress-buffering effect has not been complete-ly analyzed in individuals who report significantly high academic stress. The present study explored the role of self-compassion in a group of undergraduate students who experience chronic academic stress. A total of 208 undergraduate students who were preparing for the Postgraduate Entrance Examination (PEE were recruited and completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Check List, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Differences analysis confirmed that the participants reported significantly higher academic stress than their peers who were not preparing for PEE. Self-compassion positively related to positive affect but negatively related to negative affect and learning stress. Further analysis showed that self-compassion negatively mediated the relationship be-tween chronic academic stress and negative affect. Findings imply that self-compassion-centered interventions can be developed in the educational context to assist students cope with chronic academic stress.

  10. The effectiveness of mangosteen rind extract as additional therapy on chronic periodontitis (Clinical trials

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    Ina Hendiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that attacks the periodontal tissue comprises the gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone caused mainly by plaque bacteriophage or other specific dominant type of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of clinical application of mangosteen peel extract gel as adjunctive therapy scaling and root planing in patients with chronic periodontitis. This research was expected to developed new treatment in the field of dentistry, particularly in periodontics, which can be used as supporting material for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Methods: Quasi-experimental research, split mouth, with as many as 14 chronic periodontitis patients. Mangosteen rind was prepared to be formed into extract gel, dried at room temperature, then the dried samples were macerated by using ethanol, then evaporated and decanted for 3 days until obtained condensed extract. The samples were patients with chronic periodontitis in at least 2 teeth with pockets ≥ 5 mm. Clinical parameters of pocket depth, gingival bleeding, and clinical epithelial attachment level were measured at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Analysis of data using the t-test. Results: The comparison of average gap ratio of pockets depth, gingival index, gingival bleeding and epithelium attachment levels, before and after treatment showed significant differences, such as in the test and control sides. Conclusion: The mangosteen rind gel as adjunctive therapy for scaling and root planing is able to reduce pockets depth, gingival index, and gingival bleeding, and improve clinical epithelial attachment.

  11. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

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    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  12. Gender differences in the effect of obesity on chronic diseases among the elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Chun, Heeran; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences of obesity on major chronic diseases in elderly Korean males and females. This study applied a cross sectional design using the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES). We selected 508 elderly males and 830 elderly females who were 60 or more years old. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI) (≥ 25) or Waist Circumference (WC) (≥ 90 for men and ≥ 85 for women). We applied a surveylogistic regression to determine gender differences in relation to the effect of obesity on eleven major chronic diseases. Using WC, 46.2% of females were obese compared to 34.3% for males. Similarly, using BMI, 42.2% of females were obese compared to 31.7% for males. While obese males and females had similar profiles for developing metabolic syndrome components including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs] were 1.8-2.6 for males and 1.7-2.5 for females), obese elderly females had additional risks for arthritis and urinary incontinence (ORs 1.5-1.8 for females) as well as higher prevalence for these diseases. A clearer understanding of gender differences in relation to the association between obesity and chronic diseases would be helpful for reducing the social burden of chronic diseases in the elderly.

  13. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C

    2011-06-01

    Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2

  14. Low-dose radiation effects on the evolution of chronic dystrophical processes in cornea and clouding of crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.V.; Gajdaj, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Low-dose radiation effects on the course of chronic dystrophical processes in cornea and the dynamics of crystalline lens clouding of involution age genesis are investigated in the patients participated in Chernobyl accident response. Examples of the concrete pathological cases are considered. It was stated that the above dose effects led to exacerbation of the chronic slack dystrophical processes in cornea and intensification of the development of cornea primary dystrophy. In a number of cases the intensification of development of crystalline lens clouding takes place resulted in the cataract for 2-3 years

  15. Effective behavioral intervention strategies using mobile health applications for chronic disease management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Choi, Mona; Lee, Sang A; Jiang, Natalie

    2018-02-20

    Mobile health (mHealth) has continuously been used as a method in behavioral research to improve self-management in patients with chronic diseases. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in chronic disease management in the adult population is still lacking. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of mHealth interventions on process measures as well as health outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve chronic disease management. Relevant randomized controlled studies that were published between January 2005 and March 2016 were searched in six databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. The inclusion criteria were RCTs that conducted an intervention using mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets for adult patients with chronic diseases to examine disease management or health promotion. Of the 12 RCTs reviewed, 10 of the mHealth interventions demonstrated statistically significant improvement in some health outcomes. The most common features of mHealth systems used in the reviewed RCTs were real-time or regular basis symptom assessments, pre-programed reminders, or feedbacks tailored specifically to the data provided by participants via mHealth devices. Most studies developed their own mHealth systems including mobile apps. Training of mHealth systems was provided to participants in person or through paper-based instructions. None of the studies reported the relationship between health outcomes and patient engagement levels on the mHealth system. Findings from mHealth intervention studies for chronic disease management have shown promising aspects, particularly in improving self-management and some health outcomes.

  16. Early Factors Associated with the Development of Chronic Pain in Trauma Patients

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    Raoul Daoust

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors, available at the time of trauma admission, associated with the development of chronic pain to allow testing of preventive approaches. Methods. In a retrospective observational cohort study, we included all patients ≥ 18 years old admitted for injury in 57 adult trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada between 2004 and 2014. Chronic pain was defined as follows: treated in a chronic pain clinic, diagnosed with chronic pain, or received at least 2 prescriptions of chronic pain medications 3 to 12 months postinjury. Results. A total of 95,134 patients were retained for analysis. Mean age was 59.8 years (±21.7, and 52% were men. The causes of trauma were falls (63% and motor vehicle accidents (22%. We identified 14,518 patients (15.3%; 95% CI: 15.1–15.5 who developed chronic pain. After controlling for confounding factors, the variables associated with chronic pain were spinal cord injury (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 3.4–4.6, disc-vertebra trauma (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.5–1.7, history of alcoholism (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.7, history of anxiety (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.5, history of depression (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4, and being female (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2–1.3. The area under the receiving operating characteristic curve derived from the model was 0.80. Conclusions. We identified risk factors present on hospital admission that can predict trauma patients who will develop chronic pain. These factors should be prospectively validated.

  17. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, E A R I E; Perera, P A J; Sivakanesan, R; Abeysekara, T; Nugegoda, D B; Jayaweera, J A A S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  18. Chronic irradiation and brain development. Progress report, February 15, 1976--February 15, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1977-01-01

    Tritiated water ( 3 HOH) ingested by the female rats in the dose as low as 3 μCi/ml drinking water (69 μCi/day) produced highly significant decreases in body weight, cerebral weight, cerebral DNA (cell number), and cerebral protein, of the offspring at birth. These effects of such a low dose on fetal brain development were not demonstrated before. Administration of 3 HOH before mating (and during pregnancy) seemed to be necessary for this damage; a disturbance of ovarian maturation is implicated. Chronic administration of 3 HOH until birth of F 2 generation did not result in more damage in F 2 than in F 1 ; high mortality and a selection of individuals less suceptible to radiation may be implicated

  19. Does gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA influence the development of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

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    Bridges S Louis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. Integrating these data suggests that GABA may play a role in downregulating mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory agents such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 – agents implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic studies have also associated RA with members of the p38 MAPK pathway. Hypothesis We propose a hypothesis for an inefficient GABA signaling system that results in unchecked proinflammatory cytokine production via the p38 MAPK pathway. This model also supports the need for increasing research in the integration of immunology and neuroscience.

  20. Intervention Mapping to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Young, Sarah R; Johnson, Mallory O; Saag, Michael; Demonte, William; Kerns, Robert; Bair, Matthew J; Kertesz, Stefan; Turan, Janet M; Kilgore, Meredith; Clay, Olivio J; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Davies, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important comorbidity among individuals with HIV. Behavioral interventions are widely regarded as evidence-based, efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions for chronic pain in the general population. An accepted principle in behavioral science is that theory-based, systematically-developed behavioral interventions tailored to the unique needs of a target population are most likely to be efficacious. Our aim was to use Intervention Mapping to systematically develop a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV that will improve pain intensity and pain-related functional impairment. Our Intervention Mapping process was informed by qualitative inquiry of 24 patients and seven providers in an HIV primary care clinic. The resulting intervention includes group and one-on-one sessions and peer and staff interventionists. We also developed a conceptual framework that integrates our qualitative findings with SCT-based theoretical constructs. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, our future work will investigate the intervention's impact on chronic pain outcomes, as well as our hypothesized proximal mediators of the intervention's effect.

  1. Stage 1 development of a patient-reported experience measure (PREM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan; Andrew, Sharon; Hodson, Matthew; Roberts, C Michael

    2017-07-24

    chronic lung disease will help develop a new patient reported experience scale. Healthcare services are aiming to provide effective patient-centered care for those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Such care strategies require structured, validated patient feedback scales to facilitate accurate communication between patients, carers and healthcare professionals. Susan Walker at Anglia Ruskin University in Chelmsford, UK, and co-workers analyzed qualitative data from interviews with 64 COPD patients in London and Essex regarding their emotions and perceptions of living with COPD, with the aim of creating a patient reported experience measure, or PREM. Initial results identified five themes-including 'journey to diagnosis' and 'everyday life'-and twenty-one affective responses, ranging from negative to positive. The team will take these results forward for further validation.

  2. What characterizes individuals developing chronic whiplash?: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtveit, Solbjørg Makalani; Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Petrie, Keith J; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-05-01

    Most individuals experiencing whiplash accidents recover rapidly. A considerable proportion, however, develop chronic symptoms. Psychological factors may slow recovery, possibly by increasing the likelihood of other symptoms being misattributed to, and amplified by the whiplash injury. We aimed to investigate how pre-injury mental and somatic symptoms, self-rated health, use of health-services and medications, health-behavior and socio-demographics predict the development of chronic whiplash. Data from two waves of a large, population based study (HUNT2 (baseline) and HUNT3) were used. Individuals reporting no whiplash at baseline were identified in HUNT3. Characteristics reported at baseline were compared between those who had developed chronic whiplash in HUNT3 (n=199) and those who had not (n=20,600), using Pearson's chi-squared tests, independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analyses. Individuals developing chronic whiplash reported worse baseline health than those reporting no chronic whiplash. Poor self-rated health was a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic whiplash (OR=2.26, 95%CI: 1.68-3.04). Musculoskeletal pain also increased the risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.15-1.26), as did diffuse somatic symptoms (OR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.96), use of different health services (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.19-1.45), high use of medications (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.14-1.43) and symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.39-2.68). Physical activity was protective (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.91). Most socio-demographic variables were not significantly associated with chronic whiplash. Poor somatic and mental pre-injury health increased the risk of subsequent chronic whiplash. This suggests that chronic whiplash is not merely an organic disorder, and highlights the importance of individual expectations, symptom reattribution and amplification in development of chronic whiplash. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic stress accelerates the development of endometriosis in mouse through adrenergic receptor β2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qiqi; Liu, Xishi; Qi, Qiuming; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-11-01

    (a non-specific ADRB agonist), respectively. In all three experiments, the bodyweight and hotplate latency were evaluated before sacrifice 14 days after the induction. In all experimentations, the lesion weight was evaluated and the harvested ectopic endometrial tissue samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31-positive microvessels, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated CREB, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, adrenergic receptor α1 (ADRA1) and ADRA2. Exposure to chronic stress accelerated the development of endometriosis and exacerbated the endometriosis-associated generalized hyperalgesia. This promotional effect is likely to be mediated through the systemic activation of the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis, which results in subsequent release of catecholamines. The surging catecholamines may activate ADRB2 and CREB, yielding increased angiogenesis and cellular proliferation in ectopic endometrium in mice with induced endometriosis. In addition, β adrenergic receptor blockade completely abolished the promotional effect of chronic stress, likely through suppression of ADRB2 and CREB activation, thus suppressing angiogenesis and proliferation. Moreover, a non-specific adrenergic β agonist and a specific adrenergic β2 agonist, but not non-specific adrenergic α agonist, acted similarly to chronic stress, accelerating the development of endometriosis and exacerbating the generalized hyperalgesia in mice with pre-existing endometriosis. NA. This study is limited by the use of immunohistochemistry analyses only and the lack of molecular data. The present study provides the experimental evidence that chronic stress can promote the development of endometriosis through the activation of ADRB2. Given ADRB2 is also expressed in human endometriosis and appears to be functional, and in light of recent awareness that adrenergic signaling plays critical roles in tumorigenesis, it is likely that

  4. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, S.I.; van der Gulden, J.W.J.; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees

  5. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, S.I.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.H.; Dijk, F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a

  6. Effects of chronic delta-9-THC treatment on cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.B.; Seifen, E.; Kennedy, R.H.; Kafiluddi, R.; Paule, M.G.; Scallet, A.C.; Ali, S.F.; Slikker, W. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    This study was designed to determine if chronic treatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in the rat. Following daily oral administration of 10 or 20 mg/kg THC or an equivalent volume of control solvent for 90 days, rats were sacrificed, and sarcolemmal membranes were prepared from ventricular myocardium. Beta-adrenoceptor density and binding affinity estimated with (-)(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol; a beta-adrenergic antagonist, were not significantly affected by treatment with THC when compared to vehicle controls. These results suggest that the tolerance to cardiovascular effects of THC which develops during chronic exposure in the rat is not associated with alterations in cardiac beta-adrenoceptors as monitored by radiolabeled antagonist binding.

  7. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita

  8. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  9. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Emelin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  10. Epidemiology and treatment effects in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.M. Afonso (Ana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health epidemic, which has important consequences for patients and community, and still receives insufficient attention from the health care professionals and scientists. COPD is a leading cause of chronic morbidity (affects 210

  11. Stage effect of chronic kidney disease in erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rodrigues Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The study aims to assess the influence of the stage of chronic kidney disease and glomerular filtration rate on prevalence and degree of erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods This transversal study, conducted from May 2013 to December 2015, included patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, stages III/IV/V. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function. Data classically associated with erectile dysfunction were obtained by medical record review. Erectile dysfunction, degree of erectile dysfunction, and other main variables associated with erectile dysfunction were compared between patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment stages III versus IV/V using the Chi-square test. The relationship between score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction and glomerular filtration rate was established by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Two hundred and forty five patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment participated of the study. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease in stages IV/V was greater than in stage III. Glomerular filtration rate positively correlated with score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction. Conclusions The study suggests that chronic kidney disease progression (glomerular filtration rate decrease and advance in chronic kidney disease stages worsen erectile function. Hypothetically, diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction may be anticipated with the analysis of chronic kidney disease progression.

  12. School Organizational Effectiveness and Chronic Absenteeism: Implications for Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism in K-12 schools is strongly associated with critical educational outcomes such as student achievement and graduation. Yet, the causes of chronic absenteeism are complex, with environmental, family/individual, and school factors all affecting the likelihood of a student attending school regularly. This exploratory study examines…

  13. Effect of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoglu, Arzu Babayigit; Karaman, Ozkan; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Erbil, Guven; Yilmaz, Osman; Kivcak, Bijen; Bagriyanik, H Alper; Uzuner, Nevin

    2012-12-01

    Hedera helix is widely used to treat bronchial asthma for many years. However, effects of this herb on lung histopathology is still far from clear. We aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma.BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I (Placebo), II (Hedera helix), III (Dexamethasone) and IV (Control). All mice except controls were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Then, mice in group I received saline, group II 100 mg/kg Hedera helix and group III 1 mg/kg dexamethasone via orogastic gavage once daily for one week. Airway histopathology was evaluated by using light and electron microscopy in all groups.Goblet cell numbers and thicknesses of basement membrane were found significantly lower in group II, but there was no statistically significant difference in terms of number of mast cells, thicknesses of epithelium and subepithelial smooth muscle layers between group I and II. When Hedera helix and dexamethasone groups were compared with each other, thickness of epithelium, subepithelial muscle layers, number of mast cells and goblet cells of group III were significantly ameliorated when compared with the group II. Although Hedera helix administration reduced only goblet cell counts and the thicknesses of basement membrane in the asthmatic airways, dexamethasone ameliorated all histopathologic parameters except thickness of basement membrane better than Hedera helix.

  14. The impact of chromatin modification on the development of chronic complications in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wegner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease. Over 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. Chronic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy or neuropathy are the major dangerous outcome of this disease. Recent studies indicate a significant role of epigenetic regulation in the development of chronic complications in patients with diabetes. Hyperglycemia could cause abnormal regulation of the activity of enzymes participating in the post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs and initiation of changes in patterns of DNA methylation. It leads to modification of chromatin structure. These epigenetic abnormalities result in changes in the expression of genes involved in development of chronic inflammation, such as NF-KAPPAB (nuclear factor kappaB gene, TNFα (tumor necrosis factor a gene, IL6 (interleukin 6 gene or MCP1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 gene. It enhances endothelial cell dysfunction, which plays an important role in development of chronic, diabetic complications. In addition, caused by hyperglycemia epigenetic modifications changes in structure of chromatin explains “metabolic memory”, a phenomenon of presence of pathological pathways related to the prolonged hyperglycemia in the past, despite maintaining good metabolic control later on.

  15. Development of Two Antibody Detection Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Serodiagnosis of Human Chronic Fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Gaudier, José F.; Ruiz-Jiménez, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Coprological examination based on egg detection in stool samples is currently used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. However, this method is not effective during the acute phase of the disease and has poor sensitivity during the chronic phase. Serodiagnosis has become an excellent alternative to coprological examination in efforts to combat the effects of fascioliasis on human and animal health. Two novel recombinant Fasciola hepatica proteins, i.e., a ferritin (FhFtn-1) and a tegument-associated protein (FhTP16.5), were used as antigens to develop in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The assays were optimized and validated using 152 serum samples from humans with a known infection status, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic fascioliasis, and patients with other parasitic diseases. The FhFtn-1 ELISA was shown to be 96.6% sensitive and 95.7% specific; the respective parameters for the FhTP16.5 ELISA were 91.4% and 92.4%. The performances of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs were compared with that of an available commercial test (the DRG test) using a subset of serum samples. Our in-house tests were slightly more sensitive than the DRG test in detecting antibodies against F. hepatica, but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the potential of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs as diagnostic tools for human fascioliasis, as might be implemented in conjunction with standard assays for large-scale screenings in areas where the disease is endemic and for the detection of occasional cases in clinical laboratories. PMID:24353000

  16. Development of two antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of human chronic fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Gaudier, José F; Ruiz-Jiménez, Caleb; Espino, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Coprological examination based on egg detection in stool samples is currently used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. However, this method is not effective during the acute phase of the disease and has poor sensitivity during the chronic phase. Serodiagnosis has become an excellent alternative to coprological examination in efforts to combat the effects of fascioliasis on human and animal health. Two novel recombinant Fasciola hepatica proteins, i.e., a ferritin (FhFtn-1) and a tegument-associated protein (FhTP16.5), were used as antigens to develop in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The assays were optimized and validated using 152 serum samples from humans with a known infection status, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic fascioliasis, and patients with other parasitic diseases. The FhFtn-1 ELISA was shown to be 96.6% sensitive and 95.7% specific; the respective parameters for the FhTP16.5 ELISA were 91.4% and 92.4%. The performances of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs were compared with that of an available commercial test (the DRG test) using a subset of serum samples. Our in-house tests were slightly more sensitive than the DRG test in detecting antibodies against F. hepatica, but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the potential of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs as diagnostic tools for human fascioliasis, as might be implemented in conjunction with standard assays for large-scale screenings in areas where the disease is endemic and for the detection of occasional cases in clinical laboratories.

  17. Effects of chronic cesium-137 ingestion on physiological system in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    cytochrome P450 CYP11a1 in adrenal (Grignard et al. Arch Toxicol 2007). Evaluation of intestine function demonstrated few effects of 137 Cs after chronic ingestion, except for a decrease in apoptosis in intestinal wall (Dublineau et al. J Tox Environ Health 2007). Finally, 137 Cs induced a decrease in the episode number of wakefulness and slow wave sleep counterbalanced by an increase in their mean duration, leading to unmodified total duration of these stages (Lestaevel et al. Toxicology 2006). This study demonstrated that chronic 137 Cs ingestion in rat induced slight modifications of physiological systems, without apparent development of pathologies. Further experiments should now be performed to determine if more marked effects could be detected in more sensitive models, such as juvenile animals. (author)

  18. Chronic effects of cesium-137 ingestion on physiological systems in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    for a decrease in apoptosis in intestinal wall. Finally, 137 Cs induced a decrease in the episode number of wakefulness and slow wave sleep counterbalanced by an increase in their mean duration, leading to unmodified total duration of these stages. This study demonstrated that chronic 137 Cs ingestion in rat induced slight modifications of physiological systems, without development of pathologies. Further experiments should now be performed to determine if more marked effects could be detected in more sensitive models, such as juvenile animals. (author)

  19. A method for screening for the risk of chronic effects of surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, Přemysl; Badurová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a method for screening for the risk of chronic surface water pollution which was developed at the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute. The approach, which is based on exotoxicological analyses, can be classed as a rapid method of assessment. The degree of risk of chronic effects surface water pollution is determined from an evaluation of two major parameters-toxicity and genotoxicity. As the method utilizes relative simple procedures for sample collection, pretreatment of the sample, chemical analyses, bioassays and results assessment, this approach is suitable for widespread practical use. Extensive utilization of this approach for assessing river basins in the Czech Republic has proved its suitability for a more sophisticated detection of the biological impact of surface water pollution. This is documented in the article where the method is used in a study of the Bílina River, and in the overview of the results of the risk assessment of chronic effects of surface water pollution in selected sections of three international river basins in the Czech Republic.

  20. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  1. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    survivorship) and sublethal endpoints (e.g., growth, reproduction) and are in concept more sensitive than acute lethality tests. • Control– negative ...organism is unable to swim /move after gentle agitation with a transfer pipette but is still alive • LC50-Lethal concentration at which a median effect on...from Zumwalt et al. (1994) The original apparatus uses water splitting channels to perform water changes on 8 beakers at once; the modified apparatus

  2. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  3. Effects of a Self-Directed Nutrition Intervention among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are common among adults. A healthy diet may be beneficial for managing the consequences of such conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-directed nutrition program on dietary behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. As part of a larger trial examining the effects of a self-directed…

  4. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    . Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prospective studies supported etiological roles for relationship stress, perceived stress, and distress, while...... the studies on work-related stress (WS) showed conflicting results; ii) dyslipidemi: too few studies on psychosocial stress as a risk factor for dyslipidemia were available to draw a conclusion; however, a trend toward a positive association was present; iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): prospective......Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES...

  5. Chronic effects of ionizing radiation on animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, Yi.P.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental radiobiological studies and medical observations were conducted after the Chernobyl disaster based on the published results; patterns and characteristics influence of the fission products of nuclear materials on the body of mammals, including humans were analyzed. Chronic exposure to low doses leads to the changes in the hemopoietic system was founded and increases the risk of myeloproliferative diseases. The consequence of radiation-related immunodeficiency is the autoimmune disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. Radiation damage leads to endocrine system disruption of the body and of polipatologycal states. High radiosensitivity of the central nervous system was founded. Genotoxic chronic radiation exposure threatens the stability of the genome

  6. Cost-effective use of silver dressings for the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor B E; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulceration affects 1-3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing....... METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: 'Healed ulcer', 'Healing ulcer' or 'No improvement' were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer...

  7. Effects and Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiting Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is one of the most common urologic diseases, and no curative treatments have been identified. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been successfully used in promoting tissue healing, inhibiting inflammation and pain, differentiating stem cells, and stimulating nerve regeneration/muscle regeneration, as well as enhancing angiogenesis. Very recently, LIPUS has been proven an effective approach for CP/CPPS. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of LIPUS for CP/CPPS. To search publications relevant to the topics of this review, the search engine for life sciences of Entrez was used. We reviewed the available evidence from 1954 through 2015 concerning LIPUS for CP/CPPS. According to the literature, both transrectal and transperineal approaches of LIPUS are effective for CP/CPPS.

  8. Development of chronic colitis is dependent on the cytokine MIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Y P; Abadia-Molina, A C; Satoskar, A R; Clarke, K; Rietdijk, S T; Faubion, W A; Mizoguchi, E; Metz, C N; Alsahli, M; ten Hove, T; Keates, A C; Lubetsky, J B; Farrell, R J; Michetti, P; van Deventer, S J; Lolis, E; David, J R; Bhan, A K; Terhorst, C; Sahli, M A

    2001-11-01

    The cytokine macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted by a number of cell types upon induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because colitis is dependent on interplay between the mucosal immune system and intestinal bacteria, we investigated the role of MIF in experimental colitis. MIF-deficient mice failed to develop disease, but reconstitution of MIF-deficient mice with wild-type innate immune cells restored colitis. In addition, established colitis could be treated with anti-MIF immunoglobulins. Thus, murine colitis is dependent on continuous MIF production by the innate immune system. Because we found increased plasma MIF concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease, these data suggested that MIF is a new target for intervention in Crohn's disease.

  9. The effect of somatic awareness exercise on the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Phil. (Biokinetics) Stress is an integral part of daily living and supports the ability to adapt. However, chronic activation without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading the physiological and psychological systems. Since urban South Africans are sedentary and experience high levels of stress, they are developing stress related chronic conditions and hypokinetic diseases (obesity, hypertension, depression). This study is aimed at decreasing the chronic phys...

