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Sample records for develop neonatal therapies

  1. Laser Photoradiation Therapy For Neonatal Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes our leading experience in the clinical application of laser in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Currently, the irradiation of jaundiced infants during neonatal life to fluorescent light is the most common treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The authors have investigated the photodegradation of bilirubin by laser in vitro and in Gunn rats before embarking on its clinical application in the treatment of jaundice in the new born child. This work was done to study the theraputic effect of laser compared to the currently used phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. We selected 16 full term neonates with jaundice to be the subject of this study. The neonates of the study were devided into two groups. The first group was treated with continuous phototherapy . The second group recieved photoradiation therapy with gas laser The laser used was a CW argon-ion laser tuned to oscillate at 488.0 nm wavelength. This wavelength selection was based on our previous studies on the effect of laser irradiation of Gunn rats at different wavelengths. Comparison of the results of both methods of treatment will be reported in detail. The advantages and limitations of laser photoradiation therapy for neonatal jaundice will be discussed.

  2. Stem Cell Therapy for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

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    Gabriel eGonzales-Portillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatments for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE have been limited. The aim of this paper is to offer translational research guidance on stem cell therapy for neonatal HIE by examining clinically relevant animal models, practical stem cell sources, safety and efficacy of endpoint assays, as well as a general understanding of modes of action of this cellular therapy. In order to do so, we discuss the clinical manifestations of HIE, highlighting its overlapping pathologies with stroke providing insights on the potential of cell therapy, currently investigated in stroke, for HIE. To this end, we draw guidance from recommendations outlined in Stem cell Therapeutics as an Emerging Paradigm for Stroke or STEPS, which have been recently modified to Baby STEPS to cater for the neonatal symptoms of HIE. These guidelines recognized that neonatal HIE exhibits distinct disease symptoms from adult stroke in need of an innovative translational approach that facilitates the entry of cell therapy in the clinic. Finally, new information about recent clinical trials, and insights into combination therapy are provided with the vision that stem cell therapy may benefit from available treatments, such as hypothermia, already being tested in children diagnosed with HIE.

  3. Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates and small infants: development and first-in-human use of a miniaturised machine (CARPEDIEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Garzotto, Francesco; Brendolan, Alessandra; Zanella, Monica; Bellettato, Massimo; Vedovato, Stefania; Chiarenza, Fabio; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2014-05-24

    Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement therapy of choice for acute kidney injury in neonates, but in some cases is not feasible or effective. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines are used off label in infants smaller than 15 kg and are not designed specifically for small infants. We aimed to design and create a CRRT machine specifically for neonates and small infants. We prospectively planned a 5-year project to conceive, design, and create a miniaturised Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine (CARPEDIEM), specifically for neonates and small infants. We created the new device and assessed it with in-vitro laboratory tests, completed its development to meet regulatory requirements, and obtained a licence for human use. Once approved, we used the machine to treat a critically ill neonate The main characteristics of CARPEDIEM are the low priming volume of the circuit (less than 30 mL), miniaturised roller pumps, and accurate ultrafiltration control via calibrated scales with a precision of 1 g. In-vitro tests confirmed that both hardware and software met the specifications. We treated a 2·9 kg neonate with haemorrhagic shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and severe fluid overload for more than 400 h with the CARPEDIEM, using continuous venovenous haemofiltration, single-pass albumin dialysis, blood exchange, and plasma exchange. The patient's 65% fluid overload, raised creatinine and bilirubin concentrations, and severe acidosis were all managed safely and effectively. Despite the severity of the illness, organ function was restored and the neonate survived and was discharged from hospital with only mild renal insufficiency that did not require renal replacement therapy. The CARPEDIEM CRRT machine can be used to provide various treatment modalities and support for multiple organ dysfunction in neonates and small infants. The CARPEDIEM could reduce the range of indications for peritoneal dialysis, widen the range of indications for CRRT

  4. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

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    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  5. Role of massage therapy on reduction of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term and preterm neonates: a review of clinical trials.

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    Garg, Bhawan Deep; Kabra, Nandkishor S; Balasubramanian, Haribalakrishna

    2017-09-13

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) is one of the leading causes of admissions in nursery throughout the world. It affects approximately 2.4-15% of neonates during the first 2 weeks of life. To evaluate the role of massage therapy for reduction of NNH in both term and preterm neonates. The literature search was done for various randomized control trials (RCTs) by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE. This review included total of 10 RCTs (two in preterm neonates and eight in term neonates) that fulfilled inclusion criteria. In most of the trials, Field massage was given. Six out of eight trials reported reduction in bilirubin levels in term neonates. However, only one trial (out of two) reported significant reduction in bilirubin levels in preterm neonates. Both trials in preterm neonates and most of the trials in term neonates (five trials) reported increased stool frequencies. Role of massage therapy in the management of NNH is supported by the current evidence. However, due to limitations of the trials, current evidences are not sufficient to use massage therapy for the management of NNH in routine practice.

  6. Perforated Appendicitis After Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in a Term Neonate with Haemolytic Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikan, B. Y.; Koroglu, O. A.; Yalaz, M.; Ergun, O.; Dokumcu, Z.; Doganavasrgil, B.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal appendicitis is a rare clinical condition that may cause high morbidity and mortality if diagnosis is delayed. There is usually an underlying disease; it can also be a localized form of necrotizing enterocolitis. Here, we present a term neonate who was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin because of severe isoimmune hemolytic jaundice. The patient developed abdominal symptoms within 10 hours of therapy, was diagnosed with acute perforated appendicitis and completely recovered after surgery. (author)

  7. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for patholog...

  8. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 increased in preterm neonates following massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Dieter, John N I; Kumar, Adarsh M; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2008-12-01

    To determine if massage therapy increased serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in preterm neonates. Forty-two preterm neonates who averaged 34.6 weeks (M = 29.5 wk gestational age; M birth weight = 1237 g) and were in the "grower" (step-down) nursery were randomly assigned to a massage therapy group (body stroking and passive limb movements for three, 15-minute periods per day for 5 days) or a control group that received the standard nursery care without massage therapy. On Days 1 and 5, the serum collected by clinical heelsticks was also assayed for insulin and IGF-1, and weight gain and kilocalories consumed were recorded daily. Despite similar formula intake, the massaged preterm neonates showed greater increases during the 5-day period in (1) weight gain; (2) serum levels of insulin; and (3) IGF-1. Increased weight gain was significantly correlated with insulin and IGF-1. Previous data suggested that preterm infant weight gain following massage therapy related to increased vagal activity, which suggests decreased stress and gastric motility, which may contribute to more efficient food absorption. The data from this study suggest for the first time that weight gain was also related to increased serum insulin and IGF-1 levels following massage therapy. Preterm infants who received massage therapy not only showed greater weight gain but also a greater increase in serum insulin and IGF-1 levels, suggesting that massage therapy might be prescribed for all growing neonates.

  9. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: -18.05, 95% CI (-25.51, -10.58), P jaundice fading [MD: -1.91, 95% CI (-2.06, -1.75), P probiotics supplementation therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pathological neonatal jaundice.

  10. Therapies for neonates with congenital malformations admitted to a neonatal unit

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    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the treatments applied to newborns with congenital malformation hospitalized in a neonatal unit and to identify whether there is an association among the treatments used and the type of malformation. A descriptive, prospective and quantitative study was developed in a public institution in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were collected using the medical records of 30 neonates with congenital malformations. The incidence of malformations was higher among females, regardless of the mother’s age, gestational age or weight at birth; malformations of the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems prevailed. The treatments used varied according to the clinical evolution of the neonate. The data collected did not present statistical significance when associated with the variable of congenital malformation and the treatments used (p>0.05. The treatments are not directly related to the type of malformation, but to the clinical condition of the neonate.

  11. Outcomes of Neonatal Candidiasis: The Impact of Delayed Initiation of Antifungal Therapy

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    Heather Cahan

    2011-01-01

    Results. Sixty-three newborns with invasive neonatal candidiasis were identified. Overall mortality rate was 35%. Virtually every infant had a central venous catheter (CVC, required mechanical ventilation and previous administration of antibacterial agents. Delayed institution of antifungal therapy was associated with increased mortality. In addition, length of hospitalization, duration of prior antibacterial therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CVC use, as well as evidence of end-organ disease, were associated with an adverse outcome. Conclusions. Reliance on available laboratory tools in cases of invasive neonatal candidiasis can result in delayed diagnosis and increased mortality. A risk-factor-based approach to empirical treatment could be justified in this setting.

  12. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour for reducing adverse neonatal outcomes.

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    Chawanpaiboon, Saifon; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-03-23

    After successful inhibition of threatened preterm labour women are at high risk of recurrent preterm labour. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy has been used to reduce adverse neonatal outcomes. This review replaces an earlier Cochrane review, published in 2002, which is no longer being updated by the team. To determine the effectiveness of terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing terbutaline pump therapy with alternative therapy, placebo, or no therapy after arrest of threatened preterm labour. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and then extracted data as eligible for inclusion in qualitative and quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). Four studies were included with a total of 234 women randomised. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was mixed; two studies provided very little information on study methods, there was high sample attrition in one study and in three studies the risk of performance bias was high. We found no strong evidence that terbutaline maintenance therapy offered any advantages over saline placebo or oral terbutaline maintenance therapy in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes by prolonging pregnancy among women with arrested preterm labour. The mean difference (MD) for gestational age at birth was -0.14 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.66 to 1.38) for terbutaline pump therapy compared with saline placebo pump for two trials combined. One trial reported a risk ratio (RR) of 1.17 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.73) for preterm birth (less than 37 completed weeks) and a RR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.84) of very preterm birth (less than 34 completed weeks) for terbutaline pump compared with saline placebo pump. We found no evidence that terbutaline pump therapy was

  13. Clinical profile of newborns undergoing physical therapy in a neonatal intensive care unit

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    Graziela Ferreira Biazus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In neonatal therapy units, physical therapy is directed toward integral baby care. Objective: To describe the profile of newborns (NBs hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Methods: Retrospective documentary study with data collection from medical records from July 2011 to July 2013. The sample consisted of NBs who performed motor and respiratory therapy. Data were grouped into five categories according to birth weight (≤ 1000g, 1001-1500g, 1501-2000g, 2001-2500g, ≥ 2501g. Results: total of 1,884 newborns were admitted to the NICU within the stipulated period, 168 (13.9% underwent physical therapy. Of the 168 NBs who underwent physical therapy, 137 were born in the hospital (81.5% and 31 were transferred there (18.5%; 17 of these babies died during the neonatal hospital stay (10.1%. All newborns of the extremely low birth weight group (≤ 1000g required mechanical ventilation, 72.7% non-invasive ventilation and 16.6% high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The occurrence of pneumothorax in the extremely low birth weight group was 13.8% and 16% in the group with birth weight 1001-1500g. Conclusion: Infants with low birth weight (<2500g constituted the profile of NBs who underwent physical therapy, which was directly related to higher incidence of death and pneumothorax, as well as increased use of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation.

  14. Neonatal Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B by a Novel Adenovirus Vector Showing Reduced Leaky Expression of Viral Genes.

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    Iizuka, Shunsuke; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Ohashi, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-15

    Gene therapy during neonatal and infant stages is a promising approach for hemophilia B, a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX (FIX). An adenovirus (Ad) vector has high potential for use in neonatal or infant gene therapy for hemophilia B due to its superior transduction properties; however, leaky expression of Ad genes often reduces the transduction efficiencies by Ad protein-mediated tissue damage. Here, we used a novel Ad vector, Ad-E4-122aT, which exhibits a reduction in the leaky expression of Ad genes in liver, in gene therapy studies for neonatal hemophilia B mice. Ad-E4-122aT exhibited significantly higher transduction efficiencies than a conventional Ad vector in neonatal mice. In neonatal hemophilia B mice, a single neonatal injection of Ad-E4-122aT expressing human FIX (hFIX) (Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX) maintained more than 6% of the normal plasma hFIX activity levels for approximately 100 days. Sequential administration of Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX resulted in more than 100% of the plasma hFIX activity levels for more than 100 days and rescued the bleeding phenotypes of hemophilia B mice. In addition, immunotolerance to hFIX was induced by Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX administration in neonatal hemophilia B mice. These results indicated that Ad-E4-122aT is a promising gene delivery vector for neonatal or infant gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  15. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries.

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    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries

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    Javier Kattan

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. Sources: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Summary of the findings: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides “time” for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. Conclusions: The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future.

  17. Developments in neonatal care and nursing responses.

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    Healy, Patricia; Fallon, Anne

    This article reviews the origins and evolution of neonatology and considers the role of the neonatal nurse within this specialty. Neonatal nurses are a vital part of the neonatal team that provides care for sick babies. The nursing care required by sick babies and their families on a neonatal unit can be variable and complex. The past century has seen significant changes in the role of the neonatal nurse. This has come about through dramatic technological developments on neonatal units, an increased understanding of neonatal physiology and pathology, changes in the education of neonatal nurses, and active and ongoing clinical research within the specialty. The resulting significant advances in neonatal care, including that provided by neonatal nurses, have made a crucial and steadfast contribution to marked improvements in neonatal outcomes.

  18. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our ... is based on energy expenditure indexed to bodyweight.2 Energy ... fragile and poorly keratinised.5 ... neonates means that very conservative fluid regimes in neonates ..... I make an estimation of insensible loss from the skin, viscera,.

