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Sample records for develop premium carbon

  1. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  2. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  10. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  11. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  12. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The equity risk premium : emerging versus developed markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, R.M.; Grootveld, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an empirical view of the ex-post equity risk premium in a number of international markets with special attention to emerging ones. Our study yields interesting implications for finance. Firstly, we find that the equity risk premium in emerging markets is significantly higher than in

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  17. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  19. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991--Novemer 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  20. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  1. Matrix of risk and premium for the developing of small hydropower projects; Matriz de risco e premio para o desenvolvimento de projetos de PCHs (Pequenas Centrais Hidroeletricas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Garcia, Marco Aurelio R.A.; Cruz, Ricardo A. Passos da

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a method for valuation of assets of small hydroelectric plants in different stages of maturation. To this end, we adopted the principle of risk premium, associated with a portion of the profitability of the project (internal rate of return-IRR) in every stage of development. In other words: the more mature the project, the lower your risk and consequently lower the corresponding premium, adopting as a total prize the IRR expected to the project.

  2. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  3. Downside Variance Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.; Okou, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decomposition of the variance risk premium in terms of upside and downside variance risk premia. The difference between upside and downside variance risk premia is a measure of skewness risk premium. We establish that the downside variance risk premium is the main component of the variance risk premium, and that the skewness risk premium is a priced factor with significant prediction power for aggregate excess returns. Our empirical investigation highlights the positive and s...

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  5. Why Do Firms Pay an Overtime Premium?

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Robert A.; Ma, Yue

    2000-01-01

    We develop a rationale for the payment by firms of a wage premium on marginal, or overtime, weekly hours. We examine wage-hours contracts within the framework of a two-period specific human capital model with asymmetric information. The wage premium serves to achieve contract efficiency. For those weekly hours for which a premium is paid, worker compensation exceeds the value of marginal product. There is an optimal automatic compensatory differential rule between straight-time wages and the ...

  6. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  7. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  8. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  9. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  10. 我国名优茶发展现状与趋势%Current Situation and Tendency on the Development of Chinese Premium Teas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智修; 段文华; 吴海燕; 司智敏

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and tendency of the development for Chinese premium teas were investigated in analyzing the results of 3948 tea samples in nine “Zhongcha Cup” country wide premium tea competitions during 1994~2011. All the six types of Chinese tea developed well. Among them, green tea was the main tea, Oolong tea and dark tea increased steadily, black, white and yellow teas were in recovery growth. In the four tea growing areas, the Jiangnan (south Yangtze River) tea area developed strongly and has the highest prize awarded ratio. The premium tea in Zhejiang Province is leading its development in China, the quality of Jiangsu premium tea is at the top, Shandong province, a north tea area, has strong marketing and competition consciousness. And Fujian, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui are also important premium tea producing provinces. The ratio of tea sample made by clonal tea cultivars increased continuously. „Fuding Dabaicha‟, „Baiye 1‟, „Fuding Dahaocha‟, Longjing series clones are main clonal tea cultivars. The quality of premium tea increased steadily. Nevertheless, the tea appearance is becoming similar. Hygian safety (the situation of heavy metal, pesticide residues) was satisfactory, and organic tea developed rather fast. The ratios of machinery processing, producing according to standard, and trade mark increased year by year and reached a higher level.%  通过对1994~2011年连续九届3948只“中茶杯”名优茶评比茶样数据分析,结果表明,我国六大茶类名优茶均呈现发展态势,绿茶是发展的主茶类,乌龙茶、黑茶稳步增长,红茶、白茶和黄茶呈恢复性增长。四大茶区中,江南茶区获奖率最高,发展势头强劲;浙江名优茶产业引领我国名优茶发展,江苏名优茶总体质量位居全国前列,山东显现强烈的市场竞争意识,福建、四川、湖北、贵州、广东和安徽等省也占重要地位。无性系品种茶样

  11. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  12. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

  13. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

  14. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Banerjee, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two different techniques were used: BET surface area analyzer and in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. It was found that the cleaning not only removes the minerals but has changed also the porous structure of the coals. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis.

  15. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  16. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  17. Risk Measure and Premium Distribution on Catastrophe Reinsurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN LI; WANG DE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new risk measure which is based on the Orlicz premium principle to characterize catastrophe risk premium.The intention is to develop a formulation strategy for Catastrophe Fund.The logarithm equivalent form of reinsurance premium is regarded as the retention of reinsurer,and the differential earnings between the reinsurance premium and the reinsurer's retention is accumulated as a part of Catastrophe Fund.We demonstrate that the aforementioned risk measure has some good properties,which are further confirmed by numerical simulations in R environment.

  18. 高端医疗服务发展的国际经验与启示%Development of premium healthcare industry:International experience and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方欣叶; 施莉莉; 王贤吉; 王力男; 付晨; 金春林; 何达

    2015-01-01

    高端医疗服务业是健康服务业发展的关键领域,但由于公立医院特需服务不断扩张、社会办医政策存"玻璃门"等原因,我国高端医疗服务业的发展尚处于初期阶段. 事实上,高端医疗服务业在部分国家(特别是发达国家)已经初具规模,并在发展基础、运营模式、保障体系等方面积累了比较丰富的经验. 本研究介绍了英国、美国、德国、新加坡、澳大利亚和印度发展高端医疗服务业的经验:建立国家安全网医院起兜底作用,实行分层定价和差异化补贴政策,借助商业健康保险,运用公私合作模式,优先发展若干领域. 并结合我国实际情况,提出我国发展高端医疗服务业的启示:在确保基本医疗服务的前提下,实行有差别的支付政策;推广商业健康保险,拓展公私合作,确定发展高端医疗的优先领域.%Premium healthcare is the key area of healthcare industry and private medical institutions. Howev-er, with the expansion of VIP services in public hospitals and policy barriers to private medical institutions, the de-velopment of premium healthcare in China is still in its early stage. The premium healthcare industry has in fact be-gun to take shape in some developed countries, accumulating rich experience in the aspects of developing bases, op-erating modes and security systems. Therefore, this paper introduces the experiences of premium healthcare develop-ment in several countries:the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Singapore, Australia, and India: the building of safety net hospitals;the setting of hierarchical pricing and differential financial assistance;the use of pub-lic-private partnership based on commercial health insurance to determine prioritization. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper provides some implications to develop premium healthcare, including the implementation of dif-ferential payment policies built on the provision of basic healthcare

  19. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Minois Basin coal. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization of coal under different environments (He, H{sub 2}, He/O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}) to form chars. Also, as-received and clean coal samples were mixed with hectorite, Ca-montmorillonite, and kaolinite to evaluate the potential effects of these clays on chars yield and agglomeration during devolatilization processes. Three different techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and in-situ diffuse reflectance FTIR (ISDR-FTIR). Thermogravimetric measurements showed that reactive gases (except He) dissolve in the softened coal. Also, these gases convert some of the coal mineral matter into catalyst by chemical reduction and oxidation. Coal reactivity increases by adding clays because they may be catalyst for methane activation, may prevent coal agglomeration, and may modify the geometric structure of the coal surface. DSC measurements show that clean coal devolatilizes at a lower temperature than as-received sample and preoxidation lowers the devolatilization temperature. Additionally, kaolinite addition increase yields of chars from IBC-102 coal in He. In-situ diffuse reflectance FTIR experiments show that thermal decomposition of coal either increases -CH{sub 3}, content in char or alters the physical structure of -CH{sub 3}. Also, phenol groups of the coal play an important role in cross-linkage the coal structure when coal is thermally treated.

  20. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...

  1. Risk premiums in cap rates of investment property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Wouwe, van M.; Tansens, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Our research wants to establish links and patterns over time between the constituent components of the cap rates, and between real interest and risk premium in particular. We developed a statistical model to predict and explain the risk premium asked for by investors buying properties throughout Eur

  2. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  3. 纯烤烟(SVC)最新发展技术--第一部分%Recent Advances in the Technology of Straight Virginia Cigarettes (SVC) Development of Premium Cost-effective Lower-Tar SVC Products with Acceptable Smoking Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawky Abdallah

    2004-01-01

    @@ Part 1. Basic Principles This is the first article in a series of three that is based on Dr. Abdallah's presentation at China Tobacco Society Convention, December 11-13, 2003, in Shanghai. The series discusses the contributions of manufacturing in general, and blending and processing in particular, to the development of premium costeffective lower-tar SVC products with acceptable smoking qualities.

  4. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  5. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A. Pantelous

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percentage of the respective volatility. The optimal controller for the premium is obtained using advanced optimization techniques, and it is finally shown that the respective pricing strategy follows a more balanced development compared with the traditional premium approaches.

  6. Curb Your Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel institut......We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel...... Regions. Our results show that this information-enhancing policy reduces paid premiums by around 15%. This reduced-form effect might arise by higher bargaining power on the demand side or increased competition on the supply side of the insurance market. Validity tests show that our findings are not driven...

  7. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and no premiums are required to maintain such policies and provisions in force. Policies...

  8. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums....

  9. Rising College Premiums in Mexico: How Important Is Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Aashish; Acuna, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The literature on wage inequality in liberalizing developing economies has largely attributed rising skill premiums to trade-induced increases in the demand for skilled labor within "sectors" (industries, occupations, or industry-occupation pairs). Although there is strong evidence from many countries of trade-induced increases in skill demand within manufacturing, we show that in Mexico, the most studied country in this literature, economy-wide increases in college premium can be explained w...

  10. Maldives Low Carbon Development Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Ramlau, Marianne

    This report presents the findings of a study for low carbon development strategy for Maldives. The study was implemented under the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE), Maldives and URC and was financed by Danida, Denmark’s development aid agency under...

  11. 78 FR 44056 - Premium Rates; Payment of Premiums; Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... benefits (UVBs)--the excess of its premium funding target over its assets. The premium funding target and... would small plans enjoy the convenience of a convergence between the premium and Form 5500 due...

  12. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  13. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-01-25

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

  17. Carbon sequestration research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  18. Life Insurance Actuarial Model with Returnable Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanhuaiLang

    2004-01-01

    Insurance is the important aspect of finance. It has been fully developed in the western developed countries. With the fast development of market economy in our country,it is necessary to introduce the alien modern theories and techniques, and at the same time,adapt them to our concrete situation. The model of general life insurance product is to be established in this paper, including deferred life annuities, increasing whole life insurance and returnable premiums. Then through the regulation of various parameters, we can obtain various insurance products.

  19. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section 7.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  20. Easy Access to Premium Luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lexus Launches Summer Financing Program with Interest Rates as Low as 2.011percent Lexus China has launched its latest financing program with interest rates as low as 2.011 percent for three of its luxury small displacement models:RX270,IS250 and ES240.The program is an additional premium offer presented by Lexus to Chinese consumers

  1. Modeling and Analyzing Taxi Congestion Premium in Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a significant problem in many major cities. Getting stuck in traffic, the mileage per unit time that a taxicab travels will decline significantly. Congestion premium (or so-called low-speed fare has become an increasingly important income source for taxi drivers. However, the impact of congestion premium on the taxicab market is not widely understood yet. In particular, modeling and analyzing of the taxi fare structure with congestion premium are extremely limited. In this paper, we developed a taxi price equilibrium model, in which the adjustment mechanism of congestion premium on optimizing the taxi driver’s income, balancing the supply and demand, and eventually improving the level of service in the whole taxicab market was investigated. In the final part, we provided a case study to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model. The results indicated that the current taxi fare scheme in Beijing is suboptimal, since the gain from the raise of congestion premium cannot compensate for the loss from the demand reduction. Conversely, the optimal fare scheme suggested by our model can effectively reduce the excessive demand and reach the supply-demand equilibrium, while keeping the stability of the driver’s income to the maximum extent.

  2. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  3. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  4. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  5. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  6. Selection and the marriage premium for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey S; Price, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.

  7. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  8. The conditional size premium and intertemporal risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders the uncondit......The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders...... the unconditional tests about the size premium inaccurate: For example, the unconditional evidence in the literature supporting the intertemporal risk explanation of the size premium is absent in a conditional sense. Indeed, the conditional and unconditional intertemporal hedging properties of the small stocks...

  9. The Envy Premium in Product Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Niels van de Ven; Marcel Zeelenberg; Rik Pieters

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that elicit their envy. The more people compared themselves to a superior other, the higher the envy premium was. Yet, the emotion envy and not the upward comparison drove the final effects. The envy premium only emerged for a desirable product that the superior other owned (iPhone) when people experienced benign envy. Benign envy is elicited when the other's superior position is deserved, and malicious envy when it is undeserved. When peopl...

  10. Just My Imagination: Beauty premium and the evolved mental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.

  11. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... alternative premium funding target to calculate its variable rate premium (VRP). The regulations require that such an election be filed with PBGC before the VRP due date. A plan makes an election by ] checking box... funding target is not in effect, the plan must calculate its VRP using the standard premium funding target...

  12. Low-Carbon Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Johnson, Bjørn; Andersen, Allan Dahl

    In this Thematic Review we communicate relevant insights from the Globelics research community to policy circles and development donor organisations. The key issues addressed are, firstly, how the notion of LICS can help us understand the challenges of low carbon development (LCD), and secondly, ......, a discussion of the design of support structures for the building of LICS that contribute to low-carbon development....

  13. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is po

  14. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums. (a... respect to individuals age 65 or over from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund during the succeeding... payable to “CMS Medicare Insurance,” and shows his or her name and the claim number that appears on his or...

  15. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is

  16. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  17. On the characterization of convex premium principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cardin; Graziella Pacelli

    2006-01-01

    In actuarial literature the properties of risk measures or insurance premium principles have been extensively studied . We propose a characterization of a particular class of coherent risk measures defined in [1]. The considered premium principles are obtained by expansion of TVar measures, consequently they look like very interesting in insurance pricing where TVar measures is frequently used to value tail risks.

  18. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...... estimation on returns and large option samples....

  19. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  20. Strategies for Local Low-Carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ohshita, Stephanie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Min, Hu [Energy Foundation China, Beijing (China); Xiulian, Hu [Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2012-11-14

    Cities around the world are implementing policies and programs with the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as save energy, reduce costs, and protect the local, regional, and global environment. In China, low-carbon development is a key element of the 12th Five Year Plan. Pilot low-carbon development zones have been initiated in five provinces and eight cities and many other locations around China also want to pursue a low-carbon development pathway. This booklet provides information for government officials, policy makers, program designers and implementers, provincial and city planners, and others who want an overview of the key options available for low-carbon development at local level. These Strategies for Local Low-Carbon Development draw from successful experiences from around the world. Information is provided for low-carbon actions that can be taken in the sectors of (1) Industry, (2) Buildings and Appliances, (3) Electric Power, (4) Consumption and Waste Management, (5) Transportation and Urban Form, and (6) Agriculture and Forestry. A description of each policy is provided along with information on the stakeholders involved in implementation, the conditions for successful implementation, the expected energy and carbon savings, and the policy cost-effectiveness. Case studies show how each policy has been implemented somewhere around the world. While there are many low-carbon options available for local implementation, this booklet aims to provide guidance on those that have been most successful, that have the largest impact, and that are cost-effective in order to support low-carbon development efforts in Chinese cities.

  1. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment of..., and if such premium was not paid within 31 days after the due date, the insurance lapsed. (c) If...

  2. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.254 Calculation of premiums. (a) General provisions. To calculate the amount of... loss ratio calculation period. (b) Specific provisions. (1) Earned premium for a given period means— (i) Written premiums for the period; plus— (ii) The total premium reserve at the beginning of the period;...

  3. Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Frederico R; Belhout, S A; Giordani, S; Quinn, S J

    2015-07-07

    Carbon nanomaterials are among the most broadly discussed, researched and applied of synthetic nanomaterials. The structural diversity of these materials provides an array of unique electronic, magnetic and optical properties, which when combined with their robust chemistry and ease of manipulation, makes them attractive candidates for sensor applications. Furthermore, the biocompatibility exhibited by many carbon nanomaterials has seen them used as in vivo biosensors. Carbon nanotubes, graphene and carbon dots have come under intense scrutiny, as either discrete molecular-like sensors, or as components which can be integrated into devices. In this review we consider recent developments in the use of carbon nanoparticles and nanostructures as sensors and consider how they can be used to detect a diverse range of analytes.

  4. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  5. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  6. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  7. PREMIUM PRICE PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA HUTAN PRODUKSI BERSERTIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Muhayah Noor Pitri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification is a key issue in relation to the forest products industry. It's also a new trend market of forest products. Forest certification is a guarantee that the products resulting from the forest management process in accordance with the standard of sustainable forest resources management. Certification will be increasing the cost of management as an impact of fulfilling requirement on the criteria of the certified forest. The fundamental question whether the award of certified products has been accompanied by an increase in premium price for forest estate or only becoming as the cost that reducing profit for the forest estate. The aims of this research are: 1 to know the difference between the sales price of certified and non-certified wood, 2 to know the premium price on certified forests, 3 to identify the factors that influence the amount of premium price of the certified forest. Data collection were used by searching the document and literature reference on forest certification. The results showed that the premium price received from the certified timber is higher than non-certified timber. Certified wood with high quality has a premium price that is greater than the low-quality wood. The percentage of premium price received varied forest estate. Premium price sometimes unsignificantly received by small-scale of timber estate. The revenue of premium price of certifies forest is influenced by the following factors: 1 The forest area to be certified, 2 Organizations that perform assessments, 3 Company / bodies / organizations that filed the certification, 4 he The country as a buyer of certified timber product 5 the facilitator in the market activities, 6 post-certification fee, and 7 the sales price.

  8. Low-Carbon Development for Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Todd M. Johnson; Alatorre, Claudio; Romo, Zayra; Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the ...

  9. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45; 1545-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

  10. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  11. Designing Psychological Treatments for Scalability: The PREMIUM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Vellakkal

    Full Text Available Lack of access to empirically-supported psychological treatments (EPT that are contextually appropriate and feasible to deliver by non-specialist health workers (referred to as 'counsellors' are major barrier for the treatment of mental health problems in resource poor countries. To address this barrier, the 'Program for Effective Mental Health Interventions in Under-resourced Health Systems' (PREMIUM designed a method for the development of EPT for severe depression and harmful drinking. This was implemented over three years in India. This study assessed the relative usefulness and costs of the five 'steps' (Systematic reviews, In-depth interviews, Key informant surveys, Workshops with international experts, and Workshops with local experts in the first phase of identifying the strategies and theoretical model of the treatment and two 'steps' (Case series with specialists, and Case series and pilot trial with counsellors in the second phase of enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of its delivery by counsellors in PREMIUM with the aim of arriving at a parsimonious set of steps for future investigators to use for developing scalable EPT.The study used two sources of data: the usefulness ratings by the investigators and the resource utilization. The usefulness of each of the seven steps was assessed through the ratings by the investigators involved in the development of each of the two EPT, viz. Healthy Activity Program for severe depression and Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful drinking. Quantitative responses were elicited to rate the utility (usefulness/influence, followed by open-ended questions for explaining the rankings. The resources used by PREMIUM were computed in terms of time (months and monetary costs.The theoretical core of the new treatments were consistent with those of EPT derived from global evidence, viz. Behavioural Activation and Motivational Enhancement for severe depression and harmful drinking respectively

  12. Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271

  13. Decarbonising cities mainstreaming low carbon urban development

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct

  14. STRENGTH DESIGN OF PREMIUM THREADED CASING CONNECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Lianxin; Jin Ye; Zhang Yi

    2004-01-01

    Using premium casing connections instead of API ones is one of the most effective technique to prevent casing failure.The factors contribute to the strength of premium casing connections are studied with FEA and full-scale test.The criterions are presented that ensure the connection's strength higher than the pipe.At the same time, the method is given to decrease the peak stress of the connection so as to improve its anticorruption property.At last, full-scale tests are done to test the strength of the connections designed with the method described, the results show that the connection's strength is higher than the pipe.This indicated that the method described is effective in designing premium casing connection.

  15. Technological Development in Carbon Sequestration at Petrobras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, R.; Vazquez Sebastian, G.; Murce, T.; Cunha, P.; Dino, R.; Sartori Santarosa, C.

    2007-07-01

    Petrobras defined, in its mission, the intention to act in a safe and profitable way, with social and environmental responsibility. In its vision, the company decided to be an oil and energy company, taking into account climate change mitigation. These changes were partially caused, without the company's knowledge, for many years, by the burning of fossil fuels. Among many technologies available for this mitigation, carbon sequestration is the one that, in a short space of time, can avoid the collapse of earth's climate. In order to meet this carbon sequestration challenge, there has been established, at CENPES, three strategies for its technological development: (i) establishment of a Systemic Project for Carbon Sequestration within the scope of the Environmental Technology Program - PROAMB; (ii) creation of a Group of Carbon Sequestration Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - formation of team and qualification program, which includes the realization of the International Seminar on Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change at Petrobras in October 2006; and (iii) Implementation of the Technological Network of Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation. (auth)

  16. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and empir......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical...... for empirical research on exporter performance including learning, and the role of non-parametric regressions (stochastic dominance, quantile regressions), fixed costs and productivity distributions....

  17. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  18. 76 FR 50931 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal.... SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit... individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and claim the premium...

  19. 5 CFR 870.405 - Direct premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Cost of Insurance § 870.405 Direct premium... or retirement system must submit all direct premium payments, along with its regular life insurance... some or all of the insurance or to make direct premium payments. An employee, annuitant,...

  20. 49 CFR 260.15 - Credit risk premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium. 260.15 Section 260.15... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.15 Credit risk premium. (a) Where available... pay to the Administrator a Credit Risk Premium adequate to cover that portion of the subsidy cost not...

  1. 42 CFR 408.68 - When premiums are considered paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When premiums are considered paid. 408.68 Section 408.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....68 When premiums are considered paid. (a) Payment by check. The premium is considered paid if...

  2. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  3. Developing Potential of Low-carbon Agriculture in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Li Cui-xia; Chen Yao; Fu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the trace of origin and development process of low-carbon economy, the paper defined the concept of low- carbon agriculture. As a case, the development of low-carbon advantage and disadvantage of agriculture in Heilongjiang Province made a systematic analysis of factors; it based on the empirical and comparative analysis of low-carbon development in Heilongjiang Province and put forward countermeasures and suggestions of agriculture. At last, the low-carbon agriculture was prospected in the future.

  4. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Federal Guaranteed Student Loan...

  5. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kocenda, Evnen; Zemcik, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies stochastic discount factor methodology to modeling the foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia. We use weekly data on foreign and domestic currency deposits, which coexist in the Armenian banking system. This coexistence implies elimination of the cross-country risks and transact

  6. Response of Argonne Premium coals to heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, L.L.; Abhari, R.; Ledesma, R.; Tsafantakis, E. (City College, New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    The thermal responses of the Argonne Premium Coals and of the inorganic materials separated from the coals were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetry was used to quantify the mass loss induced due to heating. The energetics of several prepyrolytic processes in the coals were calculated. 24 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPOSITS § 329.103 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be... the balance in a demand deposit account and the duration of the account balance shall not be considered the payment of interest on a demand deposit account and shall not be subject to the limitations...

  8. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  9. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  10. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  11. Experience and Ways of Low-carbon Agriculture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmin; ZHANG; Chunhong; QIN

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,the status quo of low-carbon agriculture development in China was analyzed,and then advanced experience of developed countries in low-carbon agriculture development was introduced,finally ways of developing low-carbon agriculture in China were put forward.

  12. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.

  13. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    to the existing literature of green supply chain management. Findings - The multiple initiatives for standardization each improve the understanding of standardized methods of conducting PCF. At the same time, however, important differences exist between the standards in terms of the modelling framework to be used......Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF......) and to outline how the current developments in PCF support the need for a standardized method to measure and report environmental performance in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is based on a literature review and a review of international standards for PCF which brings knowledge of PCF...

  14. Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development%Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Low carbon agriculture is a new production mode of green agriculture development to face the challenge of the global climate change, and a kind of innovation on developing circular agriculture. Up to now, low carbon agricultural development approaches are lacking of deep and systematical researches. Therefore, the paper briefly analyzed the situation and the existing problems of China's low carbon agricultural development, and then put forward the approaches to promote the low carbon agricultural development.