  10. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M.; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  11. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  12. Studies on chronic effects of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, Y.S.; Yun, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment is being carried out to elucidate the chronic effects of Co 60 (γ-ray) - low doses irradiation on JCR mice at 3rd week, 6th week, and 5th month after their birth. Experimental mice at 3rd week of age have been irradiated with Co 60 - 60mR weekly, Co 60 - 500mR weekly and Co 60 - 61R biweekly at the dose rate of 60mR per second for 23 weeks until now. Co 60 - 61R irradiated mice were subdivided into Co 60 - alone group and Co 60 combined with red ginseng extracts group. In their survivor's rate and their body weight etc., no significant differences between control groups and test groups in these experimental mice. Experimented mice at 6 weeks and 5 months of age are also being irradiated with Co 60 in the same doses as the above for 14 weeks and 8 weeks until present. In these experimental groups, there are also no significant differences between control groups and experimental groups in their survivor's rate and their body weight

  13. Investigation of the effects of vanilloids in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvaiya, Kuldeep; Goswami, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of TRPV1 modulators in animal model of Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To assess central and peripheral behavioral activity of TRPV1 modulators. CFS was induced by forcing the rats to swim for 10min for 21 consecutive days. The rats were treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, 2.5mg/kg) and n-tert-butylcyclohexanol (TRPV1 antagonist, 10mg/kg) for 21days 30min before the exposure to stress procedure. The behavioral consequence of CFS was measured in terms of immobility time, grip strength, locomotor activity, and anxiety level using Rota rod, Actophotometer, and Elevated plus maze model respectively. The other parameters include Plasma corticosterone, adrenal gland and spleen weight, complete blood count, blood urea niterogen (BUN), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation, catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH). TRPV1 modulators reversed (pchronic fatigue syndrome. The mechanism of action can be attributed to inhibition of TRPV1 channel and thereby modulating pain perception, neuroendocrine function, oxidative stress and immune function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  15. Chronic wrist pain: diagnosis and management. Development and use of a new algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, R. M.; Bijlsma, J. W.; van Vugt, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Chronic wrist pain can be difficult to manage and the differential diagnosis is extensive. To provide guidelines for assessment of the painful wrist an algorithm was developed to encourage a structured approach to the diagnosis and management of these patients. A review of the literature on causes

  16. Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; van Ittersum, Frans J; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assessment is a key element for improving the quality of care. Currently, a comprehensive indicator set for measuring the quality of medication treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality

  17. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Manuela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP. Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA, in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2, 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2 and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2, were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

  18. Development of Therapeutics That Induce Mitochondrial Biogenesis for the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Degenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert B; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-12-08

    Mitochondria have various roles in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Because mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many acute and chronic degenerative diseases, mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is a therapeutic target for treating such diseases. Here, we review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in acute and chronic degenerative diseases and the cellular signaling pathways by which MB is induced. We then review existing work describing the development and application of drugs that induce MB in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we discuss natural products and modulators of transcription factors, kinases, cyclic nucleotides, and G protein-coupled receptors.

  19. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T; Christrup, L L; Højsted, J; Villesen, H H; Albjerg, T H; Ravn-Nielsen, L V; Sjøgren, P

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment. We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics. patients treated with either opioids and/or adjuvant analgesics were asked to report their symptoms spontaneously, followed by a 41-item investigator-developed symptom checklist. A control group also filled in the checklist. a total of 62 patients and 64 controls participated in the study. The numbers of symptoms reported by the patients (9.9 ± 5.9) were significantly higher than those reported by the controls (3.2 ± 3.9) (Pside effects due to analgesics was: (1) Dry mouth (42%); (2) Sweating (34%); (3) Weight gain (29%); (4) Memory deficits (24%); (5) Fatigue (19%); and (6) Concentration deficits (19%). the number of symptoms reported using systematic assessment was eightfold higher than those reported voluntarily. Fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dry mouth, sweating and weight gain were the most frequently reported. The patients reported the side effects of their analgesics to contribute substantially to the reported symptoms. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heutink Annelies

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1 Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2 Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3 Communication in daily work situations, 4 Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5 How to stand up for oneself, 6 A plan to solve problems, 7 Follow-up. Methods Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8

  1. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2008-11-04

    Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF INTERVENTION: A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1) Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2) Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3) Communication in daily work situations, 4) Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5) How to stand up for oneself, 6) A plan to solve problems, 7) Follow-up. Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8, 12 and 24 months. Primary outcome

  2. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Collino

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO. These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  3. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Massimo; Pini, Alessandro; Mugelli, Niccolò; Mastroianni, Rosanna; Bani, Daniele; Fantozzi, Roberto; Papucci, Laura; Fazi, Marilena; Masini, Emanuela

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight) every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg) lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  4. Aligning health information technologies with effective service delivery models to improve chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Amy M; Thielke, Stephen M; Katon, Wayne; Unützer, Jürgen; Areán, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare reforms in the United States, including the Affordable Care and HITECH Acts, and the NCQA criteria for the Patient Centered Medical Home have promoted health information technology (HIT) and the integration of general medical and mental health services. These developments, which aim to improve chronic disease care, have largely occurred in parallel, with little attention to the need for coordination. In this article, the fundamental connections between HIT and improvements in chronic disease management are explored. We use the evidence-based collaborative care model as an example, with attention to health literacy improvement for supporting patient engagement in care. A review of the literature was conducted to identify how HIT and collaborative care, an evidence-based model of chronic disease care, support each other. Five key principles of effective collaborative care are outlined: care is patient-centered, evidence-based, measurement-based, population-based, and accountable. The potential role of HIT in implementing each principle is discussed. Key features of the mobile health paradigm are described, including how they can extend evidence-based treatment beyond traditional clinical settings. HIT, and particularly mobile health, can enhance collaborative care interventions, and thus improve the health of individuals and populations when deployed in integrated delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary considerations in the development of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, John; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is common among women of reproductive age and is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidities. In this Viewpoint, we explore the evolutionary cause of pelvic pain and summarize evidence that supports a menstruation-related evolutionary cause of chronic visceral pelvic pain: (1) lifetime menstruation has increased; (2) severe dysmenorrhea is common in the chronic pelvic pain population, particularly among those with pain sensitization; and (3) a potential biological mechanism can be identified. Thus, chronic pelvic pain may arise from the mismatch between the slow pace of biological evolution in our bodies and the relatively rapid pace of cultural changes that have resulted in increased menstrual frequency due to earlier menarche, later mortality, and lower fecundity. One possible mechanism that explains the development of persistent pain from repeated episodes of intermittent pain is hyperalgesic priming, a physiological process defined as a long-lasting latent hyperresponsiveness of nociceptors to inflammatory mediators after an inflammatory or neuropathic insult. The repetitive severely painful menstrual episodes may play such a role. From an evolutionary perspective the relatively rapid increase in lifetime menstruation experience in contemporary society may contribute to a mismatch between lifetime menstruation and the physiological pain processes, leading to a maladaptive state of chronic visceral pelvic pain. Our current physiology does not conform to current human needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The differential effects of gratitude and sleep on psychological distress in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei-Yee; Wong, Wing-Sze

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the possible cross-sectional mediating role of sleep in the relationship of gratitude with depression and anxiety in patients with chronic pain. A total of 224 patients with chronic pain completed structured questionnaires assessing chronic pain, depression and anxiety symptoms, gratitude, and sleep disturbances. Results of multiple regression analyses yielded a modest mediating effect for sleep on the gratitude-depression link whereas a stronger mediating effect was found for sleep on the gratitude-anxiety link. These data show much of the effect of gratitude on depression was direct whereas sleep exerted a stronger mediating effect on the gratitude-anxiety link.

  7. Effective Regional Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Rebecca; Merkowitz, Rose Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Times are changing, and so are Extension programs. These changes affect every aspect of the educational effort, including program development, project funding, educational delivery, partnership building, marketing, sharing impacts, and revenue generation. This article is not about how Extension is restructuring to adapt to changes; instead, it…

  8. New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. R. I. E. Siriwardhana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05 likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  10. The influence of chronic conditions and the environment on pubertal development. An example from medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M E; Shapland, F; Watts, R

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in human development encompassing sexual maturation (puberty) and the physical and psychological transition into adulthood. It is a crucial time for healthy development and any adverse environmental conditions, poor nutrition, or chronic infection can alter the timing of these physical changes; delaying menarche in girls or the age of peak height velocity in boys. This study explores the impact of chronic illness on the tempo of puberty in 607 adolescent skeletons from medieval England (AD 900-1550). A total of 135 (22.2%) adolescents showed some delay in their pubertal development, and this lag increased with age. Of those with a chronic condition, 40.0% (n=24/60) showed delay compared to only 20.3% (n=111/547) of the non-pathology group. This difference was statistically significant. A binary logistic regression model demonstrated a significant association between increasing delay in pubertal stage attainment with age in the pathology group. This is the first time that chronic conditions have been directly associated with a delay in maturation in the osteological record, using a new method to assess stages of puberty in skeletal remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic depression: development and evaluation of the luebeck questionnaire for recording preoperational thinking (LQPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnen Tanja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standardized instrument for recording the specific cognitive psychopathology of chronically depressed patients has not yet been developed. Up until now, preoperational thinking of chronically depressed patients has only been described in case studies, or through the external observations of therapists. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a standardized self-assessment instrument for measuring preoperational thinking that sufficiently conforms to the quality criteria for test theory. Methods The "Luebeck Questionnaire for Recording Preoperational Thinking (LQPT" was developed and evaluated using a german sample consisting of 30 episodically depressed, 30 chronically depressed and 30 healthy volunteers. As an initial step the questionnaire was subjected to an item analysis and a final test form was compiled. In a second step, reliability and validity tests were performed. Results Overall, the results of this study showed that the LQPT is a useful, reliable and valid instrument. The reliability (split-half reliability 0.885; internal consistency 0.901 and the correlations with other instruments for measuring related constructs (control beliefs, interpersonal problems, stress management proved to be satisfactory. Chronically depressed patients, episodically depressed patients and healthy volunteers could be distinguished from one another in a statistically significant manner (p Conclusion The questionnaire fulfilled the classical test quality criteria. With the LQPT there is an opportunity to test the theory underlying the CBASP model.

  12. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  13. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  14. Comorbidity of chronic diseases: effects of disease pairs on physical and mental functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Dekker, J.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Although much research has been done on the impact of chronic illness on quality of life, still relatively little is known about the role of comorbidity. Given the growing number of (older) people with multiple chronic conditions, more information is needed on the effects of specific disease

  15. Comorbidity of chronic diseases: effects of disease pairs on physical and mental functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Kerkhof, M. van; Dekker, J.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Although much research has been done on the impact of chronic illness on quality of life, still relatively little is known about the role of comorbidity. Given the growing number of (older) people with multiple chronic conditions, more information is needed on the effects of specific disease

  16. Effects of electric stimulation-assisted cycling training in people with chronic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.J.; Beltman, J.M.; Elich, P.; Koppe, P.A.; Konijnenbelt, H.; de Haan, A.; Gerrits, K.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Janssen TW, Beltman JM, Elich P, Koppe PA, Konijnenbelt H, de Haan A, Gerrits KH. Effects of electric stimulation-assisted cycling training in people with chronic stroke. Objective: To evaluate whether leg cycling training in subjects with chronic stroke can improve cycling performance, aerobic

  17. Chronic Absenteeism and Its Effects on Students' Academic and Socioemotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy dialogue suggests that chronic absenteeism is not only underdocumented, but is also detrimental to the success of students as early as kindergarten. That said, almost no empirical research has examined the effects of chronic absenteeism on student outcomes. This study addresses this underresearched issue in more depth. Using a…

  18. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  19. Effects of chronic treatment with 7-nitroindazole in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzed the contribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to the hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism. The effects on hyperthyroid rats of the chronic administration of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), an inhibitor of nNOS, were studied. Six groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, 7-NI (30 mg.kg-1.day-1 by gavage), T(4)50, T(4)75 (50 or 75 microg thyroxine.rat-1.day-1, respectively), T(4)50+7-NI, and T(4)75+7-NI. All treatments were maintained for 4 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, SBP, pulse pressure (PP), and HR were measured in conscious rats, and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were determined. Expression of nNOS in the hypothalamus of T(4)75 and control rats was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The response of mean arterial pressure (MAP) to pentolinium (10 mg/kg iv) was used to evaluate the sympathetic contribution to BP in T(4)75 and T(4)75+7-NI rats. T(4) produced an increased hypothalamic nNOS expression and dose-related increases in blood pressure (BP), HR, and PP vs. control rats. 7-NI did not modify BP or any other hemodynamic variable in normal rats. However, 7-NI produced a marked reduction in BP, HR, PP, and food and water intake in both hyperthyroid groups and improved creatinine clearance in the T(4)75 group. Pentolinium produced a greater MAP decrease in the T(4)75+7-NI than in the T(4)75 group. In conclusion, administration of 7-NI attenuates the hemodynamic and metabolic manifestations of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that nNOS contributes to the hyperdynamic circulation of this endocrine disease by modulating sympathetic activity.

  20. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  1. Chronic Effects of Boxing: Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Cognitive Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hunter, Jill V; Li, Xiaoqi; Amador, Cristian; Hanten, Gerri; Newsome, Mary R; Wu, Trevor C; McCauley, Stephen R; Vogt, Gregory S; Chu, Zili David; Biekman, Brian; Levin, Harvey S

    2016-04-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active; mean age = 45.7 years; standard deviation [SD] = 9.71) and 9 participants (mean age = 43.44; SD = 9.11) in noncombative sports. Evans Index (maximum width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles/maximal width of the internal diameter of the skull) was significantly larger in the boxers (F = 4.52; p = 0.050; Cohen's f = 0.531). Word list recall was impaired in the boxers (F(1,14) = 10.70; p = 0.006; f = 0.84), whereas implicit memory measured by faster reaction time (RT) to a repeating sequence of numbers than to a random sequence was preserved (t = 2.52; p boxing had the most consistent, negative correlations with FA, ranging from -0.65 for the right ventral striatum to -0.92 for the right cerebral peduncle. Years of boxing was negatively related to the number of words consistently recalled over trials (r = -0.74; p = 0.02), delayed recall (r = -0.83; p = 0.003), and serial RT (r = 0.66; p = 0.05). We conclude that microstructural integrity of white matter tracts is related to declarative memory and response speed in boxers and to the extent of boxing exposure. Implications for chronic traumatic encephalopathy are discussed.

  2. Effects of chronic social isolation on Wistar rat behavior and brain plasticity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Radojcic, Marija B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in the brain plasticity. Previously, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress in the limbic brain structures of Wistar rats (hippocampus, HIPPO, and prefrontal cortex, PFC) and found multiple characteristics that resembled alterations described in some clinical studies of depression. We extended our investigations and followed the behavior of stressed animals by the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST), and the expression and polysialylation of synaptic plasticity markers, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and L1, in the HIPPO and PFC. We also determined the adrenal gland mass and plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a terminal part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Our data indicated that stressed animals avoided the central zone in the OFT and displayed decreased swimming, but prolonged immobility in the FST. The animals exhibited marked hypertrophy of the adrenal gland cortex, in spite of decreased serum CORT. Simultaneously, the stressed animals exhibited an increase in NCAM mRNA expression in the HIPPO, but not in the PFC. The synaptosomal NCAM of the HIPPO was markedly polysialylated, while cortical PSA-NCAM was significantly decreased. The results showed that chronic social isolation of Wistar rats causes both anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. These alterations are parallel with molecular changes in the limbic brain, including diminished NCAM sialylation in the PFC. Together with our previous results, the current observations suggest that a chronic social isolation model may potentially be used to study molecular mechanisms that underlie depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Developing Effective Clinical Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Khamarko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.

  4. Effects of chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on Rho/Rho-kinase signalization pathway in mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Mahir Kaplan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC shows its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors which are on some tissues and neurons. Cannabinoid systems have role on cell proliferation and development of neurons. Furthermore, it is interesting that cannabinoid system and rho/rho-kinase signalization pathway, which have important role on cell development and proliferation, may have role on neuron proliferation and development together. Thus, a study is planned to investigate rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in the brain of chronic Δ9-THC treated mice. One group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC once to see effects of acute treatment. Another group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC three times per day for one month. After this period, rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in mice brains are analyzed by ELISA method. Chronic administration of Δ9-THC decreased the expression of rhoA while acute treatment has no meaningful effect on it. Administration of Δ9-THC did not affect expression of rho-kinase on both chronic and acute treatment. Administration of Δ9-THC increased rho-kinase activity on both chronic and acute treatment, however, chronic treatment decreased its activity with respect to acute treatment. This study showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment down-regulated rhoA expression and did not change the expression level of rho-kinase which is downstream effector of rhoA. However, it elevated the rho-kinase activity. Δ9-THC induced down-regulation of rhoA may cause elevation of cypin expression and may have benefit on cypin related diseases. Furthermore, use of rho-kinase inhibitors and Δ9-THC together can be useful on rho-kinase related diseases.

  5. Chronic effects of ionizing radiation on animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Drozd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental radiobiological studies and medical observations were conducted after the Chernobyl disaster based on the published results; patterns and characteristics influence of the fission products of nuclear materials on the body of mammals, including humans were analyzed. Chronic exposure to low doses leads to the changes in the hemopoietic system was founded and increases the risk of myeloproliferative diseases. The con-sequence of radiation-related immunodeficiency is the autoimmune disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. Radi-ation damage leads to endocrine system disruption of the body and of polipatologycal states. High radiosensitivi-ty of the central nervous system was founded. Genotoxic chronic radiation exposure threatens the stability of the genome.

  6. Effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical therapy in women diagnosed with chronic constipation using functional training of the pelvic floor (biofeedback. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2009 to March 2010, 67 women with chronic constipation were prospectively evaluated. The patients were evaluated and the constipation score proposed by Agachan et al. was applied. Then, they were sent to biofeedback. These patients were divided into 2 groups: with anismus (group I: mean age of 46.90 years old and without anismus (group II: mean age of 44.89 years old and diagnosed by anorectal electromanometry. The treatment was performed with different exercises for each group, associated with some hygieno-dietetic directions. At the end of treatment, the constipation score was reapplied. RESULTS: Pre-biofeedback constipation score in group I was 15.04 (standard deviation - SD=2.48 and post-biofeedback constipation score was 3.39 (SD=1.62 (pOBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do tratamento fisioterapêutico, em mulheres diagnosticadas com constipação crônica, utilizando treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico (biofeedback. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: No período de março de 2009 a março de 2010, foram avaliadas, prospectivamente, 67 mulheres com constipação intestinal. As pacientes foram avaliadas e o escore de constipação, proposto por Agachan et al., foi aplicado; então, foram encaminhadas ao biofeedback. Essas pacientes foram divididas em 2 grupos: com anismus (56 pacientes do grupo I: média de idade 46,90 anos e sem anismus (11 pacientes do grupo II: média de idade 44,89 anos, diagnosticadas pela eletromanometria anorretal. Para o tratamento, foram estipulados exercícios diferentes para cada grupo, associados com orientações higienodietéticas. Ao fim do tratamento, foi reaplicado o escore de constipação. RESULTADOS: O escore de constipação do grupo I, na avaliação pré-biofeedback, foi 15

  7. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  8. Development of a national position paper for chronic care: example of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Dominique; Van den Heede, Koen; Gerkens, Sophie; Desomer, Anja; Mertens, Raf

    2013-07-01

    The management of chronic diseases is a prime challenge of most 21st century health care systems. Many Western countries have invested heavily in care plans oriented towards specific conditions and diseases, such as dementia and cancer. The major downside of this narrowly focused approach is that treatment of multimorbidity is ignored. This paper describes the development and main stance of a national position that proposes streamlined reforms of the Belgian health care system to improve care for patients with multiple chronic diseases. We used a combination of methods to develop this stance: literature review and stakeholders' consultation. The latter identified areas for improvement: efficiency of the health care system, coordination of care, investments in human care resources, informal caregivers' support, better accessibility, and changes in the financial payment system. The position paper list 20 recommendations that are translated into about 50 action points to reform the health care system. Chronic care tailored to the patient's needs, including implementation of multidisciplinary teamwork, new functions, task delegation in primary care, and empowerment of the patient and informal caregivers are some major areas discussed. In addition, improved support, revised payment mechanisms, and setting up a quality system, along with the tailoring of patient care, can all facilitate delivery of high quality care in patients with chronic comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [The development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines of medicine guidelines are developed for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. These are essentially intended to standardize care and to optimize communication between the general practitioner and the specialist. Guidelines have already been described in the literature for chronic periodontitis. However, given the unique conditions in Belgium, these may not be appropriate for the average dental practice. In this manuscript the development of Belgian clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis is described. Basically, ten clinical questions were used as a basis for a thorough literature search. Evidence-based clinical guidelines were developed and adapted during three peer review sessions. In the final session Belgian specialists, who had all been invited, participated. This made sure that the scientific input was sufficiently transformed into clinical guidelines which are actually feasible today in Belgium.

  10. Effective deployment of technology-supported management of chronic respiratory conditions: a call for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Richard W; Dima, Alexandra L; Ryan, Dermot; McIvor, R Andrew; Boycott, Kay; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David; Blakey, John D

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems are under increasing strain, predominantly due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Connected healthcare technologies are becoming ever more capable and their components cheaper. These innovations could facilitate both self-management and more efficient use of healthcare resources for common respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, newer technologies can only facilitate major changes in practice, and cannot accomplish them in isolation. There are now large numbers of devices and software offerings available. However, the potential of such technologies is not being realised due to limited engagement with the public, clinicians and providers, and a relative paucity of evidence describing elements of best practice in this complex and evolving environment. Indeed, there are clear examples of wasted resources and potential harm. We therefore call on interested parties to work collaboratively to begin to realize the potential benefits and reduce the risks of connected technologies through change in practice. We highlight key areas where such partnership can facilitate the effective and safe use of technology in chronic respiratory care: developing data standards and fostering inter-operability, making collaborative testing facilities available at scale for small to medium enterprises, developing and promoting new adaptive trial designs, developing robust health economic models, agreeing expedited approval pathways, and detailed planning of dissemination to use. The increasing capability and availability of connected technologies in respiratory care offers great opportunities and significant risks. A co-ordinated collaborative approach is needed to realize these benefits at scale. Using newer technologies to revolutionize practice relies on widespread engagement and cannot be delivered by a minority of interested specialists. Failure to engage risks a costly and inefficient chapter in respiratory care.

  11. Swimming Effects on Developing Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Pelster, B.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish represent an important vertebrate model species in developmental biology. This chapter reviews the effects of exercise on the development of the musculoskeletal system, the cardiovascular system, metabolic capacities of developing zebrafish, and regulation of these processes on the gene

  12. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  13. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  14. Effect of chronic kidney disease on serum resistin level | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study is probably the first study in India comparing serum resistin levels of CKD patients vis-à-vis control subjects. Further cellular research may be needed to explore this relation. Key words: Chronic kidney disease, HOMA-IR, insulin resistance, resistin ...

  15. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of basudin (an organophosphate pesticide) on the larval stages of the dominant amphibian; Ptychadena bibroni of the Niger Delta ecological zone of Nigeria was assessed using acute and chronic toxicity in the laboratory. Mortality and body glycogen levels were used as ecological endpoints. The American society ...

  16. effect of chronic administration of indomethacin on haematological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria. Chronic treatment with ... been used widely as a rodenticide in the local community and the drug is potent in causing death ... 0.05) when compared with the untreated control (Group. C). On the other hand the total leucocyte count ...

  17. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complex network of chemokines and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is involved in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, are important for periodontal tissue destruction, but their activity can be inhibited by tissue ...

  18. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizatio......We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design...

  19. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lépicier, Véronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: ► The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. ► It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. ► We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. ► The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific

  20. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Antenatal Corticosteroids: A Risk Factor for the Development of Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Asztalos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth remains a major health issue worldwide. Since the 1990s, women at risk for preterm birth received a single course of exogenous antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs to facilitate fetal lung maturity. More recently, repeated or multiple courses of ACS have been supported to provide continued fetal maturity support for women with continued risk of preterm birth. However, exogenous ACS reduces birth weight which, in turn, is associated with adverse adult outcomes such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The long-term effects of ACS exposure on HPA axis activity and neurological function are well documented in animal studies, and it appears that ACS, regardless of dose exposure, is capable of affecting fetal HPA axis development causing permanent changes in the HPA axis that persists through life and is manifested by chronic illness and behavioral changes. The challenge in human studies is to demonstrate whether an intervention such as ACS administration in pregnancy contributes to developmental programming and how this is manifested in later life.

  2. The discovery and development of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Santini, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin; Mores, Nadia; Mondino, Chiara; Macis, Giuseppe; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M 3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area. The following aspects are covered: a) the discovery and medicinal chemistry of aclidinium bromide; b) an overview of the market; c) its mechanism of action; d) its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile derived from pre-clinical studies; e) the clinical studies which led to its licensing; f) the evidence from meta-analyses; g) the aclidinium/formoterol fixed dose combination for COPD and h) priorities in this area of research. Expert opinion: Aclidinium bromide has the pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy profile and inhaler characteristics which makes it a valuable therapeutic option for pharmacological management of patients with COPD. Due to its rapid biotransformation into inactive metabolites, aclidinium is potentially one of the safest LAMAs. Further head-to-head randomized clinical trials are required to define efficacy and safety of aclidinium when compared to once-daily LAMAs. The clinical relevance of airway anti-remodeling effects of aclidinium has to be defined.

  3. Effects of pudendal neuromodulation on bladder function in chronic spinal cord-injured rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tsong Lin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using pudendal neuromodulation in chronic SCI rats. These results could aid in developing an advanced neural prosthesis to restore bladder function in clinical settings.

  4. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  5. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    infectious etiology, which are unexpected due to low doses absorbed in those organs and tissues. To analyze the unexpected results recent findings on strong attributability of stomach, liver and cervix cancers to bacterial and viral infections was taken into account. According to IARC, stomach cancer relative risk associated with helicobacter pillory is 5.6, liver cancer relative risks associated with HBV and HCV are 23 and 17 respectively, cervix cancer relative risk associated with HPV is >100. At the same time association of lung cancer, colon cancer and some other common malignancies with infections is either not established or of low significance. To explain observed effects we suggested that excess mortality due to cancer and non-cancer diseases of infectious etiology is associated with radiation exposure of bone marrow due to Sr-90. Irradiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells damages hematopoiesis and suppresses the immune response. Secondary immune deficiency induced by chronic radiation increases susceptibility to the bacterial and viral infections. Such late effect of radiation exposure can be considered within the concept of deterministic tissue reactions. (Under support of UB RAS project 12-P-2-1033). (authors)

  6. Developing educational material on chronic kidney disease using best practices in health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luanda Thaís Mendonça; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2017-03-01

    Based in the precepts of Health Literacy (HL), an educational booklet "Do you know the Chronic Kidney Disease?" was written. It was used as a basic text for development of a Brazilian instrument for Assessment of Health Literacy (Teste de Avaliação de Letramento em Saúde or TALES). The guideline used to create the TALES obeyed four steps: systematization of content; creation and drawing of images by an expert designer; submission to a Committee of Experts on nephrology and linguistics; and editing and printing of the content. The content covering six aspects of chronic kidney disease (definition, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, prevention, risk factors and treatment) was developed utilizing multimodality techniques such as: creation of personages; verbal and visual metaphors; metonymy; personifications; direct dialogue; and plain language avoided of technicalities. During the development of TALES, the booklet proved to be useful in translating complicated scientific concepts on kidney disease into meaningfuly health messages. In conclusion, besides of being used as basic text for the development of TALES, the booklet "Do you know chronic kidney disease?", based in best practices in HL, can assist health professionals in communicating to patients using consumer-friendly educational materials that might impact positive health-related behaviors and results.