  19. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Zhe Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice.Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR or mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval (CI was used to measure the effect.Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26, P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: −18.05, 95% CI (−25.51, −10.58, P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (−32.80, −14.18, P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: −33.01, 95% CI (−37.31, −28.70, P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: −1.91, 95% CI (−2.06, −1.75, P < 0.00001], as

  20. Occupational Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for a Neonate with Perinatal Stroke: A Case Report.

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    Roan, Cecilia; Bell, Alison

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes an occupational therapy intervention based on synactive theory for a neonate born full-term with a diagnosis of perinatal stroke. Occupational therapy was provided 4-5 times a week for 3 weeks. The focus was improving infant state regulation and motor skills to support developmentally appropriate behaviors through environmental modifications, positioning, guided progression of sensory stimulation, and promotion of motor and postural skills. At discharge on day 24, the infant had improved state regulation, behavioral organization, and motor performance. Occupational therapy based on synactive theory was an effective therapeutic approach for improving the behavioral and motor organization of a full term infant diagnosed with perinatal stroke.

  1. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

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    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  2. Appropriate antibiotic therapy improves Ureaplasma sepsis outcome in the neonatal mouse.

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    Weisman, Leonard E; Leeming, Angela H; Kong, Lingkun

    2012-11-01

    Ureaplasma causes sepsis in human neonates. Although erythromycin has been the standard treatment, it is not always effective. No published reports have evaluated Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal model. We hypothesized that appropriate antibiotic treatment improves Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal mouse model. Two ATCC strains and two clinical strains of Ureaplasma were evaluated in vitro for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, FVB albino mice pups infected with Ureaplasma were randomly assigned to saline, erythromycin, or azithromycin therapy and survival, quantitative blood culture, and growth were evaluated. MICs ranged from 0.125 to 62.5 µg/ml and 0.25 to 1.0 µg/ml for erythromycin and azithromycin, respectively. The infecting strain and antibiotic selected for treatment appeared to affect survival and bacteremia, but only the infecting strain affected growth. Azithromycin improved survival and bacteremia against each strain, whereas erythromycin was effective against only one of four strains. We have established a neonatal model of Ureaplasma sepsis and observed that treatment outcome is related to infecting strain and antibiotic treatment. We speculate that appropriate antibiotic selection and dosing are required for effective treatment of Ureaplasma sepsis in neonates, and this model could be used to further evaluate these relationships.

  3. Pentaglobin as an adjunct therapy in very low birthweight neonates with nosocomial sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihoglu, O.; Can, E.; Koc, M.O.; Durmus, E.; Hatipoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pentaglobin treatment on clinical and laboratory parametres and the major morbidities in very low birthweight neonates with nosocomial sepsis before and after pentaglobin treatment. Methods: The prospective interventional study was conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2010, at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Pentaglobin was initiated on the day of diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis to 13 pre-term neonates as a support therapy in addition to antibiotics; 5 ml/kg per day of pentaglobin was infused over a 4-hour period on 3 consecutive days. Clinical and laboratory parametres and major morbidities were recorded before and after pentaglobin treatment and compared using NCSS software. Results: Of the total, 8(66%) were females and 5 (40%) males. Following pentaglobin therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased, and the capillary pH and base excess were significantly increased (p 0.05). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=3; 23%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2; 15.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1; 7.7%) were identified in blood cultures. The presence of intraventricular haemorrhages, necrotising enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus was not changed following the treatment. Adverse effects and mortality were not observed during or after the therapy. Conclusion: Pentaglobin treatment of nosocomial sepsis could be used as an adjunct therapy without any adverse short-term reactions, even in very low birthweight pre-term infants. (author)

  4. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

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    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  5. Trial of Music, Sucrose, and Combination Therapy for Pain Relief during Heel Prick Procedures in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swapnil R; Kadage, Shahajahan; Sinn, John

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick. The videos were later analyzed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) scale once per minute by 2 independent assessors, blinded to the intervention. The PIPP-R scores were compared between treatment groups using Friedman test. For the 35 participants, the postmenstrual age was 35 weeks (SD, 2.3) with an average weight of 2210 g (SD, 710). The overall median PIPP-R scores following heel prick over 6 minutes were 4 (IQR 0-6), 3 (IQR 0-6), and 1 (IQR 0-3) for the music, sucrose, and combination therapy interventions, respectively. The PIPP-R scores were significantly lower at all time points after combination therapy compared with the groups given music or sucrose alone. There was no difference in PIPP-R scores between the music and sucrose groups. In relatively stable and mature neonates, the combination of music therapy with sucrose provided better pain relief during heel prick than when sucrose or music was used alone. Recorded music in isolation had a similar effect to the current gold standard of oral sucrose. www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12615000271505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carotid chemoreceptor development and neonatal apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Peter M; Ribeiro, Ana P; Martin, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The premature transition from fetal to neonatal life is accompanied by an immature respiratory neural control system. Most preterm infants exhibit recurrent apnea, resulting in repetitive oscillations in O(2) saturation (intermittent hypoxia, IH). Numerous factors are likely to play a role in the etiology of apnea including inputs from the carotid chemoreceptors. Despite major advances in our understanding of carotid chemoreceptor function in the early neonatal period, however, their contribution to the initiation of an apneic event and its eventual termination are still largely speculative. Recent findings have provided a detailed account of the postnatal changes in the incidence of hypoxemic events associated with apnea, and there is anecdotal evidence for a positive correlation with carotid chemoreceptor maturation. Furthermore, studies on non-human animal models have shown that chronic IH sensitizes the carotid chemoreceptors, which has been proposed to perpetuate the occurrence of apnea. An alternative hypothesis is that sensitization of the carotid chemoreceptors could represent an important protective mechanism to defend against severe hypoxemia. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss how the carotid chemoreceptors may contribute to the initiation and termination of an apneic event in the neonate and the use of xanthine therapy in the prevention of apnea. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY NEONATAL SEPSIS IN INFANTS OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGE AND CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSUPPORTIVE THERAPY EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Soldatova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective — to study clinical and immunopathologic characteristics of early neonatal sepsis in infants of different gestational age and to perform clinical and economical evaluation of immunosupportive therapy with Pentaglobin efficacy in complex treatment of this disease. 79 infants diagnosed with neonatal sepsis were included into prospective study. These patients were divided into 3 subgroups in order to evaluate clinical and economical efficacy of immunosupportive therapy: subgroup A (n = 38 — patients receiving. Pentaglobin as part of basic complex treatment from 3–6 days of life; subgroup B (n = 27 — from 7–10 days of life; subgroup C  (n = 27 — patients treated without Pentaglobin. Proven high clinical and economical efficacy of immunoglobulin preparations as a part of complex treatment of neonatal sepsis allows to recommend this type of therapy for a wide application in neonatology as a part of neonatal sepsis treatment.Key words: early neonatal sepsis, prematurity, extremely low body mass, immunosupportive therapy, intravenous immunoglobines, clinical and economical analysis, neonatal sepsis. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 52–61

  8. Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines M; Doyle, Lex W; Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win; Anderson, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on neurobehavioral outcomes in 11-year-old participants of the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial. Thirteen academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden participated in this part of the 11-year follow-up of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of general intelligence, attention, executive function, visuomotor integration and perception, and behavior were obtained in up to 870 children. The effects of caffeine therapy were assessed by using regression models. Neurobehavioral outcomes were generally similar for both the caffeine and placebo group. The caffeine group performed better than the placebo group in fine motor coordination (mean difference [MD] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 to 5.1; P = .01), visuomotor integration (MD = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.0 to 3.7; P prematurity improved visuomotor, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial abilities at age 11 years. General intelligence, attention, and behavior were not adversely affected by caffeine, which highlights the long-term safety of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in very low birth weight neonates. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The Effect of Neonatal Gene Therapy on Skeletal Manifestations in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Dogs after a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Elizabeth M.; Knox, Van W.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Sikura, Tracey; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB), and results in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. Skeletal manifestations include bone dysplasia, degenerative joint disease, and growth retardation. One gene therapy approach for MPS VII involves neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector expressing GUSB, which results in stable expression in liver and secretion of enzyme into blood at levels predicted to be similar or higher to enzyme replacement therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in MPS VII dogs. Treated MPS VII dogs could walk throughout their lives, while untreated MPS VII dogs could not stand beyond 6 months and were dead by 2 years. Luxation of the coxofemoral joint and the patella, dysplasia of the acetabulum and supracondylar ridge, deep erosions of the distal femur, and synovial hyperplasia were reduced, and the quality of articular bone was improved in treated dogs at 6 to 11 years of age compared with untreated MPS VII dogs at 2 years or less. However, treated dogs continued to have osteophyte formation, cartilage abnormalities, and an abnormal gait. Enzyme activity was found near synovial blood vessels, and there was 2% as much GUSB activity in synovial fluid as in serum. We conclude that neonatal gene therapy reduces skeletal abnormalities in MPS VII dogs, but clinically-relevant abnormalities remain. Enzyme replacement therapy will probably have similar limitations long-term. PMID:23628461

  10. Stem cells for brain repair in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicha, L; Smith, T; Guzman, R

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brain's plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional outcomes. However, much still remains to be understood about how those stem cells can safely be administered to infants and what their repair mechanisms in the brain are. In this review, we discuss updated research into pathophysiological mechanisms of neonatal brain injury, the types of stem cell therapies currently being tested in this context, and the potential mechanisms through which exogenous stem cells might interact with and influence the developing brain.

  11. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary-induced hyperthyroidism marginally affects neonatal testicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Wientjes, Anna T.; Swarts, Hans J. M.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Teerds, Katja J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary-induced mild fetal/neonatal hyperthyroidism influenced the initiation of spermatogenesis and the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. Previously, the effects of neonatally induced hyperthyroidism have been investigated in

  13. Surfactant therapy for maternal blood aspiration: an unusual cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-10-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy is the main treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of other diseases causing neonatal respiratory diseases such as pulmonary hemorrhage, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, pulmonary edema or acute lung injury resulting a secondary surfactant deficiency (SSD). Rarely, as like as in the present patient, exogenous blood aspiration such as breast milk or formula aspiration may lead to SSD. Blood in alveolus leads to a significant biochemical and functional disturbance of the surfactant system and inhibits surfactant production. Here, the authors report a preterm infant of 33 wk gestational age with secondary surfactant deficiency due to maternal blood aspiration because of abruptio placentae. She was received two courses of beractant, a natural bovine surfactant, therapy in 24 h. She was extubated on second day and did not require oxygen on 4(th) day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of SSD due to maternal blood aspiration treated with surfactant. In conditions such as abruptio placentae, infant should be protected from blood aspiration and if respiratory distress occurs, surfactant inhibition and need for surfactant administration should be considered.

  14. The effects of massage therapy in hospitalized preterm neonates: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María José; Fernández, Daniel; Gómez-Salgado, Juan; Rodríguez-González, Dolores; Rosón, María; Lapeña, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify, evaluate and summarise studies on the administration of therapeutic massage to preterm neonates during their stay in the NICU, and to assess their methodological quality. systematic review following PRISMA statements guidelines. A comprehensive search was performed including relevant articles between January 2004 and December 2013, using the following electronic databases: Medline, PEDro, Web of Science and Scopus. Two reviewers conducted a review of the selected articles: one evaluated the methodological quality of the studies and performed data extraction and the other performed a cross-check. Divergences of opinion were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. The studies reviewed implemented a wide variety of interventions and evaluation methods, and therefore it was not possible to perform a meta-analysis. The following data were extracted from each article: year of publication, study design, participants and main measurements of outcomes obtained through the intervention. A non-quantitative synthesis of the extracted data was performed. Level of evidence was graded using the Jadad Scale. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria and were thus included in the review; these presented a methodological quality ranging from 1 to 5 points (with a mean of 3 points). Most studies reported that the administration of various forms of therapeutic massage exerted a beneficial effect on factors related to the growth of preterm infants. The causes indicated by the researchers for these anthropometric benefits included increased vagal activity, increased gastric activity and increased serum insulin levels. Other demonstrated benefits of massage therapy when administered to hospitalised preterm infants included better neurodevelopment, a positive effect on brain development, a reduced risk of neonatal sepsis, a reduction in length of hospital stay and reduced neonatal stress. Although based on

  15. Pilot study in neonates using low-level laser therapy in the immediate postoperative period of myelomeningocele

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    Nathali Cordeiro Pinto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the tissue repair behavior after corrective surgical incision in neonates submitted to low-level laser therapy, in an attempt to diminish the incidence of postoperative dehiscence following the surgery for myelomeningocele performed immediately after birth. Methods: It is a prospective pilot study with 13 myelomeningocele patients submitted to surgery at birth who received adjuvant treatment with low-level laser therapy (Group A. Diode laser C.W., λ = 685t nm, p = 21 mW, E = 0.19 J was punctually applied along the surgical incision, summing up 4 to 10 J energy delivered per patient, according to the surgical wound area and, then, compared with the previous results, which were obtained from 23 patients undergoing surgery without laser therapy (Group B. Results: This pilot study showed a significant decline in dehiscence of surgical wounds in neonates submitted to low-level laser therapy as compared to controls (7.69 versus 17.39%, respectively, demonstrating this is an effective, safe and noninvasive treatment method. Conclusion: This new adjuvant therapeutic proposal with low-level laser therapy aided healing of surgical wounds, preventing morbidities, as well as decreasing hospital stay, which implies cost of reduction for patients and for the institution.