  15. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  16. Exact and asymptotic results for insurance risk models with surplus-dependent premiums

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecher, Hansjörg; Palmowski, Zbigniew; Regensburger, Georg; Rosenkranz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a symbolic technique to obtain asymptotic expressions for ruin probabilities and discounted penalty functions in renewal insurance risk models when the premium income depends on the present surplus of the insurance portfolio. The analysis is based on boundary problems for linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. The algebraic structure of the Green's operators allows us to develop an intuitive way of tackling the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, leading to exponential-type expansions and Cram\\'er-type asymptotics. Furthermore, we obtain closed-form solutions for more specific cases of premium functions in the compound Poisson risk model.

  17. New Development on the Research of Skill Premium-Based on the Logical Framework of Technology and Trade%技能溢价研究新进展--基于技术和贸易的逻辑框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪; 肖海霞

    2015-01-01

    技能溢价用来解释熟练技能工人与非熟练技能工人之间的工资差距问题。早期的技能溢价研究注重外生偏向型技术和H-O-S框架下南北贸易对技能溢价的影响。技能溢价的新解释则注重内生的技术变化和多元化的贸易形式、工会等制度因素以及人口结构变化等微观因素对技能溢价的影响。介绍和研究技能溢价现象对于解释我国不同技能工人之间的工资差异具有很强的借鉴意义。%The skill premium is mainly used to explain the wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers. The early literatures mainly focus on the effects of the exogenous technical changes and the north-south trade based on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model on the skill premium. However, the recent explanations pay more attention to the impacts of endogenous technical changes,diversified patterns of international trade,institutional fac⁃tors including unions, and other micro factors including demographic structure on the changes of skill premium. The introduction and study of the skill premium would have a strong reference in explaining the wage inequality among the workers with different skills in China.

  18. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  19. Risk premium and insalubrity; Periculosidade e insalubridade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portela, Josmael [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Rosania Lucia [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil). Dept. Juridico

    2005-07-01

    The risk premium and insalubrity have been widely discussed in the legal universe/labor. The social and economic impacts interfere on the right of the professional exposed to ionizing radiation to have or not additional rights. Due to the large accidents, with world repercussion, which occurred in recent times, involving workers undergoing these radiation, these professionals are receiving special attention by the competent bodies on the right or not to risk premium and insalubrity. The professional who operates equipment that emit ionising radiation, or those working directly with radioisotopes are undoubtedly under imminent risk, even if they complied with all safety requirements, thus deserving a more careful analysis by our lawyers with respect to receive additional percentages. Recent decisions of higher Courts begin to consolidate a more just and logical reasoning on the subject.

  20. Risk Premium and Expectations in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castex

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes the risk of college participation into context when evaluating the return to college education. College dropout and a higher permanent income shock for those who graduate from college accounts for 51% of the excess return to college education. Using a simple risk premium approach, I reconcile the observed high average returns to schooling with relatively low attendance rates. A high dropout risk has two important effects on the estimated average returns to college education: ...

  1. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  2. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  3. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  4. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  5. REDD+, RFM, Development, and Carbon Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Chacón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining responsible forest management (RFM experiences with literature reviews and stakeholder discussions allows an assessment of the potential role of RFM in reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. RFM contributes to greater carbon storage and biodiversity in forest biomass in comparison to conventional logging and deforestation. Using an adjusted von Thünen model to explain land user behavior in relation to different variables, considering a general forest transition curve and looking at a potential relation between governance and deforestation rates, the authors conclude that reduction of deforestation and forest degradation can only be achieved by a combined approach of increasing forest rent relative to other land uses and reducing transaction costs for forest management and conservation. More than providing an additional income for a privileged few, REDD+ will need to address the barriers that have been identified in RFM over the past 30 years of investment in forest management and conservation. Most of these are of an institutional nature, but also culture and social organization as well as locally specific development trends play a significant role in increasing the potential for application of RFM and REDD+.

  6. Development strategy research of low-carbon tourist city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaohong

    2017-04-01

    Construction of low-carbon tourist city has become a strategic choice for the development of city construction in our country, becoming the direction and goal of future city development in China. In this paper, the development strategy of low-carbon tourist city is put forward from the aspects of building low-carbon tourism culture, strengthening and perfecting the relevant rules and regulations, establishing and perfecting the decision-making management mechanism of low-carbon tourist city construction, establishing accurate, timely, efficient and comprehensive ecological environment monitoring and supervision network, building economical resource utilization system, strengthening science and technology supporting of low-carbon city construction, establishing low-carbon tourism scenic spot, low-carbon community or low-carbon demonstration area, etc.

  7. Return of premium term life: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Roccy

    2004-01-01

    Physicians who feel they are wasting their money in paying premiums for a typical 30-year-level term life insurance policy may find help in a return-of-premium term life insurance policy. Premiums are higher, but all the money is refunded at the end of the term if the policyholder has not died. Estimates are that 93 percent of policyholders outlive the term of their life insurance.

  8. The liquidity premium in CDS transaction prices: Do frictions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gehde-Trapp, Monika; Gündüz, Yalin; Nasev, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Based on individual CDS transactions cleared by the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, we show that illiquidity strongly affects credit default swap premiums. We identify the following effects: First, transaction direction affects prices, as buy (sell) orders lead to premium increases (decreases). Second, larger transactions have a higher price impact. This finding stands in stark contrast to corporate bond markets. Third, traders charge higher premiums as a price for liquidity provisio...

  9. How to Develop Low-carbon Agriculture in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of low-carbon economy nowadays,the development of agriculture is necessary to adapt to the situation of global economic development,and transform the agricultural development models. This paper firstly gives an overview of low-carbon economy and lowcarbon agriculture,and then points out the possibility of developing the low-carbon agricultural economy in China,and describes the ways to develop the low-carbon agricultural economy. Finally,this paper puts forth the corresponding recommendations for the development of the lowcarbon agricultural economy.

  10. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  12. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... AREAS Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.806 Pro rata... equal to the pro rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which...

  13. Rapid Development of Carbon Fiber Industry in Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Jilin Carbon Fiber Industrial Zone in Liaoning Province has seen a rapid development, forming a complete industrial chain from precursor to carbonization, and then to products. Along with the promotion of a large number of carbon fiber in

  14. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors developed through 'click tailing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marie; Salmon, Adam J; Supuran, Claudiu T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been renewed activity in the literature concerning the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction (1,3-DCR) of organic azides (R-N₃) with alkynes (R'-C≡CH) to form 1,2,3-triazoles, i.e. the Huisgen synthesis. The use of catalytic Cu(I) leads to a dramatic rate enhancement (up to 10(7)-fold) and exclusive synthesis of the 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole product. The reaction, now referred to as the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), meets the stringent criteria of a click-reaction in that it is modular, wide in scope, high yielding, has no byproducts, operates in water at ambient temperature, product purification is simple and the starting materials are readily available. The 1,3-DCR reaction has rapidly become the premier click chemistry reaction with applications spanning modern chemistry disciplines, including medicinal chemistry. Recently the 'tail' approach initiative for the development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) has been combined with the synthetic versatility of click chemistry. This has proven a powerful combination leading to the synthesis of CAIs with useful biopharmaceutical properties and activities. This review will discuss complementary and contrasting applications that have utilized 'click tailing' for the development of CAIs. Applications encompass i) medicinal chemistry and drug discovery; ii) radiopharmaceutical development of positron emission topography (PET) chemical probes; and iii) in situ click chemistry.

  15. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Haiqing L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  16. Development of matrix photoreceivers based on carbon nanotubes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, E. V.; Gerasimenko, A. Y.; Dudin, A. A.; Ichkitidze, L. P.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Orlov, A. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Polokhin, A. A.; Shaman, Yu. P.

    2016-04-01

    The technology of production of matrix photoreceivers based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consisting of 16 sensitive elements was developed. Working wavelength range, performance and sensitivity were studied.

  17. Rating a Wildfire Mitigation Strategy with an Insurance Premium: A Boreal Forest Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Rodriguez-Baca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis entails the systematic use of historical information to determine the frequency, magnitude and effects of unexpected events. Wildfire in boreal North America is a key driver of forest dynamics and may cause very significant economic losses. An actuarial approach to risk analysis based on cumulative probability distributions was developed to reduce the adverse effects of wildfire. To this effect, we developed spatially explicit landscape models to simulate the interactions between harvest, fire and forest succession over time in a boreal forest of eastern Canada. We estimated the amount of reduction of timber harvest necessary to build a buffer stock of sufficient size to cover fire losses and compared it to an insurance premium estimated in units of timber volume from the probability of occurrence and the amount of damage. Overall, the timber harvest reduction we applied was much more costly than the insurance premium even with a zero interest rate. This is due to the fact that the insurance premium is directly related to risk while the timber harvest reduction is not and, as a consequence, is much less efficient. These results, especially the comparison with a standard indicator such as an insurance premium, have useful implications at the time of choosing a mitigation strategy to protect timber supplies against risk without overly diminishing the provision of services from the forest. They are also promoting the use of insurance against disastrous events in forest management planning.

  18. A meta-analysis of the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Ewijk; H.L.F. de Groot; A.J. Santing

    2012-01-01

    The equity premium is a key parameter in asset allocation policies. There is a vigorous debate in the literature regarding the actual measurement of the equity premium, its size and the determinants of its variation. This study aims to take stock of this literature by means of a meta-analysis. We id

  19. 77 FR 41048 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY..., 2012 (77 FR 30377). The final regulations relate to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of...

  20. 78 FR 7264 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and... coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges...

  1. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11...

  2. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4...

  3. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1...

  4. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  5. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  6. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  7. Premium auctions and risk preferences: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Hu, A.; Oechssler, J.

    2014-01-01

    In premium auctions, the highest losing bidder receives a reward from the seller. This paper studies the private value English premium auction (EPA) for different risk attitudes of bidders. We explicitly derive the symmetric equilibrium for bidders with CARA utilities and conduct an experimental stu

  8. 76 FR 79714 - Premium Changes Based On Recharacterization of Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... PBGC. For single- employer plans, premiums include an amount (the variable-rate premium, or VRP) based... reduces any VRP for the current year. If a contribution is characterized as being for the current year, it does not increase plan assets as of the beginning of the current year and thus does not affect VRP for...

  9. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  10. Low Cost Carbon-Carbon Rocket Nozzle Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This development will provide an inexpensive vacuum nozzle manufacturing option for NOFBXTM monopropellant systems that are currently being developed under NASA SBIR...

  11. Analysis on the Development of Low-Carbon Marine Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of low-carbon economy,the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy.It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas;environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes;development of related marine industries brings deterioration of marine environment;changes of climate threat the healthy development of marine economy.The paper points out the development routines of marine low carbon economy:accelerating the innovation of energy techniques,exploring marine renewable green energies;planning scientifically and strengthening the protection and repairmen of marine environment;developing marine recycle economy,upgrading resources using efficiency;adjusting marine industrial structures and exploring greatly the marine low carbon industries;guiding industries to chase chances and accelerating the development of low-carbon marine economy.

  12. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    inferred from their physical and chemical properties. The developed porosity of the activated carbon was a function of the oxygen content, porosity and H/C ratio of the parent unburned carbon feedstock. It was observed that extended activation times and high activation temperatures increased the porosity of the produced activated carbon at the expense of the solid yield. The development of activated carbon from unburned carbon in fly ash has been proven to be a success by this study in terms of the higher surface areas of the resultant activated carbons, which are comparable with commercial activated carbons. However, unburned carbon samples obtained from coal-fired power plants as by-product have high ash content, which is unwanted for the production of activated carbons. Therefore, the separation of unburned carbon from the fly ash is expected to be beneficial for the utilization of unburned carbon to produce activated carbons with low ash content.

  14. Setting of Agricultural Insurance Premium Rate and the Adjustment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-lin

    2012-01-01

    First,using the law of large numbers,I analyze the setting principle of agricultural insurance premium rate,and take the case of setting of adult sow premium rate for study,to draw the conclusion that with the continuous promotion of agricultural insurance,increase in the types of agricultural insurance and increase in the number of the insured,the premium rate should also be adjusted opportunely.Then,on the basis of Bayes’ theorem,I adjust and calibrate the claim frequency and the average claim,in order to correctly adjust agricultural insurance premium rate;take the case of forest insurance for premium rate adjustment analysis.In setting and adjustment of agricultural insurance premium rate,in order to make the expected results well close to the real results,it is necessary to apply the probability estimates in a large number of risk units;focus on the establishment of agricultural risk database,to timely adjust agricultural insurance premium rate.

  15. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  16. Low carbon transition and sustainable development path of tourism industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbing; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Lei; Jin, Shenglang

    2017-05-01

    The low carbon transition is as much a transformative technology shift as it represents a response to global environment challenges. The low carbon paradigm presents a new direction of change for tourism industry. However, the lack of theoretical frameworks on low carbon transformation in tourism industry context provides a significant knowledge gap. This paper firstly investigates the relationships between low carbon and sustainable development, followed by exploring the existing challenges of tourism sustainable development. At last, this paper presents a sustainable development path framework for low carbon transition of tourism industry, which include accelerating deployment of renewable energy, energy-saving green building construction, improving green growth investment, and adopting a sustainable consumption and production system, in order to promote energy and water efficiency, waste management, GHG emissions mitigation and eventually enhance its sustainability.

  17. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    of exclusively using organic fry for production. If the profitability of the primary organic aquaculture producers should be maintained, then farmers must be able to correspondingly receive higher prices, transmitted through the value chain from the retail market. This study identifies the price premium...... for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  18. 42 CFR 408.210 - Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. 408... Insurance Premium Surcharge Agreements § 408.210 Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. (a... before it can request to enter into another SMI premium surcharge agreement....

  19. Development and Characterization of a Carbonated Ginger Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saka Ambali ABDULKAREEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread of effort in developing countries like Nigeria to develop carbonated drink from the locally source materials. To achieve this aim, ginger has been consider as an alternative material for the production of carbonated drink, this is because ginger and its by-products have a lot of applications in confectionaries, pharmaceuticals and beverages production. Apart from the applications of ginger listed above, ginger is also a very important and highly valuable crop in most part of West African, Japan, and China. In this study, ginger soft drink was developed by a combination of fresh ginger rhizome and Carbon dioxide (CO2. The CO2 gas volume was steadily increased to make three (3 samples B, C, and D, while sample A is the non-carbonated sample. All the samples were characterized according to chemical and microbiological analysis of the final product and values obtained from the analysis of the developed ginger soft drink are within the range of standard values for carbonated drink. Shelf-life analysis was carried out on the final product and it corresponds to the Shelf-life of a standard carbonated drink. Sample D with the highest gas volume of 2.8 cm3 has the best Shelf-life. Results obtained from the various analysis conducted indicates that the production of a carbonated ginger soft drink from fresh ginger rhizome is practically possible, cost effective and has numerous advantages when compared with other available carbonated drinks.

  20. The Wage Premium and Market Structure: The Case of South Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Meng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We seek to understand why the difference between wages earned by skilled and unskilled labor, the so-called “wage premium”, varies across developing countries, using South Korea and Taiwan as empirical case studies. South Korea and Taiwan are both small developing countries with export-led economies that enjoy relatively high incomes compared to their Asian counterparts (excluding Japan). Between 1990 and 2000, Taiwan experienced a decrease in the wage premium, while South Korea remained the ...

  1. Development and characterization of Carbon Observing Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Lin, Chao; Zheng, Yuquan; Wang, Wenquan; Tian, Longfei; Liu, Dongbin; Li, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Observing Satellite (Tan-Sat) is the first satellite of China designed to monitor column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide (X) by detecting gas absorption spectra of the solar shortwave infrared radiation reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Two instruments are accommodated on Tan-Sat: the high resolution hyperspectral sensor for carbon observation grating spectrometer (HRHS-GS) and the cloud and aerosol polarimetric imager (CAPI). HRHS-GS will provide the space-based measurements of CO2 on a scale and with the accuracy and precision to quantify terrestrial sources and sinks of CO2. CAPI is used to identify the contamination by optically thick clouds and to minimize the impact of scattering by aerosol. These two instruments work together to collect global column CO2 concentrations with correction for cloud and aerosol contamination. The instrument design of HRHS-GS is presented. Ocean reflectivity and the incident radiation of the instrument for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations in glint mode are discussed. The changes to glint mode operation are described. The spectral characteristics of HRHS-GS were determined through the laser-based spectral calibration. The onboard spectral calibration method based on spectrum matching is introduced. The availability was verified, satisfying the onboard spectral calibration accuracy requirement of better than Δλ/10 (Δλ is spectral resolution).

  2. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1306 Section 890.1306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary...

  4. The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids, Alabamas CHIP Program Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long...

  5. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  6. Premium variation in the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, B; Pauly, M V

    2001-03-01

    Recent proposals to decrease the number of uninsured in the U.S. indicate that the individual health insurance market's role may increase. Amid fears of possible risk-segmentation in individual insurance, there exists limited information of the functioning of such markets. This paper examines the relationship between expected medical expense and actual paid premiums for households with individual insurance in the 1996-1997 Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. We find that premiums vary less than proportionately with expected expense and vary only with certain risk characteristics. We also explore how the relationship between risk and premiums is affected by local regulations and market characteristics. We find that premiums vary significantly less strongly with risk for persons insured by HMOs and in markets dominated by managed care insurers.

  7. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  8. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., a reconciliation of premiums, benefits, and other costs will be performed as a limited cost... Contractor's bank for payment. (c) Nothing in this chapter will affect the ability of the Contractor to...

  9. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  10. International politics of low carbon technology development: carbon capture and storage (CCS) in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kapila, Rudra Vidhumani

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the international political dynamics of developing low carbon technology. Specifically, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology as a climate mitigation strategy in a developing country context is examined. CCS is a technological solution that allows for the continued use of fossil fuels without the large amounts of associated CO2 emissions. This entails capturing the CO2 emitted from large point sources, such as a coal-fired power station, and transport...

  11. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  12. The Forward Premium Anomaly in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nessrine Hamzaoui Aloui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the forward premium anomaly by using two different approaches: the long memory process and Multivariate GARCH. Initially, through the ARFIMA model, we study the properties of the forward premium on foreign exchange markets, including the presence of any long memory. Since the univariate study framework obscures the effect of conditional covariances in the measurement of risk, the transition to a more parsimonious multivariate framework is required. Therefore, we estimate, in a second time, the DCC-MVGARCH model to capture the dynamic links between forward premium series and the spot exchange return. The estimation results argue in favor of a forward premium that exhibits a phenomenon of long memory. In addition, they reveal the existence of a significant correlation sensitivity to shocks following a process of mean reversion and the detection of a strong correlation between these forward premiums and low correlation between the forward premium and the spot exchange return.

  13. Waste polyvinylchloride derived pitch as a precursor to develop carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W M; Yoon, S H; Mochida, I; Yang, J H

    2007-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was successfully recycled through the solvent extraction from waste pipe with an extraction yield of ca. 86%. The extracted PVC was pyrolyzed by a two-stage process (260 and 410 degrees C) to obtain free-chlorine PVC based pitch through an effective removal of chlorine from PVC during the heat-treatment. As-prepared pitch (softening point: 220 degrees C) was spun, stabilized, carbonized into carbon fibers (CFs), and further activated into activated carbon fibers (ACFs) in a flow of CO2. As-prepared CFs show comparable mechanical properties to commercial CFs, whose maximum tensile strength and modulus are 862 MPa and 62 GPa, respectively. The resultant ACFs exhibit a high surface area of 1200 m2/g, narrow pore size distribution and a low oxygen content of 3%. The study provides an effective insight to recycle PVC from waste PVC and develop a carbon precursor for high performance carbon materials such as CFs and ACFs.

  14. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  15. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  16. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  17. 基于随机控制的非寿险保费定价策略%Stochastic control in formulating non-life insurance premium strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂胜; 陈秉正

    2011-01-01

    该文探讨在完全竞争的保险市场条件下如何制定最佳非寿险保费策略,以促进非寿险保险公司的发展。主要运用随机最优控制理论,分别在采取期望最终财富和采取期望效用两种模式下,分析了在相对保费率设定和相机抉择设定下的非寿险保费定价策略,得到了一致的最优保费定价策略;并将该最优保费定价策略应用于简单目标函数分析。结果表明:最优保费定价策略是一致的;最优保费定价策略是要么制定一个很高的保费率,要么制定一个低于某一常数的相对保费率;最优保费率取决于平均损失率和市场平均保费等因素。%An optimal non-life insurance premium strategy in perfectly competitive insurance markets was developed for relative premium rate and trade-off specifications using stochastic control theory for two modes of the expected utility and expected final wealth.The consistent optimal premium strategy is applied to an empirical analysis of a simple objective function.The optimal premium strategy is shown to be consistent with the optimal premium strategy of whether to have a high premium rate or a relative premium rate less than a constant depends on the average loss rate and average market premium.

  18. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Carbon-Carbon Threaded Fasteners for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-Carbon (C-C threaded fasteners have been developed for joining C-C composites experiencing temperature above 1500 ˚C. The fasteners were fabricated from spun yarn graphitized carbon fabric through resin route and from needle punched carbon felt through pitch route techniques. The preforms were processed with multiple cycles of impregnation, carbonisation, and graphitisation up to densities of 1.78 gcm-3 and 1.90 gcm-3. Densification process cycles were repeated to obtain composites with reduced porosity and improved thermo-mechanical properties. Material evaluation of C-C fasteners is discussed and compared with existing graphite fasteners used in industrial and aerospace sectors. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to study microstructure of fractured specimens.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.348-355, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2395

  20. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  2. Development of spin-on carbon hardmasks with comparable etch resistance to Amorphous Carbon Layer (ACL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Hwan-Sung; Yoon, Kyong-Ho; Kim, Min-Soo; Oh, Seung Bae; Song, Jee-Yun; Tokareva, Nataliya; Kim, Jong-Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2008-11-01

    In recent microlithography of semiconductor fabrication, spin-on hardmask (SOH) process continue to gain popularity as it replaces the traditional SiON/ACL hardmask scheme which suffers from high CoO, low productivity, particle contamination, and layer alignment issues. In the SOH process, organic polymer with high carbon content is spin-cast to form a carbon hardmask film. In the previous papers, we reported the development of organic SOH materials and their application in sub-70 nm lithography. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of organic polymers with very high carbon contents (>92 wt.%) and the evaluation of the spin-coated films for the hardmask application. The high carbon content of the polymer ensures improved etch resistance which amounts to >90% of ACL's resistance. However, as the carbon content of the polymers increases, the solubility in common organic solvents becomes lower. Here we report the strategies to improve the solubility of the high carbon content resins and optimization of the film properties for the SOH application.

  3. SKEWNESS OF RETURN DISTRIBUTION AND COEFFICIENT OF RISK PREMIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenghua WEN; Xiaoguang YANG

    2009-01-01

    The skewness of the return distribution is one of the important features of the security price. In this paper, the authors try to explore the relationship between the skewness and the coefficient of risk premium. The coefficient of the risk premium is estimated by a GARCH-M model, and the robust measurement of skewness is calculated by Groeneveld-Meeden method. The empirical evidences for the composite indexes from 33 securities markets in the world indicate that the risk compensation requirement in the market where the return distribution is positively skewed is virtually zero, and the risk compensation requirement is positive in a significant level in the market where the return distribution is negative skewed. Moreover, the skewness is negatively correlated with the coefficient of the risk premium.

  4. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  5. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  6. Quantile regression modeling for Malaysian automobile insurance premium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzi, Mohd Fadzli Mohd; Ismail, Noriszura; Jemain, Abd Aziz

    2015-09-01

    Quantile regression is a robust regression to outliers compared to mean regression models. Traditional mean regression models like Generalized Linear Model (GLM) are not able to capture the entire distribution of premium data. In this paper we demonstrate how a quantile regression approach can be used to model net premium data to study the effects of change in the estimates of regression parameters (rating classes) on the magnitude of response variable (pure premium). We then compare the results of quantile regression model with Gamma regression model. The results from quantile regression show that some rating classes increase as quantile increases and some decrease with decreasing quantile. Further, we found that the confidence interval of median regression (τ = O.5) is always smaller than Gamma regression in all risk factors.

  7. Environmental control on cold-water carbonate mounds development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Raddatz, J.; Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Exp. 307 Scientific Party, Iodp

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are very abundant along the European continental margin in intermediate water depths and are able to build up large mound structures. These carbonate mounds particularly occur in distinct mound provinces on the Irish and British continental margins. Previous investigations resulted in a better understanding of the cold-water coral ecology and the development of conceptual models to explain carbonate mound build-up. Two different hypotheses were evoked to explain the origin and development of carbonate mounds, external versus internal control (e.g., Freiwald et al. 2004 versus e.g. Hovland 1990). Several short sediment cores have been obtained from Propeller Mound, Northern Porcupine Seabight, indicating that cold-water corals grew during interglacial and warm interstadial periods of the Late Pleistocene controlled by environmental and climatic variability supporting the external control hypothesis (e.g. Dorschel et al. 2005, R

  8. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community...