  7. Development of a risk index for the prediction of chronic post-surgical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, A; Hinrichs-Rocker, A; Chapman, R; Arránz Becker, O; Lefering, R; Simanski, C; Weber, F; Moser, K-H; Joppich, R; Trojan, S; Gutzeit, N; Neugebauer, E

    2012-07-01

    The incidence of chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) after various common operations is 10% to 50%. Identification of patients at risk of developing chronic pain, and the management and prevention of CPSP remains inadequate. The aim of this study was to develop an easily applicable risk index for the detection of high-risk patients that takes into account the multifactorial aetiology of CPSP. A comprehensive item pool was derived from a systematic literature search. Items that turned out significant in bivariate analyses were then analysed multivariately, using logistic regression analyses. The items that yielded significant predictors in the multivariate analyses were compiled into an index. The cut-off score for a high risk of developing CPSP with an optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was identified. The data of 150 patients who underwent different types of surgery were included in the analyses. Six months after surgery, 43.3% of the patients reported CPSP. Five predictors multivariately contributed to the prediction of CPSP: capacity overload, preoperative pain in the operating field, other chronic preoperative pain, post-surgical acute pain and co-morbid stress symptoms. These results suggest that several easily assessable preoperative and perioperative patient characteristics can predict a patient's risk of developing CPSP. The risk index may help caregivers to tailor individual pain management and to assist high-risk patients with pain coping. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  8. Developing educational material on chronic kidney disease using best practices in health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda Thaís Mendonça Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based in the precepts of Health Literacy (HL, an educational booklet "Do you know the Chronic Kidney Disease?" was written. It was used as a basic text for development of a Brazilian instrument for Assessment of Health Literacy (Teste de Avaliação de Letramento em Saúde or TALES. The guideline used to create the TALES obeyed four steps: systematization of content; creation and drawing of images by an expert designer; submission to a Committee of Experts on nephrology and linguistics; and editing and printing of the content. The content covering six aspects of chronic kidney disease (definition, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, prevention, risk factors and treatment was developed utilizing multimodality techniques such as: creation of personages; verbal and visual metaphors; metonymy; personifications; direct dialogue; and plain language avoided of technicalities. During the development of TALES, the booklet proved to be useful in translating complicated scientific concepts on kidney disease into meaningfuly health messages. In conclusion, besides of being used as basic text for the development of TALES, the booklet "Do you know chronic kidney disease?", based in best practices in HL, can assist health professionals in communicating to patients using consumer-friendly educational materials that might impact positive health-related behaviors and results.

  9. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Patient Experience of Chronic Illness Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Mira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The experience of chronic patients with the care they receive, fuelled by the focus on patient-centeredness and the increasing evidence on its positive relation with other dimensions of quality, is being acknowledged as a key element in improving the quality of care. There are a dearth of accepted tools and metrics to assess patient experience from the patient’s perspective that have been adapted to the new chronic care context: continued, systemic, with multidisciplinary teams and new technologies. Methods: Development and validation of a scale conducting a literature review, expert panel, pilot and field studies with 356 chronic primary care patients, to assess content and face validities and reliability. Results: IEXPAC is an 11+1 item scale with adequate metric properties measured by Alpha Chronbach, Goodness of fit index, and satisfactory convergence validity around three factors named: productive interactions, new relational model and person’s self-management. Conclusions: IEXPAC allows measurement of the patient experience of chronic illness care. Together with other indicators, IEXPAC can determine the quality of care provided according to the Triple Aim framework, facilitating health systems reorientation towards integrated patient-centred care.

  10. [Development and implementation of the Chronicity Strategy for the Basque Country (Spain): lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Public healthcare in the Basque Country (Spain) faces high rates of ageing and chronicity, which stress the sustainability of the system. In response to this situation, the Basque Chronicity Strategy was launched in 2010. This large-scale and far-reaching transformation initiative focused on changing the healthcare provision model towards integrated care of chronicity. Developed in the context of economic and financial crisis, strong political opposition and resistance or passivity of many relevant stakeholders, the design and implementation of the Strategy introduced some noteworthy elements, such as: a narrative of change different to the austerity discourse, which was the dominant narrative at that time; a strategic approach supported by an evidence base and solid theoretical references; and an implementation strategy that favoured local innovation and the "bottom up" approach. In spite of this, it was not possible to overcome the political barriers or bureaucratic immobility, which limited the implementation and scope of the changes, especially those related to the scalability of successful local innovations. However, some changes in the healthcare integration culture at clinical and managerial level have been introduced as a result of the Strategy, as well as organisational progression towards a chronicity-targeted healthcare model. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  12. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria termin...

  13. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  14. EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS ON BRONCHODILATOR ACTION IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; POSTMA, DS; BREEDERVELD, N; KORT, E; VANDERMARK, TW; KOETER, GH

    Background Short term treatment corticosteroids does not usually reduce airflow limitation and airway responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. We investigated whether corticosteroids modulate the effects of inhaled salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Methods Ten non-allergic

  15. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Even protected areas such as Kruger National Park receive acid rain which may lead to possible negative effects on the park's natural amphibian populations. We conducted acute (LC50) and chronic acid tolerance bioassays on embryos ...

  16. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.

  17. No increased risk of developing depression in diabetes compared to other chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Siersma, Volkert

    2003-01-01

    of patients. There was no difference in the risk for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It is concluded that older patients with diabetes do not seem to have an increased risk of developing severe depression compared with patients with other chronic illness.......Several studies have found that the prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes is higher than in the general population but it is unclear whether patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing depression compared with patients with other chronic illnesses. In a nationwide case...... register study, all patients who had a discharge diagnosis of diabetes or of osteoarthritis at first admission in a period from 1977 to 1997 were identified. The probability of being readmitted and discharged with a diagnosis of depression was estimated with competing risks models in survival analysis...

  18. User Requirements Based Development of a Web Portal for Chronic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we tried to identify practices that help overcoming data entering and operational barriers, and involve patients and doctors in the development process to improve the acceptance of Web portals for chronic patients. This paper presents a follow up project implementing a Web portal for chronic patients considering previously studied barriers and opportunities. The following methods were applied to facilitate the acceptance of the portal: 1) a joint use case definition and discussion session before starting the development; 2) involvement of the users in prototyping the portal; 3) training of doctors and patients together before the implementation. During the first week of the portal's operation we have measured the number of data transactions and the number of active users to compare it with previous experience. The first weeks of operating the portal, we could observe an active contribution of doctors and patients, who submitted vital signs data and recommendations to the portal.

  19. Nutritional and taste characteristics of low-potassium lettuce developed for patients with chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Takuya; Sakuma, Kozue; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary potassium restriction is recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia. Boiling or soaking vegetables in water is known to decrease their potassium content. However, these methods can also reduce the quantity of other nutrients. Recently, low-potassium (LK) lettuce has been developed for CKD patients with hyperkalemia. This study compared the potassium content, other nutritional values, and taste characteristics of LK lettuce with those of normal lettuce. The...

  20. The role of gender dimorphism in the development and outcome of chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Yagmur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral liver diseases still have a leading place in the structure of mortality from hepatobiliary diseases and causes of liver transplantation. Search for factors influencing the progression of fibrosis and the prognosis of the disease are of public health priority. The article provides an overview of the research on the influence of sex hormones on the progression of liver fibrosis, the likelihood of hepatocellular carcinoma development in men and women of reproductive age and menopausal state.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT) interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of KT interventions for chronic noncancer pain management.METHODS: Comprehensive searches of electronic databases, the gray literature and manual searches of journals were undertaken. Ra...

  2. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. Th...

  3. Effect of Chronic Diseases on Work Productivity: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Ahmed Mahmoud; Waheed, Amani; Gamal, Amira; Amer, Shaimaa Ahmed; Abdellah, Rasha Farouk; Shebl, Fatma Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic disease(s) on work productivity. Using the Health & Work Performance Questionnaire, information was collected from 516 workers on chronic disease status and work productivity. Propensity-score matching was performed to identify matched-pairs of workers. In the propensity-score matched sample, workers with chronic diseases were more likely to have increased absenteeism and presenteeism rates, 6.34 and 2.36 times the rates if no chronic diseases, respectively. In addition, they had greater odds for getting negative critical work incidents and less odds for positive incidents than none or balanced status. Multimorbidity showed more significant increase in absenteeism and presenteeism rates, as well as increased odds for excess negative critical work incidents. Chronic disease(s) can significantly reduce work productivity by increasing absenteeism, presenteeism, and net negative critical incidents.

  4. Ways of pharmacological prophylaxis of stochastic and deterministic effects of chronical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Revina, V.; Smirnov, D.; Sokolnikov, M.; Lukyanova, T.

    1996-01-01

    The prophylactics of late effects of exposure is the actual medico-social problem, because now there are large groups of persons who were exposed during occupational contact and living on territories contaminated by radionuclides. Most probable consequences of external and internal chronic influence of radiation may be the increase of malignant tumour frequency, the development of secondary myelo- and immuno-depressions, the earlier forming of sclerous and destructive processes, and the acceleration of senescence. The role of damages in immune system was not yet understood in pathogenesis of the late effects of radiation, but there are evidences that the decreasing of the immunologic supervision in period of forming the consequences of radiation influence enables to realize the cancerogenic effect of radiation. The purposes of this investigation are to decrease the frequency or to prevent the development of radiation consequences dangerous for health and life by using the method of modification of radiogenic damages in hemopoietic and immune systems by applying the pharmacological preparations with immunomodulating effects. The investigation tasks include: the study of modifying influence of pharmacological substances with different mechanisms of effect: myelopid (immunomodulating, and regulatory), β-carotin, Calendula officinalis (immunomodulating, and antioxidant), lipamid (detoxicating); the separate or complex applications of these substances; and the development of the optimum medico-prophylactic schemes. The advantages of these indicated preparations in comparison with the known (T-activin, thymogen, cytokines, etc.) are the absence of contraindications and the possibility to use per os. (author)

  5. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    For customers information technology (IT) is a means to an end. This tight association between IT systems and their use is, however, often absent during their development and implementation, resulting in systems that may fail to produce desired ends. Effects-driven IT development aims to avoid...... change that realize the specified effects, and (c) measuring the absence or presence of the specified effects during pilot use of the system while also remaining alert to the emergence of beneficial but hitherto unspecified effects. In this paper we explore effects-driven IT development and discuss...... the possibilities and challenges involved in making it an instrument for managing IT projects. Two main challenges are that effects must be measured while development is still ongoing, making pilot implementations a central activity, and that vendor and customer must extend their collaboration, particularly...

  6. PROPHYLACTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF FUSAFUNGINE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008/2009, at the time of influenza epidemic, the study of ambulatory prophylactic treatment of fusafungine (Bioparox in 50 children 7–15 years old with chronic tonsillitis was performed. All these children underwent regular ENT check-up. The control group included 50 schoolchildren the same age without chronic diseases of upper airways. After the treatment with intranasal fusafungine, the amount of patients with Streptococcus pyogenes was decreased 1,6 times low (and after 3 months of treatment it was decreased 3,5 times low. The sanation of palatine tonsils from Candida albicans was detected (eradication of microorganism was achieved in 58% of cases, and the amount of patients with pharyngomycosis was decreased 2,4 times low. Patient’s quality of life significantly increased, and ENT-specialists met less complaints (in 4,5–15 times low. The morbidity with respiratory infections in 3 months after the treatment with fusafungine was 7,5 times low than in control group.Key words: schoolchildren, chronic tonsillitis, acute respiratory infection, fusafungine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:26-31

  7. Key components of effective collaborative goal setting in the chronic care encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative goal setting in patient-provider communication with chronic patients is the phase in which--after collecting the data regarding the patient's health--it is necessary to make a decision regarding the best therapy and behaviors the patient should adopt until the next encounter. Although it is considered a pivotal phase of shared decision making, there remain a few open questions regarding its components and its efficacy: What are the factors that improve or impede agreement on treatment goals and strategies?; What are the 'success conditions' of collaborative goal setting?; How can physicians effectively help patients make their preferences explicit and then co-construct with them informed preferences to help them reach their therapeutic goals? Using the theoretical framework of dialogue types, an approach developed in the field of Argumentation Theory, it will be possible to formulate hypotheses on the success conditions' and effects on patient commitment of collaborative goal setting.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  9. Effectiveness of cervical epidural injections in the management of chronic neck and upper extremity pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sudhir; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Bryce, David A; Geffert, Stephanie; Hameed, Haroon; Sharma, Manohar Lal; Abdi, Salahadin; Falco, Frank J E

    2012-01-01

    Chronic persistent neck pain with or without upper extremity pain is common in the general adult population with prevalence of 48% for women and 38% for men, with persistent complaints in 22% of women and 16% of men. Multiple modalities of treatments are exploding in managing chronic neck pain along with increasing prevalence. However, there is a paucity of evidence for all modalities of treatments in managing chronic neck pain. Cervical epidural injections for managing chronic neck pain are one of the commonly performed interventions in the United States. However, the literature supporting cervical epidural steroids in managing chronic pain problems has been scant. A systematic review of cervical interlaminar epidural injections for cervical disc herniation, cervical axial discogenic pain, cervical central stenosis, and cervical postsurgery syndrome. To evaluate the effect of cervical interlaminar epidural injections in managing various types of chronic neck and upper extremity pain emanating as a result of cervical spine pathology. The available literature on cervical interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain were reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria as utilized for interventional techniques for randomized trials and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, and limited based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to December 2011, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > 6 months). Secondary outcome measures were improvement in functional status

  10. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the chronic unpredictable stress rat model and the effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne H; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is a widely used animal model of depression. The present study was undertaken to investigate behavioral, physiological and molecular effects of CUS and/or chronic antidepressant treatment (venlafaxine or imipramine) in the same set of animals. Anhedonia, a core ...

  11. Lymphocytosis after treatment with dasatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: Effects on response and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Charles A; Cortes, Jorge E; Hochhaus, Andreas; Saglio, Giuseppe; le Coutre, Philipp; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu; Mohamed, Hesham; Shah, Neil P

    2016-05-01

    The proliferation of clonal cytotoxic T-cells or natural killer cells has been observed after dasatinib treatment in small studies of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The incidence of lymphocytosis and its association with response, survival, and side effects were assessed in patients from 3 large clinical trials. Overall, 1402 dasatinib-treated patients with newly diagnosed CML in chronic phase (CML-CP), CML-CP refractory/intolerant to imatinib, or with CML in accelerated or myeloid-blast phase were analyzed. Lymphocytosis developed in 32% to 35% of patients and persisted for >12 months. This was not observed in the patients who received treatment with imatinib. Dasatinib-treated patients in all stages of CML who developed lymphocytosis were more likely to achieve a complete cytogenetic response, and patients who had CML-CP with lymphocytosis were more likely to achieve major and deep molecular responses. Progression-free and overall survival rates were significantly longer in patients with CML-CP who were refractory to or intolerant of imatinib and had lymphocytosis. Pleural effusions developed more commonly in patients with lymphocytosis. Overall, lymphocytosis occurred and persisted in many dasatinib-treated patients in all phases of CML. Its presence was associated with higher response rates, significantly longer response durations, and increased overall survival, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect. Prospective studies are warranted to characterize the functional activity of these cells and to assess whether an immunologic effect against CML is detectable. Cancer 2016;122:1398-1407. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  12. Development and implementation of an integrated chronic disease model in South Africa: lessons in the management of change through improving the quality of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Ozayr Haroon; Asmall, Shaidah

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is facing a complex burden of disease arising from a combination of chronic infectious illness and non-communicable diseases. As the burden of chronic diseases (communicable and non-communicable) increases, providing affordable and effective care to the increasing numbers of chronic patients will be an immense challenge. The framework recommended by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex health interventions was used to conceptualise the intervention. The breakthrough series was utilised for the implementation process. These two frameworks were embedded within the clinical practice improvement model that served as the overarching framework for the development and implementation of the model. The Chronic Care Model was ideally suited to improve the facility component and patient experience; however, the deficiencies in other aspects of the health system building blocks necessitated a hybrid model. An integrated chronic disease management model using a health systems approach was initiated across 42 primary health care facilities. The interventions were implemented in a phased approach using learning sessions and action periods to introduce the planned and targeted changes. The implementation of the integrated chronic disease management model is feasible at primary care in South Africa provided that systemic challenges and change management are addressed during the implementation process.

  13. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Nihal; Mendis, Shanthi; Maheepala, Palitha; Mehta, Firdosi R

    2013-08-27

    This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas. Food, water, soil and agrochemicals from both areas were analysed for heavy metals. The age-standardised prevalence of CKDu was 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5% to 14.4%) in males and 16.9% (95% CI = 15.5% to 18.3%) in females. Severe stages of CKDu were more frequent in males (stage 3: males versus females = 23.2% versus 7.4%; stage 4: males versus females = 22.0% versus 7.3%; P 39 years and those who farmed (chena cultivation) (OR [odds ratio] = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376 and OR = 1.195, 95% CI = 1.007 to 1.418 respectively, P CKDu (1.039 μg/g) compared with controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas (0.646 μg/g, P CKDu stage (P CKDu were at levels known to cause kidney damage. Food items from the endemic area contained cadmium and lead above reference levels. Serum selenium was CKDu and pesticides residues were above reference levels in 31.6% of those with CKDu. These results indicate chronic exposure of people in the endemic area to low levels of cadmium through the food chain and also to pesticides. Significantly higher urinary excretion of cadmium in individuals with CKDu, and the dose-effect relationship between urine cadmium concentration and CKDu stages suggest that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for the pathogensis of CKDu. Deficiency of selenium and genetic susceptibility seen in individuals with CKDu suggest that they may be predisposing factors for the development of CKDu.

  14. Effects of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain on Fertility Potential in Lean and Overweight Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Dardmeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both chronic pain and obesity are known to affect reproductive hormone profiles in male patients. However, the effect of these conditions, alone or in combination, on male fertility potential has received less attention. 20 chronic musculoskeletal pain patients and 20 healthy controls were divided into lean and overweight subgroups according to their BMI. Current level of chronic pain (visual analogue scale and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs in 16 predefined sites, classically described and tested as painful points on the lower body, were measured. Levels of reproductive hormone and lipid profiles were assessed by ELISA. Sperm concentration and motility parameters were analyzed using a computer-aided sperm analysis system. Sperm concentration, progressive motility, and percentage of hyperactivated sperm were generally lower in the chronic pain patients in both lean and overweight groups. The overweight control and the lean chronic pain groups demonstrated a significantly lower percentage of progressively motile sperm compared with the lean control group, suggesting that musculoskeletal chronic pain may have a negative influence on sperm quality in lean patients. However, due to the potential great negative influence of obesity on the sperm parameters, it is difficult to propose if musculoskeletal chronic pain also influenced sperm quality in overweight patients. Further research in chronic pain patients is required to test this hypothesis.

  15. Chronic Subdural Hematoma development in Accelerated phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia presenting with seizure and rapid progression course with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH in leukemia is rare, and most reported cases occurred in relation with acute myeloid leukaemia; however, occurrence is extremely rare in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. Seizure as presentation of SDH development in CML cases is not reported in literature. Authors report an elderly male, who was diagnosed as CML, accelerated phase of developing SDH. Initially presented to local physician with seizure; urgent CT scan head was advised, but ignored and sensorium rapidly worsened over next day and reported to our emergency department in deeply comatose state, where imaging revealed chronic subdural hematoma with hypoxic brain injury with fatal outcome. Seizure, progressive worsening of headache, vomiting and papilloedema are harbinger of intracranial space occupying lesion and requires CT head in emergency medical department for exclusion, who are receiving treatment of haematological malignancy

  16. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations. Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  17. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  18. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  19. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  20. An evaluation of a positive youth development program for adolescents with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary; Adams, Cathleen; Willis, Matthew; Neukirch, Jodie; Herts, Kate; Froehlich, Wendy; Calleson, Diane; Rickerby, Michelle

    2013-02-01

    Youth with chronic illness often struggle transitioning to adulthood and adult medical care. This article examines the outcomes of a group mentoring program called The Adolescent Leadership Council (TALC) that brings together high school participants and college mentors, all with chronic illness. TALC uses a positive youth development (PYD) approach, emphasizing strong relationships between youth and adults in an environment where youth can learn important life skills and take a leadership role. A pre-/postprogram participant survey was conducted for high school participants using a loneliness scale and a transition readiness survey. An alumni survey was conducted with all high school and college mentor graduates to assess educational-, vocational-, and health care-related outcomes. Program records review and the alumni survey indicated that TALC was consistent with the PYD program model. Twenty high school students participated in the pre-/postprogram outcomes evaluation, which demonstrated a decrease in loneliness from 46 to 38.5 (p < .001) and an increase in health care self-advocacy from 3.8 to 4.2 (p < .001). Thirty-four alumni participated in the alumni survey. All high school and college mentor alumni had graduated from high school and college, respectively, and all were either currently in school or working. The majority of alumni were seeing adult providers for medical care. The TALC program applies the principles of PYD to support positive educational, vocational, and health care outcomes for youth with chronic illness. Program development using the PYD perspective is an important new approach for supporting adult development of youth with chronic illness. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Effects of Ecstasy on Memory Are more Extensive than Chronic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam; Sohrabi, Maryam; Shahidi, Siamak; Nikkhah, Ali; Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Medizadeh, Mehdi; Asl, Sara Soleimani

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to 3, 4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) could lead to serotonergic system toxicity in the brain. This system is responsible for learning and memory functions. Studies show that MDMA causes memory impairment dose-dependently and acutely. The present study was designed to evaluate the chronic and acute effects of MDMD on spatial memory and acquisition of passive avoidance. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were given single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP). Using passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tasks, learning and spatial memory functions were assessed. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Our results showed that there were significant differences in latency to enter the dark compartment (STL) between sham and MDMA- treated groups. Acute group significantly showed more STL in comparison with chronic group. Furthermore, MDMA groups spent more time in dark compartment (TDS) than the sham group. Administration of single dose of MDMA significantly caused an increase in TDS compared with the chronic group. In the MWM, MDMA treatment significantly increased the traveled distance and escaped latency compared to the sham group. Like to passive avoidance task, percentage of time spent in the target quadrant in MDMA- treated animals impaired in MWM compared with sham group. These data suggest that MDMA treatment impairs learning and memory functions that are more extensive in acute- treated rats.

  2. Acute Effects of Ecstasy on Memory Are more Extensive than Chronic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam Shariati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3, 4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA could lead to serotonergic system toxicity in the brain. This system is responsible for learning and memory functions. Studies show that MDMA causes memory impairment dose-dependently and acutely. The present study was designed to evaluate the chronic and acute effects of MDMD on spatial memory and acquisition of passive avoidance. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g were given single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP. Using passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze (MWM tasks, learning and spatial memory functions were assessed. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Results: Our results showed that there were significant differences in latency to enter the dark compartment (STL between sham and MDMA- treated groups. Acute group significantly showed more STL in comparison with chronic group. Furthermore, MDMA groups spent more time in dark compartment (TDS than the sham group. Administration of single dose of MDMA significantly caused an increase in TDS compared with the chronic group. In the MWM, MDMA treatment significantly increased the traveled distance and escaped latency compared to the sham group. Like to passive avoidance task, percentage of time spent in the target quadrant in MDMA- treated animals impaired in MWM compared with sham group. Discussion: These data suggest that MDMA treatment impairs learning and memory functions that are more extensive in acute- treated rats.

  3. The role of circulating serotonin in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K W Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of age-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The serotonin transporter (SERT gene polymorphism has been reported to be associated with COPD, and the degree of cigarette smoking has been shown to be a significant mediator in this relationship. The interrelation between circulating serotonin (5-hydroxytyptamine, 5-HT, cigarette smoking and COPD is however largely unknown. The current study aimed at investigating the mediation effects of plasma 5-HT on cigarette smoking-induced COPD and the relation between plasma 5-HT levels and age. METHODS: The association between plasma 5-HT, age and COPD was analyzed in a total of 62 COPD patients (ever-smokers and 117 control subjects (healthy non-smokers and ever-smokers. Plasma 5-HT levels were measured by enzyme-linked immuno assay (EIA. RESULTS: The elevated plasma 5-HT levels were significantly associated with increased odds for COPD (OR = 1.221, 95% CI = 1.123 to 1.319, p<0.0001. The effect remained significant after being adjusted for age and pack-years smoked (OR = 1.271, 95% CI = 1.134 to 1.408, p = 0.0003. Furthermore, plasma 5-HT was found to mediate the relation between pack-years smoked and COPD. A positive correlation (r = 0.303, p = 0.017 was found between plasma 5-HT levels and age in COPD, but not in the control subjects (r = -0.149, p = 0.108. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that cigarette smoke-induced COPD is partially mediated by the plasma levels of 5-HT, and that these become elevated with increased age in COPD. The elevated plasma 5-HT levels in COPD might contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  4. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  5. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05. Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05.High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting.