  16. Assessment of adjuvant ademetionine therapy for the bilirubin metabolism and target organ function of neonatal jaundice

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    Fang Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant ademetionine (SAMe therapy on the bilirubin metabolism and target organ function of neonatal jaundice. Methods: A total of 68 children who were diagnosed with neonatal jaundice in Hubei Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital between March 2015 and April 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the SAMe group who received ademetionine combined with blue ray irradiation and the control group who received blue ray irradiation. The serum contents of bilirubin metabolism indexes and target organ injury markers before treatment as well as 3 d and 7 d after treatment. Results: 3 d and 7 d after treatment, serum TBIL, ALT, AST, GGT, TBA, CK-MB, cTnT, MYO, HBDH, NSE, S100B and GFAP levels of both groups were lower than those before treatment, and serum TBIL, ALT, AST, GGT, TBA, CK-MB, cTnT, MYO, HBDH, NSE, S100B and GFAP levels of SAMe group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant ademetionine therapy can improve the bilirubin metabolism of neonatal jaundice and reduce the central nerve, myocardial and liver injury.

  17. The lowering of bilirubin levels in patients with neonatal jaundice using massage therapy: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalian, Fatemeh; Rafienezhad, Haneyeh; Farmal, Javad

    2017-11-01

    Due to the effects of massage on various laboratory parameters (including those related to jaundice) in infants and the expansion of existing studies to achieve effective and safe therapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, this study aimed to investigate the effect of massage on bilirubin levels in cases of neonatal jaundice. In this study, 134 patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (massage combined with phototherapy, n=67) or a control group (phototherapy only, n=67). In both groups, serum total bilirubin level and frequency of daily bowel movements were measured and compared during each of the first four days of treatment. Baseline levels of bilirubin were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). During the measurements obtained post-intervention, significant differences surfaces between the two groups in bilirubin levels and frequency of daily bowel movements (Pmassage therapy between daily frequency of bowel movements and serum bilirubin level (P>0.05); this relationship became significant during the third and fourth days (PMassage therapy combined with phototherapy is an effective method for reducing serum total bilirubin in infants with neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral Dextrose Gel Reduces the Need for Intravenous Dextrose Therapy in Neonatal Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Munmun; Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Turkovich, Stephen; Barclay, Nancy; Perry, Katherine; Schroeder, Eileen; Testa, Lisa; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants with risk factors may require intravenous (IV) dextrose for asymptomatic hypoglycemia. Administration of IV dextrose and transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may interfere with parent-infant bonding. To study the effect of implementing dextrose gel supplement with feeds in late preterm/term infants affected by asymptomatic hypoglycemia on reducing IV dextrose therapy. A retrospective study was conducted before and after dextrose gel use: 05/01/2014 to 10/31/2014 and 11/01/2014 to 04/30/2015, respectively. Asymptomatic hypoglycemic (blood glucose level dextrose gel (200 mg/kg of 40% dextrose) along with feeds. Transfer to the NICU for IV dextrose was considered treatment failure. Dextrose gel with feeds increased the blood glucose level in 184/250 (74%) of asymptomatic hypoglycemic infants compared to 144/248 (58%) with feeds only (p dextrose decreased from 35/1,000 to 25/1,000 live births (p dextrose gel with feeds reduced the need for IV fluids, avoided separation from the mother and promoted breastfeeding. Neonates who failed dextrose gel therapy were more likely to be large for gestational age, delivered by cesarean section and had lower baseline blood glucose levels.

  19. Resistencia a antimicrobianos y evaluación del tratamiento combinado en la septicemia neonatal Resistance to antimicrobials and combination therapy assessment in neonatal sepsis

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    María Espino Hernández

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudiar la resistencia a los antibióticos de las cepas bacterianas aisladas de pacientes con septicemia neonatal en un hospital ginecobstétrico de La Habana, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 1998, y evaluar el valor predictivo del método del "tablero de damas" (checkerboard para seleccionar el tratamiento con combinaciones de antibióticos en pacientes graves. MÉTODOS: Se estudió a 229 neonatos, a quienes se les extrajo sangre para hemocultivo y estudios de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos. El estudio de la susceptibilidad de las cepas se realizó por el método de microdilución en caldo y se utilizó el tablero de damas en bandejas de caldo para evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado. RESULTADOS: Cincuenta por ciento de las cepas aisladas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y 37% de las cepas de S. aureus, principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal, fueron resistentes a la meticilina. De ellas, 94,5% resultaron resistentes a varios antibióticos. Cuatro cepas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y una de Enterococcus faecium fueron resistentes a la vancomicina (concentración mínima inhibidora = 128 myg/mL. Se observó una alta probabilidad de eficacia clínica (P OBJECTIVES: To estimate antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains isolated from patients with neonatal sepsis from January 1994 through December 1998, and to assess the predictive value of the checkerboard method for selecting treatment with combination antibiotic therapy in seriously ill patients. METHODS: The study of strain susceptibility was carried out by microdilution in broth, and the checkerboard method in broth trays was used to assess the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy. RESULTS: Fifty per cent of the strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. and 37% of S. aureus strains, which are the main pathogens involved in neonatal sepsis, were resistant to methycillin. Of

  20. Foetal and neonatal thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetti, G; Zavallone, A; Gentili, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Bona, G

    2002-10-01

    Thyroid hormones have been shown to be absolutely necessary for early brain development. During pregnancy, both maternal and foetal thyroid hormones contribute to foetal brain development and maternal supply explains why most of the athyreotic newborns usually do not show any signs of hypothyroidism at birth. Foetal and/or neonatal hypothyroidism is a rare disorder. Its incidence, as indicated by neonatal screening, is about 1:4000. Abnormal thyroid development (i.e. agenesia, ectopic gland, hypoplasia) or inborn errors in thyroid hormone biosynthesis are the most common causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Recent studies reported that mutations involving Thyroid Transcriptor Factors (TTF) such as TTF-1, TTF-2, PAX-8 play an important role in altered foetal thyroid development. Deficiency of transcriptor factor (Pit-1, Prop-1, LHX-3) both in mother and in the foetus represents another rare cause of foetal hypothyroidism. At birth clinical picture may be not always so obvious and typical signs appear only after several weeks but a delayed diagnosis could have severe consequences consisting of delayed physical and mental development. Even if substitutive therapy is promptly started some learning difficulties might still arise suggesting that intrauterine adequate levels of thyroid hormones are absolutely necessary for a normal neurological development. Placental transfer of maternal antithyroid antibodies inhibiting fetal thyroid function can cause transient hypothyroidism at birth. If the mother with thyroid autoimmune disease is also hypothyroid during pregnancy and she doesn't receive substitutive therapy, a worse neurological outcome may be expected for her foetus. Foetal and/or neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition and its incidence has been estimated around 1:4000-40000, according to various authors. The most common causes are maternal thyroid autoimmune disorders, such as Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Rarer non autoimmune causes

  1. Influence of iron status on risk of maternal or neonatal infection and on neonatal mortality with an emphasis on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, Loretta; Brabin, Bernard J.; Gies, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of neonatal death in developing countries. This review investigates whether host iron status affects the risk of maternal and/or neonatal infection, potentially contributing to neonatal death, and summarizes the iron acquisition mechanisms described for pathogens causing

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Clara; Whitley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Prior to antiviral therapy, 85% of patients with disseminated HSV disease and 50% of patients with central nervous system disease died within 1 year. The advent of antiviral therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of neonatal HSV with initially vidarabine and subsequently acyclovir increasing the survival rate of infected neonates and improving long-term developmental outcomes. More recently, polymerase chain reaction has allowed earlier identification of HSV infection and provided a quantitative guide to treatment. Current advances in the treatment of neonatal HSV infections are looking toward the role of prolonged oral suppression therapy in reducing the incidence of recurrent disease. Of concern, however, are increasing reports of acyclovir-resistant HSV isolates in patients following prolonged therapy.

  3. Decreased ocular blood flow after photocoagulation therapy in neonatal retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadashi; Itokawa, Takashi; Shiba, Tomoaki; Tomita, Masahiko; Hine, Kotaro; Mizukaki, Norio; Yoda, Hitoshi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the relationships between optic nerve head blood flow, expressed as mean blur rate (MBR) measured by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), and photocoagulation therapy in neonates with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Case series study. We studied 5 ROP neonates either during sleep or under sedation both before and after photocoagulation, and evaluated 8 eyes in which the circulation could be measured three times consecutively. Correlations between the MBR-A (mean of all values), MBR-V (vessel mean) and MBR-T (tissue mean) and postmenstrual age were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In addition, correlations between the relative MBR (-A, -V, -T) value and number of photocoagulation burns and the NV score were evaluated. Differences between post-treatment MBR in ROP subjects and normal neonates' MBR were estimated using analysis of covariance (ANCoVA), with adjustment for postmenstrual age. The relative MBR (-A, -V, -T) values after photocoagulation were 69.6 ± 16.0%, 66.7 ± 17.0% and 74.3 ± 14.6%, respectively. Postmenstrual age was significantly correlated with post-treatment MBR-A (r = 0.83, p = 0.0101), MBR-V (r = 0.85, p = 0.007) and MBR-T (r = 0.76, p = 0.0282). The relative MBR-T value was significantly correlated with the number of photocoagulation burns (r = -0.75, p = 0.033) and NV score (r = -0.72, p = 0.0437). The ANCoVA results showed no significant difference between post-treatment MBR and normal neonates' MBR. Photocoagulation improved the dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries and reduced ocular blood flow in ROP subjects. Since the post-treatment MBR was not different from a normal neonate's MBR, it is suggested that the pre-treatment MBR was higher in severe ROP cases.

  4. Development and validation of Neonatal Satisfaction Survey--NSS-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Inger H; Vadset, Tove B; Barstad, Johan; Svindseth, Marit F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a survey to investigate parents' satisfaction with neonatal wards in a population of parents of children with a gestation age of ≥24 weeks to 3 months after full-term birth. We explored the literature and conducted three focus groups: two with expert health personnel and one with parents. We tested the survey in a parent population (N = 105) and report the different stages in the validation process along with the full survey, the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey - 13 categories (NSS-13). We found 13 subcategories in the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey. The subcategories measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units based on staff, admission, nurses, anxiety, siblings (parents' perceptions of caring for the siblings of the newborn), information, timeout, doctors, facilities, nutrition, preparation for discharge, trust and visitors. Each subcategory showed acceptable internal consistency. The full version of the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey presents 69 items, and each subcategory contains two to eleven items. The Neonatal Satisfaction Survey seems suitable to measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units and can be used in full, but it can also measure subcategories. Parents' satisfaction with neonatal units can be used to improve the quality in such wards. We consider this study as the first in a series to validate the NSS-13. The full survey with subcategories is presented in this paper. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Programmed Necrosis: A Prominent Mechanism of Cell Death following Neonatal Brain Injury

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    Raul Chavez-Valdez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia, neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI brain injury remains a common cause of developmental disability. Development of rational adjuvant therapies to hypothermia requires understanding of the pathways of cell death and survival modulated by HI. The conceptualization of the apoptosis-necrosis “continuum” in neonatal brain injury predicts mechanistic interactions between cell death and hydrid forms of cell death such as programmed or regulated necrosis. Many of the components of the signaling pathway regulating programmed necrosis have been studied previously in models of neonatal HI. In some of these investigations, they participate as part of the apoptotic pathways demonstrating clear overlap of programmed death pathways. Receptor interacting protein (RIP-1 is at the crossroads between types of cellular death and survival and RIP-1 kinase activity triggers formation of the necrosome (in complex with RIP-3 leading to programmed necrosis. Neuroprotection afforded by the blockade of RIP-1 kinase following neonatal HI suggests a role for programmed necrosis in the HI injury to the developing brain. Here, we briefly review the state of the knowledge about the mechanisms behind programmed necrosis in neonatal brain injury recognizing that a significant proportion of these data derive from experiments in cultured cell and some from in vivo adult animal models. There are still more questions than answers, yet the fascinating new perspectives provided by the understanding of programmed necrosis in the developing brain may lay the foundation for new therapies for neonatal HI.

  6. Aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in low- and middle-income countries

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    Donald Waters

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review describes and analyses the bacterial aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

  7. Opiate v CNS depressant therapy in neonatal drug abstinence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandall, S R; Doberczak, T M; Mauer, K R; Strashun, R H; Korts, D C

    1983-04-01

    Paregoric and phenobarbital, administered randomly in 153 passively addicted neonates, initially appeared to control neonatal abstinence signs equally well. However, seven of the 62 phenobarbital-treated newborns had abstinence-associated seizures within the first month of life, while none of 49 paregoric-treated neonates had seizures. Forty-two neonates initially requiring no specific pharmacotherapy for abstinence signs were born to mothers taking less methadone hydrochloride just before delivery. Five of those 42 neonates, however, had seizures within the first 14 days of life. Seizure occurrence could not be predicted from analysis of early abstinence patterns. We consider paregoric to be the treatment of choice for the neonatal abstinence syndrome. Phenobarbital use should be monitored with serum drug levels and modification of recommended dosage regimens considered.