  9. [Financial and economic principles of assessing enterprises' insurance premium for mandatory social worker's compensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosiants, E V; Bal'nova, L G

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyzed present enterprises' insurance premiums, pointed out the associated drawbacks, defined main financial and economic principles underlying determination of enterprise's insurance premium (principle of sufficiency, principle of justice, principle of collective responsibility and principle of stimulation).

  10. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  11. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  12. Carbonate mound development in contrasting settings on the Irish margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, C.; Eisele, M.; Mienis, F; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds, formed by framework building cold-water corals, are found in several mound provinces on the Irish margin. Differences in cold-water coral mound development rates and sediment composition between mounds at the southwest Rockall Trough margin and the Galway Mound in

  13. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  14. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  15. Carbonate mound development in contrasting settings on the Irish margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, C.; Eisele, M.; Mienis, F; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds, formed by framework building cold-water corals, are found in several mound provinces on the Irish margin. Differences in cold-water coral mound development rates and sediment composition between mounds at the southwest Rockall Trough margin and the Galway Mound in

  16. On the Determinants of Equity International Risk Premium: Are Emerging Zones Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Guesmi; Ilyes Abid; Mohamed Hedi Arouri; Frédéric Teulon

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the financial literature by investigating the formation of the international stock risk premium in emerging market zones. Our results from the estimation of a dynamic augmented capital asset pricing model show that the currency risk premium is the most important component of the total premium followed by the global market premium. As for the regional risk, our findings show that it is significantly priced for all studied emerging regions but its contribution to the...

  17. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... extra compensation provided by such premium rate will be treated as an overtime premium if the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.264-2 - Single premium life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single premium life insurance, endowment, or..., directly or indirectly, to purchase or to continue in effect a single premium life insurance or endowment... payee of such annuity contract. A contract is considered a single premium life insurance, endowment,...

  19. 38 CFR 8.5 - Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. 8.5 Section 8.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.5 Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. Deductions from...

  20. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from...

  1. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  2. 5 CFR 892.102 - What is premium conversion and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is premium conversion and how does it work? 892.102 Section 892.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... PREMIUMS Administration and General Provisions § 892.102 What is premium conversion and how does it...

  3. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of collec

  4. 46 CFR 308.547 - Application for return premium, Form MA-317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-317. 308.547... for return premium, Form MA-317. An application for the return of premium must be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on Form MA-317, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  5. 46 CFR 308.527 - Application for return premium, Form MA-307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-307. 308.527... for return premium, Form MA-307. An application for the return of premium, which may be obtained from... MA-307....

  6. 42 CFR 406.33 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... increase: Enrollment. 406.33 Section 406.33 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.33 Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment... premium increase are the months from the end of the initial enrollment period through the end of the...

  7. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  8. 26 CFR 1.803-6 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-6 Amortization of premium... company. A life insurance company which adjusts amortization of premium or accrual of discount with... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of premium and accrual of...

  9. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated TRICARE Young Adult program premiums...

  10. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  11. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  12. 29 CFR 778.201 - Overtime premiums-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.201 Overtime premiums—general..., the extra compensation provided by the premium rates need not be included in the employee's...

  13. 77 FR 41270 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012...

  14. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  15. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equals the amount which bears the same ratio to the capitalization shortfall as the required...) Retired lives reserves. Premiums received by an insurance company under a retired lives reserve... approximated by using the interpolated terminal reserve of the original contract as of the date of the...

  16. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  17. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    2008-01-01

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two objecti

  18. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  19. Portfolio size as funktion of the premium: modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Taksar, Michael I

    An insurance company has a large number N of potential customers characterized by i.i.d. r.v.'s A1,…,AN giving the arrival rates of claims. Customers are risk averse, and a customer accepts an offered premium p according to his A-value. The modeling further involves a discount rate d>r of customers...

  20. A Low Carbon Development Strategy with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    @@ Now one of the world largest CO2 emitters, China faces increasing pressure to reduce its emissions. Being a responsible country, it will take action to tackle climate change. When developing its mitigation target, China will consider such factors as the levels of development and technology know-how, social impacts, international image and a new international climate regime underpinned by fairness and effectiveness. China will move onto a win-win low carbon development path to achieve climate protection, quality economic development and other related policy targets.

  1. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  2. Development of diamond powder filled carbon fibre pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glitza, K. W.; Mättig, P.; Sanny, B.; Schmitt, U.; Siegfanz, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    2017-08-01

    For the High Luminosity (HL) phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pixel detectors have to meet new and unprecedented challenges for electronics, read-out band widths and also mechanical support and cooling. Traditionally the mechanical support structures (staves) are built from carbon based materials, embedding a metallic cooling pipe through which the cooling liquid, typically CO2, is circulated. In this paper the development and use of a carbon pipe is discussed. Compared to the metallic pipes carbon pipes have potentially advantages like lightness, low radio activation and no CTE mismatch. Their disadvantage of lower transversal thermal conductivity can be mitigated by filling the fabric with diamond powder (DP). The paper reports about the production process of carbon pipes with DP filled epoxy and cyanate ester resin. It discusses that this process leads with reasonable efficiency to pipes that meet the requirements of pressure stability up to 200 bars and leak tightness of 10-6mbarLs-1 for use in HL-LHC staves. The remaining problems and an outlook on potential improvements and further work are presented.

  3. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  4. Development and characterization of carbon-bonded carbon fiber insulation for radioisotope space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), an improved radioisotope heat source, employs a unique thermal insulation material, carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF), to protect the fuel capsule and to help achieve the highest possible specific power. The CBCF insulation is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF shapes, both tubes and plates, are formed in a multiple molding facility by vacuum molding a water slurry of the carbonized chopped-rayon fiber (54 wt %) and phenolic resin (46 wt %). The molded shapes are subsequently dried and cured. Final carbonization of the resin is at 1600/sup 0/C. Machining to close tolerances (+-0.08 mm) is accomplished by conventional tooling and fixturing. The resulting material is an excellent lightweight insulation with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W(m.K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF superior to other known high-temperature insulation materials for the GPHS application have been identified. It has the excellent attributes of light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the GPHS application; it has passed vibration tests simulating launch conditions. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to incease the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. We report here how work on CBCF characterization and development conducted at ORNL from 1978 through 1980 has contributed to the GPHS program to meet the requirements of both the Galileo and Ulysees Missions.

  5. Developing a molecular platform for potential carbon dioxide fixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to develop a new system for fixing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The proposed molecular system has been designed to have the capacity to spontaneously bind CO2 from the atmosphere with high affinity. The molecular system is furthermore designed to have the abi...... with bound CO2. One class of molecules that undergo a reaction compatible with our purposal is the merocyanine dyes that exhibit photochromic properties. Based on this structural class of molecules, a system for the potential fixing of CO2 has been developed....

  6. Research on Development of Low-carbon Tourism of Jiangxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-ping, Xiong

    2017-03-01

    Jiangxi is rich in tourism resources. A lot of tourists are attracted to Jiangxi for sightseeing and traveling, which has not only brought economic benefits, but also caused damage to the beautiful ecological environment of Jiangxi to a certain extent. This paper analyzes the rich resources and policies of Jiangxi and the problem of environmental disruption faced by the tourism development of Jiangxi. On this basis, the paper suggests the concept and measures for promoting the low-carbon tourism of Jiangxi so that the tourism industry of Jiangxi can develop sustainably.

  7. The development of high precision carbon fiber composite mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiao-teng; Wang, Yong-jie; Xie, Yong-jie; Ma, Zhen; Fan, Xue-wu

    2016-10-01

    Due to low density, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient, duplicate molding, etc., carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is one of the potential materials of the optical mirror. The process developed for Φ300mm high precision CFRP mirror described in this paper. A placement tool used to improve laying accuracy up to ± 0.1°.A special reinforced cell structure designed to increase rigidity and thermal stability. Optical replication process adopted for surface modification of the carbon fiber composite mirror blank. Finally, surface accuracy RMS of Φ300mm CFRP mirror is 0.22μm, surface roughness Ra is about 2nm, and the thermal stability can achieve 13nm /°C from the test result. The research content is of some reference value in the infrared as well as visible light applications.

  8. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  9. Fuzzy-probabilistic multi agent system for breast cancer risk assessment and insurance premium assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatari, Farzaneh; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Sabahi, Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an agent-based system for distributed risk assessment of breast cancer development employing fuzzy and probabilistic computing. The proposed fuzzy multi agent system consists of multiple fuzzy agents that benefit from fuzzy set theory to demonstrate their soft information (linguistic information). Fuzzy risk assessment is quantified by two linguistic variables of high and low. Through fuzzy computations, the multi agent system computes the fuzzy probabilities of breast cancer development based on various risk factors. By such ranking of high risk and low risk fuzzy probabilities, the multi agent system (MAS) decides whether the risk of breast cancer development is high or low. This information is then fed into an insurance premium adjuster in order to provide preventive decision making as well as to make appropriate adjustment of insurance premium and risk. This final step of insurance analysis also provides a numeric measure to demonstrate the utility of the approach. Furthermore, actual data are gathered from two hospitals in Mashhad during 1 year. The results are then compared with a fuzzy distributed approach.

  10. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand

  11. Introduction to low-carbon innovation and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Iizuka, Michiko; Walz, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This special issue seeks to bring together the fields of low-carbon development (LCD) and innovation studies. It contributes to the debate by addressing how the learning, innovation, and competence-building lens adds to the discussion about the development outcomes of climate change mitigation....... The aim of this introductory article is fourfold. First, it discusses key advances in the debate about the role of innovation and competence building in LCD in developing countries. Second, it seeks to add to the debate by paying particular attention to the heterogeneity of developing countries in terms...... of the context and innovative capacity for LCD. Third, it addresses the challenges to policy arising from such differentiated starting points. Finally, it sets forth the insights from the articles in this issue and the implications for future research....

  12. On asset pricing and the equity premium puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Presented here are consumption and production related asset pricing models which seek to explain stock market behaviour through the stock premium over risk-free bonds and to do so using parameter values consistent with theory. Our results show that there are models capable of explaining stock market behaviour. For the consumption-based model, we avoid many of the suggestions to artificiall...

  13. The Value Premium on the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    A number of influential studies have documented a strong value premium for US stocks over the period 1963 to 1990 (Fama and French (1992), Lakonishok et al. (1994)). Stocks with low price-earnings multiples, price-book values and other measures of value are reported to have given a higher mean re......,98)) or mispricing as emphasized by the Behavioral Finance School (Chan et al. (2000), Lakonishok et al. (1994) and La Porta et al. (1997))....

  14. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  15. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  16. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  17. Development Trends in Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bolisetty; Sreedhar, Inkollu; Suresh, Pathi; Raghavan, Kondapuram Vijaya

    2015-11-03

    Accumulation of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere leading to global warming with undesirable climate changes has been a serious global concern. Major power generation in the world is from coal based power plants. Carbon capture through pre- and post- combustion technologies with various technical options like adsorption, absorption, membrane separations, and chemical looping combustion with and without oxygen uncoupling have received considerable attention of researchers, environmentalists and the stake holders. Carbon capture from flue gases can be achieved with micro and meso porous adsorbents. This review covers carbonaceous (organic and metal organic frameworks) and noncarbonaceous (inorganic) porous adsorbents for CO2 adsorption at different process conditions and pore sizes. Focus is also given to noncarbonaceous micro and meso porous adsorbents in chemical looping combustion involving insitu CO2 capture at high temperature (>400 °C). Adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods are discussed. Attention is given to isosteric heats and characterization techniques. The options to enhance the techno-economic viability of carbon capture techniques by integrating with CO2 utilization to produce industrially important chemicals like ammonia and urea are analyzed. From the reader's perspective, for different classes of materials, each section has been summarized in the form of tables or figures to get a quick glance of the developments.

  18. Carbonate mound development in contrasting settings on the Irish margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Land, Cees; Eisele, Markus; Mienis, Furu; de Haas, Henk; Hebbeln, Dierk; Reijmer, John J. G.; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds, formed by framework building cold-water corals, are found in several mound provinces on the Irish margin. Differences in cold-water coral mound development rates and sediment composition between mounds at the southwest Rockall Trough margin and the Galway Mound in the Porcupine Seabight are investigated. Variations in sediment composition in the two mound provinces are related to the local environmental conditions and sediment sources. Mound accumulation rates are possibly higher at the Galway Mound probably due to a higher influx of hemipelagic fine grained non-carbonate sediments. In both cold-water coral mound areas, mound growth has been continuous for the last ca 11,000 years, before this period several hiatuses and unconformities exist in the mound record. The most recent unconformity can be correlated across multiple mounds and mound provinces at the Irish margin on the basis of apparent age. On the southwest Rockall Trough margin these hiatuses/unconformities are associated with post-depositional aragonite dissolution in, and lithification of, certain intervals, while at Galway Mound no lithification occurs. This study revealed that the influx and types of material transported to cold-water coral mounds may have a direct impact on the carbonate mound accumulation rate and on post-depositional processes. Significantly, the Logachev Mounds on the SW Rockall Trough margin accumulate slower but, because they contain lithified layers, are less susceptible to erosion. This net effect may account for their larger size compared to the Belgica Mounds.

  19. MNASA as a Test for Carbon Fiber Thermal Barrier Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paul; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope thermal barrier is being evaluated as a replacement for the conventional room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle joints. Performance requirements include its ability to cool any incoming, hot propellant gases that fill and pressurize the nozzle joints, filter slag and particulates, and to perform adequately in various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (MNASA) motors, with their inherent and unique ability to replicate select RSRM internal environment features, were an integral step in the development path leading to full scale RSRM static test demonstration of the carbon fiber rope (CFR) joint concept. These 1/4 scale RSRM motors serve to bridge the gap between the other classes of subscale test motors (extremely small and moderate duration, or small scale and short duration) and the critical asset RSRM static test motors. A series of MNASA tests have been used to demonstrate carbon fiber rope performance and have provided rationale for implementation into a full-scale static motor and flight qualification.

  20. COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

    2001-07-01

    The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

  1. Benefits of Low Carbon Development Strategies in Emerging Cities of Developing Country: a Case of Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Raj Shakya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kathmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in South Asia facing various challenges related to climate change, local pollutants emissions and energy security of supply. This study analysed the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in different economic sectors of the city by using Long-range Energy Planning (LEAP frame work. It shows that the effect of implementing various low carbon development strategy options can reduce 35.2% of total greenhouse gas emission from energy use as compared to the base case scenario in 2030. This indicates the need for exploring the possibility of utilizing the global climate funds and adopting voluntary mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. The estimated demand side technology investment cost of low carbon measures for different sectors ranges from less than US$ 1/tonne CO2e for residential sector to US$ 99/tonne CO2e for transport sector. The low carbon options also results co-benefits in terms of significant reduction in emission of local pollutants and improvement of energy security. As Government of Nepal has envisioned following low carbon economic development path on the long run, there is the need of establishment of regulatory framework, institutional framework and development of clear action plans for realizing the implementation of low carbon development strategy measures in the country.

  2. New and future developments in catalysis activation of carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Suib, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. This volume presents a complete picture of all carbon dioxide (CO2) sources, outlines the environmental concerns regarding CO2, and critica

  3. Development of Electron Gun of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Yasufumi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Sugimura, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    We are developing high brightness electron guns utilizing carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. Recently, we succeeded to achieved field emission currents to 0.2 A (3 A/cm2) from a triode type CNT cathode of 3 mm diameter. The emission tests were performed at DC100kV acceleration voltage in pulse operations of 50 Hz using 6 nsec pulses. The emission currents were very stable for long term periods of 3 weeks. Photo emission tests from CNT cathode by 266nm laser pulses is also due to be reported simultaneously.

  4. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  5. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capital of China, is under the high pressure of climate change and pollution. The consumption of non-renewable energy is one of the most important sources of the CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modelling towards renewable...... energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modelling is organized in two steps to explore the alternative renewable energy system in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy......PLAN, an energy system analysis tool, is chosen to develop the reference energy model. Secondly, this reference model is used to investigate the alternative energy system for integrating renewable energies. Three scenarios are developed towards the energy system of Beijing in 2030, which are: (i) reference...

  6. Energy modeling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modeling is organized in two steps to explore the potential renewable energy alternative in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy......PLAN, an energy system analysis tool, is chosen to develop the reference energy model. Secondly, this reference model is used to investigate the alternative energy system for integrating renewable energies. Three scenarios are developed towards the energy system of Beijing in 2030, which are: (i) reference...... scenario 2030, (ii) BAU (business as usual) scenario 2030 and (iii) RES (renewable energies) scenario 2030. The results shows that the share of renewables can increase to 100% of electricity and heat production in the RE scenario. The primary fuel consumption is reduced to 155.9 TWh, which is 72 % of fuel...

  7. Low carbon development and poverty alleviation. Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funder, M.; Fjalland, J.; Munk Ravnborg, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a desk study on 'Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation'. The main objective of the study is to identify options for combining low carbon development pathways with poverty reduction and economic growth in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), as part of efforts to target development assistance to address both poverty and global warming problems. The report discusses the pros and cons of climate change mitigation measures that also support poverty alleviation and economic development within the energy, agriculture and forestry sectors. It concludes with a series of recommendations for development cooperation.

  8. The Systematic Development and Pilot Randomized Evaluation of Counselling for Alcohol Problems, a Lay Counselor‐Delivered Psychological Treatment for Harmful Drinking in Primary Care in India: The PREMIUM Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite harmful drinking causing a significant burden on global health, there is a large treatment gap, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A major barrier to care is the lack of adequately skilled human resources to deliver contextually appropriate treatments. This paper describes the systematic process used to develop Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP), a brief psychological treatment (PT) for delivery by lay counselors in routine primary care settings to men wit...

  9. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  10. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  11. Development of electrochemical oxidase biosensors based on carbon nanotube-modified carbon film electrodes for glucose and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Pauliukaite, Rasa; Brett, Christopher M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2008-10-01

    Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were cast on glassy carbon (GC) and carbon film electrodes (CFE), and were characterised electrochemically and applied in a glucose-oxidase-based biosensor. MWCNT-modified carbon film electrodes were then used to develop an alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) biosensor, in which AlcOx-BSA was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and attached by drop-coating. The experimental conditions, applied potential and pH, for ethanol monitoring were optimised, and ethanol was determined amperometrically at -0.3 V vs. SCE at pH 7.5. Electrocatalytic effects of MWCNT were observed with respect to unmodified carbon film electrodes. The sensitivity obtained was 20 times higher at carbon film/MWCNT-based biosensors than without MWCNT. (author)

  12. Foreign Exchange Risk Premium; Does Fiscal Policy Matter? Evidence From Italian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Giorgianni

    1997-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional view that foreign exchange risk premiums are small, not volatile, and unrelated to macroeconomic variables. For the Italian lira (1987-94), unconditional risk premiums—constructed using survey data to measure exchange rate expectations—are found to be sizable (relative to the dimension of the forward premium), highly volatile (relative to the variability of the forward bias), and predictable. Estimation of structural models of the risk premium suggests t...

  13. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  14. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  15. Development of Diamond-like Carbon Fibre Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口勝美; 洞口巌; 竹内雅之

    2004-01-01

    A unique diamond-like carbon (DLC) grinding wheel was developed, in which the DLC fibres were made by rolling Al sheets coated with DLC films and aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface by laminating Al sheets together with DLC fibres. In this paper, the formation process of DLC fibres and the fabrication process of a DLC fibre wheel were investigated. Many grinding experiments were also carried out on a precision NC plane milling machine using a newly developed DLC wheel. Grinding of specimens of silicon wafers, optical glasses, quartz, granites and hardened die steel SKD11 demonstrated the capabilities of nanometer surface finish. A smooth surface with a roughness value of Ra2.5nm (Ry26nm) was achieved.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  18. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  20. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  1. Research on the Development of Green Finance in Shenzhen to Boost the Carbon Trading Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiping; Xiong, Siqin; Zhou, Yucheng; Zou, Zijian; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyses the current development situations of Shenzhen carbon trading market and China’s green finance, and makes the policy recommendations for promoting the carbon trading market by developing green finance in Shenzhen. Shenzhen should take the lead in driving the localized application of green principle, and formulate Shenzhen green bond guidelines ASAP, to promote carbon trading associated enterprises to finance by using green bonds; it shall work to lower the threshold for financial institutions to participate in carbon trading market, and explore development of carbon derivatives.

  2. Development of Glassy Carbon Blade for LHC Fast Vacuum Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, P

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected gas inrush in a vacuum chamber leads to the development of a fast pressure wave. It carries small particles that can compromise functionality of sensitive machine systems such as the RF cavities or kickers. In the LHC machine, it has been proposed to protect this sensitive equipment by the installation of fast vacuum valves. The main requirements for the fast valves and in particular for the blade are: fast closure in the 20 ms range, high transparency and melting temperature in case of closure with beam in, dust free material to not contaminate sensitive adjacent elements, and last but not least vacuum compatibility and adequate leak tightness across the blade. In this paper, different designs based on a vitreous carbon blade are presented and a solution is proposed. The main reasons for this material choice are given. The mechanical study of the blade behaviour under dynamic forces is shown.

  3. Development of carbon nanotube-reinforced hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kealley, Catherine [Department of Chemistry, Materials and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW (Australia); Elcombe, Margaret [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia); Ben-Nissan, Besim [Department of Chemistry, Materials and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: Besim.Ben-Nissan@uts.edu.au

    2006-11-15

    This paper reports development of a production method to create a composite material that is biocompatible, which will have high mechanical strength and resilience, and be able to withstand exposure to the physiological environment. The chemical precipitation conditions necessary for the production of single-phase synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a HAp and carbon nanotube (CNT) composite material have been optimised. Neutron diffraction patterns collected before and after sintering show that the nanotubes have remained intact within the structure, while most of the remaining soot has burnt off. Small-angle neutron scattering, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), also shows preservation of the CNTs. Hot isostatically pressed samples showed excellent densification. Neutron diffraction data has enabled the positions of the hydroxide bonds to be determined, and shown that the addition of the CNTs has had no effect on the structural parameters of the HAp phase, with the exception of a slight reduction in the unit cell parameter a.

  4. The impact of financial development on carbon emissions: An empirical analysis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuejun, E-mail: zyjmis@126.co [School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China) and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Given the complexity between China's financial development and carbon emissions, this paper uses some econometric techniques, including cointegration theory, Granger causality test, variance decomposition, etc., to explore the influence of financial development on carbon emissions. Results indicate that, first, China's financial development acts as an important driver for carbon emissions increase, which should be taken into account when carbon emissions demand is projected. Second, the influence of financial intermediation scale on carbon emissions outweighs that of other financial development indicators but its efficiency's influence appears by far weaker although it may cause the change of carbon emissions statistically. Third, China's stock market scale has relatively larger influence on carbon emissions but the influence of its efficiency is very limited. This to some extent reflects the relatively lower liquidity in China's stock markets. Finally, among financial development indicators, China's FDI exerts the least influence on the change of carbon emissions, due to its relatively smaller volume compared with GDP; but it is mainly utilized in carbon intensive sectors now, therefore, with the increase of China's FDI in the future, many efforts should be made to adapt its utilizing directions and play its positive role in promoting low-carbon development. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper explores the influence of financial development on carbon emissions. {yields} China's financial development appears to be an important driver for carbon emissions increase. {yields} The influence of financial intermediation scale on carbon emissions outweighs that of other indicators. {yields} China's stock market scale has relatively larger influence on carbon emissions but the influence of its efficiency is very limited. {yields} China's FDI exerts the least influence on carbon emissions change, due to its relatively

  5. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell, J., and S. Thompson (2008): “Predicting the Equity Premium Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?”, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1511-1531, we show that we can improve the forecast performance further...

  6. Ion exchange properties of Wyodak premium coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-08-23

    Low rank coals (lignite and subbituminous) contain exchangeable cations. A sample of {minus}20+200 mesh Argonne Premium Wyodak coal was washed with nitric acid in a burette fitted with a coarse glass frit at the base of the graduations to remove the exchangeable cations from the system. The eluent was passed to a flow-through pH electrode and a titration curve was obtained on a computer file. A series of electrodes (pH, calcium, sodium and potassium) were used in separate experiments to follow the elution from the coal. Some implications for coal structure are also indicated.