  6. The effect of acute and chronic exposure to ethanol on the developing encephalon: a review Os efeitos da exposição aguda e crônica ao etanol sobre o desenvolvimento do encéfalo: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the neural development, by analysis of the ontogenetic neural structure of mammals. METHODS: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, SciElo, PubMed, LILACS, CAPES periodical, and the Open Journal System. The descriptors used were: "chronic ethanol toxicity", "chronic alcohol toxicity", "acute ethanol toxicity", "acute alcohol", "neural ontogenic development", "neuronal migration disturbances", "neural structure". The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published between 2003 and 2007, some classic articles in the field and an important neuropsychology textbook. RESULTS: the analysis of papers revealed that, although several studies of the chronic effects of ethanol exposure on the mammalian nervous system have been conducted, only a few have investigated the acute effects of ethanol on specific days of gestation, and these studies have revealed important disorders relating to the cerebral tissue. CONCLUSIONS: it should be recommended that women refrain from the consumption of ethanol during gestational phase to protect the fetus' health. Furthermore, the acute consumption of ethanol by women nearing the eighth or ninth week of gestation has been shown to be potentially harmful to the nervous tissue of the fetus.OBJETIVOS: comparar os efeitos agudo e crônico do etanol sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso através da análise da estrutura ontogênica neural dos mamíferos. MÉTODOS: pesquisas foram feitas nas bases eletrônicas: MEDLINE, SciElo, PubMed, LILACS, CAPES periodical, Open Journal System. Os descritores usados foram: "toxidade crônica ao etanol", "toxidade crônica ao álcool", "toxicidade aguda ao etanol", "toxicidade aguda ao álcool", "desenvolvimento ontogênico neural", "distúrbios da migração neuronal", "estrutura neural".Foram considerados critérios de inclusão: artigos publicados no periódo de 2003 e 2007

  7. Effects of a supplemented hypoproteic diet in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircescu, Gabriel; Gârneaţă, Liliana; Stancu, Simona Hildegard; Căpuşă, Cristina

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the effect of a severe hypoproteic diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (SVLPD) for 48 weeks on certain metabolic disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a prospective, open-label, parallel, randomized, controlled trial. The study took place in the Nephrology Department at the Dr Carol Davila Teaching Hospital of Nephrology, Bucharest, Romania. A total of 53 nondiabetic patients with CKD with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula), proteinuria less than 1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and anticipated good compliance with the diet were randomly assigned to two groups. Group I (n = 27) received the SVLPD (0.3 g/kg/d of vegetable proteins and ketoanalogues, 1 capsule for every 5 kg of ideal body weight per day). Group II (n = 26) continued a conventional low mixed protein diet (0.6 g/kg/d). Nitrogen waste products retention and calcium-phosphorus and acid-base disturbances were primary efficacy parameters, and "death" of the kidney or the patient and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were secondary efficacy parameters. The nutritional status and compliance with the diet were predefined as safety variables. There were no differences between groups in any parameter at baseline. In the SVLPD group, serum urea significantly decreased (56 +/- 7.9 mmol/L vs. 43.2 +/- 10 mmol/L), and significant improvements in serum bicarbonate (23.4 +/- 2.1 mmol/L vs. 18.1 +/- 1.5 mmol/L), serum calcium (1.10 +/- 0.17 mmol/L vs. 1.00 +/- 0.15 mmol/L at baseline), serum phosphates (1.45 +/- 0.66 mmol/L vs. 1.91 +/- 0.68 mmol/L), and calcium-phosphorus product (1.59 +/- 0.11 mmol(2)/L(2) vs. 1.91 +/- 0.10 mmol(2)/L(2)) were noted after 48 weeks. No death was registered in any group. Significantly lower percentages of patients in group I required renal replacement therapy initiation (4% vs. 27%). After 48 weeks, estimated glomerular filtration rate did not

  8. [Clinical effect of clarithromycin therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Deng, Jie; Xu, Rui; Zuo, Kejun; Li, Huabin; Shi, Jianbo

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin (CAM) treatment in adult Chinese patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) or without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). A prospective, open and self-controlled clinical trial on patients with CRS was conducted. Fifty patients met inclusion criteria. Of 50 patients, there were 33 patients with CRSsNP and 17 patients with CRSwNP. CAM was administered at 250 mg/d and the duration of administration was 12 weeks. Outcome measures included assessments of visual analogue scale (VAS), the sino-nasal outcome test-20(SNOT-20), the medical outcomes study short-form 36 items(SF-36), Lund-Kennedy endoscopy score, and Lund-Mackay computed tomography score. Before starting the treatment, 2 months after treatment and at the end of treatment, each patient had to complete all the measures except Lund-Mackay computed tomography score, which was only conducted before and after treatment. In order to evaluate the safety of CAM, liver function and renal function in all patients were detected before and after treatment. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data. Forty-five patients completed 3 months follow-up and 5 patients withdrew due to different reasons. The results were as follows: (1) Thirty-three patients with CRSsNP's VAS scores of four time point were 5.81 ± 1.69, 3.76 ± 1.94, 2.98 ± 1.95, 2.06 ± 2.13, respectively, there were statistically significant improvements in turn (t values were 5.910, 8.090, 8.932, all P 0.05). Endoscopy score of four time point were 10.65 ± 1.77, 9.35 ± 1.93, 8.65 ± 2.76, 8.47 ± 2.76, respectively, there were statistically significant improvements in turn(t values were 4.068, 4.863, 5.156, all P CAM treatment, 1 patient reported a tolerable headache and weakness and 1 patient had abdominal pain after two months treatment, all the symptoms disappeared while they were asked to stop the drug. Liver function and renal function were detected in 40 patients, the differences

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  10. The effect of chronic pain on life satisfaction: evidence from Australian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Mendolia, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Chronic pain is associated with significant costs to individuals directly affected by this condition, their families, the healthcare system, and the society as a whole. This paper investigates the relationship between chronic pain and life satisfaction using a sample of around 90,000 observations from the first ten waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (HILDA), which is a representative survey of the Australian population that started in 2000. We estimate the negative impact on life satisfaction and examine the persistence of the effect over multiple years. Chronic pain is associated with poor health conditions, disability, decreased participation in the labour market and lower quality of life. We calculate the compensating income variation of chronic pain, based on the measurement of chronic pain, the life satisfaction of individuals and the income of households. Panel data models with random and fixed effects are used to control for characteristics of individuals that do not vary over time. Further, we investigate whether individuals who experience chronic pain exhibit adaptation and recovery in life satisfaction after 3 years. Overall, we find that chronic pain has a large negative association with life satisfaction, and that the compensating income variation is substantial (around 640 US$ per day). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  12. Development of acute and chronic sediment bioassays with the harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Tristan J; Glover, Chris N; Keesing, Vaughan; Northcott, Grant L; Gaw, Sally; Tremblay, Louis A

    2014-01-01

    Reliable environmentally realistic bioassay methodologies are increasingly needed to assess the effects of environmental pollution. This study describes two estuarine sediment bioassays, one acute (96 h) and one chronic (14 d), with the New Zealand harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp. utilising behavioural and reproductive endpoints. Spiked sediments were used to expose Quinquelaophonte sp. to three reference compounds representing important categories of estuarine chemical stressors: zinc (a metal), atrazine (a pesticide), and phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon). Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) were used to further characterise species responses. Acute sediment (sandy and low total organic content) 96 h EC50 values for the sublethal inhibition of mobility for zinc, atrazine and phenanthrene were 137, 5.4, and 2.6 µg/g, respectively. The chronic EC50 values for inhibition of reproduction (total offspring) were 54.5, 0.0083, and 0.067 µg/g for zinc, atrazine, and phenanthrene, respectively. For phenanthrene, a potentially novel mode of action was identified on reproduction. Quinquelaophonte sp. was found to be more sensitive than several other estuarine species indicating choice of test organism is important to characterising the effects of environmentally relevant levels of contamination. The bioassay sediment results demonstrate the sensitivity and suitability of Quinquelaophonte sp. as a tool for the assessment use of estuarine health. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A multigenerational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Ana M., E-mail: acoimbra@utad.pt [Centre for The Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environment, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Peixoto, Maria João [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environment, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Carvalho, António Paulo [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); FCUP, Faculty of Sciences University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gesto, Manuel [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310, Vigo (Spain); Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Clofibric acid (CA) induces multigenerational effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio). • CA impacts fish lipid metabolism, with similarities to those reported in mammals. • Weight is impacted in F1 and F2 generations, thought with opposite patterns. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10 mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10 mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10 mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid

  14. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A multigenerational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Ana M.; Peixoto, Maria João; Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo; Carvalho, António Paulo; Gesto, Manuel; Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Clofibric acid (CA) induces multigenerational effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio). • CA impacts fish lipid metabolism, with similarities to those reported in mammals. • Weight is impacted in F1 and F2 generations, thought with opposite patterns. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10 mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10 mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10 mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is safe and effective for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Bi, Ya-Wei; Ji, Jun-Tao; Xin, Lei; Pan, Jun; Liao, Zhuan; Du, Ting-Ting; Lin, Jin-Huan; Zhang, Di; Zeng, Xiang-Peng; Ye, Bo; Zou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Hui; Xie, Ting; Li, Bai-Rong; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Li, Zhao-Shen; Hu, Liang-Hao

    2017-05-01

    Background and aims  Pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (P-ESWL) is recommended as the first-line treatment for pancreatic stones. However, how well P-ESWL performs in pediatric patients remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of P-ESWL for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods  This prospective observational study was conducted in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis who underwent P-ESWL. Patients aged under 18 years were included in the pediatric group; patients aged over 18 years who underwent P-ESWL in the same period were assigned to the control group. For investigation of long-term follow-up, the pediatric group were matched with patients from the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcomes were P-ESWL complications and pain relief. The secondary outcomes included: stone clearance, physical and mental health, quality of life score, and growth and developmental state. Results  From March 2011 to March 2015, P-ESWL was performed in 1135 patients (72 in the pediatric group, 1063 in the control group). No significant differences were observed in the occurrence of P-ESWL complications between the two groups (11.1 % vs. 12.8 %; P  = 0.68). Among the 67 pediatric patients (93.1 %) who underwent follow-up for 3.0 years (range 1.3 - 5.2), complete pain relief was achieved in 52 patients (52 /67; 77.6 %); this value was not significantly different from that of the matched controls (55 /69; 79.7 %; P  = 0.94). Conclusions  P-ESWL is safe and effective for pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. It can promote significant pain relief and stone clearance, and can benefit growth and development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on the reproduction of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Kawakami, T.G.; Rasmussen, C.

    1984-01-01

    During studies on radiation leukemogenesis 7 dogs were exposed to 4.4 R/day starting at 150 days of age. Three of these dogs were females. To determine whether the exposure to chronic irradiation affected their reproductive capacity the three bitches were bred. Two of the bitches did not conceive, and one of these died shortly thereafter from myeloproliferative disease (MPD) which could have been a factor. The third bitch whelped 7 pups, one of which died shortly after birth, and the other 6 are healthy 2 months after birth. 1 table

  17. Development of nonfibrotic left ventricular hypertrophy in an ANG II-induced chronic ovine hypertension model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, Niklas; Scherschel, Katharina; Schad, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a minimally invasive ovine hypertension model using chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) treatment and to characterize its effects on cardiac remodeling after 8 weeks. Sheep were implanted with osmotic minipumps filled with either vehicle control (n...... = 7) or ANG II (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure in the ANG II-treated group increased from 87.4 ± 5.3 to 111.8 ± 6.9 mmHg (P = 0.00013). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging showed an increase in left ventricular mass from 112 ± 12.6 g to 131 ± 18.7 g after 7 weeks (P = 0...... any differences in epicardial conduction velocity and heterogeneity. These data demonstrate that chronic ANG II treatment using osmotic minipumps presents a reliable, minimally invasive approach to establish hypertension and nonfibrotic LVH in sheep....

  18. Longitudinal study of the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on skeletal muscle in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H; Duncan, Robert B; Inzana, Karen D; Panciera, David L; Shelton, G Diane

    2009-07-01

    To study the effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on skeletal muscle and characterize any observed myopathic abnormalities in dogs. 9 female, adult mixed-breed dogs; 6 with hypothyroidism induced with irradiation with 131 iodine and 3 untreated control dogs. Clinical examinations were performed monthly. Electromyographic examinations; measurement of plasma creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme activities; and skeletal muscle morphologic-morphometric examinations were performed prior to and every 6 months for 18 months after induction of hypothyroidism. Baseline, 6-month, and 18-month assessments of plasma, urine, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations were also performed. Hypothyroid dogs developed electromyographic and morphologic evidence of myopathy by 6 months after treatment, which persisted throughout the study, although these changes were subclinical at all times. Hypothyroid myopathy was associated with significant increases in plasma creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme activities and was characterized by nemaline rod inclusions, substantial and progressive predominance of type I myofibers, decrease in mean type II fiber area, subsarcolemmal accumulations of abnormal mitochondria, and myofiber degeneration. Chronic hypothyroidism was associated with substantial depletion in skeletal muscle free carnitine. Chronic, experimentally induced hypothyroidism resulted in substantial but subclinical phenotypic myopathic changes indicative of altered muscle energy metabolism and depletion of skeletal muscle carnitine. These abnormalities may contribute to nonspecific clinical signs, such as lethargy and exercise intolerance, often reported in hypothyroid dogs.

  19. Effectiveness of the hydrotherapy in children with chronic encephalopathy no progressive of the childhood: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Karoline de Carvalho; Drumond, Nayana Rocha; Andrade, Silmara Aparecida Figueiredo; Chaves Júnior, Israel Penaforte; Toffol, Walesca Carla de

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Now Cerebral Palsy is considered like Chronic Encephalopathy no Progressive of the Childhood and defined as any disorder characterized by alteration in the structure and function of the body, activity and participation due to a lesion no progressive of the brain in development. Several techniques physiotherapy exist for individuals rehabilitation with that pathology, however, no technique stands out as more effective in the literature. The use of the approach hydrotherapy become...

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Tributyltin on the Mysid Acanthomysis sculpta (Crustacea, Mysidacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    juveniles . . . 19 12. Summary of chronic values in pg/L TBT . . . 26 viii INTRODUCTION Tributyltin ( TBT ) is commonly used as an antifouling toxicant in...juveniles was determined at 0 42-jig L TBT . Reproductive effects were the most sensitive sublethal indicator of TBT toxicity . A chronic value of 0.14-pgL...SI[CUmITV CLAShIFICATION OF THIS PASU M DAI &W- A comparison of TBT toxicity was performed using a TBT solution leached from painted panels

  1. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associ...

  2. Effects of Pilates and Classical Kinesiotherapy on chronic low back pain: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Ivanna Avila; Oliveira,Tiago Damé de; Blois,Cleci Redin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction : Chronic low back pain (LBP) is characterized by daily lower back pain lasting more than three consecutive months. It may lead to functional disability and can be treated by several physical therapy techniques, including therapeutic exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pilates and classical kinesiotherapy on the treatment of pain and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and methods : The study sample cons...

  3. Treatment of chronically depressed patients: A multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of ‘Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy’(CBASP) for chronic depressions versus usual secondary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.E.; van Schaik, D.J.F.; van Oppen, P.C.; McCullough, J.P.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Blom, M.B.J.; Maas, K.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP) is a form of psychotherapy specifically developed for patients with chronic depression. In a study in the U.S., remarkable favorable effects of CBASP have been demonstrated. However, no other studies have as yet

  4. Treatment of chronically depressed patients: A multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of ‘Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy’(CBASP) for chronic depressions versus usual secondary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.E.; Schaik, van D.J.F.; Oppen, van P.C.; McCullough, J.P.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Blom, M.B.J.; Maas, K.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2008-01-01

    AbstractBackground'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP) is a form of psychotherapy specifically developed for patients with chronic depression. In a study in the U.S., remarkable favorable effects of CBASP have been demonstrated. However, no other studies have as yet

  5. Effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depression: a systematic review (METACHRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wolff Alessa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic depressions represent a substantial part of depressive disorders and are associated with severe consequences. Several studies were performed addressing the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depressions. Yet, a systematic review comparing the effectiveness of multiple treatment options and considering all subtypes of chronic depressions is still missing. Methods/Design Aim of this project is to summarize empirical evidence on efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for chronic depression by means of a systematic review. The primary objectives of the study are to examine, which interventions are effective; to examine, if any differences in effectiveness between active treatment options exist; and to find possible treatment effect modifiers. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments will be considered as experimental interventions and no treatment, wait-list, psychological/pharmacological placebo, treatment as usual, and other active treatments will be seen as comparators. The population of patients will include adults with chronic major depression, dysthymia, double depression, or recurrent depression without complete remission between episodes. Outcomes of the analyses are depressive symptoms, associated consequences, adverse events, and study discontinuation. Only randomized controlled trials will be considered. Discussion Given the high prevalence and serious consequences of chronic depression and a considerable amount of existing primary studies addressing the effectiveness of different treatments the present systematic review may be of high relevance. Special attention will be given to the use of current methodological standards. Findings are likely to provide crucial information that may help clinicians to choose the appropriate treatment for chronically depressed patients.

  6. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  8. Effect and safety of spinal cord stimulation for treatment of chronic pain caused by diabetic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, C.; de Vos, Cecile C.; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van der Aa, Hans E.; Buschman, H.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown effective as a therapy for different chronic painful conditions, but the effectiveness of this treatment for pain as a result of peripheral diabetic neuropathy is not well established. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect

  9. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): a multigenerational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Ana M; Peixoto, Maria João; Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo; Carvalho, António Paulo; Gesto, Manuel; Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana; Castro, Luís Filipe C; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-01

    Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid metabolism (provided that transcript level change indicates also a protein level change). Interestingly, the F2 generation, raised with control diet, displayed a response pattern different from that observed in F1, showing an increase in weight in the descendants of CA exposed fish, in

  10. [Damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xuefei; Ding, Yan; Nie, Zheng; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to study the damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata and to explore whether the damage is associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and chronic hypoxia group. Medulla oblongata was obtained for the following methods of analyses. Nissl's staining was used to examine the Niss bodies of neurons in medullary respiratory related nuclei, biochemistry methods were utilized to examine oxidant stress damage induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and RT-PCR technique was used to study the influence of apoptosis induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through analyzing the levels of Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA. The results showed the optical densities of Nissl's staining in pre-BötC, NA, NTS, FN, and 12N were significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). Bax mRNA expression had no obvious change and Bcl-2 mRNA expression significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that chronic hypoxia could bring about serious damage to medullary respiratory centers through aggravating oxidative stress and increasing cell apoptosis.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  12. Protective effects of antidepressants against chronic fatigue syndrome-induced behavioral changes and biochemical alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika

    2009-02-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by profound fatigue, which substantially interferes with daily activities. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of antidepressants in an animal model of CFS in mice. Male albino mice were forced to swim individually for a period of 6-min session each for 7 days. Imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg), desipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered 30 min before forced swimming test on each day. Various behavior tests (immobility time, locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior by plus maze and mirror chamber) followed by biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite level) were assessed in chronic stressed mice. Chronic forced swimming for 7 days significantly caused increase in immobility period, impairment in locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and oxidative stress (raised lipid peroxidation, nitrite activity and reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared with naïve mice (P immobility time, improved locomotor activity and anti-anxiety effect (in both plus maze and mirror chamber test), and attenuated oxidative stress in chronic stressed mice as compared with control (chronic fatigues) (P < 0.05). These results suggested that these drugs have protective effect and could be used in the management of chronic fatigue like conditions.

  13. Effect of chronic copper poisoning on the kidneys of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Howell, J M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of copper poisoning on kidneys was studied in 16 housed sheep given a daily drench of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 mg CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O per kg body weight. Seven similar sheep were kept as controls. All sheep were bled and weighed at weekly intervals, urine was collected via a catheter from groups of sheep at varying times and animals were killed in groups throughout the experiment. Nine sheep were allowed to develop the hemolytic crisis. Prior to hemolysis copper levels in the liver and copper and iron levels in the kidneys rose significantly, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules became numerous in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but significant changes were not detected by the histochemical methods used nor was kidney function impaired. In the animals that developed hemolysis there was degeneration, necrosis and loss of enzyme activity from the cells of the PCT. The tubule cells contained large amounts of hemoglobin, copper and iron and much of this material seemed to be localized in intracytoplasmic granules that were probably lysosomes. There was marked functional impairment at this time and blood urea levels began to rise. These lesions, an interstitial fibroblastic and inflammatory cell response together with changes suggestive of tubular regeneration were seen in the posthemolytic group of sheep.

  14. Homocystein as a risk factor for developing complications in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Biljana; Gasic, Branislav; Kovacevic, Pedja; Rajkovaca, Zvezdana; Kovacevic, Tijana

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of our study was to establish connection between levels of homocysteine and traditional and nontraditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases in dialysis and pre dialysis patients. We included 33 pre dialysis (23 in stage three and 10 in stage four of chronic kidney disease) and 43 patients receiving hemodialysis longer than six months. Besides standard laboratory parameters, levels of homocysteine and blood pressure were measured in all patients. Glomerular filtration rate was measured in pre dialysis patients and dialysis quality parameters in dialysis patients. Homocysteine levels were elevated in all patients (19±5.42mmol/l). The connection between homocysteine levels and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors was not established in pre dialysis patients. In patients treated with hemodialysis we found negative correlation between homocysteine levels and patients' age (phomocysteine levels and length of dialysis (phomocysteine and anemia parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin), (pHomocysteine and LDL (and total cholesterol) were in negative correlation (pHomocysteine, as one of nontraditional cardiovascular diseases risk factors, is elevated in all patients with chronic renal failure and it's positive correlation with some other risk factors was found.

  15. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, chronic fallopian tube injury, and serous carcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Karin; Klynning, Charlotta; Flöter-Rådestad, Angelique; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Previous studies have suggested that the fallopian tube may be the primary site for high-grade serous carcinoma. In prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies from women with hereditary high risk for ovarian cancer, precursors can be assessed prior to onset and studied as a model for serous cancer precursor lesions. Epidemiologic studies indicate that carcinogenesis may be a result of chronic fallopian tube injury. The aims of this study were to (1) to examine the incidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in relation to other clinical parameters and (2) to evaluate whether chronic fallopian tube injury was related to cancer development. This study enrolled 101 women, comprising the following three groups: hereditary (n = 60), sporadic serous cancer (n = 18; endometrial cancers were excluded), and control (n = 23). The cases were histologically examined and clinical risk factors were collected. The histological changes were compared between different patients and correlated to clinical risk factors. STICs were identified primarily on the fallopian tube fimbria. The incidence of STIC was 3 % in the hereditary patients. In sporadic serous cancer cases, 61 % were associated with STIC and tubal carcinoma (p STIC and invasive cancer were seen more often in the older patients than in the younger patients (p = 0.528). This small study, no correlation with chronic tubal injury or inflammation was identified.

  16. [Nurses' participation in the development of a multidisciplinary team for chronic and terminal patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H E; Guitierrez, B A

    1997-08-01

    Since long ago the nurse has become more concerned about the delivery of care for patients with chronic and degeneratives diseases. Nevertheless, the accomplishment of this task is not an easy one. Moreover, when the patient reaches the final stage. Usually this patient experiences emotional and physical alteration. The family is deeply involved in this process and generally they seek nurses help because they are the closest ones to the patient and his/her family. When the patient go trough this dramatic acute change in health condition or in face of chronic degenerative or final stage disease is made, the relationship with the family becomes more difficult demanding nursing intervention. The objective of this study is to report the experience of nurse's participation in the implantation and development of multidisciplinary group for treatment of chronical and final stage patients. This group has been working for two years and has had good results. This group has worked treatment schemes for treatment used by all members of multidisciplinary team. From previous experiences, we knew that there is always a discrepancy between the information given by professional and friends and relatives ones. Which could increase fear and anxiety the reassurance given by the health team, a fair distribution of tasks and the information delivery to the patient proved to be successful.

  17. Effects of chronic whole-body gamma irradiation on cell mediated immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Taylor, N.J.; Wilson, F.D.; DeRock, E.W.; Wiger, N.

    1979-01-01

    The whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test has been used to estimate the effects of chronic, whole-body, gamma irradiation in the dog. At lower dose levels, 0.07 and 0.33 R/day to cumulative dose of about 50 and 250 R, there was no change in cell mediated immunity. Dogs at high dose levels were affected. Dogs which succumbed to aplastic anemia at high doses had reduced immunological responses. Dogs which survived these high doses showed a temporary depression. When aplastic anemia was initially noted, there was a differential response to PHA and Con-A stimulation. The response to the former mitogen was profoundly reduced, but Con-A stimulated cells were unaffected, indicative of the development of radioresistant cell lines. As the dogs progressed toward aplastic anemia, all T lympocytes were negatively affected

  18. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C

    2002-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent and costly problem. This review addresses the question of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the most common treatments for patients with chronic pain. Representative published studies that evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological treatments, conservative (standard) care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, implantable drug delivery systems (IDDSs), and pain rehabilitation programs (PRPs) are examined and compared. The cost-effectiveness of these treatment approaches is also considered. Outcome criteria including pain reduction, medication use, health care consumption, functional activities, and closure of disability compensation cases are examined. In addition to clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness of PRPs, conservative care, surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs are compared using costs to return a treated patient to work to illustrate the relative expenses for each of these treatments. There are limitations to the success of all the available treatments. The author urges caution in interpreting the results, particularly in comparisons between treatments and across studies, because there are broad differences in the pain syndromes and inclusion criteria used, the drug dosages, comparability of treatments, the definition of "chronic" used, the outcome criteria selected to determine success, and societal differences. None of the currently available treatments eliminates pain for the majority of patients. Pain rehabilitation programs provide comparable reduction in pain to alternative pain treatment modalities, but with significantly better outcomes for medication use, health care utilization, functional activities, return to work, closure of disability claims, and with substantially fewer iatrogenic consequences and adverse events. Surgery, spinal cord stimulators, and IDDSs appear to have substantial benefits on some outcome criteria for carefully selected patients. These modalities are

  19. Treatment of chronically depressed patients: A multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP for chronic depressions versus usual secondary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Brenda WJH

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP is a form of psychotherapy specifically developed for patients with chronic depression. In a study in the U.S., remarkable favorable effects of CBASP have been demonstrated. However, no other studies have as yet replicated these findings and CBASP has not been tested outside the United States. This protocol describes a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of CBASP in the Netherlands. Methods/Design The purpose of the present paper is to report the study protocol of a multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP for chronic depression in the Netherlands. In this study, CBASP in combination with medication, will be tested versus usual secondary care in combination with medication. The aim is to recruit 160 patients from three mental health care organizations. Depressive symptoms will be assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks, 16 weeks, 32 weeks and 52 weeks, using the 28-item Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS. Effect modification by co morbid anxiety, alcohol consumption, general and social functioning and working alliance will be tested. GEE analyses of covariance, controlling for baseline value and center will be used to estimate the overall treatment effectiveness (difference in IDS score at post-treatment and follow up. The primary analysis will be by 'intention to treat' using double sided tests. An economic analysis will compare the two groups in terms of mean costs and cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective. Discussion The study will provide an answer to the question whether the favorable effects of CBASP can be replicated outside the US. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Center, NTR1090.