  8. Effect of mild hypothermia combined with VitC and EPO therapy on target organ damage in children with neonatal asphyxia

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    Shu-Yun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of mild hypothermia combined with vitamin C (VitC and erythropoietin (EPO therapy on target organ damage in children with neonatal asphyxia. Methods: Children with neonatal asphyxia who were treated in Taihe County People’s Hospital between April 2014 and February 2017 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, mild hypothermia group received mild hypothermia combined VitC and EPO therapy, and control group received VitC and EPO therapy. Serum levels of of target organ damage markers, oxidative stress indexes and apoptosis indexes were measured before treatment as well as 3 d and 7 d after treatment. Results: 3 d and 7 d after treatment, serum NSE, H-FABP, cTnI, CysC, MDA, Caspase-3, PDCD5, sFas and sFasL levels of both groups of children were significantly lower than those before treatment while TAS, SOD, GSH and Bcl-2 levels were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum NSE, H-FABP, cTnI, CysC, MDA, Caspase-3, PDCD5, sFas and sFasL levels of mild hypothermia group were significantly lower than those of control group while TAS, SOD, GSH and Bcl-2 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia combined with VitC and EPO therapy can reduce the target organ damage of children with neonatal asphyxia by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  9. Quantitative head ultrasound measurements to determine thresholds for preterm neonates requiring interventional therapies following intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Jessica; Fenster, Aaron; Salehi, Fateme; Romano, Walter; Lee, David S. C.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    Dilation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure and without treatment, can lead to death. Clinically, 2D ultrasound (US) through the fontanelles ('soft spots') of the patients are serially acquired to monitor the progression of the ventricle dilation. These images are used to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ('ventricle tap', VT) might be indicated for a patient; however, quantitative measurements of the growth of the ventricles are often not performed. There is no consensus on when a neonate with PHVD should have an intervention and often interventions are performed after the potential for brain damage is quite high. Previously we have developed and validated a 3D US system to monitor the progression of ventricle volumes (VV) in IVH patients. We will describe the potential utility of quantitative 2D and 3D US to monitor and manage PHVD in neonates. Specifically, we will look to determine image-based measurement thresholds for patients who will require VT in comparison to patients with PHVD who resolve without intervention. Additionally, since many patients who have an initial VT will require subsequent interventions, we look at the potential for US to determine which PHVD patients will require additional VT after the initial one has been performed.

  10. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie M.; Collden, Gustav; Coupe, Berengere; Croizier, Sophie; Lockie, Sarah; Andrews, Zane B.; Jarosch, Florian; Klussmann, Sven; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2015-01-01

    A complex neural network regulates body weight and energy balance, and dysfunction in the communication between the gut and this neural network is associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we evaluated the physiological and neurobiological contribution of ghrelin during development by specifically blocking ghrelin action during early postnatal development in mice. Ghrelin blockade in neonatal mice resulted in enhanced ARH neural projections and long-term metabolic effects, including increased body weight, visceral fat, and blood glucose levels and decreased leptin sensitivity. In addition, chronic administration of ghrelin during postnatal life impaired the normal development of ARH projections and caused metabolic dysfunction. Consistent with these observations, direct exposure of postnatal ARH neuronal explants to ghrelin blunted axonal growth and blocked the neurotrophic effect of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Moreover, chronic ghrelin exposure in neonatal mice also attenuated leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in ARH neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation. PMID:25607843

  11. Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by event-related potential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongxin; Zheng, Aibin; Dong, Xuan; Tu, Wenjuan

    2017-08-01

    To investigate auditory perception development in neonates and correlate it with days after birth, left and right hemisphere development and sex using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Sixty full-term neonates, consisting of 32 males and 28 females, aged 2-28days were included in this study. An auditory oddball paradigm was used to elicit ERPs. N2 wave latencies and areas were recorded at different days after birth, to study on relationship between auditory perception and age, and comparison of left and right hemispheres, and males and females. Average wave forms of ERPs in neonates started from relatively irregular flat-bottomed troughs to relatively regular steep-sided ripples. A good linear relationship between ERPs and days after birth in neonates was observed. As days after birth increased, N2 latencies gradually and significantly shortened, and N2 areas gradually and significantly increased (both Pbrain were significantly greater, and N2 latencies in the central part were significantly shorter in the left hemisphere compared with the right, indicative of left hemisphere dominance (both Pdevelopment. In the days following birth, the auditory perception ability of neonates gradually increases. This occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere, with auditory perception ability appearing to develop earlier in female neonates than in males. ERP can be used as an objective index used to evaluate auditory perception development in neonates. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neonatal tolerance induction enables accurate evaluation of gene therapy for MPS I in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Katz, Nathan; Zhu, Yanqing; Lin, Gloria; Choa, Ruth; Bagel, Jessica; O'Donnell, Patricia; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Langan, Therese; Wang, Ping; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Wilson, James M

    2016-09-01

    High fidelity animal models of human disease are essential for preclinical evaluation of novel gene and protein therapeutics. However, these studies can be complicated by exaggerated immune responses against the human transgene. Here we demonstrate that dogs with a genetic deficiency of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), a model of the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), can be rendered immunologically tolerant to human IDUA through neonatal exposure to the enzyme. Using MPS I dogs tolerized to human IDUA as neonates, we evaluated intrathecal delivery of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector expressing human IDUA as a therapy for the central nervous system manifestations of MPS I. These studies established the efficacy of the human vector in the canine model, and allowed for estimation of the minimum effective dose, providing key information for the design of first-in-human trials. This approach can facilitate evaluation of human therapeutics in relevant animal models, and may also have clinical applications for the prevention of immune responses to gene and protein replacement therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne Holm, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Smith, Anthony C; Clemensen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal homecare delivered during home visits by neonatal nurses is a common method for supporting families of preterm infants following discharge. Telehealth has been introduced for the provision of neonatal homecare, resulting in positive feedback from parents of preterm infants. While the benefits are beginning to be realised, widespread uptake of telehealth has been limited due to a range of logistical challenges. Understanding user requirements is important when planning and developing a clinical telehealth service. We therefore used participatory design to develop a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare. The study adopted a participatory design approach to engage users in the development and design of a new telehealth service. Participatory design embraces qualitative research methods. Creative and technical workshops were conducted as part of the study. Tests of the telehealth service were conducted in the neonatal unit. Participants in this study were former and current parents of preterm infants eligible for neonatal homecare, and clinical staff (medical and nursing) from the neonatal unit. Preterm infants accompanied their parents. Based on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information regarding infant growth and well-being. Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design of a new telehealth service for neonatal homecare based on the needs of parents and clinical staff.

  14. Efficacy of clonidine versus phenobarbital in reducing neonatal morphine sulfate therapy days for neonatal abstinence syndrome. A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surran, B; Visintainer, P; Chamberlain, S; Kopcza, K; Shah, B; Singh, R

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of clonidine versus phenobarbital in reducing morphine sulfate treatment days for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Prospective, non-blinded, block randomized trial at a single level III NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit). Eligible infants were treated with a combination of medications as per protocol. Primary outcome was treatment days with morphine sulfate. Secondary outcomes were the mean total morphine sulfate dose, outpatient phenobarbital days, adverse events and treatment failures. A total of 82 infants were eligible, of which 68 were randomized with 34 infants in each study group. Adjusting for covariates phenobarbital as compared with clonidine had shorter morphine sulfate treatment days (-4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.3, -8.9; P=0.037) with no difference in average morphine sulfate total dose (1.1 mg kg(-1), 95% CI: -0.1, 2.4; P=0.069). Post-discharge phenobarbital was continued for an average of 3.8 months (range 1 to 8 months). No other significant differences were noted. Phenobarbital as adjunct had clinically nonsignificant shorter inpatient but significant overall longer therapy time as compared with clonidine.

  15. Bird's Eye View of a Neonatologist: Clinical Approach to Emergency Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kuei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the incidence of neonatal infection in term and near-term infants is relatively low, incidence of infection in preterm very low birth weight infants is as high as 20–30% and may result in neurodevelopmental impairment or mortality. Pediatricians should be familiar with recognition and emergency management of life-threatening neonatal infections, such as congenital pneumonia, early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis, bacterial and fungal meningitis, disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV, and HSV meningoencephalitis. For the pediatrician, it is logical to approach the management of these infections by time of onset, i.e., early versus late onset of infection. Perinatal risk factors and simple laboratory tests, such as total white blood-cell count, immature/total ratio, and C-reactive protein are helpful in guiding the decision of antibiotics therapy. Successful management of these critical infections depends upon early diagnosis and timely administration of adequate antibiotics. Empiric antibiotic therapy must cover the most likely pathogens according to the risk factors of each individual neonate, and therapy duration is dependent upon culture results, clinical course, and the microorganism. Future research may focus on developing a practical neonatal sepsis score system based on risk factors and common biomarkers, which are readily available at bedside to make early accurate decisions and achieve better outcomes.

  16. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  17. Clinical Spectrum, Management and Outcome of Neonatal Candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E. A.; Choudhry, S.; Fatima, M.; Batool, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify clinical spectrum, management and outcome of neonatal candidiasis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised microbiological records of all the babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from January 2009 to January 2014 that were reviewed to identify those with positive candida cultures. Medical records were analysed for demographic and clinical spectrum features, management and outcome. SPSS 16 was used statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 1550 neonatal admissions, 560 (36 percent) had positive cultures, and, of them, candida was isolated in 49(8.8 percent) neonates. Among them, 13(26 percent) had candida albicans and the rest had candida species. Majority were males 34(70 percent), and preterm with 30(61 percent) being <37 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2000±873 grams. Mean age at admission was 6±7.6 days. Overall, 39(80 percent) had >2 risk factors. The commonest site of isolation was blood in 41(84 percent). Besides, 32 (65 percent) received fluconazole alone for treatment. Mean duration of anti-fungal therapy was 10±5 days (range: 1-21 days). Twelve (24 percent) neonates expired and the cause of death was candida sepsis in 10(20 percent) cases. Mortality was not significantly associated with gender, place of birth, gestation, risk factors, length of stay, prior antibiotic exposure or receipt of antifungal prophylaxis except those who were <1500 grams (p<0.05). Conclusion: Approximately one in ten at-risk neonates may develop candida sepsis with high mortality. Early institution of anti-fungal therapy may prove to be life-saving. (author)

  18. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile kinesthetic stimulation to promote their development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile- Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS on motor development of Low Birth Weight neonates. Methods: In this clinical trial study, sample was made out of 40 inborn LBW neonates who were divided into two groups randomly. TKS was provided for three 15-minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate of pressure strokes in prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs in supine position. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment and by the same person. Results: Results indicated that motor behavior in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group after the 10 days TKS (P-Value≤0.0001. Discussion: TKS could be an effective intervention in development of motor behavior of LBW neonates. Because very little is known about neonate's behavior, it seems to need more studies in other aspects of behavior in LBW neonates.

  19. ST37 Klebsiella pneumoniae: development of carbapenem resistance in vivo during antimicrobial therapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengling; Wang, Min; Li, Xianping; Hu, Feihu; Yang, Min; Xie, Yixin; Cao, Wei; Xia, Xiaomeng; Zheng, Rong; Tian, Jingjing; Zhang, Kan; Chen, Fang; Tang, Aiguo

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the mechanism leading to in vivo carbapenem resistance development in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Carbapenemase was detected using the modified carbapenem inactivation method. β-lactamases resistant genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA and multiple locus sequence typing. The relationship between sequence typing and resistant genes was analyzed by using the chi-squared test. All ST37 carbapenem-resistant isolates were bla OXA-1 positive and all ST37 carbapenem-sensitive isolates were bla OXA-1 negative at Stage I. A significant relationship between carbapenem resistance and bla OXA-1 was observed. The bla OXA-1 -positive rate was significantly higher in ST37 K. pneumoniae than others. This is the first study about the development of carbapenem resistance in vivo potentially mediated by bla OXA-1 in ST37 K. pneumoniae among neonates.

  20. Development of electrocardiogram intervals during growth of FVB/N neonate mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrocardiography remains the best diagnostic tool and therapeutic biomarker for a spectrum of pediatric diseases involving cardiac or autonomic nervous system defects. As genetic links to these disorders are established and transgenic mouse models produced in efforts to understand and treat them, there is a surprising lack of information on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ECG abnormalities in neonate mice. This is likely due to the trauma and anaesthesia required of many legacy approaches to ECG recording in mice, exacerbated by the fragility of many mutant neonates. Here, we use a non-invasive system to characterize development of the heart rate and electrocardiogram throughout the growth of conscious neonate FVB/N mice. Results We examine ECG waveforms as early as two days after birth. At this point males and females demonstrate comparable heart rates that are 50% lower than adult mice. Neonatal mice exhibit very low heart rate variability. Within 12 days of birth PR, QRS and QTc interval durations are near adult values while heart rate continues to increase until weaning. Upon weaning FVB/N females quickly develop slower heart rates than males, though PR intervals are comparable between sexes until a later age. This suggests separate developmental events may contribute to these gender differences in electrocardiography. Conclusions We provide insight with a new level of detail to the natural course of heart rate establishment in neonate mice. ECG can now be conveniently and repeatedly used in neonatal mice. This should serve to be of broad utility, facilitating further investigations into development of a diverse group of diseases and therapeutics in preclinical mouse studies. PMID:20735846

  1. Comparing the Efficacy of Face Mask CPAP with Nasopharyngeal CPAP for Neonatal Transport after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa-Gharehbaghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm infants have respiratory failure and complications because surfactant in alveolus is low. CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure is a method for respiratory support in pre-term neonates and is provided by different equipment and methods. This study aims to compare two different routes of CPAP delivery in preterm newborn infants and to determine the need for surfactant replacement therapy in two groups. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eighty four preterm infants delivered in Al-Zahra Hospital with gestational age 28-32 weeks were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to September 2012. They were randomly allocated in two groups. After initial stabilization in delivery room, forty two infants transferred to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU with face mask CPAP and 42 infant with nasopharyngeal CPAP and continued nasal CPAP in the NICU in both groups. All infants were followed for developing respiratory distress and need for surfactant replacement therapy and oxygen dependency till discharge.Results: The neonates that treated with two methods of CPAP delivery were similar with respect to gestation age, birth weight and other demographic characteristics. Twenty three neonates (65.5% in face mask group and 15 neonates (39.5% in nasopharyngeal CPAP group need surfactant replacement therapy (p=0.08.Conclusion: Mask CPAP or nasopharyngeal CPAP can used in preterm infants after delivery for neonatal transfer to NICU. This study showed no method of CPAP delivery is preferable to other in decreasing the need for surfactant therapy.