  7. The equity premium puzzle and emotional asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Marc; Hartmann, Nora

    2004-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  8. How you count carbon matters: implications of differing cookstove carbon credit methodologies for climate and development cobenefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Olivia E; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-12-16

    The opportunity to apply for carbon credits for cookstove projects creates a source of funding that can be leveraged to promote the "win-win" environmental and development benefits of improved cookstoves. Yet, as in most environment-development efforts, unacknowledged trade-offs exist under the all-encompassing "win-win" claims. This study therefore compares different scenarios for calculating cookstove carbon credits, including comparing different types of stoves using different fuels, different methodologies and theoretical scenarios to account for a range of climate-relevant emissions. The results of the study highlight the following: 1) impacts of different assumptions made within carbon credit methodologies, 2) discussion around potential trade-offs in such projects, and 3) considerations needed to truly promote sustainable development. The Gold Standard methodology was more comprehensive in its accounting and generally calculated more carbon credits per scenario than the Clean Development Mechanism methodology. Including black carbon in calculations would be more reflective of climate-relevant stove emissions and greatly increase the number of credits calculated. As health and other development benefits are not inherently included in carbon credit calculations, to achieve "win-win" outcomes, deliberate decisions about project design need to be made to ensure objectives are met and not simply assumed.

  9. Comparative study on CO2 sources in soil developed on carbonate rock and non-carbonate rock in Central Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎廷宇; 王世杰; 郑乐平

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, by using concentration and carbon stable isotope the CO2 sources of soil profiles developed on limestone, dolostone and claystone basements in Central Guizhou, China are comparatively studied. The results show that CO2 concentration of soil profiles developed on different basements is different, having the following sequence: limestone>dolostone>claystone. Below the soil depth of 20 cm from the surface the ? 13C value of CO2 in soil profile developed on limestone ranges from -12.811‰ - -13.492‰(PDB), that in soil profile developed on dolostone varys from -13.212‰ - -14.271‰(PDB) and that in soil profile developed on claystone is about -20.234‰ - -21.485‰(PDB). Taking the carbon isotope of soil organic matter and carbonate rock as two isotopic endmembers, the proportion of soil CO2 generated by dissolution of carbonate rock is calculated, about 21%-25% for soil profile developed on limestone basement, 19%-21% for soil profile developed on dolostone basement. There is almost no influx of CO2 generated by the dissolution of carbonate rock in soil profile developed on claystone basement.

  10. Current Status and Development Prospect of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon sequestration forestry plays an important role in climate change and global warming mitigation, and thus gains more and more attention around the world. The paper introduced the concept, the significance and the status of carbon sequestration forestry in China, discussed existing issues and put forward countermeasures and suggestions to address these issues. Finally, development prospect of carbon sequestration forestry was analyzed.

  11. Inter-laboratory comparison II: CO{sub 2} isotherms measured on moisture-equilibrated Argonne premium coals at 55 C and up to 15 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.L.; Romanov, V.; Schroeder, K.; White, C.M. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Busch, A.; Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B.M. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Bustin, R.M.; Chikatamarla, L. [University of British Columbia, Earth and Ocean Sciences, Vancouver (Canada); Day, S.; Duffy, G.J.; Sakurovs, R. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Fitzgerald, J.E.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Jing, C.; Mohammed, S.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Hartman, C.; Pratt, T. [TICORA Geosciences, Inc.19000 West Hwy. 72, Suite 100, Arvada, CO 80007 (United States)

    2007-11-22

    Sorption isotherms, which describe the coal's gas storage capacity, are important for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of coal seams. This study investigated the inter-laboratory reproducibility of carbon dioxide isotherm measurements on moisture-equilibrated Argonne premium coal samples (Pocahontas No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah Zap). Six independent laboratories provided isotherm data on the three moisture-equilibrated coal samples at 55 C and pressures up to 15 MPa. Agreement among the laboratories was good up to 8 MPa. At the higher pressures, the data among the laboratories diverged significantly for two of the laboratories and coincided reasonably well for four of the laboratories. (author)

  12. Development of Electro-Microbial Carbon Capture and Conversion Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa S.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is a viable resource, if used as a raw material for bioprocessing. It is abundant and can be collected as a byproduct from industrial processes. Globally, photosynthetic organisms utilize around 6’000 TW (terawatt) of solar energy to fix ca. 800 Gt (gigaton) of CO2 in the planets largest carbon-capture process. Photosynthesis combines light harvesting, charge separation, catalytic water splitting, generation of reduction equivalents (NADH), energy (ATP) production and CO2 fixation into one highly interconnected and regulated process. While this simplicity makes photosynthetic production of commodity interesting, yet photosynthesis suffers from low energy efficiency, which translates in an extensive footprint for solar biofuels production conditions that store < 2% of solar energy. Electron transfer processes form the core of photosynthesis. At moderate light intensity, the electron transport chains reach maximum transfer rates and only work when photons are at appropriate wavelengths, rendering the process susceptible to oxidative damage, which leads to photo-inhibition and loss of efficiency. Based on our fundamental analysis of the specialized tasks in photosynthesis, we aimed to optimize the efficiency of these processes separately, then combine them in an artificial photosynthesis (AP) process that surpasses the low efficiency of natural photosynthesis. Therefore, by combining photovoltaic light harvesting with electrolytic water splitting or CO2 reduction in combination with microbiological conversion of electrochemical products to higher valuable compounds, we developed an electro-microbial carbon capture and conversion setups that capture CO2 into the targeted bioplastic; polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Based on the type of the electrochemical products, and the microorganism that either (i) convert products formed by electrochemical reduction of CO2, e.g. formate (using inorganic cathodes), or (ii) use electrochemically produced H2 to reduce CO2

  13. 5 CFR 550.107 - Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual limitation otherwise applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.107 Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual...

  14. Research on the Influence of Carbon Tax on Carbon Emission and Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Luo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax is one of ways to cut the emissions of GHG, which has already been employed by the west. To study the effect of carbon tax on energy conservation and carbon reduction in China, a new model is constructed based on dynamic CGE model and the linkage of dynamic CGE model and energy technology model. Besides the improvement of technology of energy, if carbon taxation is employed, the goal to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 compared with 2005 need to levy a tax of 60 yuan at least per tonne, the simulations of this tax to carbon reduction, economic and income of residents are analysed under different circumstances, the results shows that there is a great impact on income of residents and GDP with a higher tax burden level.

  15. Optimal dynamic premium control in non-life insurance. Maximizing dividend pay-outs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of finding optimal dynamic premium policies in non-life insurance. The reserve of a company is modeled using the classical Cramér-Lundberg model with premium rates calculated via the expected value principle. The company controls dynamically the relative safety...

  16. Insurance premium reductions. A motivating factor in long-term hypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M; Rafter, J; Gajewski, J

    1984-02-10

    Elevated blood pressure substantially increases mortality and requires, therefore, high premium payments for life insurance coverage. Most life insurance companies are willing to reduce the cost of yearly premiums when blood pressure is successfully treated and controlled for several years. Physicians should bring these facts to their patients' attention as a motivating factor to improve adherence to therapy.

  17. 42 CFR 408.112 - Refund of excess premiums after the enrollee dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... after the enrollee dies. If CMS has received premiums for months after the enrollee's death, CMS refunds... made under paragraph (a) of this section, CMS refunds the premiums to the enrollee's survivors in the... security or railroad retirement benefits on the basis of the same earnings record as the...

  18. Effects of tort reforms and other factors on medical malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, S; Bovbjerg, R R; Sloan, F

    1990-01-01

    We use state-level data on physician malpractice premiums, claims, and awards, provided by insurance companies for the years 1974 to 1986, to evaluate the effectiveness of the various tort reforms that have been legislated during the 1970s and 1980s. In addition to the tort reforms, our analysis of premiums considers insurers' anticipated losses, returns on investments, the type of insurer, and premium regulation. Our results suggest that the only reforms that significantly lower premiums are those that either impose a cap on the amount of physician liability or reduce the amount of time a plaintiff has to initiate a claim. We also find that premiums are lower when states regulate rates by requiring prior approval of premiums. In addition, it appears that the observed cyclicality in premiums is due, in part, to fluctuations in the real interest rates available to insurers as returns on investments. Unfortunately, we did not find as strong a link between the determinants of premiums, claims, and awards as might be expected.

  19. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...-9957-CN; 9964-CN] RIN 0938-AR82; RIN 0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program... Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and Market Standards... and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and...

  20. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing... of the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA... return to the market by ensuring FHA is not under-pricing its risk. In addition to announcing MIPs for FY...

  1. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 2): Numerical model development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    The authors develop a numerical model to elucidate time-distributed processes controlling sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst. Sediment carbon processes simulated in the new numerical model include in-conduit erosion and deposition, sediment carbon transport, surficial fine grained laminae evolution, carbon pool mixing, microbial oxidation, and the understudied process of sediment carbon exchange during equilibrium transport. The authors perform a model evaluation procedure that includes generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation to quantify uncertainty of the model results. Modeling results suggest that phreatic karst conduits sustain sediment transport activity long after surface storm events cease. The sustained sediment transport has the potential to shift the baseflow sediment yield of the phreatic karst to be on par with stormflow sediment yield. The sustained activity is suggested to promote the exchange of sediment carbon between the water column and subsurface karst deposits during equilibrium sediment transport conditions. In turn, the sediment carbon exchange impacts the mixing of new and old carbon pools and the flux of carbon from phreatic karst. Integrated numerical model results from this study support the concept that phreatic karst act as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that temporarily stores sediment, turns over carbon at higher rates than surface streams, and recharges degraded carbon back to the fluvial system. The numerical modeling method adopted in this paper shows the efficacy of coupling carbon isotope fingerprinting with water quality modeling to study sediment carbon in phreatic karst.

  2. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  4. Hydro and nuclear power for African less-carbon development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gazzar, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Yassin Mohamed; Bedrous, Maher Aziz

    2007-07-01

    Though the overall picture reveal availability of enormous energy resources which far exceed energy requirements of Africa, most of these resources are grossly underutilized, particularly hydro and nuclear resources. It suggests that Africa's problem is not lack of energy resources but its development and utilization. The region will remain a major net exporter of energy for several decades to com. In dealing with its energy problems Africa faces a unique set of initial conditions, defined mainly by its level and pattern of economic growth, social and demographic characteristics, energy resource endowment, location distances between supply sources and consumption areas, technological underdevelopment, and poverty-driven energy-environment conflict. A key challenge is the optimal utilization of the Africa's energy resources to facilitate both individual country and regional energy and economic development. Stronger emphasis on a more integrated energy supply network based on more widespread regional initiatives, particularly in electricity is essential to sustainable energy development in Africa. This paper discusses the prospects for hydro and nuclear power in Africa. The continent is the poorest in the world. The lack of reliable, accessible and affordable energy hinders its development. Hydro and nuclear power promises to be the least-carbon energy sources, while being the cheapest and most reliable among all. The role the hydropower can play in securing a sustainable energy future for Africa is highly emphasized. Also, nuclear power has many advantages to Africa. Opportunities for hydropower and nuclear power in Africa are all considered. Advantages and disadvantages are also all discussed. (auth)

  5. Developing an Enzyme Mediated Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Post, W. M.; Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schadt, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We developed the Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model in order to mechanistically model the decomposition of soil organic carbon (C). This presentation is an overview of the concept and development of the model and of the design of complementary lab-scale experiments. The model divides soil C into five pools of particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved, microbial, and enzyme organic C (Wang et al. 2012). There are three input types - cellulose, lignin, and dissolved C. Decomposition is mediated via microbial extracellular enzymes using the Michaelis-Menten equation, resulting in the production of a common pool of dissolved organic C. Parameters for the Michaelis-Menten equation are obtained through a literature review (Wang and Post, 2012a). The dissolved C is taken up by microbial biomass and proportioned according to microbial maintenance and growth, which were recalculated according to Wang and Post (2012b). The model allows dissolved C to undergo adsorption and desorption reactions with the mineral-associated C, which was also parameterized based upon a literature review and complementary laboratory experiments. In the lab, four 14C-labeled substrates (cellulose, fatty acid, glucose, and lignin-like) were incubated with either the particulate C pool, the mineral-associated C pool, or to bulk soils. The rate of decomposition was measured via the production of 14CO2 over time, along with incorporation into microbial biomass, production of dissolved C, and estimation of sorbed C. We performed steady-state and dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses under temperature increases of 1-5°C for a period of 100 y. Simulations indicated an initial decrease in soil organic C consisting of both cellulose and lignin pools. Over longer time intervals (> 6 y), however, a shrinking microbial population, a concomitant decrease in enzyme production, and a decrease in microbial carbon use efficiency together decreased CO2 production and resulted in greater

  6. PENGARUH KEBIJAKAN HARGA BBM, JUMLAH SEPEDA MOTOR, PENDAPATAN PERKAPITA TERHADAP KONSUMSI PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi BBM di Indonesia semakin meningkat karena meningkatnya pendapatan masyarakat, jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kebijakan harga BBM, kendaraan bermotor (motor, pendapatan perkapita terhadap konsumsi BBM (Premium. Objek penelitian ini adalah konsumsi BBM di Republik Indonesia kurun waktu 1985-2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier Berganda dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kebijakan harga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap konsumsi premium, pendapatan per kapita  berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, jumlah sepeda motor berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, serta harga BBM, pendapatan perkapita, dan jumlah sepeda motor secara serentak berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium. Fuel consumption in Indonesia is increasing due to rising incomes, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fuel price policy, motor vehicles (motorcycles, per capita income on the consumption of fuel (Premium. The object of this study is the fuel consumption in the Republic of Indonesia period 1985-2014. The design of this research study with a quantitative approach. Analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Ordinary Least Square method (OLS. Based on the results of this study concluded that the pricing policies have a significant effect on the consumption of premium, per capita income has positive influence on consumption of premium, the number of motorcycles positive effect on premium consumption, as well as fuel prices, per capita income, and the number of motorcycles simultaneously positive effect on consumption of premium.

  7. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and... § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a) Effective July 23, 1953, all or any part of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan...

  8. Development of Reproducing Alumina-Magnesia-Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks were prepared with the dumped bricks as starting materials. The bulk density, apparent porosity, crushing strength, modolus of rupture and slag resistance of the specimen were analyzed. The results show that the used refractories can be reused and recycled by the right method. The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks with better abilities were prepared.

  9. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity.

  10. Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (Orimulsion): untapping an unlimited premium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, D.R.; Euler Jimenez G.; Javier Izaguirre M.; Jose Salazar P.; Carrizo, R.; Alcantara, J.

    1987-01-01

    Venezuela has extensive recoverable reserves of extra heavy crudes and natural bitumens located in the Orinoco Oil Belt. INTEVEP, S.A. and LAGOVEN, S.A. have developed the Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (ORIMULSION) for the production, handling and transportation of those hydrocarbons. This emulsion is considered a premium fuel due to its performance in conventional liquid firing systems. Pilot scale combustion tests, conducted during 1986, at INTEVEP Combustion Research Facility (ICRF) and Nagasaki Technical Institute (NTI-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries), Japan, have demonstrated the technical feasibility of burning this natural fuel steam-assisted, obtaining high combustion efficiency values (99.90%), which resemble those of a No.6 fuel-oil. This allows forecasting a promising future for ORIMULSION as a new fuel for thermal power stations.

  11. Recognition and Empirical Research on Key Influencing Factors of Low Carbon Development for Logistics Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yun Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The questionnaire paper used was work out by modifying the existing mature research scale and interviewing the experts and enterprises. The purpose of this study is to explore the key influencing factors of low carbon development for logistics companies by using the data from the questionnaire, which might contribute to further investigation of low carbon development pathway. Through correlation and stepwise regression analysis, differences between influencing factors and impact-degree were found since specific environmental behaviors of low carbon logistics might vary significantly. The driving factor of low carbon input comes from external points such as government and public external pressure, so the low carbon input is driven by an outside force. Yet, low carbon operation is significantly affected by internal factors such as low carbon behavior capacity, which is driven by an inside force.

  12. Development of Acidizing Techniques for Low-permeability Carbonate Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Tongbin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Geological Background In accordance with gas reservoir occurrence, reserve type and trap type, the discovered and developed carbonate reservoirs in Sichuan Basin can be classified into the following three types: the first type is the layered porous gas reservoir (including porous and fractured porous gas reservoir), mainly distributed in East Sichuan area; the second is the block vug bottom water drive gas reservoir; the third is the irregular gas reservoir with fracture system, mainly distributed in the areas of South Sichuan and Southwest Sichuan. The reservoirs of these gas pools are mainly of carbonatite. The matrix porosity and permeability of carbonatite are very low, the porosity being below 1% - 3% and the permeability, 0.1×10-3-8× 10-3 μm2. Also the throat capillary resistance force is considerable with the mid-value width of the throat (γ50)of 0.1 - 4 μm, most below 2 μm. Owing to the low permeability and porosity as well as the serious heterogeneity of the reservoir, the productivi ty of gas wells changes greatly.

  13. Development of Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Tu, Yi; Lu, Fang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2004-12-28

    The fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and sensing applications of low-site density carbon nanotubes based nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) are reported in this work. Spin-coating of an epoxy resin provides a new way to create the electrode passivation layer that effectively reduces the current leakage and eliminates the electrode capacitance by sealing the side-wall of CNTs. The CNT-NEAs fabricated in our work effectively use the open ends of CNTs for electrochemical sensing. The open ends of the CNTs have fast electron transfer rates similar to a graphite edge-plane electrode, while the side-walls present very slow electron transfer rates similar to the graphitic basal plane. Cyclic voltammetry showed the sigmoidal shape curves with low capacitive current and scan-rate-independent limiting current. The successful development of a glucose biosensor based on CNT-NEAs for the selective detection of glucose is also described. Glucose oxidase was covalently immobilized on the CNTs tips via carbodiimide chemistry by forming amide linkages between the amine residues and carboxylic acid groups on the open ends of CNTs. The biosensor effectively performs selective electrochemical detections of glucose in the presence of common interferences.

  14. Equity-premium puzzle: evidence from Brazilian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Penha Cysne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 1992:1-2004:2 quarterly data and two different methods (approximation under lognormality and calibration to evaluate the existence of an equity-premium puzzle in Brazil. In contrast with some previous works in the Brazilian literature, I conclude that the model used by Mehra and Prescott (1985, either with additive or recursive preferences, is not able to satisfactorily rationalize the equity premium observed in the Brazilian data. The second contribution of the paper is calling the attention to the fact that the utility function calculated under the discrete-state approximation may not exist if the data (as it is the case with Brazilian time series implies the existence of states in which high negative rates of consumption growth are attained with relatively high probability. This fact is particularly important when the researcher tries to work with high risk-aversion parameters in order to generate high risk premia.Este trabalho usa dados brasileiros do período 1992:1-2004:2 e dois diferentes métodos (aproximação sob a hipótese de lognormalidade e calibração para avaliar a existência de um "equity-premium puzzle" no Brasil. Em contraste com alguns trabalhos prévios da literatura nacional, conclui-se que o modelo usado por Mehra and Prescott (1985, seja com preferências aditivas ou recursivas, não é capaz de gerar o prêmio de risco observado na economia brasileira. A segunda contribuição do trabalho é chamar a atenção para o fato de que a função utilidade calculada sob a hipótese de aproximação discreta do espaço de estados pode não existir se os dados (como é o caso no Brasil implicarem a existência de estados nos quais taxas altamente negativas de crescimento do consumo são alcançadas com probabilidade demasiado elevadas. Este fato é particularmente importante quando se tenta utilizar parâmetros de aversão ao risco altos o suficiente para gerar o prêmio de risco inerente ao caso brasileiro.

  15. Recent development in electrolytic formation of carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the recent research development in the electrolytic production of carbon nano-tubes in molten salts. The experimental procedure and product morphologies of the electrolytic method are described in details. Different hypotheses of the carbon nano-tube formation mechanism in molten salts, particularly it relation with the erosion of the cathode, are compared and discussed. It is anticipated that the electrolytic method can potentially become a cheap and continuous process for the production of curved carbon nano-tubes, carbon sheathed metal nanowires and other carbon based nano-structures.

  16. Comparative study on CO2 sources in soil developed on carbonate rock and non-carbonate rock in Central Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎廷宇; 王世杰; 郑乐平

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, by using concentration and carbon stable isotope the.CO2 sources of soil profiles developed on limestone, dolostone and claystone basements in Central Guizhou, China are comparatively studied. The results show that CO2 concentration of soil profiles developed on different basements is different, having the following sequence: limestone>dolostone>claystone. Below the soil depth of 20 cm from the surface the δ13C value of CO2 in soil profile developed on limestone ranges from -12.811‰ - -13.492‰(PDB), that in soil profile developed on dolostone varys from -13.212‰--14.271‰(PDB) and that in soil profile developed on claystone is about -20.234‰- -21.485‰(PDB). Taking the carbon isotope of soil organic matter and carbonate rock as two isotopic endmembers, the proportion of soil C02 generated by dissolution of carbonate rock is calculated, about 21%-25% for soil profile developed on limestone basement, 19%-21% for soil profile developed on dolostone basement. There is almost no influx of

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  18. Carbon market as the instrument of realization of the sustainable low-carbonic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Shkola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main international documents on the climate change for establishment of the control over greenhouses gases undershoots are analysed. The conceptual model of the Ukraines national carbon market is suggested.

  19. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  20. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  1. Ruin problems with stochastic premium stochastic return on investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rongming; XU Lin; YAO Dingjun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, ruin problems in the risk model with stochastic premium incomes and stochastic return on investments are studied. The logarithm of the asset price process is assumed to be a Lévy process. An exact expression for expected discounted penalty function is established. Lower bounds and two kinds of upper bounds for expected discounted penalty function are obtained by inductive method and martingale approach. Integro- differential equations for the expected discounted penalty function are ob- tained when the Lévy process is a Brownian motion with positive drift and a compound Poisson process, respectively. Some analytical examples and numerical examples are given to illustrate the upper bounds and the applications of the integro-differential equations in this paper.

  2. A "LHC Premium" for Early Career Researchers? Perceptions from within

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano; Florio, Massimo; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    More than 36,000 students and post-docs will be involved in experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until 2025. Do they expect that their learning experience will have an impact on their professional future? By drawing from earlier salary expectations literature, this paper proposes a framework aiming at explaining the professional expectations of early career researchers (ECR) at the LHC. Results from different ordered logistic models suggest that experiential learning at LHC positively correlates with both current and former students' salary expectations. At least two not mutually exclusive explanations underlie such a relationship. First, the training at LHC gives early career researchers valuable expertise, which in turn affects salary expectations; secondly, respondents recognise that the LHC research experience per se may act as a signal in the labour market. Respondents put a price tag on their experience at LHC, a "salary premium" ranging from 5% to 12% in terms of future salaries compared with...

  3. Plan-provider integration, premiums, and quality in the Medicare Advantage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-12-01

    To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan-provider integration. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan-provider integration through examination of plans' websites and governance documents. We found that integrated plan-providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Current policy encourages plan-provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Plan–Provider Integration, Premiums, and Quality in the Medicare Advantage Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. Data Source. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. Study Design. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan–provider integration. Data Collection. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan–provider integration through examination of plans’ websites and governance documents. Principal Findings. We found that integrated plan–providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Conclusions. Current policy encourages plan–provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). PMID:23800017

  5. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-06-29

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pinnovation advances the field but support discussing the "unproven" nature of new implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. High speed railway promoting development of low-carbon economy in China%High speed railway promoting development of low-carbon economy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xinjun

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon Economy is a kind of economic developing mode which takes low energy consumption, low pollution and low discharge as its foundation. It is another important revolution of the human society after the agriculture civilization and industry civilization. It deals with various fields including low-carbon energy, low-carbon agriculture, lowcarbon industry, low-carbon transportation and low-carbon life, etc. Among those, low-carbon transportation is one of the important contents. Since high speed railway uses electricity as driving force, it runs without discharging waste gas, and it is a kind of clean and green transportation with little dust and smoke black. Therefore, the study of the relationship between the high speed railway and low-carbon economy is becoming one of the important frontier problems that confronting the theoretic circle. With demonstration analysis and comparative analysis, this paper discusses the comparative advantages of high speed railway in terms of energy saving and environment protection, treatment of sound pollution, land saving and reduction of external cost ( mainly pollution treatment cost), etc. compared with the other transportation modes and ordinary railway. Taking Beijing~Tianjin Intercity Railway as an example, the paper further demonstrates the distinctive advantages in respect of energy conservation and emission reduction. Besides, the paper also predicates the low-carbon effects after several high speed railways is put into operation in a few years. It is concluded that the development of high speed railways will meet the need of low-carbon economy and is significant for sustainable and steady development of economy and society.