  20. Transforming growth factor beta-1 An important biomarker for developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, E; Avci, G Alp; Ozcelik, B; Cevher, S Coskun; Suicmez, M

    2017-01-01

    Our study focuses on the determination and evaluation of TGF-β1 levels of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure, characterized by irreversible loss of renal function, is a major public health problem in the world. Transforming growth factor-beta is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the cellular growth, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and immune regulation. Among the three TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. We studied 24 patients who were on regular hemodialysis, with non-diabetic nephropathy. 20 healthy people who proved to be in a good state of health and free from any signs of chronic diseases or disorders were enrolled as a control group. Serum samples were collected both before and after hemodialysis treatment from each patient. TGF-β1 levels were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay method. TGF-β1 levels were found significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients than those of the control groups. Also, the TGF-β1 was significantly reduced after hemodialysis treatment but it was still higher than in control groups. This result indicates that hemodialysis is an effective treatment method to decrease the serum TGF-B1 levels. Nevertheless, this decrease is not enough to reduce existing risks (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 28).

  1. Effectiveness of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies: options for the management of chronic pain symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Freilich, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 18 of which directly compared ACT-CIM approaches with one another. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, effectiveness, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect Evaluation of a Self-Management Program for Dutch Workers with a Chronic Somatic Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank van Dijk; Josephine Engels; Sarah Detaille; Yvonne Heerkens; Joost van der Gulden

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a Self-Management Program for workers with a chronic disease. This program is based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program of Stanford University, modified for workers with a chronic somatic disease. Methods: In a

  3. The effect of chronic exposure to fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, J.; Gregersen, S.; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Investigating gene expression profiles may help to characterize the underlying mechanism. INS-1 cells were cultured with palmitate (0, 50, and 200 microM) for up to 44 d. Insulin secretion and expressions of 8740 genes were studied. We...... 44, respectively. Genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated, whereas those involved in glycolysis were down-regulated with 200 microM palmitate. A suppression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substate-2 gene expression was found on d 44 in cells cultured at 200 microM palmitate....... In conclusion, chronic exposure to low palmitate alters insulin secretion as well as gene expression. The number of genes that changed expression was palmitate dose and exposure time dependent. Randle's fatty acid-glucose cycle seems to be operative on the gene transcription level. A modification of expression...

  4. Chronic irradiation effects on variability of maize and teosinte hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Ledecky, J.; Holas, J.

    1981-01-01

    The plants of the F 1 generation of the back-crosses of maize and teosinte, radiomutant RTZM no. 1 (B1 and B2), were exposed to chronic irradiation with doses from 1000 to 2000 R in a gamma field during their growing season. In the M 4 to F 4 progenies of the B1 hybrid, the correlation between lateness and a higher number of cobs, typical of teosinte, line RTZM no. 1, was significantly distorted. M 4 to F 4 generation lines, characterized by the required higher number of cobs and earliness and by a medium to good combining ability in silage mass yield, were selected from both back-cross hybrids. (author)

  5. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Vasilou, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Scaratti, Chiara; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Brecelj, Valentina; Svestkova, Olga; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Finnvold, Jon Erik; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde

    2018-03-11

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  6. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vlachou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  7. [Effects of a Multi-disciplinary Approached, Empowerment Theory Based Self-management Intervention in Older Adults with Chronic Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Song, Misoon; Cho, Belong; Lim, Jaeyoung; Song, Wook; Chang, Heekyung; Park, Yeon-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-disciplinary self-management intervention based on empowerment theory and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention for older adults with chronic illness. A randomized controlled trial design was used with 43 Korean older adults with chronic illness (Experimental group=22, Control group=21). The intervention consisted of two phases: (1) 8-week multi-disciplinary, team guided, group-based health education, exercise session, and individual empowerment counseling, (2) 16-week self-help group activities including weekly exercise and group discussion to maintain acquired self-management skills and problem-solving skills. Baseline, 8-week, and 24-week assessments measured health empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, physical activity, and physical function. Health empowerment, physical activity, and physical function in the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group over time. Exercise self-efficacy significantly increased in experimental group over time but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The self-management program based on empowerment theory improved health empowerment, physical activity, and physical function in older adults. The study finding suggests that a health empowerment strategy may be an effective approach for older adults with multiple chronic illnesses in terms of achieving a sense of control over their chronic illness and actively engaging self-management.

  8. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  9. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  10. Effects of triiodothyronine administration in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J N; Eastman, C J; Corcoran, J M; Lazarus, L

    1977-12-01

    Clinically euthyroid patients with severe, chronic, non-thyroidal illnesses usually have decreased serum total and absolute free T3 concentrations. Since T3 is the metabolically more active of the two thyroid hormones, it has been suggested that these patients may be hypothyroid and thus may benefit from T3 therapy. To test this hypothesis, five patients with chronic renal failure requiring maintenance haemodialysis were treated with 5 microgram T3 eight hourly, increasing at three weekly intervals to 10 microgram eight hourly, 20 microgram eight hourly and finally 30 microgram eight hourly. The mean +/- SD serum T3 level did not change over the 12 week period (1.42 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.41 +/- 0.26 nmoll-1 whilst the mean serum T4 and TSH levels fell from 87.0 +/- 15.2 to 47.5 +/- 18.8 nmoll-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.9 to 1.3 +/- 1.6 mUl-1 respectively. Only the change in T4 levels was significant (P less than 0.005). A significant decrease in mean serum T4 levels was apparent even after the treatment period with 5 microgram T3 eight hourly (87.0 +/- 15.2 vs. 51.2 +/- 15.7; P less than 0.005). The mean fasting serum triglyceride level fell from 1.16 +/- 0.74 to 0.94 +/- 0.74 mmoll-1 (P less than 0.05) and the mean fasting serum cholesterol level fell from 6.06 +/- 1.13 to 4.69 +/- 1.10 mmoll-1 (P less than 0.05). There were no subjective improvements in any of the patients. From the marked changes in serum T4 levels during the administration of T3, it is concluded that, prior to treatment, the patients were biochemically euthyroid and not hypothyroid and thus did not require T3 therapy.

  11. Therapeutic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chronic diseases associated with muscle wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; de Ronde, Willem

    2011-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions are complicated by loss of weight and skeletal muscle which may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Anabolic androgenic steroids have been demonstrated to increase fat-free mass, muscle mass and strength in healthy men and women without major adverse events and therefore could be beneficial in these conditions. This review provides an overview of clinical trials with anabolic androgenic steroids in the treatment of chronic diseases including HIV-wasting, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, muscular disease, alcoholic liver disease, burn injuries and post operative recovery. Relevant studies were identified in PubMed (years 1950 - 2010), bibliographies of the identified studies and the Cochrane database. Although the beneficial effects of AAS in chronic disorders are promising, clinically relevant endpoints such as quality of life, improved physical functioning and survival were mainly missing or not significant, except for burn injuries. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm their long term safety and efficacy.

  12. Anxiogenic-like effect of chronic corticosterone in the light-dark emergence task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardayfio, Paul; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2006-04-01

    Chronic hypercortisolemia is a hallmark of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disorders, such as Cushing's disease and depression. Whether cortisol directly contributes to the altered mood and anxiety symptoms seen in these diseases remains unclear. To address this, the authors have modeled hypercortisolemia by administering corticosterone in the drinking water of female Swiss Webster mice for 17 or 18 days (13 mg/kg). Light-dark emergence, startle habituation, and startle reactivity were measured. Chronic but not acute treatment with corticosterone increased the latency to emerge into the light compartment, an anxiogenic-like effect. Chronic corticosterone treatment did not affect startle habituation, but did reduce startle reactivity. This study suggests that chronic hypercortisolemia may contribute to anxiety-related behavior in patients with Cushing's disease and depression. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P and myleran: Development of chronic granulocytic leukemia with chromosomal abnormalities in one patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavem, P; Sandnes, K [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Hagen, C.B. van der [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Vogt, E [Statens Institutt for Folkehelse, Oslo, Norway

    1975-01-01

    Chronic granulocytic leukemia developed in a 59-year-old woman who had previously received a total of 21 mCl /sup 32/P for polycythemia vera. She was treated with Myleran (busulphan) for her chronic granulocytic leukemia. Cytogenetic studies revealed deletion of chromosomes No. 8 and 12, and translocation between 1 and 8. The patient also developed a severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, for which she received prednisone treatment. She died with a perforated stomach ulcer. (INIS)

  14. Behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress are sustained and sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic mixed modality stressor (consisting of isolation, restraint, and social defeat) during adolescence (PND37-49) resulted in differential and sustained changes in depressive-like behavior in male and female Wistar rats. Female rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress displayed decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity in the elevated plus maze, decreased activity in the forced swim test, and a blunted corticosterone response to an acute forced swim stress compared to controls during both adolescence (PND48-57) and adulthood (PND96-104). Male rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress did not manifest significant behavioral changes at either the end of adolescence or in adulthood. These data support the proposition that adolescence may be a stress sensitive period for females and exposure to stress during adolescence results in behavioral effects that persist in females. Studies investigating the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress may lead to a better understanding of the sexually dimorphic incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans and ultimately improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21466807

  15. Development and Usability Evaluation of an Art and Narrative-Based Knowledge Translation Tool for Parents With a Child With Pediatric Chronic Pain: Multi-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathy; Hartling, Lisa; Ali, Samina; Le, Anne; Norris, Allison; Scott, Shannon D

    2017-12-14

    Chronic pain in childhood is increasingly being recognized as a significant clinical problem for children and their families. Previous research has identified that families want information about the causes of their child's chronic pain, treatment options, and effective strategies to help their child cope with the pain. Unfortunately, parents have reported that finding this information can be challenging. The aim of this study was to actively work together with children attending a pediatric chronic pain clinic and their parents to develop, refine, and evaluate the usability of an art and narrative-based electronic book (e-book) for pediatric chronic pain. A multiphase, multi-method research design employing patient engagement techniques was used to develop, refine, and evaluate the usability of an art and narrative based e-book for pediatric chronic pain management to facilitate knowledge translation for parents with a child with chronic pain. The multiple phases included the following: (1) qualitative interviews to compile parents' narratives using qualitative interviews; (2) qualitative data analysis; (3) development of an e-book prototype; (4) expert clinician feedback; (5) parent usability evaluation, knowledge change, and confidence in knowledge responses using an electronic survey; (6) e-book refinement; and (7) dissemination of the e-book. A 48-page e-book was developed to characterize the experiences of a family living with a child with chronic pain. The e-book was a composite narrative of the parent interviews and encompassed descriptions of the effects the condition has on each member of the family. This was merged with the best available research evidence on the day-to-day management of pediatric chronic pain. The e-book was vetted for clinical accuracy by expert pediatric pain clinicians. All parents that participated in the usability evaluation (N=14) agreed or strongly agreed the content of the e-book was easy to understand and stated that they would

  16. [Unpredictable chronic mild stress effects on antidepressants activities in forced swim test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Voronina, T A

    2015-02-01

    The experiments has been designed to study unpredictable chronic mild stress effect on anti-depressive activities of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in forced swim test in male outbred mice. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates. Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  17. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-07-01

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  19. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  20. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. [Development of a Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Chronic Care in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargues, Mireia; Serra-Sutton, Vicky; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Torrente, Elena; Moharra, Montse; Benítez, Dolors; Robles, Noemí; Domíngo, Laia; Escarrabill Sanglas, Joan

    2016-07-07

    The aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of new healthcare initiatives on chronic diseases within the Spanish National Health System. A comprehensive literature review between 2002 and 2013, including systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and reports with evaluation frameworks and/or assessment of initiatives was carried out; integrated care initiatives established in Catalonia were studied and described; and semistructured interviews with key stakeholders were performed. The scope and conceptual framework were defined by using the brainstorming approach.Of 910 abstracts identified, a total of 116 studies were included. They referred to several conceptual frameworks and/or assessment indicators at a national and international level. An overall of 24 established chronic care initiatives were identified (9 integrated care initiatives); 10 in-depth interviews were carried out. The proposed conceptual framework envisages: 1)the target population according to complexity levels; 2)an evaluation approach of the structure, processes, and outcomes considering the health status achieved, the recovery process and the maintenance of health; and 3)the dimensions or attributes to be assessed. The proposed conceptual framework will be helpful has been useful to develop indicators and implement them with a community-based and result-oriented approach and a territorial or population-based perspective within the Spanish Health System. This will be essential to know which are the most effective strategies, what are the key elements that determine greater success and what are the groups of patients who can most benefit.

  2. The contributions of differing degrees of acute and chronic malnutrition to the intellectual development of Jamaican boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S A; Koller, H; Katz, M; Albert, K

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether differing degrees and types of malnutrition cause differing degrees of mental impairment. Subjects were 59 Jamaican boys hospitalized for malnutrition in infancy and whose intelligence was assessed at school age. The measure used for degree of chronic malnutrition was height for age and for acute malnutrition weight for height. The measure of intelligence was the I.Q. (WISC). Because the social environment in which a child lives influences his intellectual development, a measure of social background was used as an independent variable in addition to the nutrition measures. Social background showed a significant effect on I.Q. but neither measure of nutrition was significant. A further analysis using comparisons who had not been hospitalized for malnutrition suggests that malnutrition may contribute to mental impairment, through a threshold effect rather than acting as a continuous variable where increasing degrees of malnutrition cause increasing degrees of mental impairment.

  3. Development and Preliminary Psychometrics of the Exercise Therapy Burden Questionnaire for Patients With Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William; Palazzo, Clémence; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2017-11-01

    To develop and validate a self-reporting questionnaire assessing the burden of exercise therapy for patients with chronic conditions. Measurement properties of an instrument. Outpatient clinics and tertiary care hospital. Patients (N=201) with at least 1 chronic condition and performing exercise therapy. Not applicable. The dimensional structure of the questionnaire was assessed by principal component analysis. Construct validity of the instrument was assessed by exploring convergent validity with the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ) and divergent validity with pain, self-efficacy, treatment satisfaction, and health state. Reliability was assessed with the Cronbach α coefficient, a test-retest method using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman plotting. A preliminary list of items was developed from semistructured interviews with 28 patients and reviewed by 2 expert physicians. Items obtained were reduced. Then a sample of 163 patients was used to measure the psychometrics of the Exercise Therapy Burden Questionnaire (ETBQ), consisting of 10 items. Principal component analysis extracted 1 dimension. The Cronbach α was .86 (.82-.89). Test-retest reliability (n=24 patients) was good with an ICC of .93 (.85-.97), and Bland-Altman analysis did not reveal a systematic trend. The ETBQ showed expected convergent validity with the TBQ (ρ=.52) and expected divergent validity with pain (ρ=.37), self-efficacy (ρ=-.34), treatment satisfaction (ρ=-.49), and perceived health state (ρ=-.28). The ETBQ is the first questionnaire assessing exercise therapy burden in patients with chronic conditions. Its psychometric properties are promising. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical drug development using dynamic biomarkers to enable personalized health care in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Asger R; Karsdal, Morten A; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite massive investments in development of novel treatments for heterogeneous diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the resources spent have only benefitted a fraction of the population treated. Personalized Health Care to guide selection of a suitable patient population...... at higher risk of progression. We review the role of extra-cellular matrix proteins found to be upregulated in COPD. Novel biomarkers of connective tissue remodeling which may provide added value for a personalized approach by detecting subgroups of patients with active disease suitable for pharmacological...... already in the clinical development of new compounds could offer a solution. In this review, we discuss past successes and failures in drug development and biomarker research in COPD. We describe research in COPD phenotypes, and the required characteristics of a suitable biomarker for identifying patients...

  5. Effects of a Guided Internet-Delivered Self-Help Intervention for Adolescents With Chronic Pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, J.S.; Remerie, S.; Westendorp, T.; Timman, R.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Passchier, J.; de Klerk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of chronic pain in adolescents. However, CBT seems not to be considered acceptable by all adolescents. The main aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the effects of guided Internet-delivered self-help for

  6. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic otitis media: a randomized comparison of costs and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonacker, C.W.; Veen, E.L. van der; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schilder, A.G.M.; Rovers, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-effectiveness of a 6- to 12-week course of high-dose oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic active otitis media (COM). STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness study including both direct and indirect costs alongside a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  7. Enhancing the Safe and Effective Management of Chronic Pain in Accountable Care Organization Primary Care Practices in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubu, Selam; Hall, Laura Lee; Straub, Paula; Bair, Matthew J; Marsteller, Jill A; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Schneider, Doron; Hood, Gregory A

    Chronic pain is a prevalent chronic condition with significant burden and economic impact in the United States. Chronic pain is particularly abundant in primary care, with an estimated 52% of chronic pain patients obtaining care from primary care physicians (PCPs). However, PCPs often lack adequate training and have limited time and resources to effectively manage chronic pain. Chronic pain management is complex in nature because of high co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and other medical comorbidities in patients. This article describes a quality improvement initiative conducted by the American College of Physicians (ACP), in collaboration with the Kentucky ACP Chapter, and the Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, to enhance chronic pain management in 8 primary care practices participating in Accountable Care Organizations in Kentucky, with a goal of enhancing the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with chronic pain.

  8. Tunnel unroofing effectiveness in chronic peritoneal catheter infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carranza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic catheter infection usually involves external Dacron cuff colonization, without its removal, antibiotic treatment proved ineffective. Catheter unroofing technique has been described as an alternative to peritoneal catheter removal. Material and methods: We analyzed the data from 13 patients retrospectively. Evolution after unroofing was evaluated, considering as treatment failure the appearance of new infection in the hole, tunnel or peritonitis associated to the same germ. Results: Between 1997-2014 years, unroofing was performed on 13 patients. Mean age-rate: 46.2 (IC 95%: 35.9 years – 56.5 years male sex 9, 69.23%. Germs: staphylococcus 7, pseudomona 2, polymicrobial 1, negative culture 3. Nine patiens healed: 69.2%; there was no statistical association among sex, age, microbiological result, previous hemodialysis use, type of catheter, surgical technique or with the surgeon who performed the procedure (p≥ 0.05. Discussion: Catheter removal implies transient transference to hemodialysis and new replacement surgery, although there is few experience with this technique, it could be an acceptable alternative, enabling a group of patients to continue with PD treatment. Conclusion: Unroofing technique proved to be beneficial in 69.2% of the cases (9 patients independently of the type of germ present, representing an acceptable treatment which avoids catheter removal, enabling the procedure to continue, and decreasing the need to employ more aggressive therapies.

  9. Multifunctional medicated lyophilised wafer dressing for effective chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshavardhan V; Boateng, Joshua S; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John

    2014-06-01

    Wafers combining weight ratios of Polyox with carrageenan (75/25) or sodium alginate (50/50) containing streptomycin and diclofenac were prepared to improve chronic wound healing. Gels were freeze-dried using a lyophilisation cycle incorporating an annealing step. Wafers were characterised for morphology, mechanical and in vitro functional (swelling, adhesion, drug release in the presence of simulated wound fluid) characteristics. Both blank (BLK) and drug-loaded (DL) wafers were soft, flexible, elegant in appearance and non-brittle in nature. Annealing helped to improve porous nature of wafers but was affected by the addition of drugs. Mechanical characterisation demonstrated that the wafers were strong enough to withstand normal stresses but also flexible to prevent damage to newly formed skin tissue. Differences in swelling, adhesion and drug release characteristics could be attributed to differences in pore size and sodium sulphate formed because of the salt forms of the two drugs. BLK wafers showed relatively higher swelling and adhesion than DL wafers with the latter showing controlled release of streptomycin and diclofenac. The optimised dressing has the potential to reduce bacterial infection and can also help to reduce swelling and pain associated with injury due to the anti-inflammatory action of diclofenac and help to achieve more rapid wound healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Studies on the chronic effect of lower dose level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, T.G.; Yun, E.S.; Chung, I.Y.; Yun, M.S.; Chae, H.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the chronic hazard of Co-60 low dose radiation on ICR mice. There is now considerable evidence from human studies that age, both at exposure to radiation and at observation for risk, can be major determinant of radiation induced cancer risk. For this reason, ICR mice at different ages such as below were exposed to 60m rads/week, 500m rads/week and 60 rads/biweek whole body Co-60 radiation at a dose rate of 3.6 rads/min. ICR mice were irradiated during pregnant period, from 1st week to 3rd week, from 3rd week to 52nd week, from 6th week to 52nd week, and from 22nd week to 52nd week after the birth. All experimental mice were autopsied immediately after being sacrificed at 52nd week. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. After fixation histo-pathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Blood cells W.B.C., R.B.C., Hb-from eye's vein were counted by hemocytometer and hemometer. (Author)

  11. Uranium chronic contamination effects on the cholinergic system: in vivo and in vitro approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, H.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal which occurs naturally in the environment. It is both a chemical and a radiological toxicant. The aim of this work was: (i) to assess the effects of U chronic exposure on the cholinergic system (biosynthesis and breakdown enzymes, receptors and on behaviour of adult, young or predisposed to neuro-degenerative illness (ApoE KO) rodents; (ii) to grasp the neurotoxic effects of U on human neuronal cells. In vivo, this work shows a structure- (cortex more sensitive than hippocampus), rodent model- (young more sensitive than adults), time- (sub-chronic exposure more harmful than chronic exposure), exposure level- and isotope-dependent effect of U. In vitro, the study underlined the neuro-cytotoxic U potential and the presence of uranium precipitates in cells. These results show the deleterious impact of U on neuronal cells, and demonstrate that U induces impairments on the cholinergic system and the behaviour of rodents. (author)

  12. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE....... In conclusion, the effect of ribavirin plus interferon on viral clearance may lead to reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. However, combination therapy is associated with increased risk for adverse events....

  13. The Long Term Effects of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury on Sperm Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Khalili

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious public health problem which seriously affects the victim, family, and even the society. Research studies have shown that 80% of SCI victims are men. In recent years, there have been extensive research works on the effect of SCI (acute and/or chronic on fertility potential of sperm and spermatogenesis in laboratory animals. SCI may disturb the spermatogenic cell lines in laboratory animals. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of chronic spinal cord injury (CSCI on sperm parameters in adult rats. Materials & Methods: Adult Wistar rats weighing between 225-275g were divided into 3groups of control (n=5, sham (n=10, and experimental CSCI (n=10. No surgery was done on control animals. Only laminectomy was done in the sham animals at T10. CSCI was developed in experimental rats using 10g weight dropped 5cm above the exposed T10 level. All animals were sacrificed 50 days post experiment to extract epididymal samples. Sperm parameters of count, motility, morphology, as well as number of round cells were evaluated with the aid of Makler chamber and Geimsa staining. Results: Progressive motility was significantly reduced in CSCI group (P<0.05. The percentage of normal morphology of spermatozoa was 99.0±1.0 in control rats which was significantly reduced to 74.90±37.64 in CSCI animals In addition, sperm counts in control and CSCI rats were 69.20±12.43 and 25.0±13.68, respectively (P<0.01. Round cell concentration was increased in CSCI group as compared to controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that reduction in parameters of progressive motility, morphology, as well as sperm count following CSCI in rats may disturb the fertility potential of spermatozoa.

  14. Effects of Ramadan fasting on the symptoms of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazid, Rami M; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sakr, Haitham I; Altorbak, Nora A; Alenzi, Habiba S; Awad, Zaki M; Smettei, Osama A; Elsanan, Moataz A; Widyan, Adel M; Azazy, Ahmed S; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan W

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the symptoms of chronic heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Globally, more than one billion Muslims fast during Ramadan. Data regarding the effect of fasting in heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction are limited. We prospectively studied 249 outpatients with HFrEF who undertook Ramadan fasting at tertiary care cardiac center in Saudi Arabia in 2017. We obtained information regarding the clinical assessment, diagnosis, emergency department visits, and hospitalization during and in the month preceding Ramadan. We enrolled 249 patients, 227 (91%) undertook the fast for the entire month. During Ramadan, 209 (92%) patients remained hemodynamically stable, whereas 18 (8%) developed instability. The mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was significantly lower in the stable than in the unstable group (1.46±0.7 vs. 3.22±0.55, p less than 0.0001), although no intergroup differences were observed before Ramadan. Patients from the unstable vs. the stable group showed significantly less adherence to medications (67% vs. 94%, p less than 0.0001) and to diet (39% vs. 79%, p less than 0.0001), and a lower likelihood of demonstrating ischemic cardiomyopathy as an underlying etiology of HFrEF (33% vs. 57%, p=0.046). Dependent t-test analysis including all patients showed that the NYHA classification before Ramadan was significantly higher than during Ramadan (2.19±0.9 vs. 1.6±0.8, t-value 8.5, p less than 0.0001). In most patients with chronic HFrEF, Ramadan fasting is considered safe. Non-adherence to medication and diet are significantly associated with decompensated heart failure during Ramadan.

  15. Persistent effects of chronic clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses to LSD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Umali, Adrienne; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale In schizophrenia patients, optimal treatment with antipsychotics requires weeks to months of sustained drug therapy. However, single administration of antipsychotic drugs can reverse schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations in rodent models of psychosis. This raises questions about the physiological relevance of such antipsychotic-like activity. Objective This study evaluates the effects of chronic treatment with clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses induced by the hallucinogenic serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as a mouse model of psychosis. Method Mice were treated chronically (21 days) with 25 mg/kg/day clozapine. Experiments were conducted 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after the last clozapine administration. [3H]Ketanserin binding and 5-HT2A mRNA expression were determined in mouse somatosensory cortex. Head-twitch behavior, expression of c-fos, which is induced by all 5-HT2A agonists, and expression of egr-1 and egr-2, which are LSD-like specific, were assayed. Results Head-twitch response was decreased and [3H]ketanserin binding was downregulated in 1, 7, and 14 days after chronic clozapine. 5-HT2A mRNA was reduced 1 day after chronic clozapine. Induction of c-fos, but not egr-1 and egr-2, was rescued 7 days after chronic clozapine. These effects were not observed after short treatment (2 days) with clozapine or chronic haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day). Conclusion Our findings provide a murine model of chronic atypical antipsychotic drug action and suggest downregulation of the 5-HT2A receptor as a potential mechanism involved in these persistent therapeutic-like effects. PMID:22842765

  16. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  17. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  18. [Development of quality of care indicators to support chronic disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-dominique; Pomey, Marie-pascale; Del Grande, Claudio; Côté, Brigitte; Tremblay, Éric; Ghorbel, Monia; Hua, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a project conducted by the Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux of Québec to develop quality of care indicators for the management of six chronic illnesses. Indicators were identified through literature searches and analysis of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Interdisciplinary expert panels assessed their validity and the strength of the evidence on which they were based. Representatives of patients (N = 19) and professionals (N = 29) were consulted on their relevance and acceptability. Indicators were categorized according to the Chronic Care Model (CCM). A total of 164 indicators were developed, 126 specific to the illnesses under study and 38 on processes and outcomes generic to the CCM. There was convergence between patients and professionals on the relevance of a majority of indicators. Professionals expressed concerns on the indicators measured by means of patient surveys that they considered to be too subjective. The importance given to CPGs as the main source of indicators resulted in a great number of indicators of the technical quality ofcare. Using the CCM contributed to a broader perspective of quality. The consultation process identified some of the concerns of professionals about indicator measurement, thusguidingfuture implementation initiatives.