  2. [Influence of neonatal diseases and treatments on the development of cerebral palsy in preterm infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Rong, Luo; Wang, Qiu; You, Yi; Fu, Jun-Xian; Kang, Lin-Min; Wu, Yan-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    To investigated the risk factors of cerebral palsy development in preterm infants. This study included 203 preterm infants (gestation age neonatal period, were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis for the risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in neonatal period found significant differences in the occurrence of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, OR = 39.87, P neonatal (OR = 2.18, P neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 1.72, P CPAP, OR = 0.21, P neonatal jaundice may increase the risk in the development of CP in preterm infant, while CPAP may decrease the risk of cerebral palsy.

  3. The fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into immunocompetent neonatal mice: implications for skeletal gene therapy via stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyibizi, Christopher; Wang, Sujing; Mi, Zhibao; Robbins, Paul D

    2004-06-01

    To explore the feasibility of skeletal gene and cell therapies, we transduced murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a retrovirus carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein and zeocin-resistance genes prior to transplantation into 2-day-old immunocompetent neonatal mice. Whole-body imaging of the recipient mice at 7 days post-systemic cell injection demonstrated a wide distribution of the cells in vivo. Twenty-five days posttransplantation, most of the infused cells were present in the lung as assessed by examination of the cells cultured from the lungs of the recipient mice. The cells persisted in lung and maintained a high level of gene expression and could be recovered from the recipient mice at 150 days after cell transplantation. A significant number of GFP-positive cells were also present in the bones of the recipient mice at 35 days post-cell transplantation. Recycling of the cells recovered from femurs of the recipient mice at 25 days posttransplantation by repeated injections into different neonatal mice resulted in the isolation of a clone of cells that was detected in bone and cartilage, but not in lung and liver after systemic injection. These data demonstrate that MSCs persist in immunocompetent neonatal mice, maintain a high level of gene expression, and may participate in skeletal growth and development of the recipient animals.

  4. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Neonatal stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Neonatologie, angeborene Stoerungen und Intensivmedizin; Puig, S.; Prayer, D. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [German] Ein Infarkt im Stromgebiet der Zerebralarterien stellt eine wichtige Differentialdiagnose bei neurologischen Auffaelligkeiten in der Neonatalperiode dar. Die Inzidenz wird anhand von klinischer Daten auf 1:4000 Lebendgeborene geschaetzt. Da der Verlauf oft subklinisch ist, liegt die wahre Inzidenz wahrscheinlich hoeher. Diagnose: Bei der Diagnosestellung kommen dem Schaedelultraschall und der Doppelsonographie als leicht verfuegbaren Screening-Methoden eine zentrale Rolle zu. Die definitive Diagnose wird, je nach Verfuegbarkeit, mittels Computertomographie oder Kernspintomographie gestellt. Die Behandlung ist neben der symptomatischen (antikonvulsiven) Therapie auf die Vermeidung von ischaemischen Sekundaerschaeden gerichtet. Diskussion: Wir wollen mit der vorliegenden Arbeit anhand von 3 Kindern mit verschiedenen klinischen Verlaeufen eines sog. Neonatal stroke den Stellenwert der bildgebenden Verfahren bei der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle aufzeigen und die Sensibilitaet fuer dieses vermutlich unterdiagnostizierte Krankheitsbild erhoehen

  5. RANDOMIZED EUROPEAN MULTICENTER TRIAL OF SURFACTANT REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR SEVERE NEONATAL RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME - SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE DOSES OF CUROSURF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEER, CP; ROBERTSON, B; CURSTEDT, T; HALLIDAY, HL; COMPAGNONE, D; GEFELLER, O; HARMS, K; HERTING, E; MCCLURE, G; REID, M; TUBMAN, R; HERIN, P; NOACK, G; KOK, J; KOPPE, J; VANSONDEREN, L; LAUFKOTTER, E; KOHLER, W; BOENISCH, H; ALBRECHT, K; HANSSLER, L; HAIM, M; OETOMO, SB; Okken, Albert; ALTFELD, PC; GRONECK, P; KACHEL, W; RELIER, JP; WALTI, H

    There is now convincing evidence that the severity of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome can be reduced by surfactant replacement therapy; however, the optimal therapeutic regimen has not been defined. This randomized European multicenter trial was designed to determine whether the beneficial

  6. The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, as a target for drug delivery and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Szoka, Francis C

    2015-08-30

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based drugs are arguably the most successful class of protein therapeutics due in part to their remarkably long blood circulation. This arises from IgG interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. FcRn is the central regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis throughout life and is increasingly being recognized as an important player in autoimmune disease, mucosal immunity, and tumor immune surveillance. Various engineering approaches that hijack or disrupt the FcRn-mediated transport pathway have been devised to develop long-lasting and non-invasive protein therapeutics, protein subunit vaccines, and therapeutics for treatment of autoimmune and infectious disease. In this review, we highlight the diverse biological functions of FcRn, emerging therapeutic opportunities, as well as the associated challenges of targeting FcRn for drug delivery and disease therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neurodevelopmental Impact of Neonatal Morphine Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Attarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit. A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid therapy. Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. This comprehensive review examines existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the long-term impacts of neonatal pain and opioid therapy.

  8. An overview of medical ECMO for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Chapman, Rachel; Keene, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a life-saving therapy for respiratory and cardiac failure, was first used in neonates in the 1970s. The indications and criteria for ECMO have changed over the years, but it continues to be an important option for those who have failed other medical therapies. Since the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry was established in 1989, more than 29,900 neonates have been placed on ECMO for respiratory failure, with 84% surviving their ECMO course, and 73% surviving to discharge or transfer. In this chapter, we will review the basics of ECMO, patient characteristics and criteria, patient management, ECMO complications, special uses of neonatal ECMO, and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  10. Clinical pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in the neonate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria

    2009-04-01

    Sepsis is common in neonates and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm neonates receive at least one antibiotic, and 43% of the antibiotics administered to these neonates are aminoglycosides. The clearance (Cl), serum half-life (t(1/2)), and volume of distribution (Vd) of aminoglycosides change during the neonatal life, and the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides need to be studied in neonates in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. The aim of this work is to review the published data on the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature that can be a useful tool in the hands of physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using PubMed, as the search engine, through July 11th, 2008. Firstly, a Medline search was performed with the keywords "pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in neonates" with the limit of "human". Other Medline searches were performed with the keywords "pharmacokinetics of ... in neonates" followed by the name of the aminoglycosides: amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin. In addition, the book Neofax: A Manual of Drugs Used in Neonatal Care by Young and Mangum (Thomson Healthcare, 2007) was consulted. The aminoglycosides are mainly eliminated by the kidney, and their elimination rates are reduced at birth. As a consequence Cl is reduced and t(1/2) is prolonged in the neonate as compared to more mature infants. The high body-water content of the neonate results in a large Vd of aminoglycosides as these drugs are fairly water soluble. Postnatal development is an important factor in the maturation of the neonate, and as postnatal age proceeds, Cl of aminoglycosides increases. The maturation of the kidney governs the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in the infant. Cl and t(1/2) are influenced by development, and this must be taken into consideration when planning a dosage regimen with aminoglycosides in the neonate. Aminoglycosides

  11. Acute suppurative neonatal parotitis: Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Sardar U

    2012-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is very rare. One review of the English-language literature spanning 35 years found only 32 cases. Most cases are managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy; early antibiotic treatment reduces the need for surgery. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a new case of neonatal suppurative parotitis in a 3-week-old boy. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of parotid swelling, a purulent exudate from a Stensen duct, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria in culture. He responded well to 9 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We also discuss the microbiologic and clinical patterns of this disease.

  12. Automated criterion-based analysis for Cole parameters assessment from cerebral neonatal electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Ward, L C; Lingwood, B E

    2012-01-01

    Hypothermia has been proven as an effective rescue therapy for infants with moderate or severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Hypoxia-ischemia alters the electrical impedance characteristics of the brain in neonates; therefore, spectroscopic analysis of the cerebral bioimpedance of the neonate may be useful for the detection of candidate neonates eligible for hypothermia treatment. Currently, in addition to the lack of reference bioimpedance data obtained from healthy neonates, there is no standardized approach established for bioimpedance spectroscopy data analysis. In this work, cerebral bioimpedance measurements (12 h postpartum) in a cross-section of 84 term and near-term healthy neonates were performed at the bedside in the post-natal ward. To characterize the impedance spectra, Cole parameters (R 0 , R ∞ , f C and α) were extracted from the obtained measurements using an analysis process based on a best measurement and highest likelihood selection process. The results obtained in this study complement previously reported work and provide a standardized criterion-based method for data analysis. The availability of electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy reference data and the automatic criterion-based analysis method might support the development of a non-invasive method for prompt selection of neonates eligible for cerebral hypothermic rescue therapy. (paper)

  13. Pain Control Interventions in Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vivek V; Bansal, Satvik; Nimbalkar, Archana; Chapla, Apurva; Phatak, Ajay; Patel, Dipen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2018-04-15

    To compare individual efficacy and additive effects of pain control interventions in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level-3 University affiliated neonatal intensive care unit. 200 neonates (26-36 wk gestational age) requiring heel-prick for bedside glucose assessment. Exclusion criteria were neurologic impairment and critical illness precluding study interventions. Neonates were randomly assigned to Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy, Music therapy, Kangaroo Mother care or Control (no additional intervention) groups. All groups received expressed breast milk with cup and spoon as a baseline pain control intervention. Assessment of pain using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score on recorded videos. The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of the neonates was 1.9 (0.3) kg and 34 (2.3) wk, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference in total PIPP score across groups (P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons using Sheffe's test revealed that the mean (SD) total PIPP score was significantly lower in Kangaroo mother care group [7.7 (3.9) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95% CI(-5.9, -1.7), P<0.001] as well as Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy group [8.5 (3.2) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95%CI (-5.1, -0.9), P=0.001] as compared to Control group. PIPP score was not significantly different between Control group and Music therapy group. Kangaroo mother care with and without Music therapy (with expressed breast milk) significantly reduces pain on heel-prick as compared to expressed breast milk alone. Kangaroo mother care with expressed breast milk should be the first choice as a method for pain control in preterm neonates.

  14. Practical MRI atlas of neonatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Truwit, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is an anatomical reference for cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in neonates and infants. It contains 122 clear, sharp MRI scans and drawings showing changes in the normal appearance of the brain and skull during development. Sections of the atlas depict the major processes of maturation: brain myelination, development of the corpus callosum, development of the cranial bone marrow, and iron deposition in the brain. High-quality scans illustrate how these changes appear on magnetic resonance images during various stages of development

  15. The implementation of neonatal peritoneal dialysis in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sevim; Bilgin, Leyla; Gunduz, Mehmet; Uncu, Nermin; Azili, Mujdem Nur; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2012-10-01

    To investigate etiology, outcome and complications related to neonatal peritoneal dialysis (PD). Neonates treated with PD in our neonatal intensive care unit during 2007-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 4036 hospitalized neonates; 20 neonates (0.5%) who underwent 21 cycles of PD [7 preterm, 13 term; 13 female, 7 male] were included. The mean birth weight was 2930.2 ± 720.6 g (1120-4570), mean gestational age was 37.5 ± 3.5 weeks (27-41). The etiologic disorders included inborn errors of metabolism (propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, citrullinemia, glutaric aciduria type 2, maple syrup urine disease, 10), or acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia (4), sepsis (2), prematurity (2), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (1), kernicterus (1). The complications included peritonitis (2), early leakage (4), hemorrhage (1), catheter removal (3) and occlusion (2). The mortality rate was 50%. The gestational ages and birth weights of surviving neonates were higher (p neonates, chronic renal failure (1), severe (4) and moderate neuromotor impairment (2) developed within 4-43 months. PD, although invasive, is an effective therapy in neonates. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure is probably responsible for high rate of complications and mortality. If appropriate catheter selection and technique in the placement should be done, PD might improve outcome.

  16. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  17. Melatonin potentiates the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Soper, Colin; Duckles, Anne; Gale, Karen; Kondratyev, Alexei

    2013-12-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for neonatal seizures. However, questions regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapies that could boost therapeutic benefit. One potential adjunct therapy is melatonin. Melatonin is used clinically in neonatal and pediatric populations, and moreover, it exerts anticonvulsant actions in adult rats. However, it has not been previously evaluated for anticonvulsant effects in neonatal rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin would exert anticonvulsant effects, either alone, or in combination with phenobarbital. Postnatal day (P)7 rats were treated with phenobarbital (0-40mg/kg) and/or melatonin (0-80mg/kg) prior to chemoconvulsant challenge with pentylenetetrazole (100mg/kg). We found that melatonin significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of phenobarbital, but did not exert anticonvulsant effects on its own. These data provide additional evidence for the further examination of melatonin as an adjunct therapy in neonatal/pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sepsis and development impede muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by different ribosomal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In muscle, sepsis reduces protein synthesis (MPS) by restraining translation in neonates and adults. Even though protein accretion decreases with development as neonatal MPS rapidly declines by maturation, the changes imposed by development on the sepsis-associated decrease in MPS have not been desc...