  7. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Carbon Emissions Decomposition and Environmental Mitigation Policy Recommendations for Sustainable Development in Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Provincial carbon emissions research is necessary for China to realize emissions reduction targets. Two-level decomposition model based on the Kaya identity was applied to uncover the main driving forces for the energy related carbon emissions in Shandong province from 1995 to 2011, an important energy base in China. Coal consumption is still the biggest contributor to the increased carbon emissions in Shandong. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect is the most important contributors to the carbon emissions increments. The energy intensity effect is the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions. The emission coefficient effect plays an important negative but relatively minor effect on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a series of environment-friendly mitigation policies are raised by fully considering all of these influencing factors. Sustainable mitigation policies will pay more attention to the low-carbon economic development along with the significant energy intensity reduction in Shangdong province.

  9. On the Distributional Effect of Carbon Tax in Developing Countries: The Case of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, Arief Anshory (Padjadjaran Univ., Bandung (Indonesia)); Resosudarmo, Budy P. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    2008-07-01

    Using a Computable General Equilibrium model with disaggregated households, this study suggests that in contrast to most studies from industrialised countries, carbon tax in Indonesia is not necessarily regressive. Its structural change and resource reallocation effect, following the carbon tax, is in favor of factors endowed more proportionately by rural, and lower income households. The expenditure of lower income households are also less sensitive to the prices of energy-related commodities. Encouraging developing countries to reduce carbon emission, may not only increase the efficiency of carbon abatement globally, but also have desirable distributional implication in the developing countries themselves

  10. The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Francis A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether there is a flight-to-liquidity premium in Treasury bond prices by comparing them with prices of bonds issued by Refcorp, a U.S. Government agency. Since Refcorp bonds are, in effect, guaranteed by the Treasury, they have the same credit as Treasury bonds. We find a large liquidity premium in Treasury bonds, which can be more than fifteen percent of the value of some Treasury bonds. We find strong evidence that this liquidity premium is related to changes in consumer con- fi...

  11. An empirical analysis of the external finance premium of public non-financial corporations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to analyze empirically the relationship between the external finance premium of non-financial corporations in Brazil with their default probability and with their demand for inventories. As for the former relation, we find that corporations that have greater external finance premium have greater probability of default. As for the latter, we find that the external finance premium is positive and statistically significantly correlated. The results confirm previous results of the literature that indicate that the balance sheet channel of monetary policy is relevant in Brazil.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

  13. Development of a thermal method for the measurement of elemental carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanchy, V.M.H. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Baltensperger, U.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A thermal method was developed to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content of atmospheric aerosols. OC is first oxidized under an O{sub 2} flow during a precombustion step and measured with an Non-Dispersive Infrared Analyzer (NDIR). The remaining carbon, defined as EC, is then oxidized at 650{sup o}C. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research group from Tsinghua University led by Prof.Fan Shoushan,Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,and Jiang Kaili,associate professor of Physics,found that carbon nanotube thin film could act as a speaker once fed by audio frequency electric currents.These carbon nanotube loudspeakers are only tens of a nanometer thick,transparent,flexible and stretchable,which can be further tailored into any shape and size.These results have been published in the journal Nano Letter.

  15. Development of carbon free diffusion layer for activated carbon air cathode of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wulin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The fabrication of activated carbon air cathodes for larger-scale microbial fuel cells requires a diffusion layer (DL) that is highly resistant to water leakage, oxygen permeable, and made using inexpensive materials. A hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane synthesized using a simple phase inversion process was examined as a low cost ($0.9/m(2)), carbon-free DL that prevented water leakage at high pressure heads compared to a polytetrafluoroethylene/carbon black DL ($11/m(2)). The power density produced with a PVDF (20%, w/v) DL membrane of 1400±7mW/m(2) was similar to that obtained using a wipe DL [cloth coated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)]. Water head tolerance reached 1.9m (∼19kPa) with no mesh supporter, and 2.1m (∼21kPa, maximum testing pressure) with a mesh supporter, compared to 0.2±0.05m for the wipe DL. The elimination of carbon black from the DL greatly simplified the fabrication procedure and further reduced overall cathode costs.

  16. Development of carbon dioxide adsorbent from rice husk char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, S.; Janaun, J.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Ikhwan, F. S.

    2016-06-01

    This study was mainly concerned about the development of carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent from rice husk (RH). Several chemical treatments were used to produce activated rice husk char (RHAC) from RH. Initially the RH was refluxed with 3M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, activation followed by using 0.5M of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) solution and finally acidic treatment by using 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Then, the RHAC was functionalized by using 3-chloropropylamine hydrochloride (3-CPA) and noted as RHN. RHN samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Based on the SEM, the RHN sample had a large pore diameter compared to RH sample after being treated. Based on MIP data, the average pore diameter between RH and RHAC samples were increased significantly from 0.928 microns to 1.017 microns. The RHN sample also had higher total porosity (%) compared to RHAC and RH (58.45%, 47.82% and 45.57% respectively). The total specific surface area of the sample was much increasing from RHO to RHAC (29.17 m2/g and 62.94 m2/g respectively) and slightly being decreasing from RHAC to RHN (58.88 m2/g). FTIR result showed the present of weak band at 1587 cm-1 which demonstrating of the amine group present on the sample. The CO2 capture result showed that the decreasing of operating temperature can increase the breakthrough time of CO2 capture. On the contrary decreasing of CO2 gas flow rate can increase the breakthrough time of CO2 capture. The highest total amount of CO2 adsorbed was 25338.57 mg of CO2/g of RHN sample by using 100 mL/min of gas flow rate at 30oC. Based on adsorption isotherm analysis, the Freundlich isotherm was the best isotherm to describe the CO2 adsorption on the sample.

  17. Towards Green Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis : Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalyst Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research serves to implement both known and novel catalytic systems for the purpose of cyclic carbonate synthesis from biomass-derived substrates. Such products have been earmarked as potential monomers for non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), amongst other uses. Particular attention has b

  18. Development of Field-Emission Electron Gun from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to use a narrow energy-spread electron beam easily and low costly on injector electron guns, we have been tested field emission cathodes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Experiments for these three years brought us important suggestions and a few rules of thumb. Now at last, anode current of 3.0 [A/cm2

  19. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  20. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  1. A study on rural low-carbon tourism development in Jiangxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen-ping

    2017-04-01

    Jiangxi features rich tourism resources in rural areas and favorable eco-environment, and it’s worth in-depth exploration how to develop rural tourism while protecting the beautiful rural environment in Jiangxi. Therefore, the new perspective of developing rural low-carbon tourism in Jiangxi was proposed in the paper to revisit rural tourism. Starting with the ecological concerns for rural tourism in Jiangxi, the paper probes into the necessity of rural low-carbon tourism development in the province and the path of rural low-carbon tourism development in the province on the basis of analyzing the principles to follow in developing the tourism, in anticipation of serving as reference for the theories and practices of sustainable development of rural low-carbon tourism in Jiangxi Province.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-toweight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter, defect ratio, and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  3. Development of Low-carbon Forest Tourism with Emphasis on Construction of Urban Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly points out that the urban forest tourism has so many advantages and it will hopefully become the support industry of low-carbon forestry, and the development of urban forestparks in low-carbon economy is extraordinarily important, especially when faced with some serious traditional problems. A series of proposals about revolutionary measures are put forwards.

  4. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Rolph, Timothy C.; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Skilbeck, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity (“super-ENSO”) and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification—both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century—can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557

  5. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-12-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  6. A DEMAND-SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF THE SPANISH EDUCATION WAGE PREMIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel A. Hidalgo

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates education demand for Spain in order to analyze whether variations of the education wage premium between the 1980s and 1990s can be explained within the framework of a supply and demand model. The evidence reveals a stable pattern of growth in the demand for education throughout the eighties and nineties, empirically showing that differences in the evolution of the education wage premium during the two decades can be explained by varying growth in education supply coupled ...

  7. Spatial Risk Premium on Weather Derivatives and Hedging Weather Exposure in Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Osipenko, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Due to dependency of energy demand on temperature, weather derivatives enable the effective hedging of temperature related fluctuations. However, temperature varies in space and time and therefore the contingent weather derivatives also vary. The spatial derivative price distribution involves a risk premium. We examine functional principal components of temperature variation for this spatial risk premium. We employ a pricing model for temperature derivatives based on dynamics modelled via a v...

  8. What drives insurer participation and premiums in the Federally-Facilitated Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; Drake, Coleman; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Simon, Kosali

    2017-04-26

    We investigate determinants of market entry and premiums within the context of the Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces for individual insurance. Using Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) as the conceptual framework, we study how competition and firm heterogeneity relate to premiums in 36 states using Federally Facilitated or Supported Marketplaces in 2016. Our primary data source is the Qualified Health Plan Landscape File, augmented with market characteristics from the American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File as well as insurer-level information from federal Medical Loss Ratio annual reports. We first estimate a model of insurer entry and then investigate the relationship between a market's predicted number of entrants and insurer-level premiums. Our entry model results suggest that competition is increasing with the number of insurers, most notably as the market size increases from 3 to 4 entrants. Results from the premium regression suggest that each additional entrant is associated with approximately 4% lower premiums, controlling for other factors. An alternative explanation for the relationship between entrants and premiums is that more efficient insurers (who can price lower) are the ones that enter markets with many entrants, and this is reflected in lower premiums. An exploratory analysis of insurers' non-claims costs (a proxy for insurer efficiency) reveals that average costs among entrants are rising slightly with the number of insurers in the market. This pattern does not support the hypothesis that premiums decrease with more entrants because those entrants are more efficient, suggesting instead that the results are being driven mostly by price competition.

  9. College wage premium over time: trends in Europe in the last 15 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Crivellaro

    2014-01-01

    While there has been intense debate in the empirical literature over the evolution of the college wage premium in the United States, its evolution in Europe has received little attention. This paper investigates the causes of the evolution of the college wage premium in 12 european countries from 1994 to 2009. I use cross country variation in relative supply, demand, and labour market institutions to examine their effects on the trend in wage inequality. I address possible concerns of endogen...

  10. Design and Development of a High Efficiency CarbonGranular Bed Filter in Industrial Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济宇; 旷戈; 林诚

    2004-01-01

    The new dust removal technical route using the carbon-granular bed filter, packed of carbon particles with appropriate grade derive from an online-process vibration sieve, to replace the traditional baggy filter had been developed successfully for capturing the micro-carbon dusts produced from pulverization of petroleum coke,and the green close loop of carbon materials is thus completed in the combined pulverizing and classifying system and pulverized carbon dust removal process. The high dust removal efficiency greater than 99%, low outlet dust concentration less than 100 mg-m-S, low pressure drop through dust filtration chamber less than 980 Pa, simple and easy design, and flexible and stable operation were achieved also with the carbon-granular bed filter in both bench and industrial scale operations.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  12. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  13. Fuzzy evaluation of low carbon development levels for logistic enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Under the background of global warming, low carbon economy, which is based on low waste and low pollution, has become a globally focused topic. Energy conservation, emission reduction and low carbon development have become irresistible trends of social development. A new set of low carbon evaluation index system for logistics enterprises is proposed. It is helpful for the better monitor of low carbon production and provide the optimization of industrial policies in China.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the problem that logistic analyses are facing under the background of low carbon economy, this paper firstly establishes a set of new evaluation indexes system, including 5 first-level indices and 28 second-level indices, for the low carbon development levels of logistics enterprises in China. To simplify the new evaluation system, the weight judgment method is then used to select indices, the validity judgment method and reliability coefficient judgment method are respectively used to test the validity and reliability of the evaluation systems. The simplified evaluation system consists of 4 first-class indices and 20 second-class indexes. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the validity and operability of the evaluation system.Findings: From the analysis and evaluation results, it is not difficult to obtain the rank of logistics enterprise according to the selected indexes or the overall evaluation indices. Low scores of some key indexes in strategy indices and technical indices cause low carbon emission performance. Moreover, The reason for the good low carbon performance of one enterprises is that it is in the lead on the key indexes of high weighs such as Perfection degree of low carbon development strategy, Level of transportation route optimization, etc. The new evaluation index system also helps enterprises to realize the sustainable development by identifying the key factors that affect the low carbon development level

  14. Research on the Influencing Factors of Rural Low-carbon Economic Development and Government Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the main factors causing sluggish development of rural low-carbon economy in China as follows:the rural energy structure is irrational;the infrastructure and technology are relatively backward;system of laws,regulations and policy is not sound;fund-raising mechanism develops slowly;farmers’ low-carbon awareness and ability are limited.On the basis of these unfavorable factors,from the perspective of government regulation,feasible strategies are put forward in line with the actual situation of rural low-carbon economic development in China.

  15. Criteria, potentials and costs of forestry activities to sequester carbon within the framework of the clean development mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Spiertz, P.H.; Diemont, W.H.; Emmer, I.; Aalders, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Forest activities in developing countries can be used to sequester carbon for gaining emission reductions within the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. This study has assessed the potentials and costs for carbon sequestration through afforestation, reforestation and deforestation

  16. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii.

  17. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans.

  18. Research on the influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint under sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate. The quantitative research methodology using ADF test, Johansen co-integration test, and impulse response is utilized to interpret the relationship between reverse logistics carbon footprint and the influencing factors more accurately. This research finds that energy efficiency, energy structure, and product remanufacturing rate are more capable of inhibiting reverse logistics carbon footprint. The statistical approaches will help practitioners in this field to structure their reverse logistics activities and also help academics in developing better decision models to reduce reverse logistics carbon footprint.

  19. The necessity to focus on the development of low carbon cities in urban management structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mohammad Bagheri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is developed along with the economic growth and development of countries. This phenomenon has led to increasing the energy consumption in urban areas and consequently, the emission of greenhouse gases. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions with carbon source in urban areas and its adverse effects due to universality have affected all countries. This became a concern for the international community. Thus, the idea of low-carbon cities has been raised at the international level. Efficient use of energy, better use of public transportation systems, improving recycling and increasing public awareness are the important factors in achieving the low-carbon cities. Urbanization is increased in all developing countries in the process of moving on the path of economic growth and development. In this path, our country is faced with rapidly increasing urbanization. Some shortcomings in urban management created many problems such as environmental problems especially for big cities. Due to the importance of sustainable urban management and urban development, focusing on the establishment of a comprehensive program to reduce carbon emissions in cities is a prerequisite for the development of public transport increasing the efficiency of energy consumption, financing the emission reduction projects, improving the recycling system of municipal solid waste on the role of urban management and taking a step in the direction of low-carbon cities. Thus, developing the carbon emission reducing plans is inevitable in urban management structure along with the growth and development of cities.

  20. Development of Carbon Sequestration Options by Studying Carbon Dioxide-Methane Exchange in Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Kristine Nicole

    Gas hydrates form naturally at high pressures (>4 MPa) and low temperatures (climate change point of view, a 100 ppm increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels over the past century is of urgent concern. A potential solution to both of these issues is to simultaneously exchange CH4 with CO 2 in natural hydrate reserves by forming more stable CO2 hydrates. This approach would minimize disturbances to the host sediment matrix of the seafloor while sequestering CO2. Understanding hydrate growth over time is imperative to prepare for large scale CH4 extraction coupled with CO2 sequestration. In this study, we performed macroscale experiments in a 200 mL high-pressure Jerguson cell that mimicked the pressure-temperature conditions of the seafloor. A total of 13 runs were performed under varying conditions. These included the formation of CH4 hydrates, followed by a CO2 gas injection and CO2 hydrate formation followed by a CH4 gas injection. Results demonstrated that once gas hydrates formed, they show "memory effect" in subsequent charges, irrespective of the two gases injected. This was borne out by the induction time data for hydrate formation that reduced from 96 hours for CH4 and 24 hours for CO2 to instant hydrate formation in both cases upon injection of a secondary gas. During the study of CH4-CO2 exchange where CH4 hydrates were first formed and CO2 gas was injected into the system, gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the cell indicated a pure CH4 gas phase, i.e., all injected CO2 gas entered the hydrate phase and remained trapped in hydrate cages for several hours, though over time some CO2 did enter the gas phase. Alternatively, during the CH 4-CO2 exchange study where CO2 hydrates were first formed, the injected CH4 initially entered the hydrate phase, but quickly gaseous CO2 exchanged with CH4 in hydrates to form more stable CO2 hydrates. These results are consistent with the better thermodynamic stability of CO2 hydrates, and this appears to be a

  1. Development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nanostructured carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Centeno, Frank Willi

    The thesis is focused on the development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nano-structured carbon materials. In particular, we developed prototype diamond-based ultraviolet photodetectors and carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors. We describe the method of preparation and characterization of the active carbon-based materials and their structural and compositional characterizations. This is followed by the corresponding device fabrication and testing. The thesis briefly gives an introduction to our current understanding about carbon materials, with emphasis on synthetic diamond and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes, and to the materials' properties that are useful for ultraviolet photodetectors and gas sensor applications. The thesis also give an overview of the experience gained through this research, and some suggestions for those who would like follow the research methods employ here. It provides experimental information learned through experience that may be helpful and avoid delays to the newer experimentalists.

  2. GIS based approach for atmospheric carbon absorption strategies through forests development in Indian situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Surendra Kumar [CCS Univ., Meerut (India). SCRIET

    2013-07-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) play important role in forest management. An effective strategy for enhancement of atmospheric carbon absorption productivity is through forests development in degraded forest areas and waste lands. Forestry sector has significant emissions removal capability which can further be enhanced by operationalizing major afforestation and reforestation initiatives like National Mission for a Green India besides continued strengthening of the present protection regime of forests. Secondary data was collected and analyzed. Different types of waste lands require different strategies for their development into forest areas; but few waste lands like rocky regions, glacier regions etc. cannot be developed into forest areas. Atmospheric carbon management is major problem before world community in present circumstances to control environmental pollution. Various forest ecosystems play significant role in carbon absorption. The diffusional net absorption rate of anthropogenic carbon to the biosphere is some unknown function of the atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Estimations reveal that the average carbon absorption of the forests was around 1,240 grams (1.240 Kg) of carbon per square meter of canopy area. To stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2}, role of forestry depends on harvesting and disturbance rates, expectations of future forest productivity, and the ability to deploy technology and forest practices to increase the retention of sequestered CO{sub 2}. There is a considerable self-damping effect that will moderate the future increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Capacity of the ocean to absorb carbon dioxide is limited; but atmospheric carbon absorption potentiality of India forests can be increased tremendously through reforestation, afforestation and development of degraded forest areas and waste lands. About 60 % of Indian waste lands can be developed to increase forest cover with reasonable efforts. When

  3. Composite Stress Rupture NDE Research and Development Project (Kevlar[R] and Carbon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop and demonstrate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation for carbon composite pressure vessels, either in a structural health monitoring (SHM) or periodic inspection mode.

  4. Developing inorganic carbon-based radiocarbon chronologies for Holocene lake sediments in arid NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawu; Ma, Xueyang; Qiang, Mingrui; Huang, Xiaozhong; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; Holmes, Jonathan A.; Chen, Fahu

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic carbonates are often used to establish radiocarbon (14C) chronologies for lake sediments when terrestrial plant remains (TPR) are rare or when bulk organic matter is insufficient for dating, a problem that is common for many lakes in arid regions. However, the reservoir effect (RE), as well as old carbon contributed from the lakes catchment make it difficult to establish reliable chronologies. Here we present a systematic study of inorganic 14C ages of two lake-sediment sequences, one from a small-enclosed saline lake - Lake Gahai in Qaidam Basin, and the other from a large freshwater lake - Lake Bosten in Xinjiang. Modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the lakes, paleo-lake sediments exposed in the catchment, and mollusk shells in core sediments from Lake Gahai were dated to assess the RE and the contribution of pre-aged carbon to the old ages in the cores. We propose a statistical regression to assess more than one RE for the 14C carbonate ages within our sedimentary sequences. Old radiocarbon ages contributed by detrital carbonates were assessed by comparing the ages of mollusk shells with those of carbonates at the same sediment depths. We established the RE of the authigenic component and assessed detrital old carbon contributions to our two sites, and this was used to correct the 14C ages. Based on this approach, we developed age models for both cores, and tested them using 210Pb ages in both cores and TPR-based 14C-ages recovered from Lake Bosten. We further tested our age models by comparing carbonate-based oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from both lakes to an independently-dated regional speleothem δ18O record. Our results suggest if sedimentary sequences are densely dated and the RE and the contribution of old carbon from detrital carbonates can be ascertained, robust chronological frameworks based on carbonate-based 14C determinations can be established.

  5. Post-obduction carbonate system development in New Caledonia (Népoui, Lower Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizot, Pierre; Cabioch, Guy; Fournier, François; Leonide, Philippe; Sebih, Salim; Rouillard, Pierrick; Montaggioni, Lucien; Collot, Julien; Martin-Garin, Bertrand; Chaproniere, George; Braga, Juan C.; Sevin, Brice

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, depositional models of Lower Miocene carbonate systems from New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific) are proposed, on the basis of a sedimentological and paleoenvironmental study of both cores and outcrops. In the Népoui area, two distinct stages of carbonate ramp development (Aquitanian Lower Népoui and Burdigalian Upper Népoui carbonate systems), separated by a phase of siliciclastic deltaic deposition, are evidenced. The post-obduction marine transgression of the Western New Caledonian margin occurred at approximately 24 Ma and is characterized by the development of an aggrading foraminiferal-coralline algal-scleractinian ramp system ("Chapeau Chinois Limestone") during the early Aquitanian (24-23 Ma). A retrogradational event is evidenced at approximately 23 Ma followed by the development of a shallowing upward carbonate unit (Operculina "Green Sands" and Xuudhen Limestone) during the late Aquitanian. This unit is topped by a major erosional unconformity overlain by conglomeratic deposits ("Pindaï conglomerates"), and interpreted to record a significant uplift at around 21-19 Ma. During the Burdigalian, a marine transgression occurred at around 19 Ma, followed by the development of a low-angle carbonate ramp or open platform ("Népü Limestone") up to the late Burdigalian (19-17 Ma). In both Aquitanian and Burdigalian carbonate ramps, extensive sea-grass meadows are shown to have colonized the proximal ramp environments within the euphotic zone. In the Aquitanian carbonate ramp (Lower Népoui Formation), carbonate production within sea-grass meadows is dominated by large benthic foraminifera, together with red algae and sparse scleractinians. Mesophotic environments are characterized by large and flat lepidocyclinids, rhodoliths and platy corals whereas in deeper oligophotic settings significant carbonate producers consist mainly of large and flat benthic foraminifera. In the Burdigalian carbonate ramp (Upper Népoui Formation), porcellaneous

  6. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  15. Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.P Rengga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas storage is a technology developed with an adsorptive storage method, in which gases are stored as adsorbed components on the certain adsorbent. Formaldehyde is one of the major indoor gaseous pollutants. Depending on its concentration, formaldehyde may cause minor disorder symptoms to a serious injury. Some of the successful applications of technology for the removal of formaldehyde have been reported. However, this paper presents an overview of several studies on the elimination of formaldehyde that has been done by adsorption method because of its simplicity. The adsorption method does not require high energy and the adsorbent used can be obtained from inexpensive materials. Most researchers used activated carbon as an adsorbent for removal of formaldehyde because of its high adsorption capacity. Activated carbons can be produced from many materials such as coals, woods, or agricultural waste. Some of them were prepared by specific activation methods to improve the surface area. Some researchers also used modified activated carbon by adding specific additive to improve its performance in attracting formaldehyde molecules. Proposed modification methods on activation and additive impregnated carbon are thus discussed in this paper for future development and improvement of formaldehyde adsorption on activated carbon. Specifically, a waste agricultural product is chosen for activated carbon raw material because it is renewable and gives an added value to the materials. The study indicates that the performance of the adsorption of formaldehyde might be improved by using modified activated carbon. Bamboo seems to be the most appropriate raw materials to produce activated carbon combined with applying chemical activation method and addition of metal oxidative catalysts such as Cu or Ag in nano size particles. Bamboo activated carbon can be developed in addition to the capture of formaldehyde as well as the storage of adsorptive hydrogen gas that

  16. Estimating the country risk premium in emerging markets: the case of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Naumoski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the cost of capital is difficult in developed markets and even more difficult in emerging markets. Investments in the emerging markets are more risky than in the developed markets but return is also higher. The key question here is whether the return on investments in emerging markets should be rewarded by compensation in excess of that provided by an equivalent investment in a developed market. Contemporary literature provides alternative ways for calculating the cost of capital invested in emerging markets. In general, it can be concluded that it is widely accepted that country risk matters when investing in emerging markets and it is a key component in the estimation of the cost of capital for those investments. Country risk is non-diversifiable, which will be argued in this paper first, after which an alternative approach will be provided for quantification of country risk in the risk premium measure, which is integral component in the models for estimating the cost of capital.