  19. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-shu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  20. Effect of fibular repositioning taping in adult basketball players with chronic ankle instability: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Yanina; Ribeiro, Fernando; Silva, Anabela G

    2017-07-05

    Chronic ankle instability presents a high incidence and prevalence in basketbal players. It's important to develop strategies to reduce the functional and mechanical limitations resulting from this condition. To compare the effect of Mulligan ́s fibular repositioning taping with a placebo taping immediatly after application and after a running test (Yo-Yo IRT). 16 adult basketball players (10 male, 6 female) with chronic ankle instability and mean age 21.50 ± 2.76 years old. Assessment of static postural control (15 seconds of unipedal stance test with eyes closed in a force platform), functional performance (figure 8 hop test and lateral hop test) and neuromuscular control (peroneus longus latency time in sudden inversion) in two conditions: Mulligan and Placebo. No significant effect was found for the intervantion factor in both hop tests (p>0.170), but there was a significant effect for the time factor (p<0.03). For the peroneus longus latency time, there was a significant interaction between factors (p=0.028) and also for time (p=0.042). No significant effect was found for any of the static postural control variables (area, speed and total displacement) (p≥0.10). There was no differences between Mulligan's fibular repositioning taping and Placebo taping in postural control and functional performance in basketball players with chronic ankle instability. However, Mulligan's taping appears to reduce peroneus longus latency time after a running when compared with a placebo taping.

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Narayana, Satya; Jayakumar, P; Sudhakar, Uma; Pramod, V

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of Department of Periodontics, Thaimoogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Thirty patients selected were grouped into two groups, Group-I consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and on statin medication and Group-II consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-1β using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean GCF IL-1β levels in generalized chronic periodontitis patients who are on statin medication (Group-I) were lower than the generalized chronic periodontitis patients without statin medication (Group-II). Reduction of GCF IL-1β levels in statin users indicate that statins have anti-inflammatory effect on periodontal disease.

  2. Effect of Tramadol/Acetaminophen on Motivation in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Tetsunaga, Tomonori; Tanaka, Masato; Nishida, Keiichiro; Takei, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The contribution of apathy, frequently recognized in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, to chronic low back pain (LBP) remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate levels of apathy and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic LBP treated with tramadol-acetaminophen. Methods. A retrospective case-control study involving 73 patients with chronic LBP (23 male, 50 female; mean age 71 years) treated with tramadol-acetaminophen (n = 36) and celecoxib (n = 37) was performed. All patients were assessed using the self-reported questionnaires. A mediation model was constructed using a bootstrapping method to evaluate the mediating effects of pain relief after treatment. Results. A total of 35 (55.6%) patients met the criteria for apathy. A four-week treatment regimen in the tramadol group conferred significant improvements in the Apathy scale and numerical rating scale but not in the Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Pain Disability Assessment Scale, or Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The depression component of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was lower in the tramadol group than in the celecoxib group. The mediation analysis found that the impact of tramadol-acetaminophen on the change in apathy was not mediated by the pain relief. Conclusions. Tramadol-acetaminophen was effective at reducing chronic LBP and conferred a prophylactic motivational effect in patients with chronic LBP.

  3. Evaluating the experiences and support needs of people living with chronic cancer: development and initial validation of the Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Kenyon, Lucille; Daffu-O'Reilly, Amrit; Velikova, Galina

    2016-08-10

    Many advanced cancers are managed as chronic diseases, yet there are currently no international guidelines for the support of patients living with chronic cancer. It is important to understand whether care and service arrangements meet the needs of this rapidly growing patient group. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to capture patients' experiences of living with chronic cancer and their views of clinical and support services. The research was carried out between 1 July 2010 and 21 February 2013. A conceptual framework and initial item bank were derived from prior interviews with 56 patients with chronic cancer. Items were reviewed by 4 oncologists and 1 clinical nurse specialist and during 2 focus groups with 9 patients. Pilot questionnaires were completed by 416 patients across 5 cancer units. Item selection and scale reliability was explored using descriptive data, exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency analyses, multitrait scaling analyses and known-groups comparisons. The final Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ) includes 75 items. 62 items contribute to 14 subscales with internal consistency between α 0·68-0·88 and minimal scaling errors. Known-groups comparisons confirmed subscale utility in distinguishing between patient groups. Subscales were labelled: managing appointments, coordination of care, general practitioner involvement, clinical trials, information and questions, making treatment decisions, symptom non-reporting, key worker, limitations, sustaining normality, financial advice, worries and anxieties, sharing feelings with others, and accessing support. 13 items assessing symptom experiences were retained as single items. The CCEQ has the potential to be used as a clinical instrument to assess patient experiences of chronic cancer or to screen for patient needs. It may also be used as an outcome measure for evaluating programmes and models of care and may identify areas for service development that

  4. The Chronic Otitis Media Benefit Inventory (COMBI): Development and Validation of a Dynamic Quality of Life Questionnaire for Chronic Ear Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John S; Haggard, Mark; Spencer, Helen; Yung, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a change-oriented short-form health-related quality of life questionnaire suited to symptoms of adult chronic middle ear disease and its consequences, and describes its properties. Two-centre prospective correlational study primarily for instrument development. Two otology secondary care centers in England. Fifty-two consecutive adult patients with active chronic otitis media undergoing surgery. The 12 items for the chronic otitis media benefit inventory (COMBI) were appraised chiefly for internal consistency of resulting score and for factor structure (exploratory factor analysis). The internal consistency of the COMBI was high within our cohort of patients, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.907. The three-factor solution from factor analysis explaining 73.6% of the variance was readily interpretable in terms of the intended item content: changes in hearing, ear symptoms, and daily activities plus healthcare uptake. The COMBI has suitable properties for the dynamic assessment of active chronic otitis media. Initial psychometric appraisal confirms its suitability for early adoption to acquire more comprehensive large-sample information with it and on it, for future refinement and application.

  5. Chronic hydrocephalus-induced changes in cerebral blood flow: mediation through cardiac effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephen M; Schenk, Soren; Leichliter, Anna; Leibson, Zack; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2006-10-01

    Decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hydrocephalus is believed to be related to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), vascular compression as the result of enlarged ventricles, or impaired metabolic activity. Little attention has been given to the relationship between cardiac function and systemic blood flow in chronic hydrocephalus (CH). Using an experimental model of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus developed in our laboratory, we investigated the relationship between the duration and severity of hydrocephalus and cardiac output (CO), CBF, myocardial tissue perfusion (MTP), and peripheral blood flow (PBF). Blood flow measures were obtained using the microsphere injection method under controlled hemodynamic conditions in experimental CH (n=23) and surgical control (n=8) canines at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Cardiac output measures were made using the Swan-Ganz thermodilution method. Intracranial compliance (ICC) via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bolus removal and infusion, and oxygen delivery in CSF and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were also investigated. We observed an initial surgical effect relating to 30% CO reduction and approximately 50% decrease in CBF, MTP, and PBF in both groups 2 weeks postoperatively, which recovered in control animals but continued to decline further in CH animals at 16 weeks. Cerebral blood flow, which was positively correlated with CO (P=0.028), showed no significant relationship with either CSF volume or pressure. Decreased CBF correlated with oxygen deprivation in PFC (P=0.006). Cardiac output was inversely related with ventriculomegaly (P=0.019), but did not correlate with ICP. Decreased CO corresponded to increased ICC, as measured by CSF infusion (P=0.04). Our results suggest that CH may have more of an influence on CO and CBF in the chronic stage than in the early condition, which was dominated by surgical effect. The cause of this late deterioration of cardiac function in hydrocephalus is uncertain, but may reflect

  6. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...

  7. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  8. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, A E; Coakley, E H; Must, A; Spadano, J L; Laird, N; Dietz, W H; Rimm, E; Colditz, G A

    2001-07-09

    Overweight adults are at an increased risk of developing numerous chronic diseases. Ten-year follow-up (1986-1996) of middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study and men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to assess the health risks associated with overweight. The risk of developing diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke increased with severity of overweight among both women and men. Compared with their same-sex peers with a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) between 18.5 and 24.9, those with BMI of 35.0 or more were approximately 20 times more likely to develop diabetes (relative risk [RR], 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.2-20.5 for women; RR, 23.4; 95% CI, 19.4-33.2 for men). Women who were overweight but not obese (ie, BMI between 25.0 and 29.9) were also significantly more likely than their leaner peers to develop gallstones (RR, 1.9), hypertension (RR, 1.7), high cholesterol level (RR, 1.1), and heart disease (RR, 1.4). The results were similar in men. During 10 years of follow-up, the incidence of diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, heart disease, colon cancer, and stroke (men only) increased with degree of overweight in both men and women. Adults who were overweight but not obese (ie, 25.0 conditions. Moreover, the dose-response relationship between BMI and the risk of developing chronic diseases was evident even among adults in the upper half of the healthy weight range (ie, BMI of 22.0-24.9), suggesting that adults should try to maintain a BMI between 18.5 and 21.9 to minimize their risk of disease.

  9. ProFUSO: Business process and ontology-based framework to develop ubiquitous computing support systems for chronic patients' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Molina, Angel; Gaete-Villegas, Jorge; Fuentes, Javier

    2018-06-01

    New advances in telemedicine, ubiquitous computing, and artificial intelligence have supported the emergence of more advanced applications and support systems for chronic patients. This trend addresses the important problem of chronic illnesses, highlighted by multiple international organizations as a core issue in future healthcare. Despite the myriad of exciting new developments, each application and system is designed and implemented for specific purposes and lacks the flexibility to support different healthcare concerns. Some of the known problems of such developments are the integration issues between applications and existing healthcare systems, the reusability of technical knowledge in the creation of new and more sophisticated systems and the usage of data gathered from multiple sources in the generation of new knowledge. This paper proposes a framework for the development of chronic disease support systems and applications as an answer to these shortcomings. Through this framework our pursuit is to create a common ground methodology upon which new developments can be created and easily integrated to provide better support to chronic patients, medical staff and other relevant participants. General requirements are inferred for any support system from the primary attention process of chronic patients by the Business Process Management Notation. Numerous technical approaches are proposed to design a general architecture that considers the medical organizational requirements in the treatment of a patient. A framework is presented for any application in support of chronic patients and evaluated by a case study to test the applicability and pertinence of the solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pain chronification and chronic pain on an endogenous pain modulation circuit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Lamana, S M S; Dias, E V; Athie, M; Parada, C A; Tambeli, C H

    2015-02-12

    We tested the hypothesis that chronic pain development (pain chronification) and ongoing chronic pain (chronic pain) reduce the activity and induce plastic changes in an endogenous analgesia circuit, the ascending nociceptive control. An important mechanism mediating this form of endogenous analgesia, referred to as capsaicin-induced analgesia, is its dependence on nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms. Therefore, we also investigated whether pain chronification and chronic pain alter the requirement for nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms in capsaicin-induced analgesia. We used an animal model of pain chronification in which daily subcutaneous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) injections into the rat's hind paw for 14 days, referred to as the induction period of persistent hyperalgesia, induce a long-lasting state of nociceptor sensitization referred to as the maintenance period of persistent hyperalgesia, that lasts for at least 30 days following the cessation of the PGE2 treatment. The nociceptor hypersensitivity was measured by the shortening of the time interval for the animal to respond to a mechanical stimulation of the hind paw. We found a significant reduction in the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia during the induction and maintenance period of persistent mechanical hyperalgesia. Intra-accumbens injection of the μ-opioid receptor selective antagonist Cys(2),Tyr(3),Orn(5),Pen(7)amide (CTOP) 10 min before the subcutaneous injection of capsaicin into the rat's fore paw blocked capsaicin-induced analgesia. Taken together, these findings indicate that pain chronification and chronic pain reduce the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia, without affecting its dependence on nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptor mechanisms. The attenuation of endogenous analgesia during pain chronification and chronic pain suggests that endogenous pain circuits play an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO

  11. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Václavů, Lena; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Reneman, Liesbeth; Lucassen, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  12. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  13. Effects of chronic stress on the brain – the evidence from morphological examinations of hippocampus in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sekita-Krzak

    2016-12-01

        Abstract Background. Chronic stress exposure deteriorates memory and increases the risk of psychiatric disorders, including depression. Objectives. The objective of this study was to perform morphological studies in experimental model of neuropsychiatric disorder and to assess histologically the effect of chronic unpredictable stress procedure (CUS influence on hippocampus. Material and methods. Chronic unpredictable stress procedure (CUS was applied for 8 weeks in rats by the modified method described by Katz et al. Experimental model of neuropsychiatric disorder was used based on morphological studies of hippocampal formation. Results. Stress-induced alterations were observed in the hippocampus. Nerve cell changes included  neuron shrinkage and dendritic remodeling. The most vulnerable hippocampal cells to chronic stress were CA3 and CA4 pyramidal neurons. In dentate gyrus chronic stress led to granule neuron shrinkage and slight exacerbation of apoptosis in the polygonal cell layer. CUS led to statistically significant changes in quantitative characteristics of the CA3 and CA4 neuron size and nuclei diameter. Conclusions. Chronic stress induces degeneration of hippocampal neurons. The observed neuronal changes indicate the damage of the neurons did not involve neither apoptosis nor necrosis Similarity between histological changes obtained in 8-week long CUS procedure applied in our research and morphological changes described in depressed patients confirms the usefulness of the applied stress procedure as the experimental model of depression.   Key words: stress, depression, hippocampus, chronic unpredictable stress procedure (CUS, animal model, morphology.

  14. Development of a clinical spasticity scale for evaluation of dogs with chronic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa J; Olby, Natasha J

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a spasticity scale for dogs with chronic deficits following severe spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in clinical assessment and outcome measurement in clinical trials. ANIMALS 20 chronically paralyzed dogs with a persistent lack of hind limb pain perception caused by an acute SCI at least 3 months previously. PROCEDURES Spasticity was assessed in both hind limbs via tests of muscle tone, clonus, and flexor and extensor spasms adapted from human scales. Measurement of patellar clonus duration and flexor spasm duration and degree was feasible. These components were used to create a canine spasticity scale (CSS; overall score range, 0 to 18). Temporal variation for individual dogs and interrater reliability were evaluated. Gait was quantified with published gait scales, and CSS scores were compared with gait scores and clinical variables. Owners were questioned regarding spasticity observed at home. RESULTS 20 dogs were enrolled: 18 with no apparent hind limb pain perception and 2 with blunted responses; 5 were ambulatory. Testing was well tolerated, and scores were repeatable between raters. Median overall CSS score was 7 (range, 3 to 11), and flexor spasms were the most prominent finding. Overall CSS score was not associated with age, SCI duration, lesion location, or owner-reported spasticity. Overall CSS score and flexor spasm duration were associated with gait scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The CSS could be used to quantify hind limb spasticity in dogs with chronic thoracolumbar SCI and might be a useful outcome measure. Flexor spasms may represent an integral part of stepping in dogs with severe SCI.

  15. LTF and DEFB1 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility toward chronic periodontitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupin, L; Robino, A; Navarra, C O; Pirastu, N; Di Lenarda, R; Gasparini, P; Crovella, S; Bevilacqua, L

    2017-10-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a common pathological condition that affects the supporting tissue of the teeth, leading to progressive alveolar bone destruction and teeth loss. The disease is caused by bacteria and derives from an altered host immune and inflammatory response, also involving different factors such as the oral hygiene, smoking, and genetic background. The innate immune response, the first line of host defense, could also play an important role in the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. In this study, we evaluated the possible association between periodontal disease and seven genetic variations within DEFB1 and LTF genes, encoding for β-defensins 1 and lactoferrin (two members of oral innate immune system), in an Italian isolated population. DEFB1 5'UTR g. -52G>A (rs1799946), g. -44C>G (rs1800972), g. -20G>A (rs11362), 3'UTR c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), LTF p.Ala29Thr (rs1126477), and p.Lys47Arg (rs1126478) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in 155 healthy individuals and 439 chronic periodontitis patients from North-East Italy. Significant associations were found between periodontitis and g. -20G>A (rs11362) and g. -44C>G (rs1800972) SNPs in DEFB1 gene as well as p.Ala29Thr (rs1126477) and p.Lys47Arg (rs1126478) SNPs in LTF gene. Our results suggest the involvement of DEFB1 and LTF genetic variations in the susceptibility toward development of periodontitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of chronic administration of drugs of abuse on impulsive choice (delay discounting) in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Barry; Mendez, Ian A; Mitchell, Marci R; Simon, Nicholas W

    2009-09-01

    Drug-addicted individuals show high levels of impulsive choice, characterized by preference for small immediate over larger but delayed rewards. Although the causal relationship between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice in humans has been unclear, a small but growing body of literature over the past decade has shown that chronic drug administration in animal models can cause increases in impulsive choice, suggesting that a similar causal relationship may exist in human drug users. This article reviews this literature, with a particular focus on the effects of chronic cocaine administration, which have been most thoroughly characterized. The potential mechanisms of these effects are described in terms of drug-induced neural alterations in ventral striatal and prefrontal cortical brain systems. Some implications of this research for pharmacological treatment of drug-induced increases in impulsive choice are discussed, along with suggestions for future research in this area.

  18. Using intervention mapping (IM to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerkens Yvonne F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic somatic disease cope with these problems at work. The objective of this article is to present the systematic development and content of this programme. Methods The method of intervention mapping (Bartholomew 2006 was used to tailor the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. This paper describes the process of adjusting the CDSMP for this target group. A needs assessment has been carried out by a literature review and qualitative focus groups with employees with a chronic disease and involved health professionals. On the basis of the needs assessment, the relevant determinants of self-management behaviour at work have been identified for the target population and the objectives of the training have been formulated. Furthermore, techniques have been chosen to influence self-management and the determinants of behaviour and a programme plan has been developed. Results The intervention was designed to address general personal factors such as lifestyle, disease-related factors (for example coping with the disease and work-related personal factors (such as self-efficacy at work. The course consists of six sessions of each two and a half hour and intents to increase the self management and empowerment of employees with a chronic somatic disease. Conclusion Intervention mapping has been found to be a useful tool for tailoring in a systematic way the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. It might be valuable to use IM for the development or adjusting of interventions in occupational health care.

  19. Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoros, Joannis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios; Skondras, Markos D; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings. A total of 33.3% (n = 16) of the total examined cannabis users were currently imprisoned. The years of abuse ranged from 1 to 35 years and the median daily dose was 5.84.4 gr and 4.84.0 gr for prisoners (n = 16) and non prisoners (n = 32), respectively. A total of 39.6% of the users experienced hallucinations (mostly auditory), 54.2% experienced delusions (mostly ideas of reference and persecution), 85.4% had organic brain dysfunction in a test addressing visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills, and all users (100%) were found to have organic brain dysfunction in a test of visual memory immediate recall. The cannabinoid metabolite levels in the hair samples were consistent with the reported history of substance abuse and total grams of consumption for the participants below 35 years old (p cannabis users seems to be associated with cannabinoid levels in hair. The continuation of persistent symptoms 3 months after the discontinuation of cannabis abuse, was a remarkable finding. We provide evidence that chronic and heavy cannabis abuse results in long-lasting brain dysfunction in all users and in long-lasting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in more than half of all users. These findings suggest a reevaluation of the current classification of cannabis as a "soft narcotic" which erroneously, therefore, is typically considered harmless. (Am J Addict 2017;26:335-342). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Curanderismo on Chronic Non-malignant Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Gonzales, Erin; Corbin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the effects of the use of curanderismo, an indigenous healing modality combining techniques in massage, sound, and aromatherapy, on a patient with chronic pain. Despite being a commonly used health practice in certain populations, little is reported in the medical literature about the use of curanderismo. Case report as part of a larger randomized trial of curanderismo for chronic pain. Setting was a community-based hospital affiliated primary care clinic. An adult patient with chronic, opioid dependent back pain following an injury, and subsequent spinal fusion was treated. Intervention was the patient received 33 curanderismo treatment sessions over 10 months in addition to ongoing conventional treatment at a community-based chronic pain management clinic. Main outcomes measures were self-reported assessments of pain, functional ability, mood, insomnia, and narcotic usage. Secondary outcome measure was qualitative interview. Although there was no change in quantitative self-reported pain measures, the patient reported improved function, mood, and sleep as well as decreased narcotic usage. Curanderismo, in addition to conventional pain management, improved patient reported symptoms and functional ability, led to healthy lifestyle changes, and decreased narcotic usage. Controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefit of curanderismo as safe, non-interventional, and cost-effective adjunct for chronic pain management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Personalized prediction of chronic wound healing: an exponential mixed effects model using stereophotogrammetric measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Sun, Jiayang; Carter, Rebecca R; Bogie, Kath M

    2014-05-01

    Stereophotogrammetric digital imaging enables rapid and accurate detailed 3D wound monitoring. This rich data source was used to develop a statistically validated model to provide personalized predictive healing information for chronic wounds. 147 valid wound images were obtained from a sample of 13 category III/IV pressure ulcers from 10 individuals with spinal cord injury. Statistical comparison of several models indicated the best fit for the clinical data was a personalized mixed-effects exponential model (pMEE), with initial wound size and time as predictors and observed wound size as the response variable. Random effects capture personalized differences. Other models are only valid when wound size constantly decreases. This is often not achieved for clinical wounds. Our model accommodates this reality. Two criteria to determine effective healing time outcomes are proposed: r-fold wound size reduction time, t(r-fold), is defined as the time when wound size reduces to 1/r of initial size. t(δ) is defined as the time when the rate of the wound healing/size change reduces to a predetermined threshold δ current model improves with each additional evaluation. Routine assessment of wounds using detailed stereophotogrammetric imaging can provide personalized predictions of wound healing time. Application of a valid model will help the clinical team to determine wound management care pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of intrathecal lidocaine on hyperalgesia and allodynia following chronic constriction injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Gu, Yiwen; Su, Diansan; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Xiangrui

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different doses of intrathecal lidocaine on established thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, defined the effective drug dose range, the duration of pain-relief effects, and the influence of this treatment on the body and tissues. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and received intrathecal saline or lidocaine (2, 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg) 7 days after loose sciatic ligation. Respiratory depression and hemodynamic instability were found to become more severe as doses of lidocaine increased during intrathecal therapy. Two animals in the group receiving 35 mg/kg lidocaine developed pulmonary oedema and died. Behavioral tests indicated that 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg intrathecal lidocaine showed different degrees of reversal of thermal hyperalgesia, and lasted for 2-8 days, while 2 mg/kg lidocaine did not. The inhibition of tactile allodynia was only observed in rats receiving 15 and 35 mg/kg lidocaine, and the anti-allodynic effects were identical in these two groups. Histopathologic examinations on the spinal cords revealed mild changes in rats receiving 2-15 mg/kg lidocaine. However, lesions were severe after administration of 35 mg/kg lidocaine. These findings indicate that intrathecal lidocaine has prolonged therapeutic effects on established neuropathic pain. The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities could be well preserved in most cases, except for 35 mg/kg. Considering the ratio between useful effects and side effects, doses of 15 mg/kg are suitable for intrathecal injection for relief of neuropathic pain.

  4. HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility gene KIF1B is not associated with development of chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhong

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study has identified a new susceptibility locus, kinesin family member 1B gene (KIF1B, strongly associated with progression from chronic hepatitis B (CHB to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Chinese population, this study was carried out to explore the role of the genetic variants in KIF1B in the development of chronic hepatitis B.Three KIF1B polymorphisms (rs8019, rs17401924, and rs17401966 were selected and genotyped in 473 CHB patients and 580 controls with no history of CHB. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by logistic regression model. None of these three SNPs showed association with CHBs after adjusting for age and gender. Equivalence-based method analysis confirmed the absence of association. In the further haplotype analysis, three common haplotypes were observed in this study population, but no significant effect was also found for haplotypes in the progression to CHB.This study showed the new locus identified for HCC, KIF1B, was not associated with progression to CHB, implying distinct genetic susceptibility factor contributes to the progression from hepatitis B virus infection to HCC. Nevertheless, further comprehensive analyses are warranted to dissect the mechanism.

  5. Antifungal Effects of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated Fluconazole against Fluconazole Resistant Strains of Candida albicans Isolated From Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Memarian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of women with volvuvaginal candidiasis suffer from certain chronic and recurrent types of this infection that affect their quality of life. Meanwhile, increased use of antifungal drugs, especially azoles, for treatment of chronic candidiasis is an important factor for incidence of drug resistance in Candida isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole to develop better drugs for treatment of patients with candidal vaginitis, especially its chronic type. Methods: After collection of 300 vaginal swab specimens and culture and isolation of primary colonies and determination of Candida species, fluconazole resistant strains of Candida albicans were detected using disc diffusion. Finally, antifungal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole and fluconazole were compared by broth microdilution. Results: Only one fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans was isolated from patients (MIC=64µg/ml. The results obtained from drug susceptibility test showed that this strain was sensitive to gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole (MIC=2µg/ml. Conclusion: Given the optimal anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole on resistant strains of C. albicans, a suitable compound with great anticandidal properties may be achieved in the future.

  6. Chronic stress effects on hippocampal structure and synaptic function: relevance for depression and normalization by anti-glucocorticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen J Krugers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of an organism to environmental challenges activates two hormonal systems that help the organism to adapt. As part of this adaptational process, brain processes are changed such that appropriate behavioral strategies are selected that allow optimal performance at the short term, while relevant information is stored for the future. Over the past years it has become evident that chronic uncontrollable and unpredictable stress also exerts profound effects on structure and function of limbic neurons, but the impact of chronic stress is not a mere accumulation of repeated episodes of acute stress exposure. Dendritic trees are reduced in some regions but expanded in others, and cells are generally exposed to a higher calcium load upon depolarization. Synaptic strengthening is largely impaired. Neurotransmitter responses are also changed, e.g. responses to serotonin. We here discuss: a the main cellular effects after chronic stress with emphasis on the hippocampus, b how such effects could contribute to the development of psychopathology in genetically vulnerable individuals, and c their normalization by brief treatment with anti-glucocorticoids.