  19. Neonatal CNS infection and inflammation caused by Ureaplasma species: rare or relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P

    2015-02-01

    Colonization with Ureaplasma species has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and perinatal transmission has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. Little is known about Ureaplasma-mediated infection and inflammation of the CNS in neonates. Controversy remains concerning its incidence and implication in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. In vivo and in vitro data are limited. Despite improving care options for extremely immature preterm infants, relevant complications remain. Systematic knowledge of ureaplasmal infection may be of great benefit. This review aims to summarize pathogenic mechanisms, clinical data and diagnostic pitfalls. Studies in preterm and term neonates are critically discussed with regard to their limitations. Clinical questions concerning therapy or prophylaxis are posed. We conclude that ureaplasmas may be true pathogens, especially in preterm neonates, and may cause CNS inflammation in a complex interplay of host susceptibility, serovar pathogenicity and gestational age-dependent CNS vulnerability.

  20. Neonatal retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero T Kivelä

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support

  1. Antiretroviral therapy during the neonatal period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... until clinical or CD4 criteria were met.1 In the landmark Children with HIV Early ... to cART regimens aimed at long-term treatment requires further investigation. ... therefore be a consideration for short-term use in neonatal ...... of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-.

  2. Research gaps in neonatal HIV-related care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African prevention of mother to child transmission programme has made excellentprogress in reducing vertical HIV transmission, and paediatric antiretroviral therapyprogrammes have demonstrated good outcomes with increasing treatment initiation inyounger children and infants. However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African,lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup,and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART before diseaseprogression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, experts provide valuable recommendations for addressingthese gaps. The present article highlights a number of areas where evidence is lacking toinform guidelines and programme development for optimal neonatal HIV-related care.

  3. Analysis of Transcription Factors Key for Mouse Pancreatic Development Establishes NKX2-2 and MNX1 Mutations as Causes of Neonatal Diabetes in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah E.; De Franco, Elisa; Lango Allen, Hana; Zerah, Michele; Abdul-Rasoul, Majedah M.; Edge, Julie A.; Stewart, Helen; Alamiri, Elham; Hussain, Khalid; Wallis, Sam; de Vries, Liat; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Houghton, Jayne A.L.; Edghill, Emma L.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding transcriptional regulation of pancreatic development is required to advance current efforts in developing beta cell replacement therapies for patients with diabetes. Current knowledge of key transcriptional regulators has predominantly come from mouse studies, with rare, naturally occurring mutations establishing their relevance in man. This study used a combination of homozygosity analysis and Sanger sequencing in 37 consanguineous patients with permanent neonatal diabetes to search for homozygous mutations in 29 transcription factor genes important for murine pancreatic development. We identified homozygous mutations in 7 different genes in 11 unrelated patients and show that NKX2-2 and MNX1 are etiological genes for neonatal diabetes, thus confirming their key role in development of the human pancreas. The similar phenotype of the patients with recessive mutations and mice with inactivation of a transcription factor gene support there being common steps critical for pancreatic development and validate the use of rodent models for beta cell development. PMID:24411943

  4. Combination of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy with Electroacupuncture Improves Functional Recovery following Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunha Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI due to insufficient oxygen supply and blood flow during the prenatal and postnatal periods can cause cerebral palsy, a serious developmental condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combining constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT and electroacupuncture to treat rat neonatal HI brain injury. Methods. The left common carotid arteries of postnatal day 7 rats were ligated to induce HI brain injury, and the neonates were kept in a hypoxia chamber containing 8% oxygen for 2 hrs. Electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV 20 and Zusanli (ST 36 was performed concurrently with CIMT 3 weeks after HI induction for 4 weeks. Results. Motor asymmetry after HI was significantly improved in the CIMT and electroacupuncture combination group, but HI lesion size was not improved. The combination of CIMT and electroacupuncture after HI injury increases NeuN and decreases GFAP levels in the cerebral cortex, suggesting that this combination treatment inversely regulates neurons and astrocytes. In addition, the combination treatment group reduced the level of cleaved caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, in the cortex. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that a combination of CIMT and electroacupuncture is an effective method to treat hemiplegia due to neonatal HI brain injury.

  5. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin; Zhu Lingli

    2001-01-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium 235 U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 β (IL- β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells

  6. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guixiong, Gu; Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Shuqin, Yang; Lingli, Zhu [Suzhou Medical College, Suzhou (China)

    2001-04-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium {sup 235}U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 {beta} (IL- {beta}), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells.

  7. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; S.R. Raman (Sudha R.); J.N. van den Anker (John); K. McHutchison (Kerstin); C.P. Hornik; R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; D.K. Benjamin (Daniel K.); K. Berezny (Katherine); J. Barrett (Jeffrey); E.V. Capparelli (Edmund); M. Cohen-Wolkowiez (Michael); G.L. Kearns (Greg); M. Laughon (Matthew); A. Muelenaer (Andre); T. Michael O'Shea; I.M. Paul (Ian M.); K. Wade (Kelly); T.J. Walsh (Thomas J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10. years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: We conducted a

  8. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates.We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values.We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  9. Pharmacological management of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Jennifer G; Sorenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists. This educational review summarizes the therapies widely used for neonates with AKI and CKD. Use of these therapies is extrapolated from data in older children and adults or based on clinical experience and case series. There is a critical need for more research on the use of therapies in infants with kidney disease as well as for the development of drug delivery systems and preparations scaled more appropriately for these small patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric

  11. Three cases of neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea lead to development of national action plan for maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Siddharta Sankar; Barnabas, Roland; Sitther, Adeline; Guarenti, Laura; Toikilik, Steven; Kariwiga, Grace; Sui, Gerard Pai

    2013-01-01

    Maternal or neonatal tetanus causes deaths primarily in Asia and Africa and is usually the result of poor hygiene during delivery. In 2011, three neonatal tetanus cases were investigated in Papua New Guinea, and all three cases were delivered at home by untrained assistants. The babies were normal at birth but subsequently developed spasms. A neonatal tetanus case must be viewed as a sentinel event indicating a failure of public health services including immunization, antenatal care and delivery care. The confirmation of these cases led to the drafting of the Papua New Guinea National Action Plan for Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination. This included three rounds of a tetanus toxoid supplementary immunization campaign targeting women of childbearing age (WBCA) and strengthening of other clean delivery practices. The first immunization round was conducted in April and May 2012, targeting 1.6 million WBCA and achieved coverage of 77%. The government of Papua New Guinea should ensure detailed investigation of all neonatal tetanus cases reported in the health information system and perform subprovincial analysis of tetanus toxoid coverage following completion of all three immunization rounds. Efforts also should be made to strengthen clean delivery practices to help eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea.

  12. Three cases of neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea lead to development of national action plan for maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Kariwiga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal or neonatal tetanus causes deaths primarily in Asia and Africa and is usually the result of poor hygiene during delivery. In 2011, three neonatal tetanus cases were investigated in Papua New Guinea, and all three cases were delivered at home by untrained assistants. The babies were normal at birth but subsequently developed spasms. A neonatal tetanus case must be viewed as a sentinel event indicating a failure of public health services including immunization, antenatal care and delivery care. The confirmation of these cases led to the drafting of the Papua New Guinea National Action Plan for Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination. This included three rounds of a tetanus toxoid supplementary immunization campaign targeting women of childbearing age (WBCA and strengthening of other clean delivery practices. The first immunization round was conducted in April and May 2012, targeting 1.6 million WBCA and achieved coverage of 77%. The government of Papua New Guinea should ensure detailed investigation of all neonatal tetanus cases reported in the health information system and perform sub-provincial analysis of tetanus toxoid coverage following completion of all three immunization rounds. Efforts also should be made to strengthen clean delivery practices to help eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus in Papua New Guinea.

  13. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  14. The neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodmark, O.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical examination of the CNS in the neonate is often difficult in cases of complex pathology. Diagnostic imaging of the neonatal brain has become extremely useful and in the last decade has developed in two main directions: CT and US. MR imaging has been used recently with varying success in the diagnosis of pathology in the neonatal brain. Despite technical difficulties, this imaging method is likely to become increasingly important in the neonate. The paper examines the normal neonatal brain anatomy as seen with the different modalities, followed by pathologic conditions. Attention is directed to the common pathology, in asphyxiated newborns, the patholphysiology of intraventicular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in the preterm neonate, and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the term neonate. Pitfalls, artifacts, and problems in image interpretation are illustrated. Finally, the subsequent appearance of neonatal pathology later in infancy and childhood is discussed

  15. Effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation on development of social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Ooyama, Rumi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-06-22

    The oxytocin (OT) neural system is thought to be involved in the underlying mechanisms that guide the development of social behaviors. In the present study, we examined the effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation in mice. Within 24 hours after birth, pups in the treatment group randomly received an intraperitoneal injection of OT or OT antagonist (OTA), and those in the control group received a saline injection or handling only. Some of these mice underwent a test that counted the number of isolation-induced ultrasound vocalizations they made on postnatal day 6, and they were further tested for sociability at 8-9 weeks of age and for neuroendocrine stress response to novel environments at 19-20 weeks of age. Another group of mice was tested for alloparental responsiveness at 13-15 weeks of age. The OT injection affected sociability and alloparental responsiveness. In an approach/avoidance test, most of the mice made a social approach to an unfamiliar conspecific of the same sex, but females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA did not show this response. The neonatal OTA treatment appeared to inhibit females' sociability in a dose-dependent fashion. In a retrieving test, females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OT retrieved significantly more pups than did those that had received 3 μg of OTA, although neither of the treatments caused the females to behave significantly differently from control group females. Meanwhile, a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA increased the latency to retrieve pups in males. These results suggested that neonatal OT action may positively regulate alloparental responsiveness in adulthood. Considering that the organizational effects of OT have also been shown in voles and rats, the mechanism by which neonatal OT modifies the development of social behaviors appears to be common to all rodents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolated Cortisol Deficiency: A Rare Cause of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Awatif; Mursi, Alaaddin; Alghofely, Mohammed; Asery, Ali

    2012-01-01

    For decades, congenital panhypopituitarism has been recognized to cause infantile cholestasis. However, the identity of the hormone whose deficiency causes such derangement of the liver is not clear. Here, we report four cases of isolated severe cortisol deficiency presenting with neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycemia, of whom two had familial primary glucocorticoid deficiency and the other two had isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency. The resolution of cholestasis by hydrocortisone replacement therapy suggests a causal relationship between cortisol deficiency and the development of neonatal cholestasis. In conclusion, the presentation of a young infant with cholestasis and hypoglycemia should alert pediatricians to the possibility of cortisol deficiency and prompt investigation of adrenal function should be undertaken. PMID:23006463

  17. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.I. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  19. Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with altered neonatal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Monnelly

    Full Text Available Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone.20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+2 and 41+1weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA data between exposed and non-exposed neonates.Methadone-exposed neonates had decreased FA within the centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF and the internal and external capsules after adjustment for GA at MRI (p<0.05, TFCE corrected. Median FA across the white matter skeleton was 12% lower among methadone-exposed infants. Mean head circumference (HC z-scores were lower in the methadone-exposed group (−0.52 (0.99 vs 1.15 (0.84, p<0.001; after adjustment for HC z-scores, differences in FA remained in the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule and the ILF. Polydrug use among cases was common.Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with microstructural alteration in major white matter tracts, which is present at birth and is independent of head growth. Although the findings cannot be attributed to methadone per se, the data indicate that further research to determine optimal management of opioid use disorder during pregnancy is required. Future studies should evaluate childhood outcomes including infant brain development and long-term neurocognitive function. Keywords: Prenatal, Methadone, Brain, Neonate, MRI, Opioid

  20. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Tam, Emily W; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, Anthony James; Ferriero, Donna M; Glass, Hannah C

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. This study is a cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern, and severity of injury on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 mo (neuromotor examination, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition mental development index encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns.

  1. Effect of Barely flour on jaundice in full-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2005-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study indicated that phototherapy in conjuction with barely flour therapy is more effective than phototherapy alone. But, people must be informed that affected neonates have to be underwent medical therapy, and barely flour therapy alone is not a reliable treatment.

  2. Contemporary management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: good outcomes in the intravenous immunoglobulin era: results from the Australian neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Gemma L; Scarborough, Ri; McQuilten, Zoe K; Phillips, Louise E; Savoia, Helen F; Williams, Bronwyn; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Henry, Amanda; Wood, Erica M; Cole, Stephen A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the natural history, antenatal and postnatal therapy, and clinical outcomes of Australian patients with fetomaternal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) recorded in the Australian NAIT registry. Analysis of registry data of Australian mothers treated antenatally for NAIT and any fetus/newborn with thrombocytopenia (TCP) and maternal human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies. Ninety four potential cases (91 pregnancies; three twin pregnancies) were registered between December 2004 and September 2015 with 76 confirmed or treated as NAIT. NAIT was frequently unanticipated (44 cases, 58%), whilst 32 cases (42%) were anticipated due to personal or family history. In 70/76 cases, the diagnosis of NAIT was made based on HPA antibody results; anti-HPA-1a was most commonly detected (58/70, 82%), followed by anti-HPA-5b (5/70, 7%). Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) was detected in seven cases (9%). Maternal antenatal therapy resulted in improved clinical outcomes. For antenatally treated cases, whilst 10/29 (34%) neonates had severe TCP, only one ICH was detected. This study provides data on contemporary "real world" management of Australian mothers and babies with NAIT. Antenatal IVIG therapy was associated with better neonatal outcomes. Maternal side-effects and treatment costs were substantial.