  17. Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

    2010-02-15

    Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed.

  18. Carbon isotope fractionation in developing natural phototrophic biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, M.; Thar, R.; Kühl, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Wolf, G.; de Brouwer, J. F. C.; Rijstenbil, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Natural phototrophic biofilms are influenced by a broad array of abiotic and biotic factors and vary over temporal and spatial scales. Different developmental stages can be distinguished and growth rates will vary due to the thickening of the biofilm, which are expected to lead to a limitation of light or mass transport. In this study it is shown that a variation of the availability of CO2 leads to a shift in fractionation, thereby affecting δ13C signatures during the successive developmental stages. For phototrophic freshwater biofilms it was found that the δ13C value became less negative with the thickening of the biofilm, while the opposite trend in δ13C values was found in marine biofilms. Modeling and pH profiling indicated that the change in the freshwater system was caused by an increase in CO2 limitation resulting in an increase of HCO3- as C-source. The opposite trend in the marine system could be explained by a higher heterotrophic biomass and activity causing a higher carbon recycling and thereby lower δ13C values. We conclude that δ13C was more related to the net areal photosynthesis rate and carbon recycling, rather than to the growth rate of the biofilms.

  19. Carbon nanodots as molecular scaffolds for development of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu-Schwemlein, Maria; Chin, Suk Fun; Hileman, Ryan; Drozdowski, Chris; Upchurch, Clint; Hargrove, April

    2016-04-01

    We report the potential of carbon nanodots (CNDs) as a molecular scaffold for enhancing the antimicrobial activities of small dendritic poly(amidoamines) (PAMAM). Carbon nanodots prepared from sago starch are readily functionalized with PAMAM by using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Electron microscopy images of these polyaminated CNDs show that they are approximately 30-60nm in diameter. Infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy analyses of the water-soluble material established the presence of the polyamidoaminated moiety and the intrinsic fluorescence of the nanodots. The polyaminated nanodots (CND-PAM1 and CND-PAM2) exhibit in vitro antimicrobial properties, not only to non-multidrug resistant bacteria but also to the corresponding Gram-negative multidrug bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 8 to 64μg/mL, which is much lower than that of PAMAM G1 or the non-active PAMAM G0 and CNDs. Additionally, they show synergistic effect in combination with tetracycline or colistin. These preliminary results imply that CNDs can serve as a promising scaffold for facilitating the rational design of antimicrobial materials for combating the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, their fluorescence could be pertinent to unraveling their mode of action for imaging or diagnostic applications.

  20. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Zhen Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste treatment, and disposal, as well as nuclear power plant decommissioning. Based on the safety record and situation of the existing power plants in China, the current status of the development of world nuclear power technology, and the features of the independently designed advanced power plants in China, this paper aims to demonstrate the safety of nuclear power. A nuclear power plant will not cause harm either to the environment and nor to the public according to the real data of radioactivity release, which are obtained from an operational nuclear plant. The development of nuclear power technology can enhance the safety of nuclear power. Further, this paper discusses issues related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment, and disposal strategies of nuclear waste, and the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, all of which are issues of public concern.

  1. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  2. Decontamination System Development of Radioative Activated Carbon using Micro-bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong seon; Kim, Wi soo [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Byoung sub. [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This study was aimed to develop a decontamination system by applying such technical characteristics that minimizes a generation of secondary wastes while decontaminating radiation wastes. The radioactive activated carbon is removed from the end-of-life air cleaning filter in replacement or decommission of nuclear power plant or nuclear facility. By removing radioactive activated carbon, the filter would be classified as a low radioactive contaminant. And thus the amount of radioactive wastes and the treatment cost would be decreased. We are in development of the activated carbon cleaning technique by utilizing micro-bubbles, which improve efficiency and minimize damage of activated carbon. The purpose of using micro-bubbles is to decontamination carbon micropore, which is difficult to access, by principle of cavitation phenomenon generated in collapse of micro-bubbles. In this study, we introduced the micro-bubble decontamination system developed to decontaminate activated carbon. For further researches, we will determine carbon weight change and the decontamination rate under the experimental conditions such as temperature and pH.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  4. Development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohd Saufi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane. Nitrogen was used as an inert gas during pyrolysis of the PAN hollow fiber membrane into carbon membrane. PAN membranes were pyrolyzed at temperature ranging from 500oC to 800oC for 30 minutes of thermal soak time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas sorption analysis were applied to characterize the PAN based carbon membrane. Pyrolysis temperature was found to significantly change the structure and properties of carbon membrane. FTIR results concluded that the carbon yield still could be increased by pyrolyzing PAN membranes at temperature higher than 800oC since the existence of other functional group instead of CH group. Gas adsorption analysis showed that the average pore diameter increased up to 800oC.

  5. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  6. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... After determining the Medicare Part B premium reduction amount for each eligible beneficiary, CMS will— (1) Transmit this information to the Social Security Administration, Railroad Retirement Board,...

  7. In Second Year Of Marketplaces, New Entrants, ACA 'Co-Ops,' And Medicaid Plans Restrain Average Premium Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam T; Weinstein, Daniel S; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Premiums for health insurance plans offered through the federally facilitated and state-based Marketplaces remained steady or increased only modestly from 2014 to 2015. We used data from the Marketplaces, state insurance departments, and insurer websites to examine patterns of premium pricing and the factors behind these patterns. Our data came from 2,964 unique plans offered in 2014 and 4,153 unique plans offered in 2015 in forty-nine states and the District of Columbia. Using descriptive and multivariate analysis, we found that the addition of a carrier in a rating area lowered average premiums for the two lowest-cost silver plans and the lowest-cost bronze plan by 2.2 percent. When all plans in a rating area were included, an additional carrier was associated with an average decline in premiums of 1.4 percent. Plans in the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program and Medicaid managed care plans had lower premiums and average premium increases than national commercial and Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. On average, premiums fell by an appreciably larger amount for catastrophic and bronze plans than for gold plans, and premiums for platinum plans increased. This trend of low premium increases overall is unlikely to continue, however, as insurers are faced with mounting medical claims.

  8. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 1): Conceptual model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Ford, W.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has paid increased attention to quantifying the fate of carbon pools within fluvial networks, but few, if any, studies consider the fate of sediment organic carbon in fluviokarst systems despite that karst landscapes cover 12% of the earth's land surface. The authors develop a conceptual model of sediment carbon fate in karst terrain with specific emphasis upon phreatic karst conduits, i.e., those located below the groundwater table that have the potential to trap surface-derived sediment and turnover carbon. To assist with their conceptual model development, the authors study a phreatic system and apply a mixture of methods traditional and novel to karst studies, including electrical resistivity imaging, well drilling, instantaneous velocimetry, dye tracing, stage recording, discrete and continuous sediment and water quality sampling, and elemental and stable carbon isotope fingerprinting. Results show that the sediment transport carrying capacity of the phreatic karst water is orders of magnitude less than surface streams during storm-activated periods promoting deposition of fine sediments in the phreatic karst. However, the sediment transport carrying capacity is sustained long after the hydrologic event has ended leading to sediment resuspension and prolonged transport. The surficial fine grained laminae occurs in the subsurface karst system; but unlike surface streams, the light-limited conditions of the subsurface karst promotes constant heterotrophy leading to carbon turnover. The coupling of the hydrological processes leads to a conceptual model that frames phreatic karst as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that recharges degraded organic carbon back to surface streams. For example, fluvial sediment is estimated to lose 30% of its organic carbon by mass during a one year temporary residence within the phreatic karst. It is recommended that scientists consider karst pathways when attempting to estimate organic matter stocks

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON PRODUCTS FROM LOW-RANK COALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the production of carbon fibers from low-rank coal (LRC) tars. To this end, the effect of demineralization on the tar yields and composition was investigated using high-sodium and high-calcium lignites commonly mined in North Dakota. These coals were demineralized by ion exchange with ammonium acetate and by cation dissolution with nitric acid. Two types of thermal processing were investigated for obtaining suitable precursors for pitch and fiber production. Initially, tars were produced by simple pyrolysis of the set of samples at 650 C. Since these experiments produced little usable material from any of the samples, the coals were heated at moderate temperatures (380 and 400 C) in tetralin solvent to form and extract the plastic material (metaplast) that forms at these temperatures.

  10. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  11. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  12. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  13. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  14. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  16. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  18. NAMAs and the carbon market. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.; Hinostroza, M.

    2009-07-01

    The role of carbon markets in scaling up mitigation actions in developing countries in the post-2012 climate regime is the topic of Perspectives 2009: NAMAs and the Carbon Market - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Developing Countries. The eight papers presented explore how mitigation actions in developing countries, in the context of sustainable development, may be supported by technology, finance and capacity development in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner. Key issues discussed are the pros and cons of market and non-market mechanisms in raising private and public finance, and the appropriate governance structures at the international and national levels. The aim of this publication is to present possible answers to these questions, with a specific focus on the role of existing and emerging carbon markets to finance NAMAs. (LN)

  19. Developing almond shell-derived activated carbons as CO{sub 2} adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Martin, C.F.; Fermoso, J.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-29

    Two series of carbon dioxide adsorbents were prepared from almond shells, by carbonisation followed either by activation with CO{sub 2} or by heat treatment in the presence of ammonia gas (amination). Both procedures gave carbons with high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities in pure CO{sub 2} as well as in a binary mixture of 15% CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2}. Activation with carbon dioxide significantly developed porosity in the samples, mostly in the micropore domain, while amination at 800{sup o}C moderately developed narrow microporosity in the char and incorporated stable nitrogen functionalities, which enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity. Amination showed two additional advantages over conventional activation with CO{sub 2}: a greater carbon yield and a shorter soaking time.

  20. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  2. Governing the Clean Development Mechanism: global rhetoric versus local realities in carbon sequestration projects

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Global agreements have proliferated in the past ten years. One of these is the Kyoto Protocol, which contains provisions for emissions reductions by trading carbon through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM is a market-based instrument that allows companies in Annex I countries to offset their greenhouse gas emissions through energy and tree offset projects in the global South. I set out to examine the governance challenges posed by the institutional design of carbon sequestration...

  3. Remote Sensing Based Monitoring of Aquatic Carbon Dynamics; Developments of the CarbMonit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ronghua; Loiselle, Steven; Zhang, Yuchao; Duan, Hongtao; Villa, Paolo; Donati, Alessandro; Li, Jing; Xue, Kun

    2016-08-01

    Inland waterbodies are some of the most productive on the planet (autochthonous production) and play a fundamental role in the transformation, transport and capture of carbon from terrestrial sources (allochthonous carbon). Carbon dynamics are regulated by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes: catchment import and export, detritus dynamics, photosynthetic and respiratory processes in the water column and sediment. Climate change and regional development combine to influence many of these processes, including catchment conditions, lake hydrology and organic matter degradation. The use of spatially extensive approaches is fundamental to explore the key transformation dynamics between organic and inorganic carbon pools.In the CarbMonit project, leading research institutions in China and Italy have worked in close collaboration to examine key mechanisms in aquatic carbon dynamics through the development of new technologies. The focus has been on the development of algorithms and modelling tools to examine spatial dynamics in three dimensions and temporal variability of the two major organic carbon pools, particular and dissolved organic carbon. Field measurements in major lakes are being used to create algorithms for multispectral and hyperspectral sensor data. The results of these activities are being used to estimate the generation and loss of aquatic carbon with respect to the dynamics of potential source and sink mechanisms. Particular efforts have been made to develop approaches based on the availability of medium- spectral resolution satellite sensor data. The results of the collaboration have been significant, with partners presenting results at major conferences throughout the world (ASLO 2015, COWM 2016, SIL 2016, IOCS 2013, EST, 2016. There have also been a number of collaborative publications [1-23], some of the mostrecent are presented below.

  4. Development of New Photovoltaic Devices Based on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0014 Development of new photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles... photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3036 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 11...response is registered in all the photon spectral range studied. The new kind of Graetzel-like solar cell device was built without dye and TiO2 , showing

  5. The carbon fiber development for uranium centrifuges: a Brazilian cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Paulo Cesar Beltrao de, E-mail: p.queiroz@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zouain, Desiree Moraes, E-mail: dmzouain@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes both the carbon fiber-based development for uranium centrifuges and the research project that supports its development effort over time. The carbon fiber-based engineering properties make it a valuable supply for high technologic products. Nevertheless, its fabrication occurs only in few developed countries and there is no production in Brazil. In addition, the carbon fiber-based products have dual applications: they can be used by the civilian and military industry. Therefore, there are international restrictions related to its use and applications that justify the internal development. Moreover, the Brazilian Navy centrifuges for uranium enrichment were developed using carbon-fiber which contains polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as an imported raw material. The PAN properties of low weight, high tensile strength increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The Brazilian financial scenario surrounded by the international uncertain economy shows that combined creative project solutions are more effective. Therefore, the Navy's Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP), the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), the University of Sao Paulo (USP), the RADICIFIBRAS Company, and the Brazilian FINEP agency, which is responsible for the project financial support, established a partnership aiming the development of a domestic PAN-based carbon fiber industry. The innovative project solutions adopted and the results of this partnership are presented here. (author)

  6. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  7. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  8. The Impact of Reinsurance Strategies on Capital Requirements for Premium Risk in Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo Clemente

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available New risk-based solvency requirements for insurance companies across European markets have been introduced by Solvency II and will come in force from 1 January 2016. These requirements, derived by a Standard Formula or an Internal Model, will be by far more risk-sensitive than the required solvency margin provided by the current legislation. In this regard, a Partial Internal Model for Premium Risk is developed here for a multi-line Non-Life insurer. We follow a classical approach based on a Collective Risk Model properly extended in order to consider not only the volatility of aggregate claim amounts but also expense volatility. To measure the effect of risk mitigation, suitable reinsurance strategies are pursued. We analyze how naïve coverage as conventional Quota Share and Excess of Loss reinsurance may modify the exact moments of the distribution of technical results. Furthermore, we investigate how alternative choices of commission rates in proportional treaties may affect the variability of distribution. Numerical results are also figured out in the last part of the paper with evidence of different effects for small and large companies. The main reasons for these differences are pointed out.

  9. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  10. Research on Development Measures of Low-carbon Transportation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of economy, vehicle ownership is growing rapidly. People gradually concentrate on the energy consumption of transportation industry and environmental pollution. Because of air pollution, energy consumption, climate change and other problems, people in major cities pay more attention to energy conservation and emission reduction in transportation. Transportation industry is an important source of energy consumption and carbon emission. Facing the task of energy conservation and emission reduction in the Twelfth Five-year Plan for economic and social development, it is extremely urgent to adjust the transportation industry and take road of low-carbon transportation. Low-carbon transportation is an important breakthrough for Beijing to readjust industrial structure and transform the economic development pattern; it is also a demand for Culture-enriched Beijing, Technology-empowered Beijing, Environment-friendly Beijing as well as an inevitable choice for the coordinated development of economy, society and environment. This paper analyzes the status quo and major problems facing Beijing low-carbon transportation and comes up with policy advice for low-carbon transportation development.

  11. Development of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Stellite Alloy Based Composites for Tribocorrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddamzadeh, Alireza

    This thesis reports the design and development of two classes of new composite materials, which are low-carbon Stellite alloy matrices, reinforced with either chopped plain carbon fiber or chopped nickel-coated carbon fiber. The focus of this research is on obviating the problems related to the presence of carbides in Stellite alloys by substituting carbides as the main strengthening agent in Stellite alloys with the aforementioned carbon fibers. Stellite 25 was selected as the matrix because of its very low carbon content (0.1 wt%) and thereby relatively carbide free microstructure. The nickel coating was intended to eliminate any chance of carbide formation due to the possible reaction between carbon fibers and the matrix alloying additions. The composite specimens were fabricated using the designed hot isostatic pressing and sintering cycles. The fabricated specimens were microstructurally analyzed in order to identify the main phases present in the specimens and also to determine the possible carbide formation from the carbon fibers. The material characterization of the specimens was achieved through density, hardness, microhardness, corrosion, wear, friction, and thermal conductivity tests. These novel materials exhibit superior properties compared to existing Stellite alloys and are expected to spawn a new generation of materials used for high temperature, severe corrosion, and wear resistant applications in various industries.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  13. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  14. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  15. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  16. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or

  17. Avoiding, transforming, transitioning: pathways to sustainable low carbon passenger transport in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Fulton, Lewis; Tiwari, Geetam

    2013-01-01

    This review examines conditions affecting road passenger transport in developing countries that can be instrumental to building a pathway for reducing carbon emissions while concurrently meeting sustainable development goals. By contrasting present and future status of these conditions a vision e...

  18. Visualizing the application of GIS in transformation towards a sustainable development and a low carbon society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. H.; Ariffin, A.; Malik, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    A strategy for sustainable development is a significant milestone on the road to a more socially, economically and environmentally responsible society. It creates a framework within which the stakeholders can make a strong contribution to a better future. Because of the merits and growing interest in sustainable development, the race is on for researchers and stakeholders in the construction sector to initiate actions to reduce the negative impacts of development and sharpen their competitive edge. The cities should be created with a vision which supports harmonious communities and living conditions through sustainable urban development. The resources must be used efficiently while reducing the development impact on human health and environment during the buildings' life cycle. Environmental auditing and pressure-state response based models to monitor sustainable development in Malaysia should be developed. A data availability and sharing system should be developed and implemented to facilitate for the use in the establishment of sustainable development and low carbon society. Ideas which affect millions of people and guide the policies of nations must be accessible to all. Only thus can they permeate the institutions from the local to the global level. Creating sustainable development and low carbon societies depends on the knowledge and involvement of all stakeholders in the industry. So what is our level of understanding of GIS and its application? The development of geospatial data in Malaysia is important because the successful implementation of sustainable development and low carbon projects depend largely on the availability of geospatial information. It would facilitate the stakeholders and resolve some of the problems regarding the availability, quality, organisation, accessibility and sharing of spatial information. The introduction of GIS may change the way for better sustainable urban development and low carbon society performance. The use of GIS is to

  19. What should be the basis for compulsory and optional health insurance premiums? Opinions of Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-02-04

    Little is known about doctors' opinions on how to finance health services. In Switzerland, mandatory basic health insurance currently uses regional flat fees that are unrelated to health and ability to pay, and optional complementary insurance uses risk-based premiums. Our objective was to assess Swiss physicians' opinions on what should determine health insurance premiums. We surveyed doctors in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, about the desirable funding mechanism for mandatory health insurance and complementary health insurance. The proposed determinants of insurance premiums were current health and past medical history, lifestyle, healthcare costs in the previous year, genetic susceptibility to disease, regional average healthcare costs, household income, and wealth and demographic characteristics. Among the 1,516 respondents, only a few (health insurance premium should depend on health risk (health status, previous costs, genetics, and age and sex). More than 30% of respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (34.6%), regional average health expenditures (31.2%), and household income and wealth (39.6%). For complementary health insurance, most respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (74.6%) and on health risk (46.4%), but surprisingly also on household income and wealth (44.9%) and regional average health expenditures (39.4%). The characteristic most influencing the answers was the medical specialty. Doctors' opinions about healthcare financing mechanisms varied considerably, for both mandatory and complementary health insurance. Lifestyle was a surprisingly frequent choice, even though this criterion is not currently used in Switzerland. Ability to pay was not supported by the majority.

  20. The effects of premium changes on ALL Kids, Alabama's CHIP program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Blackburn, Justin; Sen, Bisakha; Becker, David; Kilgore, Meredith L; Caldwell, Cathy; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Describe the trends in enrollment and renewal in the Alabama Children's Health Insurance Plan (CHIP), ALL Kids, since its creation in 1998, and to estimate the effect that an annual premium increase, along with coincident increases in service copays, had on the decision to renew participation. Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long enrollment and contracts with the state's Blue Cross and Blue Shield program for its network of providers and its provider fee structure. In October 2003 premiums for individual coverage were increased by $50 per year and copays by $1 to $3 per visit. This study is based upon a sample of 569,650 person-year observations of 230,255 children enrolled in the ALL Kids program between 1999 and 2009. The study models enrollment as a time series of cross section renewal decisions and specifies a series of linear probability regression models to estimate the effect of changes in the premium shift on the decision to renew. A second analysis includes interaction effects of the premiums shift with demographics, health status, income and previous enrollment to estimate differential response across subgroups. The increases in premiums and copays are estimated to have reduced program renewals by 6.1 to 8.3 percent depending upon how much time one allows for families to renew. Families with a child who has a chronic condition were more likely to renew coverage. However, those with chronic conditions, African-Americans and those with lower family incomes were more price-sensitive. An increase in annual premiums and visit copays had a modest impact on program reenrollment with effects comparable to those found in Florida, New Hampshire, Kansas and Arizona, but smaller than those in Kentucky and Georgia.

  1. Development of models for predicting carbon mineralization and associated phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Danielle N; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Rumsey, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Phytotoxicity of compost-amended soil is related to carbon mineralization associated with compost decomposition. The objective of this research was to determine if compost carbon mineralization potential, estimated using compost respiration rate measurements, could be combined with carbon mineralization kinetic models to predict phytotoxicity of compost-amended soil. First-order, second-order, and Monod kinetic models that include compost carbon mineralization potential, compost amendment rate, incubation time, and temperature were developed and compared for their ability to predict carbon mineralization kinetics. Experiments utilized two soil types amended with 0%, 5%, and 50% (v/v) food waste and green waste composts, incubated at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 45 degrees C for model development and under a diurnal temperature cycle from 20 degrees C to 30 degrees C for model validation. For most cases, a first-order model had an equivalent or better fit to the data than the other models. Mineralizable carbon estimated using the first-order model was significantly correlated to the probability of phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

  2. Developing Carbon Sequestration Forestry for Mitigating Climate Change: Practice and Management of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By elaborating the functions and effects of forestry in mitigating climate change, introducing the concepts and significance of forest carbon sink, forestry carbon sequestration, and carbon sequestration forestry, and summarizing the practices of carbon sequestration forestry in China, the paper came up with the outline for strengthening the management of carbon sequestration forestry, i.e. implementing the Climate Change Forestry Action Plan, reinforcing the accounting and monitoring of national forest car...

  3. The electrochemical effect of acid functionalisation of carbon nanotubes to be used in sensors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, F. C.; Cabral, M. F.; Mascaro, L. H.; Machado, S. A. S.

    2011-02-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of multi-walled carbon nanotubes was compared with that of glassy carbon, and the differences were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy before and after acid pre-treatment. The electrochemical techniques showed that acid functionalisation significantly improves the electrocatalytic properties of carbon nanotubes. These electrocatalytic properties enhance the analytical signal, shift the oxidation peak potential to a less positive value, and the charge-transfers rate increase of both dopamine and K 4[Fe(CN) 6]. The functionalisation step and the resulting appearance of edge planes covered with different chemical groups were confirmed by FTIR measurements. Carbon nanotubes after acid pre-treatment are a potentially powerful analytical tool for sensor development.

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(e)-4 - Contributions for premiums on annuity, etc., contracts and transitional rule for certain excess...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... made under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan on behalf of a self-employed individual... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions for premiums on annuity, etc... TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(e)-4 Contributions for premiums...