  7. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  8. Using Mobile Health to Support the Chronic Care Model: Developing an Institutional Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Nundy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-management support and team-based care are essential elements of the Chronic Care Model but are often limited by staff availability and reimbursement. Mobile phones are a promising platform for improving chronic care but there are few examples of successful health system implementation. Program Development. An iterative process of program design was built upon a pilot study and engaged multiple institutional stakeholders. Patients identified having a “human face” to the pilot program as essential. Stakeholders recognized the need to integrate the program with primary and specialty care but voiced concerns about competing demands on clinician time. Program Description. Nurse administrators at a university-affiliated health plan use automated text messaging to provide personalized self-management support for member patients with diabetes and facilitate care coordination with the primary care team. For example, when a patient texts a request to meet with a dietitian, a nurse-administrator coordinates with the primary care team to provide a referral. Conclusion. Our innovative program enables the existing health system to support a de novo care management program by leveraging mobile technology. The program supports self-management and team-based care in a way that we believe engages patients yet meets the limited availability of providers and needs of health plan administrators.

  9. A New Mouse Model That Spontaneously Develops Chronic Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.

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    Nina Fransén-Pettersson

    Full Text Available Here we characterize a new animal model that spontaneously develops chronic inflammation and fibrosis in multiple organs, the non-obese diabetic inflammation and fibrosis (N-IF mouse. In the liver, the N-IF mouse displays inflammation and fibrosis particularly evident around portal tracts and central veins and accompanied with evidence of abnormal intrahepatic bile ducts. The extensive cellular infiltration consists mainly of macrophages, granulocytes, particularly eosinophils, and mast cells. This inflammatory syndrome is mediated by a transgenic population of natural killer T cells (NKT induced in an immunodeficient NOD genetic background. The disease is transferrable to immunodeficient recipients, while polyclonal T cells from unaffected syngeneic donors can inhibit the disease phenotype. Because of the fibrotic component, early on-set, spontaneous nature and reproducibility, this novel mouse model provides a unique tool to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms mediating transformation of chronic inflammation into fibrosis and to evaluate intervention protocols for treating conditions of fibrotic disorders.

  10. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the “point of no return” and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions. PMID:24833876

  11. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.

  12. Effects of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases on left ventricular structure and function: a study protocol

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    Botti Fiorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences suggest an increased collagen deposition in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In particular, large amounts of collagen type I, III and V have been described and correlated to the development of intestinal fibrotic lesions. No information has been available until now about the possible increased collagen deposition far from the main target organ. In the hypothesis that chronic inflammation and increased collagen metabolism are reflected also in the systemic circulation, we aimed this study to evaluate the effects on left ventricular wall structure by assessing splancnic and systemic collagen metabolism (procollagen III assay, deposition (ultrasonic tissue characterization, and cardiac function (echocardiography in patients with different long standing history of IBD, before and after surgery. Methods Thirty patients affected by active IBD, 15 with Crohn and 15 with Ulcerative Colitis, submitted to surgery will be enrolled in the study in a double blind fashion. They will be studied before the surgical operation and 6, 12 months after surgery. A control group of 15 healthy age and gender-matched subjects will also be studied. At each interval blood samples will be collected in order to assess the collagen metabolism; a transthoracic echocardiogram will be recorded for the subsequent determination of cardiac function and collagen deposition. Discussion From this study protocol we expect additional information about the association between IBD and cardiovascular disorders; in particular to address the question if chronic inflammation, through the altered collagen metabolism, could affect left ventricular structure and function in a manner directly related to the estimated duration of the disease.

  13. Resistance of the peripheral nervous system to the effects of chronic canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, J H

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been implicated in the development of multiple peripheral mono- and polyneuropathies in dogs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiologic effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on the peripheral nervous system of dogs. Chronic hypothyroidism will induce peripheral nerve sensorimotor dysfunction. Eighteen purpose-bred, female dogs. Prospective, longitudinal study: Hypothyroidism was induced by radioactive iodine administration in 9 dogs, and the remaining 9 served as untreated controls. Neurological examinations were performed monthly. Electrophysiologic testing consisting of electromyography (EMG); motor nerve conduction studies of the sciatic-tibial, radial, ulnar, and recurrent laryngeal nerves; sciatic-tibial and ulnar F-wave studies; sensory nerve conduction studies of the tibial, ulnar, and radial nerves; and evaluation of blink reflex and facial responses were performed before and 6, 12, and 18 months after induction of hypothyroidism and compared with controls. Clinical evidence of peripheral nervous dysfunction did not occur in any dog. At 6 month and subsequent evaluations, all hypothyroid dogs had EMG and histologic evidence of hypothyroid myopathy. Hypothyroid dogs had significant (Pmuscle action potentials over time, which were attributed to the concurrent myopathy. No significant differences between control and hypothyroid dogs were detected in electrophysiologic tests of motor (P>or=.1) or sensory nerve conduction velocity (P>or=.24) or nerve roots (P>or=.16) throughout the study period, with values remaining within reference ranges in all dogs. Chronic hypothyroidism induced by thyroid irradiation does not result in clinical or electrophysiologic evidence of peripheral neuropathy, but does cause subclinical myopathy.

  14. Chronic stress effects and their reversibility on the Fallopian tubes and uterus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashree, S; Yajurvedi, H N

    2018-01-01

    The durational effects of chronic stress on the Fallopian tubes and uterus were studied by exposing rats to stressors in the form of restraint (1h) and forced swimming (15min) daily for 4, 8 or 12 weeks. One group of stressed rats from each time period was then maintained without exposure to stressors for a further 4 weeks to assess their ability to recover from stress. All time periods of stress exposure resulted in decreased weight of the body and Fallopian tubes; however, the relative weight of the uterus and serum concentrations of oestradiol and insulin increased significantly. The antioxidant potential was decreased with increased malondialdehyde concentrations in the Fallopian tubes following all durations of exposure and after 4 and 8 weeks of stress exposure in the uterus. Interestingly, rats stressed for 12 weeks showed an increase in serum testosterone concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities with a decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in the uterus. The antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde concentration in the Fallopian tubes of all recovery group rats were similar to stressed rats. However, in the uterus these parameters were similar to controls in recovery group rats after 4 weeks or 8 weeks of exposure, but after 12 weeks of stress exposure these parameters did not return to control levels following the recovery period. These results reveal, for the first time, that chronic stress elicits an irreversible decrease in antioxidant defence in the Fallopian tubes irrespective of exposure duration, whereas the uterus develops reversible oxidative stress under short-term exposure but increased antioxidant potential with endometrial proliferation following long-term exposure.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... been shown to have negative effects on amphibian deve- lopment. ... (1933). The results were expressed as a percentage of the wet weight of tissue. .... life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala). Arch.

  16. Chronic allopurinol treatment during the last trimester of pregnancy in sows: effects on low and normal birth weight offspring.

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    Elise T Gieling

    Full Text Available Low-birth-weight (LBW children are born with several risk factors for disease, morbidity and neonatal mortality, even if carried to term. Placental insufficiency leading to hypoxemia and reduced nutritional supply is the main cause for LBW. Brain damage and poor neurological outcome can be the consequence. LBW after being carried to term gives better chances for survival, but these children are still at risk for poor health and the development of cognitive impairments. Preventive therapies are not yet available. We studied the risk/efficacy of chronic prenatal treatment with the anti-oxidative drug allopurinol, as putative preventive treatment in piglets. LBW piglets served as a natural model for LBW. A cognitive holeboard test was applied to study the learning and memory abilities of these allopurinol treated piglets after weaning. Preliminary analysis of the plasma concentrations in sows and their piglets suggested that a daily dose of 15 mg.kg(-1 resulted in effective plasma concentration of allopurinol in piglets. No adverse effects of chronic allopurinol treatment were found on farrowing, birth weight, open field behavior, learning abilities, relative brain, hippocampus and spleen weights. LBW piglets showed increased anxiety levels in an open field test, but cognitive performance was not affected by allopurinol treatment. LBW animals treated with allopurinol showed the largest postnatal compensatory body weight gain. In contrast to a previous study, no differences in learning abilities were found between LBW and normal-birth-weight piglets. This discrepancy might be attributable to experimental differences. Our results indicate that chronic prenatal allopurinol treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy is safe, as no adverse side effects were observed. Compensatory weight gain of treated piglets is a positive indication for the chronic prenatal use of allopurinol in these animals. Further studies are needed to assess the possible

  17. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klomp, A.; Václavů, L.; Meerhoff, G.F.; Reneman, L.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal developm...

  18. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  19. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittiez, A J; Wenting, G J; van den Meiracker, A H; Ritsema van Eck, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Zantvoort, F A; Schalekamp, M A

    1986-02-01

    Ketanserin, an antagonist highly selective for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 2 (S2) receptors, was given as monotherapy in a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. to 24 subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its effects were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. The effect on blood pressure in 18 subjects was monitored by 24-hour ambulatory intra-arterial measurements. Systolic and diastolic intra-arterial pressures were significantly lowered by ketanserin both during the day and at night, whereas heart rate was unchanged. Cuff pressure readings (triplicate measurements) with the London School of Hygiene sphygmomanometer and an automatic device (12 measurements in 1 hour) in the outpatient clinic also showed a significant effect on both supine and standing pressures. No postural hypotension was noted. Ketanserin had no effect on endogenous creatinine clearance, serum cholesterol levels, and the plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone. The only side effect that was significantly more common with ketanserin than with placebo treatment was an increase in body weight. Ketanserin may have a place in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

  20. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Erlacher

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  1. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  2. Cost-effectiveness of a graded exercise therapy program for patients with chronic shoulder complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, J.J.; Goossens, M.E.J.B.; Bruijn, C.P. de; Groot, I.J.M. de; Koke, A.J.; Pelt, R.A.; Heijden, G. van der; Dinant, G.J.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a behavioral graded exercise therapy (GET) program compared with usual care (UC) in terms of the performance of daily activities by patients with chronic shoulder complaints in primary care. METHODS: A total of 176 patients were

  3. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  4. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study ...

  5. Effect of chronic exercise on appetite control in overweight and obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia Vanessa Garcia; Kulseng, Bard; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2013-01-01

    in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on 1) fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of obestatin, CCK, leptin, and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and 2) the accuracy of energy compensation in response to covert preload manipulation....

  6. Ocular effects of chronic exposure to welding light on calabar welders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was generally observed that welders in Calabar, Nigeria did not always wear their protective goggles during welding. Since chronic exposure to welding light can impair vision this study was done to assess the effect of exposure to welding light on ocular function of welders in Calabar, Nigeria. There were 195 subjects ...

  7. Effectiveness of Stepped Care for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Marcia; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this randomized noninferiority study, the effectiveness and efficiency of stepped care for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was compared to care as usual. Stepped care was formed by guided self-instruction, followed by cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) if the patient desired it. Care as usual encompassed CBT after a waiting period.…

  8. Effect of liraglutide on myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in stable chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Roni; Jorsal, Anders; Iversen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide increases heart rate and may be associated with more cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We studied whether this could be ascribed to effects on myocardial glucose uptake (MGU), myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF rese...

  9. Effects of a comprehensive self-management programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Herwaarden, C.L.A. van; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a comprehensive self-management intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms and walking distance in patients with stable moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was part of the overall COPD

  10. Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 µg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints ...

  11. Effect of Acute and Chronic Treatment of the 80% Ethanolic Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment of the 80% ethanolic extract of dried fruits of E. schimperi in rats. The fruits of the plant were collected from Bahir Dar area, north-western Ethiopia; dried, crushed into powder and percolated in 80% ethanol. The percolate was concentrated in a vacuum ...

  12. The effect of acupressure on fatigue among female nurses with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Maryam; Ghafari, Somayeh; Nazari, Fateme; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of acupressure on fatigue among female nurses with chronic back pain. Chronic back pain is one of the most common problems among nurses and has numerous physical and psychological effects. One of these effects is fatigue that impairs an individual's life. This randomized single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 50 nurses with chronic back pain working at the selected hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. After convenient sampling, the subjects were randomly allocated, through lottery, to the two groups of experimental (n=25) and sham (n=25). In the experimental group, acupressure techniques were performed during 9 sessions, 3 times a week for 14min for each patient. In the sham group, points within 1cm of the main points were only touched. Data were collected using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), before, and immediately, 2weeks, and 4weeks after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. The mean score of fatigue severity before the intervention was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.990). However, it was significantly lower in the experimental group than the sham group immediately (Pfatigue. Therefore, acupressure can be used as a drug-free and low-cost approach without side effects to improve fatigue in nurses with chronic back pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of diagnosis with a chronic disease on physical activity behavior in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, Manon L.; Krijnen, Wim P.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Peeters, Geeske G. M. E. E.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Brown, Wendy J.

    Objective. Although regular physical activity is an effective secondary prevention strategy for patients with a chronic disease, it is unclear whether patients change their daily physical activity after being diagnosed. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) describe changes in levels of

  14. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  15. Effects of pregabalin on central sensitization in patients with chronic pancreatitis in a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Drewes, A.M.; Poley, J.W.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intense abdominal pain is the dominant feature of chronic pancreatitis. During the disease changes in central pain processing, e.g. central sensitization manifest as spreading hyperalgesia, can result from ongoing nociceptive input. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect

  16. Broad-Spectrum Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Alcoholics: Effects of Training Controlled Drinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, David W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed unique treatment effects of training controlled drinking skills in a chronic alcoholic population of veterans (N=62). Results of a six-month posttreatment follow-up revealed that subjects in the drinking skills condition had significantly fewer abstinent days and more abusive drinking days than subjects in the untrained condition. (LLL)

  17. Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, I. M.; Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; Hop, W. C.; de Jong, M. C.; Lilien, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Wijk, A. E.; Pols, H. A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three

  18. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  19. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Riediger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAntidepressants are widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. Applied doses are lower than those needed to unfold an antidepressive effect. While efficacy of antidepressants for chronic pain has been reported in large randomized-controlled trials (RCT, there is inconsistent data on adverse effects and tolerability. We aimed at synthesizing data from RCT to explore adverse effect profiles and tolerability of antidepressants for treatment of chronic pain.MethodsSystematic literature research and meta-analyses were performed regarding side effects and safety of different antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The National Center for Biotechnology Information library and MEDLINE were searched. Randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in quantitative data synthesis.ResultsOut of 1,975 screened articles, 33 papers published between 1995 and 2015 were included in our review and 23 studies were included in the meta-analyses. A higher risk for adverse effects compared to placebo was observed in all antidepressants included in our analyses, except nortriptyline. The most prevalent adverse effects were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation. Amitriptyline, mirtazapine, desipramine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and nortriptyline showed the highest placebo effect-adjusted risk of adverse effects. Risk for withdrawal due to adverse effects was highest in desipramine (risk ratio: 4.09, 95%-confidence interval [1.31; 12.82] followed by milnacipran, venlafaxine, and duloxetine. The most common adverse effects under treatment with antidepressants were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation followed by palpitations, sweating, and drowsiness. However, overall tolerability was high. Each antidepressant showed distinct risk profiles of adverse effects.ConclusionOur synthesized data analysis confirmed overall

  20. Disease-management partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in delivering chronic-illness care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-06-01

    This study explored associations among disease-management partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in the delivery of chronic-illness care. This study had a cross-sectional design. The study sample consists of 218 professionals (out of 393) participating in 22 disease-management partnerships in various regions of the Netherlands. We assessed the relationships among partnership functioning, synergy and effectiveness in the delivery of chronic-illness care. Partnership functioning was assessed through leadership, resources, administration and efficiency. Synergy was considered the proximal outcome of partnership functioning, which, in turn, influenced the effectiveness of disease-management partnerships [measured with the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) survey instrument]. Overall ACIC scores ranged from 3 to 10, indicating basic/intermediate to optimal/comprehensive delivery of chronic-illness care. The results of the regression analysis demonstrate that partnership effectiveness was positively associated with leadership (β = 0.25; P≤ 0.01), and resources (β = 0.31; P≤ 0.001). No significant relationship was found between administration, efficiency and partnership effectiveness. Partnership synergy acted as a mediator for partnership functioning and was statistically significantly associated with partnership effectiveness (β = 0.25; P≤ 0.001). Disease-management partnerships seemed better able to deliver higher levels of chronic-illness care when synergy is created between partners. Synergy was more likely to emerge with boundary-spanning leaders who understood and appreciated partners' different perspectives, could bridge their diverse cultures and were comfortable sharing ideas, resources and power. In addition, the acknowledgement of and ability to use members' resources are valuable in engaging partners' involvement and achieving synergy in disease-management partnerships.

  1. Acute and chronic ethanol intake: effects on spatial and non-spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Luis M; Cimadevilla, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    Abusive alcohol consumption produces neuronal damage and biochemical alterations in the mammal brain followed by cognitive disturbances. In this work rats receiving chronic and acute alcohol intake were evaluated in a spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample/position test. Chronic alcohol-treated rats had free access to an aqueous ethanol solution as the only available liquid source from the postnatal day 21 to the end of experiment (postnatal day 90). Acute alcoholic animals received an injection of 2 g/kg ethanol solution once per week. Subjects were evaluated in two tests (object recognition and spatial recognition) based on the spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample or to position paradigm using delays of 1 min, 15 min and 60 min. Results showed that chronic and acute alcohol intake impairs the rats' performance in both tests. Moreover, chronic alcohol-treated rats were more altered than acute treated animals in both tasks. Our results support the idea that chronic and acute alcohol administration during postnatal development caused widespread brain damage resulting in behavioral disturbances and learning disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Dual Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Aphasia in Chronic Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Cheon, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Kyoung Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate any additional effect of dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) compared with single tDCS in chronic stroke patients with aphasia. Methods Eleven chronic stroke patients (aged 52.6?13.4 years, nine men) with aphasia were enrolled. Single anodal tDCS was applied over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and a cathodal electrode was placed over the left buccinator muscle. Dual tDCS was applied as follows: 1) anodal tDCS over the left IFG and cathodal tDCS ...

  3. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal......: neck, shoulder, lower and upper back, elbow, and hand at 10 week follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was stress assessed by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire. In addition, an explorative dose-response analysis was performed on the adherence to PCMT with pain and stress, respectively......, as outcome measures. RESULTS: A significant (P stress was observed (treatment by time P = 0.16). Exploratory analyses for each body...

  4. Chronic subdural hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  5. [The role of oxidative metabolism disturbance in the development of NO-related endothelial dysfunction during chronic hearth failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goishvili, N; Kakauridze, N; Sanikidze, T

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the work was to establish the oxidative metabolism changes and NO data in Chronic Hearth Failure (HF). 52 patients were included in the investigation, among them 37 patients with CHD and chronic HF (II-IV functional class by NIHA) and 17 without it (control group). For revealing of organism redox-status (ceruloplasmine, Fe3+-transfferine, Mn2+, methemoglobine) the blood paramagnetic centers was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance method. For revealing of blood free NO, the diethyldithiocarbamat (SIGMA) was used. In chronic HF the oxidative process intensification and organism compensate reaction reduction with low Fe3+-transferine levels, increased Mn2++, methaemoglobin and inactivation of erythrocytes membranes adrenergic receptors were revealed. In chronic HF the accumulation of reactive oxygen levels provoke NO transformation in peroxynitrote with following decreases of blood free NO and develop the endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Under-Nutrition on Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashem, Beatrice; Janes, Margaret D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of malnutrition on children's cognitive abilities, the McCarthy Scale of Abilities was administered to 118 Nigerian children between the ages of 2 1/2 and 6 years who came from "well-to-do" urban and "poor" urban and rural environments. Scores of malnourished children were lower than those of…

  7. Effect of Chronic Dietary Copper Exposure on Haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ... of common carp and establish a threshold for dietary copper toxicity in the ... temperature 27.4 ± 0.420C and left unfed in the first 2 .... dependent effects of dietary copper exposure on .... mechanisms of acclimation to metals in freshwater fish.

  8. Effect Of Chronic Administration Of Hexane Extract Of Byrsonima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Mexican traditional medicine, the seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia have been used in the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism and for wound healing. The aim was to evaluate the effect of seeds of B. crassifolia on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Materials and ...

  9. Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of administration of Phyllanthus amarus commonly used for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, urogenital disease and wound on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200 g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) ...

  10. Testicular immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural changes associated with chronic cholestasis in rats: Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2015-09-01

    Testicular atrophy has been commonly reported in patients with chronic liver diseases. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most widely used drug for the treatment of many liver diseases. However, its effect on testicular ultrastructure associated with chronic cholestasis has never been studied. Thus, this study aimed to assess how chronic obstructive jaundice affects the testicular ultrastructure and whether it affects the androgen receptor or the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The role of ursodeoxycholic acid was also investigated. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. Samples were collected 4weeks postoperative. Testicular changes were assessed using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Chronic cholestasis resulted in testicular atrophy evidenced by shrinkage and deformation of seminiferous tubules, thickening of peritubular boundaries, vacuolation, disorganization of germ cells, and maturation arrest. This was accompanied by decreased immunoreactivity of androgen receptors and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid improved the testicular morphology and reversed cholestasis-induced immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes. Ursodeoxycholic acid can improve the testicular ultrastructure and restore the spermatogenic process in rats with chronic cholestasis. These findings support the clinical application of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic patients especially those with hypogonadism. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  12. Effect of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Li-Hua; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Xia; Geng, Huan-Xiong

    2005-12-07

    To explore the effects of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets and mIL-2R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by biotin-streptavidin (BSA) technique in patients with chronic hepatitis B before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. After one course of treatment with liniment levamisole, the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) increased as compared to those before the treatment but the level of CD8(+) decreased. The total expression level of mIL-2R in PBMCs increased before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. Liniment levamisole may reinforce cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  13. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Visser, Folkert W; Drenth, Joost P H; Gevers, Tom J G; Groen, Gerbrand J; Hogan, Marie C; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4-6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of home telemonitoring interventions on patients with chronic heart failure: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsiou, Spyros; Paré, Guy; Jaana, Mirou

    2015-03-12

    Growing interest on the effects of home telemonitoring on patients with chronic heart failure (HF) has led to a rise in the number of systematic reviews addressing the same or very similar research questions with a concomitant increase in discordant findings. Differences in the scope, methods of analysis, and methodological quality of systematic reviews can cause great confusion and make it difficult for policy makers and clinicians to access and interpret the available evidence and for researchers to know where knowledge gaps in the extant literature exist. This overview aims to collect, appraise, and synthesize existing evidence from multiple systematic reviews on the effectiveness of home telemonitoring interventions for patients with chronic heart failure (HF) to inform policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. A comprehensive literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library to identify all relevant, peer-reviewed systematic reviews published between January 1996 and December 2013. Reviews were searched and screened using explicit keywords and inclusion criteria. Standardized forms were used to extract data and the methodological quality of included reviews was appraised using the AMSTAR (assessing methodological quality of systematic reviews) instrument. Summary of findings tables were constructed for all primary outcomes of interest, and quality of evidence was graded by outcome using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. Post-hoc analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted to gain further insights into the various types of home telemonitoring technologies included in the systematic reviews and the impact of these technologies on clinical outcomes. A total of 15 reviews published between 2003 and 2013 were selected for meta-level synthesis. Evidence from high-quality reviews with meta-analysis indicated that taken collectively, home telemonitoring interventions

  15. Effects of Home Telemonitoring Interventions on Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guy; Jaana, Mirou

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing interest on the effects of home telemonitoring on patients with chronic heart failure (HF) has led to a rise in the number of systematic reviews addressing the same or very similar research questions with a concomitant increase in discordant findings. Differences in the scope, methods of analysis, and methodological quality of systematic reviews can cause great confusion and make it difficult for policy makers and clinicians to access and interpret the available evidence and for researchers to know where knowledge gaps in the extant literature exist. Objective This overview aims to collect, appraise, and synthesize existing evidence from multiple systematic reviews on the effectiveness of home telemonitoring interventions for patients with chronic heart failure (HF) to inform policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library to identify all relevant, peer-reviewed systematic reviews published between January 1996 and December 2013. Reviews were searched and screened using explicit keywords and inclusion criteria. Standardized forms were used to extract data and the methodological quality of included reviews was appraised using the AMSTAR (assessing methodological quality of systematic reviews) instrument. Summary of findings tables were constructed for all primary outcomes of interest, and quality of evidence was graded by outcome using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. Post-hoc analysis and subgroup meta-analyses were conducted to gain further insights into the various types of home telemonitoring technologies included in the systematic reviews and the impact of these technologies on clinical outcomes. Results A total of 15 reviews published between 2003 and 2013 were selected for meta-level synthesis. Evidence from high-quality reviews with meta-analysis indicated that taken collectively

  16. The effectiveness of mobilisation with movement for chronic medial ankle pain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Penso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: It has been shown that approximatelythirty percent of those sustaining an ankle sprain are likely to develop chronicfunctional limitations. Mulligan has developed mobilisation with movement (MWMfor treatment of joint dysfunction and suggests that it is a positional fault of the jointthat causes pain and movement restriction. Method: This single case reports on the effects of a MWM technique on chronicmedial ankle pain. The patient was a 25-year-old female runner who had experiencedpain since an initial ankle sprain at 8 years of age. The main findings of the subjective and physical examinations were decrease in active and passive dorsiflexion and eversion range of motion (ROM, shortening of gastrocnemiusand soleus muscles and the functional limitation of pain when running. The patient was treated twice with the MWMtechnique.Results: Outcomes of immediate reduction in pain, restoration of full dorsiflexion and eversion ROM, increase in calfmuscle length and pain free running were observed. This was maintained over a four-month follow up period.Conclusion: This case concurs with previous studies detailing increases in range of motion and restoration of painfree movement as well as adding new support for the resolution of chronic pain with MWM.