  3. Effects of chronic glucagon-like peptide-2 therapy during weaning in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The enteroendocrine hormone glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and its ligands are under development as therapeutic agents for a variety of intestinal pathologies. A number of these conditions occur in neonates and infants, and thus a detailed understanding of the effects of GLP-2 during...

  4. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Raman, Sudha R; van den Anker, John N; McHutchison, Kerstin; Hornik, Christoph P; Clark, Reese H; Brian Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10 years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We conducted a retrospective data analysis, identifying all infants who were exposed to milrinone and discharged from 322 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997-2010. We identified adverse events (AEs) during milrinone exposure. The unit of observation for clinical AEs was the first course of milrinone and for laboratory AEs it was an infant-day of exposure to milrinone. Overall, 1446 of 716,821 (0.2%) infants received milrinone for a total of 6894 infant-days. The proportion of infants exposed to milrinone increased from 0 in 1997 to 4/1000 infant cases in 2010. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (40%) was the most commonly reported diagnosis at the start of milrinone administration. Overall, 606/1446 (42%) of infants had at least 1 clinical AE recorded during milrinone therapy. Hypotension requiring pressors and thrombocytopenia (milrinone therapy. Among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, there was an increase in the use of milrinone over the past 13 years. The safety, dosing, and efficacy of milrinone in infants should be determined in prospective clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal development at gestation weeks 23 to 36. An ultrasound study on preterm neonates

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    Bajic, Dragan; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ewald, Uwe [Uppsala University, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    During fetal development, the hippocampal structures fold around the hippocampal sulcus into the temporal lobe. According to the literature, this inversion should be completed at gestation week (GW) 21. Thereafter, the hippocampal shape should resemble the adult shape. However, incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is found in 19% of the common population. The aim of this study was to study fetal hippocampal development by examining neonates born preterm. We analyzed cranial ultrasound examinations, performed as a part of the routine assessment of all preterm infants, over a 3-year period and excluded the infants with brain pathology. The final material consisted of 158 children born <35 GW. A rounded form (the ratio between the horizontal and vertical diameters of the hippocampal body {<=}1) in coronal slices was considered the sign of IHI. The age at examination was 23-24 GW in 24 neonates, 25-28 GW in 70 neonates, and 29-36 GW in 64 neonates. IHI was found in 50%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. The difference between the neonates <25 GW and {>=}25 GW was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of bilateral IHI was highest in the youngest age group. In the other groups, the left-sided IHI was the most common. In about 50% of the neonates, hippocampal inversion is not completed up to GW 24; but from 25 GW onwards, the frequency and laterality of IHI is similar to that in the adult population. (orig.)

  6. Prenatal and neonatal radiation injury and lymphohematopoietic development in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Immunologic and hematopoietic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal or neonatal irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing lymphohematopoietic system. In prenatally-irradiated dogs thymic medullary volumes were significantly reduced at birth, but had returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses and showed a concurrent decrease in T helper lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. In neonatally-irradiated dogs lymphocyte blastogenic responses were sharply decreased at 8 weeks, but returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene was decreased, indicating reduced cell-mediated immune responses. Alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations included decreases in B cells and increases in T cells, possibly due to increased numbers of T suppressor cells. There were significant reductions in body size and body tissue weights in all irradiated dogs, although these were more severe and persistent in the prenatally-irradiated dogs. These data show that prenatally or neonatally-irradiated dogs have significantly postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects. The effect on bone marrow function in prenatally-irradiated dogs was more severe and persistent than in neonatally-irradiated animals; however, the neonatally-irradiated dogs exhibited more severe alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations than did the prenatally-irradiated dogs. The observation of altered lymphocyte subpopulations suggests altered immunoregulation and raises some important questions relating to radiation-induced immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to clinical disease, including neoplasia

  7. Neonatal handling affects durably bonding and social development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Henry

    Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for

  8. A Report on Antibiotic Management of Neonatal Sepsis Caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report on a case of neonatal sepsis and clinical management with multiple antibiotic therapy in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Brazil. A preterm baby boy was born by caesarean section at. 34 weeks and two days of gestation from an oligodramnious pregnancy with intrauterine growth restriction.

  9. Clinical Utility and Safety of a Model-Based Patient-Tailored Dose of Vancomycin in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Stéphanie; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Biran, Valérie; Lopez, Emmanuel; Madeleneau, Doriane; Wallon, Camille; Zana-Taïeb, Elodie; Virlouvet, Anne-Laure; Rioualen, Stéphane; Zhao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has often been applied to evaluate vancomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates. However, clinical application of the model-based personalized vancomycin therapy is still limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility and safety of a model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin in neonates. A model-based vancomycin dosing calculator, developed from a population pharmacokinetic study, has been integrated into the routine clinical care in 3 neonatal intensive care units (Robert Debré, Cochin Port Royal, and Clocheville hospitals) between 2012 and 2014. The target attainment rate, defined as the percentage of patients with a first therapeutic drug monitoring serum vancomycin concentration achieving the target window of 15 to 25 mg/liter, was selected as an endpoint for evaluating the clinical utility. The safety evaluation was focused on nephrotoxicity. The clinical application of the model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin has been demonstrated in 190 neonates. The mean (standard deviation) gestational and postnatal ages of the study population were 31.1 (4.9) weeks and 16.7 (21.7) days, respectively. The target attainment rate increased from 41% to 72% without any case of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity. This proof-of-concept study provides evidence for integrating model-based antimicrobial therapy in neonatal routine care. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Effect of fructose diphosphate combined with large-dose vitamin C therapy on the myocardial oxidative stress injury after neonatal asphyxia

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    Chun-Hua Liang1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of fructose diphosphate combined with large-dose vitamin C therapy on the myocardial oxidative stress injury after neonatal asphyxia. Methods: 40 patients with neonatal asphyxia who were treated in our hospital between June 2013 and April 2016 were collected and divided into the control group (n=20 who received large-dose vitamin C therapy and the observation group (n=20 who received fructose diphosphate combined with large-dose vitamin C therapy according to the double-blind randomized control method, and the treatment lasted for 10 d. Immediately after admission and after 10 d of treatment, RIA method was used to detect the serum levels of oxidative stress indexes, color Doppler diasonograph was used to determine left cardiac function parameters, and the myocardial enzyme spectrum detector was used to determine myocardial enzyme spectrum index levels. Results: Immediately after admission, the differences in the systemic oxidative stress degree, the left cardiac function damage degree and the myocardial enzyme spectrum index levels were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05. After 10 d of treatment, serum malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP and troponin I (cTnI contents of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while superoxide dismutase (SOD content was higher than that of control group (P<0.05, and the left cardiac function parameter ejection time (ET level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05 while left ventricular isovolumetric contraction time (ICT and left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Fructose diphosphate combined with large-dose vitamin C can reduce the systemic oxidative stress of neonatal asphyxia

  11. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. T...

  12. Functional photoacoustic tomography for neonatal brain imaging: developments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Tavakoli, Emytis; Adabi, Saba; Gelovani, Juri; Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.

    2017-03-01

    Transfontanelle ultrasound imaging (TFUSI) is a routine diagnostic brain imaging method in infants who are born prematurely, whose skull bones have not completely fused together and have openings between them, so-called fontanelles. Open fontanelles in neonates provide acoustic windows, allowing the ultrasound beam to freely pass through. TFUSI is used to rule out neurological complications of premature birth including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular (IVH), subependimal (SEPH), subdural (SDH) or intracerebral (ICH) hemorrhages, as well as hypoxic brain injuries. TFUSI is widely used in the clinic owing to its low cost, safety, accessibility, and noninvasive nature. Nevertheless, the accuracy of TFUSI is limited. To address several limitations of current clinical imaging modalities, we develop a novel transfontanelle photoacoustic imaging (TFPAI) probe, which, for the first time, should allow for non-invasive structural and functional imaging of the infant brain. In this study, we test the feasibility of TFPAI for detection of experimentally-induced intra ventricular and Intraparenchymal hemorrhage phantoms in a sheep model with a surgically-induced cranial window which will serve as a model of neonatal fontanelle. This study is towards using the probe we develop for bedside monitoring of neonates with various disease conditions and complications affecting brain perfusion and oxygenation, including apnea, asphyxia, as well as for detection of various types of intracranial hemorrhages (SAH, IVH, SEPH, SDH, ICH).

  13. Neonatal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  14. Staphylococcal bullous impetigo in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Shalini Dewan; Bharara, Tanisha; Jena, Pragnya Paramita; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, Abha; Gur, Renu; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2016-07-16

    An otherwise healthy, full-term neonate presented at day 15 of life to the pediatric emergency with generalized papulo-pustular rash for 2 d. This was finally diagnosed as bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The skin lesions decreased significantly after starting antibiotic therapy and drainage of blister fluid. There was no recurrence of the lesions on follow-up. This case of generalized pustular eruption due to S. aureus in a neonate is reported, as it poses a diagnostic dilemma and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

  15. Establishment of a finite element model of a neonate's skull to evaluate the stress pattern distribution resulting during nasoalveolar molding therapy of cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz X; Heinrich, Veronika; Grill, Florian D; Wölfle, Felix; Hedderich, Dennis M; Rau, Andrea; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Ritschl, Lucas M; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2018-04-01

    Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario. The resulting stress distribution patterns for each situation were analyzed using the software Ansys APDL. The established FE model was verified with a convergence analysis. Overall, stress patterns at the age of four weeks showed von Mises stress values below 60.000 Pa in the viscero- and neurocranium. The influences of the allocation of material properties for the dental germs, the area of force application, and the cleft width were negligible. A workflow to simulate the stress distribution and deformation in neonates attributable to various areas of force application has been established. Further analyses of the skulls of younger and older neonates are needed to describe the stress distribution patterns during NAM therapy. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetazolamide for the management of chronic metabolic alkalosis in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Bonnie; Chhay, Annie; Yen, Lilly; Tesoriero, Linda; Ramanathan, Rangasamy; Seri, Istvan; Friedlich, Philippe S

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of acetazolamide in the management of chronic metabolic alkalosis in neonates and infants with chronic respiratory insufficiency. A retrospective chart review of 90 patients treated with acetazolamide between 2006 and 2007 admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit was performed. Blood gases and electrolytes obtained at baseline and by 24 hours after acetazolamide administration were compared. Compared with baseline and after 24 hours of acetazolamide, mean measured serum bicarbonate (29.5±3.7 vs. 26.9±3.8 mEq/L, Prespiratory acidosis developed in 4 (3.1%) treatment courses. Acetazolamide may be effective in decreasing serum bicarbonate in carefully selected patients. Its use and safety as an adjunctive therapy for chronic metabolic alkalosis in neonates and infants with chronic respiratory insufficiency needs further study.

  17. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and the neonate: consensus recommendations for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, William D; Boppana, Suresh B; Fowler, Karen B; Kimberlin, David W; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Alain, Sophie; Daly, Kate; Doutré, Sara; Gibson, Laura; Giles, Michelle L; Greenlee, Janelle; Hamilton, Stuart T; Harrison, Gail J; Hui, Lisa; Jones, Cheryl A; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Schleiss, Mark R; Shand, Antonia W; van Zuylen, Wendy J

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most frequent, yet under-recognised, infectious cause of newborn malformation in developed countries. Despite its clinical and public health importance, questions remain regarding the best diagnostic methods for identifying maternal and neonatal infection, and regarding optimal prevention and therapeutic strategies for infected mothers and neonates. The absence of guidelines impairs global efforts to decrease the effect of congenital cytomegalovirus. Data in the literature suggest that congenital cytomegalovirus infection remains a research priority, but data are yet to be translated into clinical practice. An informal International Congenital Cytomegalovirus Recommendations Group was convened in 2015 to address these questions and to provide recommendations for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. On the basis of consensus discussions and a review of the literature, we do not support universal screening of mothers and the routine use of cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin for prophylaxis or treatment of infected mothers. However, treatment guidelines for infected neonates were recommended. Consideration must be given to universal neonatal screening for cytomegalovirus to facilitate early detection and intervention for sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay, where appropriate. The group agreed that education and prevention strategies for mothers were beneficial, and that recommendations will need continual updating as further data become available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Neonates with Ventriculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Neonatal meningitis and ventriculitis still remain a problem with high mortality in spite of systemic and intraventricular antibiotics. Ventriculitis due to repeated taps is a serious problem of posthemorragic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Methods: In this study, we evaluated 16 infants with ventriculitis followed at Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 1999-December 2004. Results: Mean gestational week was 33± 5 (25-40 weeks and mean birth weight was 2096 ± 912 (980-3500 grams. Venticulitis was diagnosed at 38 ± 22 days. Eleven of the infants had intraventricular hemorrhage and 15 had hydrocephalus, 5 of whom had congenital hydrocephalus. Drainage of CSF was performed by taps in 13 infants. Gram negative microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were predominating in cultures. Both intravenous and intraventricular antibiotic treatment was performed according to the cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Vancomycine and amicasine as intraventricular therapy were performed for 28 ±17 days. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels increased significantly at 8 infant during intraventricular therapy. Mean cerebrospinal fluid protein at the begining of intraventricular treatment was 624.1± 429.1 (109-1330 mg/dl while on 14th day of treatment it was 993.7± 582.2 (89-1750 mg/dl. Seven of the infants were ventriculoperitoneal shunted 6 of them were reinfected. Seven of the infants were died during treatment, 1 infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt was treated and 8 infants were discharged during treatment because of parents’ refusal of therapy. Conclusion: Despite the new treatment regimens, the ventriculitis still remains a problem because of nonstandardized practice in neonatal care. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 553-558

  19. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development Of A Neonatal Incubator Analyzer [desenvolvimento De Um Analisador De Incubadoras Neonatais

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrino J.C.; Leite H.J.D.; Kalid R.A.; Hermini A.H.; Lepikson H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although designed to benefit premature newborns (NB) by creating an artificial environment close to the uterine conditions, the use of neonatal incubators may expose the NB to several sources of risk. Periodic inspections for verification of minimum requirements of performance and safety can identify these and their degrees of impact, helping to minimize them. In order to automate the metrological evaluation essays in neonatal incubators, we present the development of an analyzer with the cap...