  5. Low Carbon Development: Challenges for China as a Rapidly Industrializing Developing Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongboChen; HuaiguoHu; JiahuaPan

    2005-01-01

    China is in a stage of rapid industrialization. Over the past two decades, the size of the Chinese economy has more than quadrupled and energy consumption has more than doubled. The drive for more industrialization over the next two decades is leading to similar dynamics on a much larger scale. The net increase in emissions of CO2 between 1990 and 2001 amounted to 823 million tons, accounting for 27percent of the world total. Energy supplies and security are key constraints to industrialization; therefore, mitigation of emissions can in fact contribute to the achievement of development goals. There is a need for China to pursue a path of low carbon development. However, low and zero carbon technologies can hardly meet the demands for the physical expansion of the economy. In order to cope with the challenges for low carbon development, factors such as responsibility, capability, and potentials have to be taken into account in an international climate regime.

  6. Determinants of premiums in aerospace mergers and acquisitions: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John K.

    There is a large body of literature on different aspects of premiums as they relate to mergers and acquisitions. However, there is very little literature that specifically discusses the determinants of premiums in aerospace. Few industries have experienced the prolonged consolidation that the aerospace industry has seen. Today, the industry is dominated by a few large firms, but there is still merger activity continuing especially with second-tier firms attempting to secure their future through growth. This paper examines several determinants as applied to 18 aerospace mergers of publicly held companies and divisions from 1991 through April of 2002.

  7. Impact of Trade Liberalization on Wage Skill Premium in Philippine Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaelita M. Aldaba

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to examine how trade liberalization affects wage premium at the firm level. Using effective protection rate as trade proxy, the paper assumes that in the face of increasing competition, an import-substituting firm may decide to remain at the low value-added stage of the production process which requires relatively less skilled workers and suggests a decline in the wage premium. On the other hand, a firm may move away from the product whose protection rate has fallen and shift a...

  8. China's Development of Low-Carbon Eco-Cities and Associated Indicator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    China's urban population surpassed its rural population historically in 2011, when the number of Chinese living in towns and cities reached about 690 million1. In the years to come, cities in China will face major challenges as their rapidly increasing populations burden already crowded infrastructure systems and exacerbate environmental and climate change issues, threatening public health and quality of life. Low-carbon cities may be key to addressing those challenges, especially as regards mitigating and adapting to climate change. Government entities at both the central and local level have moved aggressively on building low-carbon eco-cities. According to statistics reported by the Chinese Society for Urban Studies, by February of 2011, China will have 230 cities at the prefecture-and-above level that have proposed to establish themselves as “eco-cities,” accounting for 80.1% of the 287 such cities nationally. Of those 230 cities, 133, or 46.3%, have established targets to develop specifically as “lowcarbon cities” (Chinese Society for Urban Studies 2011). Given the proposed scale of the effort, China’s potential success or failure in demonstrating and implementing low-carbon eco-cities could greatly affect how the world addresses both the climate change impacts of urbanization and the sustainable development of cities. Despite the multiple guidelines that have been developed, it remains unclear what defines a low-carbon eco-city. Additionally, although more than 100 indicators have been used or proposed for assessing such cities, few relate directly to energy use or carbon emissions. Nonetheless, policy makers and leaders continue to demand comprehensive toolboxes to facilitate development of low-carbon eco-cities. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review of the development of low-carbon eco-cities in China. The paper also qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes 11 major indicator systems that researchers, planners

  9. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  10. Application of carbon fibers to biomaterials: a new era of nano-level control of carbon fibers after 30-years of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoto; Aoki, Kaoru; Usui, Yuki; Shimizu, Masayuki; Hara, Kazuo; Narita, Nobuyo; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Nakamura, Koichi; Ishigaki, Norio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Haniu, Hisao; Taruta, Seiichi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu

    2011-07-01

    Carbon fibers are state-of-the-art materials with properties that include being light weight, high strength, and chemically stable, and are applied in various fields including aeronautical science and space science. Investigation of applications of carbon fibers to biomaterials was started 30 or more years ago, and various products have been developed. Because the latest technological progress has realized nano-level control of carbon fibers, applications to biomaterials have also progressed to the age of nano-size. Carbon fibers with diameters in the nano-scale (carbon nanofibers) dramatically improve the functions of conventional biomaterials and make the development of new composite materials possible. Carbon nanofibers also open possibilities for new applications in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment. The first three-dimensional constructions with carbon nanofibers have been realized, and it has been found that the materials could be used as excellent scaffolding for bone tissue regeneration. In this critical review, we summarize the history of carbon fiber application to the biomaterials and describe future perspectives in the new age of nano-level control of carbon fibers (122 references).

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  12. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  13. Energy and low carbon development efforts in Ghana: institutional arrangements, initiatives, challenges and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kofi Ackom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Ghana has invested considerable effort and resources together with international partners to develop the energy sector and to mainstream energy low carbon pathways into national development plans. Low carbon development (LCD provides a good opportunity, of not only building upon earlier energy and climate change local processes and structures but also help to mainstream low carbon agenda in economic activities and national development plans. For this to work however, require efficient institutions and effective institutional arrangements. Based on extensive literature analysis, personal communications and inputs from stakeholders, the paper highlights the key institutional arrangements, their interactions, challenges and proffers recommendations for improvements. To improve energy and low carbon development effort from the perspectives of institutional structures, would require, clearer institutional mandates, continuous improvements in institutional coordination (intra and inter, capacity and skills development, sustained visibility of the essence of energy and LCD at high political levels as well as engagement by civil societies. Equally important are the issues of finance, data availability and quality, monitoring and evaluation.

  14. Development of Low and Middle Carbon Martensite Spring Steel with High Strength and Toughness for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ye-sheng; Wu Zi-ping; Zhu Yin-lu; Chen Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The conventional middle and high carbon spring steels have some drawbacks in properties, production and application. In order to meet the demands of rapid development of automobile, a new low and middle carbon spring steel35Si2CrMnVB, C0.34, Sil.66, Mn0.80, Cr0.67, V0.13, B0.001, P0.011, S0.014 wt.%, has been developed. Comparison between the new spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB and the conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, C0.61, Sil.75, Mn0.76, P0.021,S0.018 wt.%, shows that the new spring steel has not only high strength, good ductility, good comprehensive mechanical properties, but also low decarbonization tendency, sufficient hardenability and high elastic sag resistance, etc.. The microstructure change in quenched steel caused by the decreasing of carbon contents is detected through metallographic observation, the new low and middle carbon spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB after quenching is composed of almost lath martensite with high dislocation density and only a little martensite with twin structure. It is testified that to develop low carbon spring steel with more excellent properties for automobile is feasible.

  15. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  16. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values for most solutes.

  17. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values.

  18. Immobilization of malate dehydrogenase on carbon nanotubes for development of malate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, A; Rana, J S; Kumar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-12-22

    An amperometric malic acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing malate dehydrogenase on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) coated on screen printed carbon electrode. The screen printed carbon electrode is made up of three electrodes viz., carbon as working, platinum as counter and silver as reference electrode. Detection of L-malic acid concentration provides important information about the ripening and shelf life of the fruits. The NADP specific malate dehydrogenase was immobilized on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using cross linker EDC [1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] on screen printed carbon electrode. An amperometric current was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) which increases with increasing concentrations of malic acid at fixed concentration of NADP. Enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The detection limit of malic acid by the sensor was 60 - 120 μM and sensitivity of the sensor was 60 μM with a response time of 60s. The usual detection methods of malic acid are nonspecific, time consuming and less sensitive. However, an amperometric malic acid nanosensor is quick, specific and more sensitive for detection of malic acid in test samples.

  19. The Status Quo and Developing Trend Analysis of Global Carbon Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Wang Yao

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic view of the new trends of global carbon finance innovation under the challenge of global climate change and in the process of transition to achieve economic growth from "high carbon" to 'low carbon', covering the following aspects: the structure, status quo and developing trend of global carbon market. The paper discusses the innovation in financial organization and service systems and governments' overall guidance and policy support, and draws the conclusion that the world is undergoing massive changes with governments actively responding to carbon finance to embrace the tremendous opportunities for clean energy and climate change in financial industry. To seize the opportunity, a complete and overall carbon finance system of China should be put in the top of the agenda. Given the current tasks of energy conservation and pollution reduction and the growing demand for capital input, China needs to construct an clear of policy guidance, a diversified financia service system, and a multi-approach carbon finance system to intensify and widen the participation of financial industry, to expand financing channels for sustainable economy and spread risks, and finally, work out an inexpensive solution to the realization of China's low carbon target.

  20. Recent developments and perspectives on the treatment of industrial wastes by mineral carbonation — a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael; Gerven, Tom; Vlad, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Besides producing a substantial portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the industrial sector also generates significant quantities of solid residues. Mineral carbonation of alkaline wastes enables the combination of these two by-products, increasing the sustainability of industrial activities. On top of sequestering CO2 in geochemically stable form, mineral carbonation of waste materials also brings benefits such as stabilization of leaching, basicity and structural integrity, enabling further valorization of the residues, either via reduced waste treatment or landfilling costs, or via the production of marketable products. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of this technology and the latest developments in this field. Focus is given to the beneficial effects of mineral carbonation when applied to metallurgical slags, incineration ashes, mining tailings, asbestos containing materials, red mud, and oil shale processing residues. Efforts to intensify the carbonation reaction rate and improve the mineral conversion via process intensification routes, such as the application of ultrasound, hot-stage processing and integrated reactor technologies, are described. Valorization opportunities closest to making the transition from laboratory research to commercial reality, particularly in the form of shaped construction materials and precipitated calcium carbonate, are highlighted. Lastly, the context of mineral carbonation among the range of CCS options is discussed.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  2. 38 CFR 8.15 - Provision for paid-up insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance policy on any plan other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5... insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Extended Term and Paid-up Insurance § 8.15 Provision for paid-up insurance;...

  3. Economic analysis of the energy and carbon tax for the sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K.; Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Development' has been playing a very important role since seventies. Countries all over the world, whether developed or developing, strive to achieve their economic development in a sustainable way. U.N Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 at Rio was instrumental in the movement of the sustainable development. Korea is not an exception in this movement as Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established in September 2000. The Climate Change occupies the heart of the sustainable development. In response to the urgent need to protect global climate, the U.N. Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) were adopted. An analysis is required to respond effectively and sustainedly to the issue of climate change. Energy sector is the main contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, this study aims to analyse the implication of the energy{center_dot}carbon tax for the benefit of present and future generation, its impact on economy, industry, and energy. It also studies new elements related to the differential impact of energy carbon tax on income classes. We developed 'Overlapping Generation Equilibrium model' which consists of eleven industry, three income classes, time span of 100 years. Scenario analysis was performed for the case of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent in 2010 and afterward in comparison with its 'Business As Usual' path. Three major analysis preformed are as follows: 1. Numerical computation was done on the differential impact of the carbon tax on three income classes. 2. The impact on various generation was calculated. 3. Most importantly, the hypothesis of 'Double Dividend' was tested. This study cautiously concludes that carbon tax recycling by the reduction of the corporate income tax may increase GDP despite the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxides. The results of this

  4. Development of a Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with Multi-Wavelength Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumlin, B.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Wang, X.; Gronstal, S.; Chen, L. W. A. A.; Trimble, D.

    2014-12-01

    A thermal/optical carbon analyzer (DRI Model 2015) equipped with a novel seven-wavelength light source (405, 445, 532, 635, 780, 808, and 980 nm) was developed to analyze chemical and optical properties of particles collected on quartz-fiber filters. Based on the DRI Model 2001 carbon analyzer at 633 nm, major modifications were made on mechanical and electrical components, flow control, and the carbon detector to adopt modern technologies, increase instrument reliability, and reduce costs and maintenance. The correlation between wavelength-dependent light attenuation and organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) content allows estimation of the amount of brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) on filters. Continuous monitoring of the light reflected from and transmitted through the filter along with carbon evolved from the filter when heated to different temperatures under either inert or oxidizing gas environments provides insights into the optical properties of the carbon released from the filter; it also allows examination of the charring process as pyrolyzed char has been one of the major uncertainties in quantifying OC and EC. The objectives of this study are: 1) establish performance equivalency between the Model 2015 and Model 2001 DRI carbon analyzers when comparing similar laser wavelength to maintain consistency for long-term network sample analysis; and 2) analyze the multi-wavelength signal to quantify BrC and BC, and to optimize char correction. A selection of samples, including standard chemicals, rural and urban ambient filters, and emission sources from biomass burning, diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, and resuspended dust were measured by both the Model 2015 and Model 2001 analyzers. The instrument design, calibration, comparison with legacy analyzer, and interpretation of the multi-wavelengths measurement will be presented.

  5. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  6. The Volatility of Long-term Bond Returns: Persistent Interest Shocks and Time-varying Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela; Schotman, Peter C.

    We develop a model that can match two stylized facts of the term-structure. The first stylized fact is the predictability of excess returns on long-term bonds. Modeling this requires sufficient volatility and persistence in the price of risk. The second stylized fact is that long-term yields...... are dominated by a level factor, which requires persistence in the spot interest rate. We find that a fractionally integrated process for the short rate plus a fractionally integrated specification for the price of risk leads to an analytically tractable almost affine term structure model that can explain...... the stylized facts. In a decomposition of long-term bond returns we find that the expectations component from the level factor is more volatile than the returns themselves. It therefore takes a volatile risk premium that is negatively correlated with innovations in the level factor to explain the volatility...

  7. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  8. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  9. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  10. Climate change mitigation and sustainable development through carbon sequestration: Experiences in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This article discusses the links between sustainable development and carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation (CCM) strategy with a focus on Latin America, which has hosted the majority of sequestration activities to date. The global potential for CCM through a combination of sequestration and reduced deforestation is projected to be roughly 60-80 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) by mid-century, with a large fraction of that potential lying in Latin America. Such activities can, in theory, contribute to sustainable development by contributing to rural livelihoods, providing fuel and timber, and enhancing biodiversity and other environmental services. However, due to political-economic constraints and the nature of the carbon market itself only a small fraction of this technical potential is likely to be reached. Moreover, the degree to which carbon sequestration and forest conservation activities contribute to positive social and environmental outcomes is not clear. To date, carbon sequestration and forest conservation projects in Latin America have had mixed results. Some of these experiences are reviewed and alternative policy options are discussed.

  11. 26 CFR 1.822-10 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies by section 818(b)(1), as amended by the Life Insurance Company Income Tax Act of 1959 (73 Stat... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain... premium required in the computation of taxable investment income by a company subject to the tax imposed...

  12. 29 CFR 778.206 - Premiums for work outside basic workday or workweek-examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for... regular workday or workweek. The extra compensation provided by such premium rates will be excluded...

  13. 75 FR 21329 - Medicaid Program; State Allotments for Payment of Medicare Part B Premiums for Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...), specified low-income Medicare ] beneficiaries (SLMBs), and qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs... Medicaid whose family income is at least 120 percent but less than 135 percent of the poverty level. With..., among the States, Federal funds to provide Medicaid payment for Medicare Part B premiums for low-...

  14. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Cancellation...

  15. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by...

  16. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK46 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY:...

  17. Children's health insurance program premiums adversely affect enrollment, especially among lower-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdus, Salam; Hudson, Julie; Hill, Steven C; Selden, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    Both Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which are run by the states and funded by federal and state dollars, offer health insurance coverage for low-income children. Thirty-three states charged premiums for children at some income ranges in CHIP or Medicaid in 2013. Using data from the 1999-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we show that the relationship between premiums and coverage varies considerably by income level and by parental access to employer-sponsored insurance. Among children with family incomes above 150 percent of the federal poverty level, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 1.6-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance may be higher among those children whose parents lack an offer of employer-sponsored insurance than among those whose parents have such an offer. Among children with family incomes of 101-150 percent of poverty, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 6.7-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage and a 3.3-percentage-point increase in uninsurance. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance is even larger among children whose parents lack offers of employer coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. 76 FR 38389 - Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Act and clarify the effect of the premium provisions of the Act as amended by the FCE Act. See 74 FR... Credit System demonstrates good health and sound risk management and other conditions warrant, and raise... quality of capital, earnings, asset growth, asset quality, loss allowance levels, asset...

  19. Perception and description of premium beers by panels with different degrees of product expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two panels were constituted of...

  20. 78 FR 59366 - Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and... MIPs are the same as in FY 2013. In addition, the Notice clarifies that conventional or FHA-insured... affordability criteria as defined in this Notice, are eligible for the LIHTC MIPs as are projects with new...

  1. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  2. 5 CFR 9901.363 - Premium pay for health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... status. (6) An employee may not be charged leave during periods of regularly scheduled on-call duty; nor may such an employee receive on-call premium pay when, because of leave or other authorized absence... LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 75 FR 5808 - Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Insurance Program (CHIP). The Department of Labor (Department) is required to provide the model notice to... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance Under Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program, Notice AGENCY:...

  4. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 140 RIN 3150-AI74 Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY... amending its regulations that govern financial protection requirements and indemnity agreements to increase... increase to $375 million, based on an adjustment by American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), which currently writes...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 4007 - Policy Guidelines On Premium Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circumstances. (c) Action or inaction of outside parties. In some cases an accountant, actuary, lawyer, pension...) Action or inaction of outside parties. If an accountant, actuary, lawyer, pension consultant, or other... underpaid the plan's variable-rate premium because the plan actuary used the wrong interest rate. A...

  6. Education Premiums and Skilled Migration in Mexico: Lessons for an Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigau, Camelia; Guerra, Bernardo Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between skills prices (wage premiums) and inequality in migrant sending countries (mainly from Latin America) and explores the implications for education policies. Most of the evidence is based on the case of Mexico, a Latin American country that is also an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development…

  7. How Pensions Contribute to the Premium Paid to Experienced Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joshua B.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Many argue that public school systems should stop linking teachers' salaries so closely to their years of experience. However, the effect of deferred retirement compensation on the premium paid to experienced teachers has, to date, been underappreciated. To shed more light on this issue, we calculate the total compensation earned by teachers in…

  8. 18 CFR 367.4290 - Account 429, Amortization of premium on debt-Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Amortization of premium on debt-Credit. 367.4290 Section 367.4290 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.822-3 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... held by a mutual insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 821. Such amortization and... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of premium and accrual of discount... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and...

  10. 17 CFR 256.225 - Unamortized premium on long-term debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.225 Unamortized premium on... distribute the amount equitably over the life of the security. The amortization shall be on a monthly...

  11. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  12. Spending the Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium: A West Midlands Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013 the government announced that it was to provide funding to improve provision of Physical Education and sport in primary schools in England. Entitled The Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium, this ring-fenced annual funding has been allocated to schools that are free to choose how the money is spent but are accountable for its…

  13. 76 FR 79177 - Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... impact of governmental farm policy and the effect of the globalization of agriculture on opportunities... regulations that were inconsistent with the FCE Act and clarify the effect of the premium provisions of the Act as amended by the FCE Act. See 74 FR 28156 (June 15, 2009); 74 FR 17371 (April 15, 2009).\\1\\...

  14. 78 FR 64943 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... percent reserve ratio has been the normal target used to calculate the Part B premium. In view of the... physician update, a contingency reserve ratio in excess of 20 percent of the following year's expenditures... deductible by the ratio of the 2014 aged actuarial rate to the 2013 aged actuarial rate. The...

  15. Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in...

  16. On Mean-Variance Hedging of Bond Options with Stochastic Risk Premium Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Kumar, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the mean-variance hedging problem for pricing bond options using the yield curve as the observation. The model considered contains infinite-dimensional noise sources with the stochastically- varying risk premium. Hence our model is incomplete. We consider mean-variance hedging under the

  17. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  18. Energy and low carbon development efforts in Ghana: institutional arrangements, initiatives, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutu Benefoh, Daniel; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    earlier energy and climate change local processes and structures but also help to mainstream low carbon agenda in economic activities and national development plans. For this to work however, require efficient institutions and effective institutional arrangements. Based on extensive literature analysis...

  19. The MDGs and Beyond : Can Low Carbon Development be Pro-poor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    Climate change adaptation and mitigation needs to cut across all poverty reduction efforts, including any post-2015 architecture. However, low carbon development (LCD) debates to date have been mainly about high- and middle-income countries. There are good reasons why even the poorest countries with

  20. Exploring a low carbon development in rural China : the role of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling

    2013-01-01

    As the largest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, China is facing great pressure to reduce these emissions in order to mitigate global climate change. Developing a low carbon economy has been initiated in many countries, including China, as a means to tackle this issue. China’s actions

  1. Contribution of chloroplast biogenesis to carbon-nitrogen balance during early leaf development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Kensuke; Hirotsuka, Shoko; Shimada, Hiroshi; Chono, Yoko; Matsuda, Osamu; Iba, Koh

    2010-07-01

    Chloroplast biogenesis is most significant during the changes in cellular organization associated with leaf development in higher plants. To examine the physiological relationship between developing chloroplasts and host leaf cells during early leaf development, we investigated changes in the carbon and nitrogen contents in leaves at the P4 developmental stage of rice, during which leaf blade structure is established and early events of chloroplast differentiation occur. During the P4 stage, carbon content on a dry mass basis remained constant, whereas the nitrogen content decreased by 30%. Among carbohydrates, sucrose and starch accumulated to high levels early in the P4 stage, and glucose, fructose and cellulose degradation increased during the mid-to-late P4 stage. In the chloroplast-deficient leaves of the virescent-1 mutant of rice, however, the carbon and nitrogen contents, as well as the C/N ratio during the P4 stage, were largely unaffected. These observations suggest that developing rice leaves function as sink organs at the P4 stage, and that chloroplast biogenesis and carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf cell is regulated independently at this stage.

  2. Exploring a low carbon development in rural China : the role of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling

    2013-01-01

    As the largest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, China is facing great pressure to reduce these emissions in order to mitigate global climate change. Developing a low carbon economy has been initiated in many countries, including China, as a means to tackle this issue. China’s actions

  3. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  4. Going Clean - The Economics of China's Low-carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallding, Karl; Thai, Helen; Han, Guoyi; Olsson, Marie; Kartha, Sivan (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)); Eklund, Klas (SEB, Stockholm (Sweden)); SU Ming (Peking Univ. (China)); Cao Jing (Tsinghua Univ. (China)); Luderer (Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact (Germany))

    2009-11-15

    This report shows that China can achieve the transition to a low-carbon economy. China can make these emissions reductions within the tight constraints of a global 2 deg C target while still meeting development and economic growth goals over the next four decades. There are strong mitigation potentials in the building, industry, transport and electricity generation sectors. China would benefit from early mitigation, but immediate action is critical for the world to have a reasonable chance of keeping warming below the 2 deg C target. Such a transition would also be an essential part of China's modernisation. A low-carbon transition presents opportunities for China to improve its energy security and move its economy up the value chain in the production of international goods and services. A low-carbon China is a country with a larger service sector, more advanced labour skills and less environmental degradation. During this transition, new, green job opportunities will emerge, and support an overall shift to a low-carbon economy. Active labour market and social policies, vocational training and upgrading of skills are imperative to facilitate this modernisation and reduce the impact of jobs lost in resource-intensive industries. With today's low price on carbon emissions, the incentives for a low-carbon transition are not sufficiently strong. Consumption and production patterns must be steered in a more resource-sustainable direction. A first step is to phase out subsidies on fossil fuels. Another is to place a price on carbon, either through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system, which would create incentives for companies and individuals to produce and consume less carbon-intensive goods and services, and to undertake abatement opportunities to reduce their overall carbon footprint. Advancing technology and innovation need to be fundamental, shared policy objectives in this transition. Early investment reduces costs and paves the way for large

  5. China's Voluntary Mitigation Target and Road of Low-carbon Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jiankun

    2011-01-01

    China is going through a rapid development stage of industrialization and urbanization.Although tremendous achievements have been made in the aspects of energy conservation,improvement of energy effectiveness and development of new and renewable energies,because of the rapid development of economy,it is difficult to change the huge total amount and fast increase of CO2 emission in the near future.China has to confront the tough challenge to address global climate change.China plans to reduce carbon intensity,that is,CO2 emissions per unit GDP,by 40 to 45% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level.It is a strategic option to coordinate domestic sustainable development with coping with global climate change on the basis of China's national circumstances,representing the core content and key measures for transforming development pattern and realizing low-carbon development.To achieve the target,more capital and technology inputs are required for energy conservation and low-carbon development during the twelfth and Thirteenth Five Year Plan period than in the Eleventh Five Year Plan period.In addition,energy conservation achieved by structural adjustment,industrial upgrading and product value-added improvement is also expected to play a greater role.Therefore,China should strengthen technological innovation,make greater efforts to transform the development pattern,take advantage of the synergistic effect of policies and measures while coping with global climate change and building a domestic tow-oriented society.China should also establish an industrial system characterized by low-carbon emission.Then China will ultimately achieve a win-win situation in both domestic sustainable development and coping with global climate change.