  17. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  18. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  19. Effects of Diabetes Mellitus, Age, and Duration of Dialysis on Parathormone in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH can develop early in the course of chronic renal failure and becomes more prominent as kidney function declines. We studied the effect of diabetes, age, and dialysis on parathyroid function in 60 (21 women, 39 males; 44 non-diabetic, 16 diabetic hemodialysis (HD patients. Serum intact PTH (iPTH, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and magnesium (Mg were measured. Adequacy of HD was evaluated by calculating the urea reduction rate (URR. There were significantly lower values of serum iPTH, ALP, and dialysis adequacy among diabetic than non-diabetes HD patients. In addition, there were an inverse correlation of age and serum iPTH (r= -0.27, p= 0.034 as well as age and serum phosphorus (r= -0.28, p= 0.031. There was also a positive correlation between serum iPTH with the duration (r= 0.001, p=0.42 and doses of dialysis treatment (r= 0.38, p= 0.002. We conclude that a significant negative correlation between age and serum phosphorus and lower parathyroid activity in diabetic HD patients, which implies more prevalence of bone disease in elderly diabetic HD patients. Further study of bone disease in this group of patients is required to evaluate its effect on outcome and different therapeutic interventions.

  20. Do the angle and length of the eustachian tube influence the development of chronic otitis media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Uğur, Mehmet Birol; Öz, Ibrahim Ilker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Bişkin, Sultan; Tutar, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    To compare the eustachian tube (ET) angle (ETa) and length (ETl) of ears with and without chronic otitis media (COM), and to determine the relationship between ET anatomy and the development of COM. A retrospective case-control study. The study group comprised 125 patients (age range, 8-79 years; 64 males and 61 females) with 124 normal ears and 126 diseased ears, including ears with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with central perforation, intratympanic tympanosclerosis (ITTS), cholesteatoma, and a tympanic membrane with retraction pockets (TMRP). ET angle and length were measured using computed tomography employing the multiplanar reconstruction technique. The ETa was significantly more horizontal in diseased versus normal ears of all study groups (P = .030), and there was no group difference in ETl (P = .160). ETl was shorter in CSOM versus ITTS ears and normal ears (P = .007 and P = .003, respectively) and in cholesteatoma versus TMRP ears (P = .014). In the unilateral COM group, there were no significant differences in the ETa or ETl of diseased versus contralateral normal ears (P = .155 and P = .710, respectively). The ETa was significantly more horizontal in childhood-onset diseased versus normal ears (P = .027), and there was no group difference in ETl (P = .732). The ETa (P = .002) and ETl (P < .001) were significantly greater in males than females. A more horizontal ETa and shorter ETl could be contributory (though not significantly) etiological factors in the development of COM. 3b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. A systematic review of the effect of yogurt consumption on chronic diseases risk markers in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît; Desroches, Sophie

    2017-06-01

    We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed the effects of yogurt containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (LBST) on metabolic risk markers of chronic diseases in adults. We performed a systematic search in July 2016 in the scientific databases PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Included studies were RCTs that assessed the impact of consuming yogurt containing LBST as a treatment, and that evaluated at least one metabolic risk marker for chronic diseases compared with a control diet or a diet supplemented in another food/ingredient in healthy or chronically ill adults. Seven RCTs involving 278 participants were included in the review. Studies were conducted in the USA, France, Spain, Iran and Canada. Five studies were undertaken in healthy adults, and two were conducted among lactose malabsorbers. All studies investigated changes in blood lipids and glucose homoeostasis, with different doses of yogurt, durations of the supplementation and risks markers assessed. Consumption of LBST yogurt significantly reduced total cholesterol concentrations, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C and plasma glucose compared to a control yogurt-free diet or diet supplemented in another food/ingredient in two out of the seven studies. The majority of included RCTs presented high to unclear methodological risks of bias, which raises questions about the validity of their findings. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of LBST yogurt shows either favourable or neutral effects on metabolic risk markers when compared with a control treatment in controlled research settings. RCTs investigating the effect of LBST yogurt consumption on metabolic risk markers of chronic diseases are scarce and presented considerable variation in methodologies making comparison between studies difficult. Further large-scale, well-designed studies assessing the impact of LBST yogurt, in particular in comparison with a control yogurt

  2. Preventive effects of benfotiamine in chronic diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rana; Chen, Megan; Liu, Weihua; Chen, Shali

    2011-04-07

    Aims/Introduction:  In diabetes, increased oxidative stress as a result of damage to the electron transport chain can lead to tissue injury through upregulation of multiple vasoactive factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Benfotiamine, a lipid soluble thiamine derivative, through reducing mitochondrial superoxide production, blocks multiple pathways leading to tissue damage in hyperglycemia. We investigated if treatment with benfotiamine can prevent diabetes-induced production of vasoactive factors and extracellular matrix proteins, and whether such effects are tissue-specific. We also examined whether effects of benfotiamine are mediated through a nuclear mechanism.   Retinal, renal and cardiac tissues from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were examined after 4 months of follow up. mRNA levels were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels were quantified using western blot and ELISA. Cellular expressions of 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker of nuclear DNA damage and Phospho-H2AX were also examined.   Diabetic animals showed hyperglycemia, glucosuria, increased urinary albumin/creatine ratio and loss of bodyweight. In the kidneys, heart and retina, diabetes caused increased production of endothelin-1, transforming growth factor-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor and augmented extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin [FN] and its splice variant extradomain B containing FN), along with evidence of structural alterations, characteristic of diabetes-induced tissue damage. Such changes were prevented by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented diabetes-induced oxidative DNA damage and upregulation of p300, a histone acetylator and a transcription coactivator.   Data from the present study suggest that benfotiamine is effective in preventing tissue damage in diabetes and at the transcriptional level such effects are mediated through prevention of p300 upregulation. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040

  3. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis: effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in 25 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Ik; Shim, Hyung Jin; Wang, Chi Hyung; Hyun, Yu; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Kun Sang [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    Bronchial artery embolization has been effective in the treatment of massive hemoptysis. The purpose of this study was to report the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in patients with chronic recurrent hemoptysis intractable to medical treatment. This study included 25 patients who were admitted for treatment of chronic recurrent hemoptysis with bronchial artery embolization. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis was defined as condition in tractable to medical treatment persistently and occurring over two times per two months The target vessels for embolization were selected in consideration of the results of aortography as well as the finding of chest radiography and bronchoscopy. After selective arteriography for embolization by using 5-French Simmons catheter, embolic agents(mainly polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and additionally gelfoam and coils) were released through the catheter. The results of the embolization were assessed with review of medical records. The cases of the hemoptysis were pulmonary tuberculosis(n=12.48%), bronchiectasis(n=6.24%), aspergilloma(n=3.12%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(n=2.8%), chronic bronchitis(n=1.4%) and lung abscess(n=1.4%). Selective embolization was carried out in 49 sites(42 in bronchial artery and 7 in nonbronchial systemic collaterals). Early success rate within 2 months was 96%. After long-term follow up study (6-30 months, average 15 months), complete remission was 72%, partial remission 12% and recurrence 12% respectively. During and after embolization, major complications such as spinal cord injury or bronchial wall necrosis was not found. Minor complications were chest pain, shoulder pain and chilling sense, which were relieved spontaneously within a few days. High success rate and relatively low recurrence with no significant complication were achieved with bronchial artery embolization in the patients complaining of chronic recurrent hemoptysis.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of using chronic kidney disease risk scores to screen for early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Hoerger, Thomas J; Simpson, Siobhan K; Leib, Alyssa; Burrows, Nilka R; Shrestha, Sundar S; Pavkov, Meda E

    2017-03-13

    Better treatment during early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow progression to end-stage renal disease and decrease associated complications and medical costs. Achieving early treatment of CKD is challenging, however, because a large fraction of persons with CKD are unaware of having this disease. Screening for CKD is one important method for increasing awareness. We examined the cost-effectiveness of identifying persons for early-stage CKD screening (i.e., screening for moderate albuminuria) using published CKD risk scores. We used the CKD Health Policy Model, a micro-simulation model, to simulate the cost-effectiveness of using CKD two published risk scores by Bang et al. and Kshirsagar et al. to identify persons in the US for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria. Alternative risk score thresholds were tested (0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.02) above which persons were assigned to receive screening at alternative intervals (1-, 2-, and 5-year) for follow-up screening if the first screening was negative. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incremental lifetime costs divided by incremental lifetime QALYs, relative to the next higher screening threshold to assess cost-effectiveness. Cost-effective scenarios were determined as those with ICERs less than $50,000 per QALY. Among the cost-effective scenarios, the optimal scenario was determined as the one that resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. ICERs ranged from $8,823 per QALY to $124,626 per QALY for the Bang et al. risk score and $6,342 per QALY to $405,861 per QALY for the Kshirsagar et al. risk score. The Bang et al. risk score with a threshold of 0.02 and 2-year follow-up screening was found to be optimal because it had an ICER less than $50,000 per QALY and resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. This study indicates that using these CKD risk scores may allow clinicians to cost-effectively identify a broader population for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria

  5. Eustachian tube diameter: Is it associated with chronic otitis media development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltura, Ceki; Can, Tuba Selçuk; Yilmaz, Behice Kaniye; Dinç, Mehmet Emre; Develioğlu, Ömer Necati; Külekçi, Mehmet

    To evaluate the effect of ET diameter on Chronic Otitis Media (COM) pathogenesis. Retrospective. Patients with unilateral COM disease are included in the study. The connection between fibrocartilaginous and osseous segments of the Eustachian Tube (ET) on axial Computed Tomography (CT) images was defined and the diameter of this segment is measured. The measurements were carried out bilaterally and statistically compared. 154 (76 (49%) male, 78 (51%) female patients were diagnosed with unilateral COM and included in the study. The mean diameter of ET was 1947mm (Std. deviation±0.5247) for healthy ears and 1788mm (Std. deviation±0.5306) for diseased ears. The statistical analysis showed a significantly narrow ET diameter in diseased ear side (p<0.01). The dysfunction or anatomical anomalies of ET are correlated with COM. Measuring of the bony diameter of ET during routine Temporal CT examination is recommended for our colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on plasma homocysteine levels in Indian population with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L Venkatesh; Karthikeyan, Bangalore Vardhan

    2015-03-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The effect of periodontal disease and periodontal therapy on plasma Hcy remains controversial. Hence, in this pilot study we assessed the effect of periodontal disease and non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on plasma Hcy in systemically healthy Indian subjects. Forty participants (30 to 39 years) were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups based on gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL): Healthy (control group; n = 20) and Chronic Periodontitis (test group; n = 20). Plasma samples were collected and quantified at baseline and 12 weeks after scaling and root planing (SRP) for Hcy using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC-fld). Plasma Hcy levels of chronic periodontitis (17.87 ± 1.21 μmol/l) subjects was significantly higher than healthy subjects (9.09 ± 2.11 μmol/l). Post-therapy, the plasma Hcy concentration reduced significantly (11.34 ± 1.87 μmol/l) (p periodontal inflammation and therapy, respectively, indicate a direct relationship of Hcy with chronic periodontitis. NSPT may be employed as an adjunctive Hcy Lowering Therapy, contributing towards primary prevention against CVD's. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of finger-equipped electrode (FEE)-triggered electrical stimulation improving chronic stroke patients with severe hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inobe, Jun-ichi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Electric stimulation (ES) has been recognized as an effective method to improve motor function to paralysed patients with stroke. It is important for ES to synchronize with voluntary movement. To enhance this co-ordination, the finger-equipped electrode (FEE) was developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FEE in improving motor function of upper extremities (UEs) in patients with chronic stroke. The study participants included four patients with chronic stroke who received FEE electronic stimulation (FEE-ES) plus passive and active training and three control patients who underwent training without FEE-ES. The patients were treated five times weekly for 4 weeks. UE motor function was evaluated before and after treatment using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Brunnstrom recovery staging. The mean age of patients in each group was 60-years and there was a mean of 49 months since the onset of symptoms. All patients had severe UE weakness. The patients receiving FEE-ES had greater improvement in UE function than control patients (total, proximal and distal FMA, p FEE-ES may be an effective treatment for patients with chronic stroke.

  8. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  9. Effects of Pilates and Classical Kinesiotherapy on chronic low back pain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Avila Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Chronic low back pain (LBP is characterized by daily lower back pain lasting more than three consecutive months. It may lead to functional disability and can be treated by several physical therapy techniques, including therapeutic exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pilates and classical kinesiotherapy on the treatment of pain and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and methods : The study sample consisted of five patients with a diagnosis of chronic low back pain and a mean age of 32.4 ± 15.6 years. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used for pain assessment, and the Oswestry Disability Index was used to assess functional disability at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Patients were divided into two groups and received 20 individual sessions of therapeutic exercise at a frequency of two sessions per week. Group A was treated with classical kinesiotherapy and group B was treated with pilates exercises. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results : There was a significant reduction in pain (p = 043 and functional disability (p = 042 in both groups. We found no significant differences between the effects of pilates and classical kinesiotherapy on pain and functional disability. Conclusions : We conclude that, in the population studied here, both pilates and classical kinesiotherapy were effective in treating chronic low back pain symptoms, with no significant difference between them.

  10. Effect of pregabalin on apoptotic regulatory genes in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yi-dan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of pregabalin on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine, to explore the anti-epileptic pharmacology mechanism of pregabalin, and its anti-apoptotic effect on hippocampal neurons of rats. Methods The model of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats induced by lithium-pilocarpine was established, then the rats in pregabalin treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of pregabalin (40 mg/kg once daily for three weeks. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of all rats was detected by immunohistochemical technique and Western blotting. Results Compared with normal saline group rats, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy was significantly increased (P = 0.000, for all. Pregabalin can down-regulate the expression of Bax and up-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 in hippocampus of rats compared to model group rats (P = 0.000, for all. Conclusion Pregabalin may have the effects of inhibiting cell apoptosis and protecting neurons through lowing Bax level and increasing Bcl-2 level in hippocampus of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats.

  11. The effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-09-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in male Wistar rats. In the 1st Experiment, the effects of daily administration of physiological saline and baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats (n=6 in each group). Baclofen significantly (P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake each day over the treatment period during the 60 min measurement period following administration. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effect of baclofen over the course of the experiment. In addition, treatment with baclofen did not alter body weight of the animals over the 27 day treatment period when compared with the saline control rats. In the 2nd Experiment, the effects of acute and chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) were investigated on 24 h food intake in rats. The rats were injected daily for 21 days with either saline (n=6) or baclofen (n=6). Food intake was measured in 30 min time bins for 24 h on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21 following injection. The results showed that while baclofen produced short-term increases in food consumption following injection on treatment Days 1, 12 and 21, the daily (24 h) food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats. Thus, these data reveal that while chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) produces short-term increases in feeding without the development of tolerance, daily (24 h) food consumption is not affected. These findings are consistent with the observation that chronic administration of baclofen (2 mg/kg) had no effect on the body weight of these animals.

  12. Imatinib Intolerance Is Associated With Blastic Phase Development in Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-Velázquez, Jorge Luis; Hurtado-Monroy, Rafael; Vargas-Viveros, Pablo; Carrillo-Muñoz, Silvia; Candelaria-Hernández, Myrna

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the survival of patients with Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML Ph(+)) has increased as a result of therapy with tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Intolerance to TKIs has been described in approximately 20% of patients receiving treatment. We studied the incidence of imatinib intolerance in patients with CML Ph(+) and their outcome in our CML reference site, as there is no information about the evolution of patients intolerant to TKIs. A group of 86 patients with CML Ph(+) receiving imatinib monotherapy who abandoned treatment were the basis for this study. We present the trends of their disease evolution. The median of age at diagnosis was 42 years. Within a year, 19 (22%) of 86 patients developed imatinib intolerance, all of them with grade III or IV disease that required imatinib dose reduction or discontinuation. Of these patients, 16 (84%) of 19 developed transformation to blastic phase. The cumulative incidences of blastic phase development were 47% in the nonintolerant group and 84% in the intolerant group. There was a relative risk for those with imatinib intolerance to develop blastic phase of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 2.42) (P treatment is available. Future research should to determine whether the origin of this evolution is really due to the intolerance itself or whether it is due to a more aggressive form of the disease, perhaps related to genetic transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Neurochemical Effects of Chronic Administration of Calcitriol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite accumulating data showing the various neurological actions of vitamin D (VD, its effects on brain neurochemistry are still far from fully understood. To further investigate the neurochemical influence of VD, we assessed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of rats following 6-week calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration (50 ng/kg/day or 100 ng/kg/day. Both the two doses of calcitriol enhanced VDR protein level without affecting serum calcium and phosphate status. Rats treated with calcitriol, especially with the higher dose, exhibited elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA status. Correspondingly, the mRNA expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67 was increased. 100 ng/kg of calcitriol administration also increased glutamate and glutamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, but did not alter glutamine synthetase (GS expression. Additionally, calcitriol treatment promoted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 expression without changing dopamine and serotonin status. However, the concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine and serotonin were increased and the drug use also resulted in a significant rise of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA expression, which might be responsible to maintain the homeostasis of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Collectively, the present study firstly showed the effects of calcitriol in the major neurotransmitter systems, providing new evidence for the role of VD in brain function.

  15. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications.

  16. Short- and long-term cognitive effects of chronic cannabinoids administration in late-adolescence rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Abush

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis can impair cognitive function, especially short-term memory. A controversial question is whether long-term cannabis use during the late-adolescence period can cause irreversible deficits in higher brain function that persist after drug use stops. In order to examine the short- and long-term effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids, rats were administered chronic i.p. treatment with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg for two weeks during the late adolescence period (post-natal days 45-60 and tested for behavioral and electrophysiological measures of cognitive performance 24 hrs, 10 and 30 days after the last drug injection. The impairing effects of chronic WIN on short-term memory in the water maze and the object recognition tasks as well as long-term potentiation (LTP in the ventral subiculum (vSub-nucleus accumbens (NAc pathway were temporary as they lasted only 24 h or 10 d after withdrawal. However, chronic WIN significantly impaired hippocampal dependent short-term memory measured in the object location task 24 hrs, 10, 30, and 75 days after the last drug injection. Our findings suggest that some forms of hippocampal-dependent short-term memory are sensitive to chronic cannabinoid administration but other cognitive impairments are temporary and probably result from a residue of cannabinoids in the brain or acute withdrawal effects from cannabinoids. Understanding the effects of cannabinoids on cognitive function may provide us with tools to overcome these impairments and for cannabinoids to be more favorably considered for clinical use.

  17. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain:Randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars L.; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard ...

  18. Effect of Fenspiride on Bronchial Smooth Muscle of Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzubova, Nataliya A.; Lebedeva, Elena S.; Fedin, Anatoliy N.; Dvorakovskaya, Ivetta V.; Preobrazhenskaya, Tatiana N.; Titova, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Glucocorticoids are currently the most applicable anti-inflammatory treatment for COPD. However, a subset of COPD subjects is relatively insensitive to this treatment. Fenspiride, a non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory drug, has been described to have beneficial effects in patients with COPD, although the mechanism of its action is not well known. The effect of fenspiride on contract...

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Snophia Suresh; Satya Narayana; P Jayakumar; Uma Sudhakar; V Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of De...

  20. Predicting the effects of dietary manipulation in chronic renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Nahas, A.M.; Brady, S.A.; Masters-Thomas, A.; Wilkinson, V.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Moorhead, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the progressive fall in renal function in some patients with CRF is due to hyperfusion of the remnant nephrons in response to the relatively high protein diet of modern life. The authors attempted to assess this and to see what was the shortest time in which any effect could be demonstrated. In the first phase, 39 patients with CRF had their renal function followed for 6 months on their normal diet and 6 months on a low-protein diet (LPD). The patients on LPD all showed an improvement in the rate of fall of renal function. This was marked in patients with mainly tubular disease, and poor in those with glomerular and vascular disease. In the second phase, 11 of these patients (and 1 other) were started on a high protein diet (HPD) for two weeks, and then switched back to a LPD for 2 weeks. There was no change in GFR during this period, but there were marked changes in ERPF, which correlated well with the changes in renal function in the first phase (r = 0.76, rho < 0.01); 4/4 patients with tubular disease showed a rise in ERPF on HPD and a fall on LPD, while only 4/8 with glomerular or vascular disease responded. In the third phase, they assessed the effect of a single high-protein meal in normal volunteers. This showed that there are major changes in hemodynamics following a meal, such that it is not possible to make any statement about renal function using the single-shot methods. The authors conclude that a 2-week period of HPD followed by LPD allows prediction of the possible beneficial response to diet in CRF; that this is best monitored by ERPF; and that a single meal may invalidate renal function measurement

  1. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89 Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after 89 Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after 89 Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before 89 Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after 89 Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the 89 Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with 89 Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment

  2. The short-term effects of a body awareness program : better self-management of health problems for individuals with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW; Rispens, P

    A three-day residential Body Awareness Program (BAP) was developed to teach people with Chronic A-specific Psychosomatic Symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The short-term effects of the program for people with

  3. The short-term effects of a body awareness program : better self-management of health problems for individuals with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW; Rispens, P

    2004-01-01

    A three-day residential Body Awareness Program (BAP) was developed to teach people with Chronic A-specific Psychosomatic Symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The short-term effects of the program for people with

  4. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  5. Changes of Treg and Th17 cells balance in the development of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Song Liang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies suggest that in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection regulate T (Treg cells and interlukin-17-producing T help cells (Th17 are mutually antagonistic in the immune response. This study is aimed to reveal the cell differentiation environment and the significance of Treg and Th17 balance in the development of acute and chronic HBV infection. Methods Ten patients with acute HBV infection (AHB and forty-eight patients with chronic HBV infection, including 12 asymptomatic HBV carriers (HBV carriers, 18 chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB and 18 acute-on-chronic HBV-related liver failure (ACHBLF were enrolled. Treg and Th17 cells differentiation related cytokine levels were detected by using ELISA. Flow cytometry was employed to count the Treg and Th17 frequency in peripheral blood. Results Compared to health controls both AHB and ACHBLF patients favoured Th17 cell differentiation, accompanied by a higher proportion of peripheral Th17 cells (P  Conclusions Th17 cells are involved in acute and chronic HBV infection, especially in AHB and ACHBLF. CHB and ACHBLF patients manifested obvious Treg/Th17 ratio imbalance, which might be linked to disease progression and the continuous HBV infection.

  6. Effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fievet, B.; Devos, A.; Voiseux, C.; Leconte-Pradines, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete' Nucleaire (France); Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The Cotentin peninsula (Normandy, France) hosts nuclear industry facilities which operate with controlled discharges of radionuclides in the marine environment. Compared to natural radioactivity, the increase by artificial radionuclides is small but constant. As a consequence, marine species are chronically exposed to low additional doses of ionizing radiation (IR). The effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides were investigated in early stages of development of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. On the basis of literature, mollusks are expected to be particularly resistant to acute IR (UNSCEAR, 1996. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annex. 86 p). Two different chronic exposure conditions consisted in external ({sup 137}Cs) and internal ({sup 241}Am) irradiation for two weeks. Biological endpoints were analyzed in parallel at both the integrated (growth) and molecular (target stress gene expression) levels. To identify potential biological targets of IR, oysters were first exposed to very high dose rates and radionuclide activities with the perspective to reduce the levels and to derive dose-response curves. Although the initial exposure levels ({sup 137}Cs 30 000 μGy.h{sup -1}; {sup 241}Am 57 000 Bq.L{sup -1}) were many orders of magnitude higher than those encountered in the natural environment, no significant change in the measured parameters was observed. This result was surprising because data from the literature showed that exposure of mussel Mytilus edulis to {sup 3}H at lower doses rates (10-100 μGy.h{sup -1}) induced DNA damage in hemocytes (Jha et al., 2005. Impact of low doses of tritium on the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis: Genotoxic effects and tissue-specific bioconcentration. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 586, 47-57). To understand this apparent discrepancy between those two filtering bivalves, a new experiment was performed to compare the response

  7. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line-Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Matthew; Wall, Ivan B; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2018-03-27

    Background : Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives : To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results : Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions : These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening.

  8. Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line—Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ivan B.; Peake, Matthew; Kipling, David; Giles, Peter; Thomas, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients. Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. Objectives: To develop/characterise immortalised cell lines of CWF and patient-matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Methods and Results: Immortalisation with human telomerase resulted in both CWF and NF proliferating well beyond their replicative senescence end-point (respective cell strains senesced as normal). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that, whilst proliferation-associated genes were up-regulated in the cell lines (as would be expected), the immortalisation process did not significantly affect the disease-specific genotype. Immortalised CWF (as compared to NF) also retained a distinct impairment in their wound repopulation potential (in line with CWF cell strains). Conclusions: These novel CWF cell lines are a credible animal alternative and could be a valuable research tool for understanding both the aetiology of chronic skin wounds and for therapeutic pre-screening. PMID:29584680

  9. Diastolic effects of chronic digitalization in systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapoyannes, C A; Bergh, M E; Movahed, M R; Easterling, B M; Omoigui, N A

    1998-10-01

    The efficacy of short-term digitalization on exercise tolerance may, in part, reflect enhanced diastolic performance. However, cardiac glycosides can impair ventricular relaxation from cytosolic Ca++ overload. To detect any time-dependent adverse effect, we assessed the diastolic function after long-term use of digitalis in patients with mild to moderate systolic left ventricular failure. From a cohort of 80 patients who received long-term, randomized, double-blind treatment with digitalis versus placebo at the WJB Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 38 survivors were evaluated at the end of follow-up (mean 48.4 months) with evaluators blinded to treatment used. Each survivor underwent equilibrium scintigraphic and echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function. Peak and mean filling rates normalized with filling volume (FV), diastolic phase durations normalized with duration of diastole, and filling fractions were measured from the time-activity curve. The isovolumic relaxation period and ventricular dimensions were computed echocardiographically. By actual-treatment-received analysis, treated versus untreated patients manifested a trend toward longer isovolumic relaxation (80.76 ms vs 61.54 ms, P = .06) but a markedly lower peak rapid filling rate (6.39 FV/sec vs 10.56 FV/sec, P = .02) despite comparable loading conditions. In addition, treated patients exhibited a lower mean rate of rapid filling (2.75 FV/sec vs 3.78 FV/sec, P = .05) in the absence of a longer rapid filling duration. However, the end-diastolic ventricular dimension did not differ between the 2 groups. Similar results were obtained by intention-to-treat analysis. Importantly, the mortality rate from worsening heart failure in the inception cohort was lower in the digitalis group versus the placebo group (P = .05) with no difference in total cardiac or all-cause mortality. After long-term digitalization for systolic left ventricular failure, cross-sectional comparison with a control group

  10. A systematic review of the effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions for chronic noncancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evi