  6. Characteristics of the development of pore stucture during carbonization of crushed and gradulated lean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Yu.A.; Limonov, N.V.; Ivakhnyuk, G.K.

    1992-06-20

    The development of the pore structure of crushed and granulated lean coal during carbonization was investigated from the results of a study of the change of weight and volume of the coal pieces. It was shown that the macropore structure of the coal is formed in the low-temperature stage of carbonization and is due to the process of the removal of binder from the granules (620 K) and to destruction and elimination of volatile products from the crushed material (770 K). 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues.

  8. Development of nitrogen enriched nanostructured carbon adsorbents for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Chitrakshi; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2015-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon adsorbents containing high nitrogen content were developed by templating melamine-formaldehyde resin in the pores of mesoporous silica by nanocasting technique. A series of adsorbents were prepared by altering the carbonization temperature from 400 to 700 °C and characterized in terms of their textural and morphological properties. CO2 adsorption performance was investigated at various temperatures from 30 to 100 °C by using a thermogravimetric analyzer under varying CO2 concentrations. Multiple adsorption-desorption experiments were also carried out to investigate the adsorbent regenerability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the development of nanostructured materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis indicated the development of carbon adsorbents having high nitrogen content. The surface area and pore volume of the adsorbent carbonized at 700 °C were found to be 266 m(2) g(-1) and 0.25 cm(3) g(-1) respectively. CO2 uptake profile for the developed adsorbents showed that the maximum CO2 adsorption occurred within ca. 100 s. CO2 uptake of 0.792 mmol g(-1) at 30 °C was exhibited by carbon obtained at 700 °C with complete regenerability in three adsorption-desorption cycles. Furthermore, kinetics of CO2 adsorption on the developed adsorbents was studied by fitting the experimental data of CO2 uptake to three kinetic models with best fit being obtained by fractional order kinetic model with error% within range of 5%. Adsorbent surface was found to be energetically heterogeneous as suggested by Temkin isotherm model. Also the isosteric heat of adsorption for CO2 was observed to increase from ca. 30-44 kJ mol(-1) with increase in surface coverage.

  9. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  10. Early retirement and the influence on healthcare budgets and insurance premiums in a diabetes population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan WalzerAnalytica International, Untere Herrenstrasse 25, 79539 Loerrach, GermanyObjectives: To contribute to current discussions about budget impact modeling, two different approaches for the impact of a new pharmaceutical product were analyzed: firstly considering the impact on annual healthcare expenditures only, and secondly additional inclusion of lost insurance premiums due to possible early retirement in patients with chronic diseases.Methods: The dynamic model calculates the budget impact from two different perspectives: (a the impact on healthcare expenditures and (b on expenditures as well as on health insurance revenues due to premiums. The latter approach could especially be useful for patients with chronic diseases who have higher probabilities of early retirement. Early retirement rates and indirect costs were derived from published data. Healthcare premiums were calculated based on an average premium and a mean income. Epidemiological input data were obtained from the literature. Time horizon was 10 years.Results: Results in terms of reimbursement decisions of the budget impact analysis varied depending on the assumptions made for the insurance premiums, costs, and early retirement rate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in extreme cases the decision for accepting a new pharmaceutical product would probably be negative using approach (a, but positive using approach (b. Conclusions: Depending on the disease and population of interest in a budget impact analysis, not only the healthcare expenditures for a health insurance have to be considered but also the revenue side for an insurance due to retirement should be included.Keywords: decision analysis, budget impact, pharmacoeconomics, health economics, health insurance

  11. Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes

  12. Development of Novel Metal Hydride-Carbon Nanomaterial Based Nanocomposites as Anode Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Final Progress Report (27-02-2012 To 26-02-2014) Project Title:- Development of novel metal hydride -carbon nanomaterial based nanocomposites as...anode electrode materials for Lithium ion battery Objectives:- The aim of this study is to develop metal hydride –carbon nanomaterial based...be as follows:- Milestone I • Synthesis of nanosized metal hydrides (NMH)-carbon nanotubes (CNT) hybridizing with G (NMH- CNT-G) nanocomposites

  13. A new activated primary tank developed for recovering carbon source and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xianbao; Zhang, Qionghua; Wang, Xiaochang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel activated primary tank process (APT) was developed for recovering carbon source by fermentation and elutriation of primary sludge. The effects of solids retention time (SRT), elutriation intensity (G) and return sludge ratio (RSR) on this recovery were evaluated in a pilot scale reactor. Results indicated that SRT significantly influenced carbon source recovery, and mechanical elutriation could promote soluble COD (SCOD) and VFA yields. The optimal conditions of APT were SRT=5d, G=152s(-1) and RSR=10%, SCOD and VFA production were 57.0mg/L and 21.7mg/L. Particulate organic matter in sludge was converted into SCOD and VFAs as fermentative bacteria were significantly enriched in APT. Moreover, the APT process was applied in a wastewater treatment plant to solve the problem of insufficient carbon source. The outcomes demonstrated that influent SCOD of biological tank increased by 31.1%, which improved the efficiency of removing nitrogen and phosphorus.

  14. Development of a solid electrolyte carbon dioxide and water reduction system for oxygen recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikan, L.; Morris, J. P.; Wu, C. K.

    1972-01-01

    A 1/4-man solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system, consisting of an electrolyzer, a carbon deposition reactor, and palladium membranes for separating hydrogen, was operated continuously in a 180-day test. Oxygen recovery from the carbon dioxide-water feed was 95%. One percent of the oxygen was lost to vacuum with the hydrogen off-gas. In a space cabin, the remaining 4% would have been recycled to the cabin and recovered. None of the electrolysis cells used in the 180-day test failed. Electrolysis power rose 20% during the test; the average power was 283.5 watts/man. Crew time was limited to 18 min/day of which 12 min/day was used for removing carbon. The success achieved in operating the system can be attributed to an extensive component development program, which is described. Stability of operation, ease of control, and flexibility in feed composition were demonstrated by the life test.

  15. Chinese energy policy progress and challenges in the transition to low carbon development, 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Basso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If the world is not to jeopardize the chances for human life on Earth, climate change must be mitigated; therefore, achieving low carbon development is crucial. China is the world's greatest GHG emitter, energy producer and energy consumer; investigating its energy-climate policy developments and international positions are of utmost importance to understand and tackle current stumbling blocks of the global energy and climate governance.

  16. Time for Decarbonization of Conservation and Development Projects? The Political Ecology of Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre L. Ibisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The globe's first carbon projects were designed and implemented approximately 20 years ago following scientific insights that emissions of greenhouse gases needed to be mitigated. Visible in some of these early projects were the important aspects of social governance and local benefit sharing. The projects promised to be a panacea to environmental, social and economic problems in remote rural areas of developing countries. However, it took another decade before a wave of hundreds of carbon projects were launched. Many of the projects were offered under the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, plus the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement, as well as under a variety of voluntary schemes and national programs, public-private partnerships, and forestry-based investment initiatives. As decision-makers prepare the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change in Paris (COP21, Earthscan has released a book entitled `Carbon conflicts and forest landscapes in Africa', edited by Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones. According to the editors, the focus of the book is on what happens on the ground when carbon forestry projects arrive, what types of projects work, and, equally important, what doesn’t work.

  17. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  18. Analysis of the Threshold Effect of Financial Development on China’s Carbon Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongfeng Pan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data on 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2012, this paper conducts an empirical test on the threshold effect of the relationship between financial development and carbon emission intensity from the perspectives of financial scale and financial efficiency. The results show that at a low level of per capita GDP, the expansion of the financial scale and the enhancement of financial efficiency will increase carbon intensity. When the per capita GDP is greater than the threshold value (RMB 37,410, the expansion of the financial scale will also increase carbon intensity, but the potency of this effect will be weaker. At the same time, the improvement of financial efficiency will help reduce carbon intensity. Most provinces with per capita GDP greater than the threshold value (RMB 37,410 are located in the eastern coastal areas of China, whereas most provinces with per capita GDP less than the threshold value are located in the central and western areas of China. Both raising the level of openness and improving the industrial structure will have significantly positive effects on carbon intensity.

  19. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  20. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation.

  1. Urbanism in the Anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Michael; Marvin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Earth scientists now argue that the current geological era should be re-named the anthropocene to better reflect the impact of humans in reshaping planetary ecology. Urbanism encompasses the social, economic and political processes most closely linked to the rapid transformation of habitats, destruction of ecologies, over use of materials and resources, and the production of pollutants and carbon emissions that threaten planetary terracide. Consequently, the key concern for 21st-century globa...

  2. Urbanism in the Anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Michael; Marvin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Earth scientists now argue that the current geological era should be re-named the anthropocene to better reflect the impact of humans in reshaping planetary ecology. Urbanism encompasses the social, economic and political processes most closely linked to the rapid transformation of habitats, destruction of ecologies, over use of materials and resources, and the production of pollutants and carbon emissions that threaten planetary terracide. Consequently, the key concern for 21st-century globa...

  3. Carbonate Platform Development and Stromatolite Morphogenesis: Constraints on Environmental and Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Work has been completed on the digital mapping of a terminal Proterozoic reef complex in Namibia. This complex formed an isolated carbonate platform developed downdip on a carbonate ramp of the Nama Group. The stratigraphic evolution of the platform was digitally reconstructed from an extensive dataset that was compiled by using digital surveying technologies. The platform comprises three accommodation cycles in which each subsequent cycle experienced progressively greater influence of a long-term accommodation increase. Aggradation and progradation during the first cycle resulted in a flat, uniform, sheet-like platform. The coarsening and shallowing-upward sequence representing the first cycle is dominated by columnar stromatolitic thrombolites and massive dolostones with interbedded mudstone-grainstone at the base of the sequence grading into cross-bedded dolostones. The second cycle features aggradation, formation of a distinct margin containing thrombolite mounds and domes, and the development of a bucket geometry. Columnar stromatolitic thrombolites dominate the platform interior. The final stage of platform development shows a deepening trend with initial aggradation and formation of well-bedded, thin deposits in the interior and mound development at the margins. While the interior drowned, the platform margin kept up with rising sea level and a complex pinnacle reef formed containing fused and coalesced thrombolite mounds flanked by bioclastic grainstones (containing Cloudina and Namacalathus fossils) and collapse breccias. A set of isolated large thrombolite mounds flanked by shales indicate the final stage of the carbonate platform. During a progressive increase in accommodation, a flat-topped isolated carbonate platform becomes aerially less extensive by either backstepping or formation of smaller pinnacles or a combination of both. The overall geometric evolution of the studied platform from flat-topped to bucket with elevated margins is recorded in many

  4. Developing sulfide-oxidizing biofilm on H2S-exhausted carbon for sustainable bio-regeneration and biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Yan, Rong; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2009-05-30

    The feasibility of developing biofilm on exhausted carbon using pre-deposited sulfur compounds as the sole energy source was studied, aiming to re-use them in odor biofiltration. The exhausted carbon with different properties, including surface pH, sulfur content and porosity, was used. A series of off-line trials were conducted to investigate the release of sulfur compounds from the exhausted carbon and the attachment of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on the exhausted carbon. Without any pre-treatment, a few bacteria attachment on exhausted carbon was observed by SEM, due to possibly the limitation of reduced sulfur compounds release for bacterial growth. The biofilm development was much improved by adding NaOH solution to partially pre-desorb the deposited sulfur into liquid phase, which provided initial energy for bacterial growth. With the attached bacteria, the further significant release of the deposited sulfur was achieved through an additional driving force: biodegradation. The key issues for developing biofilm on exhausted carbon were concluded, which mainly concerned of desorption of pre-deposited reduced sulfur compounds and porosity of carbon. The sulfur-associated reactions occurring in developing biofilm on exhausted carbon was proposed. Bio-regeneration of exhausted carbon in the course of biofilm development was also preliminarily assessed.

  5. AgroC - Development and evaluation of a model for carbon fluxes in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhalfen, Anne; Herbst, Michael; Schmidt, Marius; Weihermüller, Lutz; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Agroecosystems are highly sensitive to climate change. To predict and describe the processes, interactions and feedbacks in the plant-soil-system a model accounting for both compartments at an appropriate level of complexity is required. To describe the processes of crop development, crop growth, water flux, heat transport, and carbon cycling three process models were coupled: the one-dimensional soil water, heat and CO2 transport model SOILCO2, the carbon turnover model RothC, and the plant growth model SUCROS. Thereby, the main focus was on the full description of the CO2 flux into the atmosphere via plant and soil processes and finally on simulating the net ecosystem exchange. Additionally, the model was modified to work at the temporal resolution between 1 and 24 hours. For model evaluation a winter wheat and a grassland data set obtained within the TERENO Rur catchment (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) was used. For model initialisation soil carbon fractions were available. Plant specific parameters and soil thermal properties were taken from literature. Measured soil water contents, soil temperatures, crop measurements, autotrophic, and heterotrophic chamber-based respiration measurements were used for validation and calibration. The coupled agroecosystem model AgroC described the crop development and heat transport reasonably well. Minor adjustments had to be made for carbon cycling, and to adapt the model to site specific conditions. Therefore, the soil hydraulic properties for soil water transport had to be determined by inverse modelling.

  6. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko C.C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pilots to improve the design of future pilots and commercial development of this massive bitumen deposit. In agreement with the conclusions of earlier analysis of these Grosmont pilots, they were reasonably successful considering the heterogeneous nature of the Grosmont Formation. Operational factors such as poor steam quality, non-optimized high injection pressures and completion issues appear to have heavily impacted recovery performances. Clearly, steam-based recovery operations have good potential for Grosmont, especially considering that it is mature commercial technology. Following an integrated analysis of early Grosmont pilots, we posit that Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS using horizontal wells exhibits greater potential for the development of Grosmont carbonate, compared with Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage technology (SAGD.

  7. Development of a Carbon Emission Calculations System for Optimizing Building Plan Based on the LCA Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle thinking has become widely applied in the assessment for building environmental performance. Various tool are developed to support the application of life cycle assessment (LCA method. This paper focuses on the carbon emission during the building construction stage. A partial LCA framework is established to assess the carbon emission in this phase. Furthermore, five typical LCA tools programs have been compared and analyzed for demonstrating the current application of LCA tools and their limitations in the building construction stage. Based on the analysis of existing tools and sustainability demands in building, a new computer calculation system has been developed to calculate the carbon emission for optimizing the sustainability during the construction stage. The system structure and detail functions are described in this paper. Finally, a case study is analyzed to demonstrate the designed LCA framework and system functions. This case is based on a typical building in UK with different plans of masonry wall and timber frame to make a comparison. The final results disclose that a timber frame wall has less embodied carbon emission than a similar masonry structure. 16% reduction was found in this study.

  8. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hufenbach

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required. The load-adapted combination of 3D reinforced semi-finished fibre products (textile preforms made from carbon fibres (CF with aluminium light metal alloys (Al offers a considerable lightweight construction potential, which up to now has not been exploited.Research limitations/implications: Gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using precision moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required.Practical implications: Load-adapted CF/Al-MMC, due to the relatively high stiffness and strength of the metal matrix, allow the introduction of extremely high forces, thereby enabling a much better exploitation of the existing lightweight construction potential of this material in comparison to other composite materials.Originality/value: Constantly rising demands on extremely stressed lightweight structures, particularly in traffic engineering as well as in machine building and plant engineering, increasingly require the use of endless fibre-reinforced composite materials which, due to their selectively adaptable characteristics profiles, are clearly superior to conventional monolithic materials.

  9. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage Development Trends from a Techno-Paradigm Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world’s energy needs have been continually growing over the past decade, yet fossil fuels are limited. Renewable energies are becoming more prevalent, but are still a long way from being commonplace worldwide. Literature mining is applied to review carbon capture and storage (CCS development trends and to develop and examine a novel carbon capture and storage technological paradigm (CCSTP, which incorporates CCSTP competition, diffusion and shift. This paper first provides an overview of the research and progress in CCS technological development, then applies a techno-paradigm theory to analyze CCSTP development and to provide a guide for future CCS technological trends. CCS could avoid CO2 being released into the atmosphere. Moreover, bioenergy with CCS (BECCS can make a significant contribution to a net removal of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we compare the different CCSTP developmental paths and the conventional techno-paradigm by examining the S-curves. The analyses in this paper provide a useful guide for scholars seeking new inspiration in their research and for potential investors who are seeking to invest research funds in more mature technologies. We conclude that political barriers and public acceptance are the major distinctions between the CCSTP and the conventional techno-paradigm. It is expected that policy instruments and economic instruments are going to play a pivotal role in the accomplishment of global carbon reduction scenarios.

  11. Structural CNT Composites. Part I; Developing a Carbon Nanotube Filament Winder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Wincheski, Russell A.; Antczak, Andrew; Campero, Jamie C.; Luong, Hoa H.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based materials promise advances in the production of high strength and multifunctional components for aerospace and other applications. Specifically, in tension dominated applications, the latest CNT based filaments are yielding composite properties comparable to or exceeding composites from more established fibers such as Kevlar and carbon fiber. However, for the properties of these materials to be fully realized at the component level, suitable manufacturing processes have to be developed. These materials handle differently from conventional fibers, with different wetting characteristics and behavior under load. The limited availability of bulk forms also requires that the equipment be scaled down accordingly to tailor the process development approach to material availability. Here, the development of hardware and software for filament winding of carbon nanotube based tapes and yarns is described. This hardware features precision guidance of the CNT material and control of the winding tension over a wide range in an open architecture that allows for effective process control and troubleshooting during winding. Use of the filament winder to develop CNT based Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) shall also be discussed.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A CO2 SEQUESTRATION MODULE BY INTEGRATING MINERAL ACTIVATION AND AQUEOUS CARBONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; George Alexander

    2004-11-15

    Mineral carbonation is a promising concept for permanent CO{sub 2} sequestration due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the permanent storage of CO{sub 2} in solid form as carbonates, and the overall reaction being exothermic. However, the primary drawback to mineral carbonation is the reaction kinetics. To accelerate the reaction, aqueous carbonation processes are preferred, where the minerals are firstly dissolved in solution. In aqueous carbonation, the key step is the dissolution rate of the mineral, where the mineral dissolution reaction is likely to be surface controlled. In order to accelerate the dissolution process, the serpentine can be ground to very fine particle size (<37 {micro}m), but this is a very energy intensive process. Alternatively, magnesium could be chemically extracted in aqueous solution. Phase I showed that chemical surface activation helps to dissolve the magnesium from the serpentine minerals (particle size {approx}100 {micro}m), and furthermore, the carbonation reaction can be conducted under mild conditions (20 C and 650 psig) compared to previous studies that required >185 C, >1850 psig and <37 {micro}m particle size. Phase I also showed that over 70% of the magnesium can be extracted at ambient temperature leaving amorphous SiO{sub 2} with surface areas {approx} 330m{sup 2}/g. The overall objective of Phase 2 of this research program is to optimize the active carbonation process developed in Phase I in order to design an integrated CO{sub 2} sequestration module. During the current reporting period, Task 1 ''Mineral activation'' was initiated and focused on a parametric study to optimize the operation conditions for the mineral activation, where serpentine and sulfuric acid were reacted, as following the results from Phase 1. Several experimental factors were outlined as having a potential influence on the mineral activation. This study has focused to date on the effects of varying the acid

  13. Effect of carbonate chemistry alteration on the early embryonic development of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gazeau

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, due to anthropogenic CO₂ absorption by the ocean, may have profound impacts on marine biota. Calcareous organisms are expected to be particularly sensitive due to the decreasing availability of carbonate ions driven by decreasing pH levels. Recently, some studies focused on the early life stages of mollusks that are supposedly more sensitive to environmental disturbances than adult stages. Although these studies have shown decreased growth rates and increased proportions of abnormal development under low pH conditions, they did not allow attribution to pH induced changes in physiology or changes due to a decrease in aragonite saturation state. This study aims to assess the impact of several carbonate-system perturbations on the growth of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas larvae during the first 3 days of development (until shelled D-veliger larvae. Seawater with five different chemistries was obtained by separately manipulating pH, total alkalinity and aragonite saturation state (calcium addition. Results showed that the developmental success and growth rates were not directly affected by changes in pH or aragonite saturation state but were highly correlated with the availability of carbonate ions. In contrast to previous studies, both developmental success into viable D-shaped larvae and growth rates were not significantly altered as long as carbonate ion concentrations were above aragonite saturation levels, but they strongly decreased below saturation levels. These results suggest that the mechanisms used by these organisms to regulate calcification rates are not efficient enough to compensate for the low availability of carbonate ions under corrosive conditions.

  14. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for NASA's Deep Space Human Exploration Missions 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has embarked on an endeavor that will enable humans to explore deep space, with the ultimate goal of sending humans to Mars. This journey will require significant developments in a wide range of technical areas, as resupply is unavailable in the Mars transit phase and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, volume, and other resources must be minimized for all subsystems to reduce propulsion needs. Among the critical areas identified for development are life support systems, which will require increases in reliability and reductions in resources. This paper discusses current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support crewed Mars-class missions.

  15. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog

    2004-03-01

    The Lab for Energy and Environment (LFEE) at MIT is developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for carbon management. The GIS will store, integrate, and manipulate information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS can be used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. In the first year of this three year project, we focused on two tasks: (1) specifying the system design--defining in detail the GIS data requirements, the types of analyses that can be conducted, and the forms of output we will produce, as well as designing the computer architecture of the GIS and (2) creating the ''core'' datasets--identifying data sources and converting them into a form accessible by the GIS.

  17. Recent developments in the preparation and regeneration of activated carbons by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Foo Keng; Hameed, B H

    2009-07-30

    To date, microwave energy has been widely developed and applied to almost every field of chemistry. In many cases, microwave technology has proven to remarkably reducing costs, accelerating reaction rates, improving yields and selectively activating. This paper presents a state of art review of microwave technology, its background studies, fundamental chemistry and industrial applications. With the renaissance of activated carbon, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. The review provides a summary on recent development in preparation and regeneration of activated carbons. The key advance of introducing microwave energy has been highlighted relative to conventional methods. Moreover, the major drawbacks, challenges with its future expectation are presented and discussed. Conclusively, microwave energy is predicted to be a potentially viable and powerful replacement for fuel technology in various areas, while its progress represents an expanding field in the area of adsorption science.

  18. Development of system design information for carbon dioxide using an amine type sorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R. L.; Roehlich, F.; Vancheri, F.

    1971-01-01

    Development work on system design information for amine type carbon dioxide sorber is reported. Amberlite IR-45, an aminated styrene divinyl benzene matrix, was investigated to determine the influence of design parameters of sorber particle size, process flow rate, CO2 partial pressure, total pressure, and bed designs. CO2 capacity and energy requirements for a 4-man size system were related mathematically to important operational parameters. Some fundamental studies in CO2 sorber capacity, energy requirements, and process operation were also performed.

  19. Development of a Polymer-carbon Nanotubes based Economic Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S. I.; Kissick, John; Spence, Stephen; Boyle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A low cost solar collector was developed by using polymeric components as opposed to metal and glass components of traditional solar collectors. In order to utilize polymers for the absorber of the solar collector, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) has been added as a filler to improve the thermal conductivity and the solar absorptivity of polymers. The solar collector was designed as a multi-layer construction with considering the economic manufacturing. Through the mathematical heat transfer analysis,...

  20. A Longitudinal Study on the Carbon Emissions of a New Residential Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for nearly 50% of all greenhouse gases globally. While this has been widely recognized, the GHG mitigation strategies have traditionally concentrated on reducing the use phase emissions, as over 90% of the emissions are generated during the use phase according to several studies. However, two current developments increase the importance of the construction phase emissions and the embodied emissions of the building materials. Firstly, the improvements in the energy efficiency of buildings directly increase the relative share of the construction phase emissions. Secondly, the notification of the temporal allocation of the emissions increases the importance of the carbon spike from construction. While these perspectives have been noted, few studies exist that combine the two perspectives of the construction and the use phase. In this paper, we analyze the implications of low-carbon residential construction on the life cycle emissions of a residential area with a case study. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the temporal allocation of the emissions is taken into account, the construction phase emissions can hinder or even reverse the carbon mitigation effect of low-carbon buildings for decades.