  1. Oxygen titration strategies in chronic neonatal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primhak, Robert

    2010-09-01

    The history of oxygen therapy in neonatology has been littered with error. Controversies remain in a number of areas of oxygen therapy, including targets and strategies in supplemental oxygen therapy in Chronic Neonatal Lung Disease (CNLD). This article reviews some of these controversies, and makes some recommendations based on the available evidence. In graduates of neonatal units who are left with CNLD, oxygen saturation should be kept above 93-95%, with levels below 90% being avoided as far as possible. Titration of oxygen should be done using oximetry recordings which include periods of different activities. Weaning of oxygen supplementation should only be done based on satisfactory recordings during a trial of a lower flow. There is insufficient evidence to say whether weaning for increasing hours a day or stepwise weaning to a continuous lower flow is a better method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana: implications for health programming in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Karen M; Quigley, Maria A; Zandoh, Charles; Danso, Samuel; Hurt, Chris; Owusu Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2008-09-01

    In developing countries many stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur at home and cause of death is not recorded by national health information systems. A community-level verbal autopsy tool was used to obtain data on the aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana. Objectives were to describe the timing and distribution of causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths according to site of death (health facility or home). Data were collected from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2004; 20,317 deliveries, 696 stillbirths and 623 neonatal deaths occurred over that time. Most deaths occurred in the antepartum period (28 weeks gestation to the onset of labour) (33.0%). However, the highest risk periods were during labour and delivery (intrapartum period) and the first day of life. Infections were a major cause of death in the antepartum (10.1%) and neonatal (40.3%) periods. The most important cause of intrapartum death was obstetric complications (59.3%). There were significantly fewer neonatal deaths resulting from birth asphyxia in the home than in the health facilities and more deaths from infection. Only 59 (20.7%) mothers of neonates who died at home reported that they sought care from an appropriate health care provider (doctor, nurse or health facility) during their baby's illness. The results from this study highlight the importance of studying community-level data in developing countries and the high risk of intrapartum stillbirths and infectious diseases in the rural African mother and neonate. Community-level interventions are urgently needed, especially interventions that reduce intrapartum deaths and infection rates in the mother and infant.

  3. Causes of Neonatal Mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taleghani Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal survival is one of the most important challenges today. Over 99% of neonatal mortalities occur in the developing countries, and epidemiologic studies emphasize on this issue in the developed countries, as well. In this study, we attempted to investigate the causes of neonatal mortality in Taleghani Hospital, Tabriz, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we studied causes of neonatal mortality in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Taleghani Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, during 2013-2014. Data collection was performed by the head nurse and treating physician using a pre-designed questionnaire. Most of the data were extracted from the neonatal records. Information regarding maternal underlying diseases and health care during pregnancy was extracted from mothers' records.Results: A total of 891 neonates were admitted to NICU of Taleghani Hospital of Tabriz, Iran, during 2013-2014, 68 (7.5% of whom died. Among these cases, 37 (%54.4 were male, 29 (29.4% were extremely low birth weight, and 16 (23.5% weighed more than 2.5 kg. The main causes of mortality were congenital anomalies (35.3%, prematurity (26.5%, and sepsis (10.3%, respectively.Conclusion: Congenital anomaly is the most common cause of mortality, and the pattern of death is changing from preventable diseases to unavoidable mortalities

  4. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  5. Comparison of Efficacy of Endogenous and Exogenous IGF-I in Stimulating Matrix Production in Neonatal and Mature Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Izath N; Trippel, Stephen B; Shi, Shuiliang; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of endogenous upregulation of IGF-I by gene therapy and exogenous addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in enhancing proteoglycan synthesis by skeletally mature and neonatal chondrocytes. Chondrocyte transplantation therapy is a common treatment for focal cartilage lesions, with both mature and neonatal chondrocytes used as a cell source. Additionally, gene therapy strategies to upregulate growth factors such as IGF-I have been proposed to augment chondrocyte transplantation therapies. Both skeletally mature and neonatal chondrocytes were exposed to either an adeno-associated virus-based plasmid containing the IGF-I gene or exogenous IGF-I. Analysis of IGF-I and glycosaminoglycan production using a 4-parameter dose-response model established a clear connection between the amount of IGF-I produced by cells and their biosynthetic response. Both neonatal and mature chondrocytes showed this relationship, but the sensitivities were quite different, with EC50 of 0.57 ng/mL for neonatal chondrocytes and EC50 of 8.70 ng/mL IGF-I for skeletally mature chondrocytes. These data suggest that IGF-I gene therapy may be more effective with younger cell sources. Both cell types were less sensitive to exogenous IGF-I than endogenous IGF-I.

  6. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information...... regarding infant growth and well-being. Conclusion: Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design...

  7. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  8. Effect of antenatal tocolysis on neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Chad K; Briery, Christian M; Keiser, Sharon D; Martin, Rick W; Kosek, Mary A; Morrison, John C

    2012-12-01

    Detail adverse neonatal effects in pregnancies treated with indomethacin (I), magnesium sulfate (M) or nifedipine (N). Women in acute preterm labor with cervical dilatation 1-6 cm were randomized to receive one of three first-line tocolytic drugs. There were 317 neonates (I = 103, M = 95, N = 119) whose mothers were treated with tocolytic therapy. There was no difference in gestational age at randomization (average 28.6 weeks' gestation) or at delivery (31.6 weeks' gestation, p = 0.551), birth weight (p = 0.871) or ventilator days (p = 0.089) between the three groups. Neonatal morbidity was not different between the three groups; respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.086), patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.592), sepsis (p = 0.590), necrotizing enterocolitis (p = 0.770), intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.669) and periventricular leukomalacia (p = 0.124). There were no statistically significant differences between the three tocolytics as far as composite neonatal morbidity or mortality was concerned.

  9. Pulmonary Changes in Preterm Neonates with Hyaline Membrane Disease (a Clinicomorphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal lung morphological changes in preterm neonatal infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD in the use of exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation. Materials and methods. Case histories and autopsy protocols were analyzed in 90 preterm neonates who had died from severe respiratory failure. All the neonates were divided into 4 groups: 1 20 (22.2% infants who had received the exogenous surfactant Curosurf in the combined therapy of HMD; 2 19 (21.1% babies with HMD who had taken Surfactant BL; 3 25 (27.8% surfactant-untreated infants who had died from HMD; 4 26 (28.9% very preterm neonates with extremely low birth weight who had died within the first hour of life. The lungs were histologically and morphometrically examined. Results. The study demonstrated the specific course of HMD when exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation were used. The contributors to the development of the disease are intranatal amniotic fluid aspiration and intranatal fetal hypoxia. Conclusion. Artificial ventilation and the use of exogenous surfactants do not block the generation of hyaline membranes. The latter differ in formation time, form, and location. The differences in a cell response to hyaline membranes were found in the neonatal infants receiving exogenous surfactants. The characteristic morphological signs of the disease for all the neonates enrolled in the study are alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages and microcirculatory disorders. Key words: preterm neonatal infants, hyaline membrane disease, exogenous surfactants, artificial ventilation, histology, morphometry.

  10. OUTCOMES in CHILDHOOD FOLLOWING THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA for NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (HIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. PMID:27863707

  11. Neonatal marfan syndrome: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Yazdan; Zanjani, Keyhan S; Mazhari-Mousavi, Seyed-Eshagh; Parvaneh, Nima

    2013-02-01

    Neonatal Marfan syndrome is a rare and severe phenotype of this disease. A poor prognosis is anticipated due to the high probability of congestive heart failure, and mitral and tricuspid regurgitations with suboptimal response to medical therapy and difficulties in surgical management at an early age. We present two consecutive patients with this disease who are the first reported cases from Iran to the best of our knowledge. Unfortunately both of them died shortly after diagnosis. Neonatal Marfan syndrome is reported from Iran and has a poor prognosis like the patients reported from elsewhere.

  12. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5 min, and need for intensive care unit admission. Results: The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66 and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94. Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78. The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15 and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71. The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. Conclusions: The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received.

  13. Recent advances in transfusions in neonates/infants [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Goel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs, platelets, and plasma are critical therapies for infants and neonates (particularly preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit, who are the most frequently transfused subpopulation across all ages. Although traditionally a significant gap has existed between the blood utilization and the evidence base essential to adequately guide transfusion practices in infants and neonates, pediatric transfusion medicine is evolving from infancy and gradually coming of age. It is entering an exciting era with recognition as an independent discipline, a new and evolving high-quality evidence base for transfusion practices, novel technologies and therapeutics, and national/international collaborative research, educational, and clinical efforts. Triggers and thresholds for red cell transfusion are accumulating evidence with current phase III clinical trials. Ongoing trials and studies of platelet and plasma transfusions in neonates are anticipated to provide high-quality evidence in years to come. This article aims to summarize the most current evidence-based practices regarding blood component therapy in neonates. Data on the use of specific components (RBCs, plasma, and platelets are provided. We attempt to define thresholds for anemia, thrombocytopenia, and abnormal coagulation profile in neonates to highlight the difficulties in having a specific cutoff value in neonates and preterm infants. Indications for transfusion of specific products, transfusion thresholds, and current practices and guidelines are provided, and possible adverse outcomes and complications are discussed. Finally, the critical research knowledge gaps in these practices as well as ongoing and future research areas are discussed. In an era of personalized medicine, neonatal transfusion decisions guided by a strong evidence base must be the overarching goal, and this underlies all of the strategic initiatives in pediatric and neonatal

  14. Mechanical property changes during neonatal development and healing using a multiple regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Heather L; Adams, Sheila; Jawad, Abbas F; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2012-04-30

    During neonatal development, tendons undergo a well orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, developmental processes have been postulated as a potential paradigm for elucidation of mechanistic insight required to develop treatment modalities to improve adult tissue healing. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast normal development with injury during early and late developmental healing. Using backwards multiple linear regressions, quantitative and objective information was obtained into the structure-function relationships in tendon. Specifically, proteoglycans were shown to be significant predictors of modulus during early developmental healing but not during late developmental healing or normal development. Multiple independent parameters predicted percent relaxation during normal development, however, only biglycan and fibril diameter parameters predicted percent relaxation during early developmental healing. Lastly, multiple differential predictors were observed between early development and early developmental healing; however, no differential predictors were observed between late development and late developmental healing. This study presents a model through which objective analysis of how compositional and structural parameters that affect the development of mechanical parameters can be quantitatively measured. In addition, information from this study can be used to develop new treatment and therapies through which improved adult tendon healing can be obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective screening in neonates suspected to have inborn errors of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: IEM represent a high percent (32.5% of neonates who had sepsis like symptoms, and when diagnosed, patients showed marked improvement after therapy. IEM should be considered in differential diagnosis of the sick neonates, and investigations, and management should be started rapidly to decrease morbidity, and mortality till nationwide screen for IEM is applied in Egypt.

  16. Post-neonatal Tetanus in a PICU of a Developing Economy: Intensive Care Needs, Outcome and Predictors of Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angurana, Suresh Kumar; Jayashree, Muralidharan; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) needs, outcome and predictors of mortality in post-neonatal tetanus. Review of 30 consecutive post-neonatal tetanus cases aged 1 months to 12 years admitted to a PICU in north India over a period of 10 years (January 2006 to December 2015). Chronic suppurative otitis media was the commonest portal of entry. All received tetanus toxoid, human tetanus immunoglobulin (HTIG) and appropriate antibiotics; 7 (23.3%) received intrathecal HTIG. Common complications were respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, autonomic dysfunction, acute kidney injury and healthcare-associated infections. PICU needs were as follows: ventilation; benzodiazepine, morphine and magnesium sulfate infusion; neuromuscular blockers, inotropes, tracheostomy and renal replacement therapy. Mortality rate was 40%; severity Grade IIIb, autonomic dysfunction, use of vasoactive drugs and those who did not receive intrathecal HTIG were significantly associated with mortality. Post-neonatal tetanus is associated with high mortality, and PICU needs include management of spasms, autonomic dysfunction and complications and cardiorespiratory support. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Investigation of the effect and mechanism of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Yi Zhi; Liao Jianxiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of HBO on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with SPECT, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: The research subjects were totally 34 newborn babies, including 3 normal neonates. The group treated with HBO included 20 babies with HIE, and the control group contained 11 HIE babies. All babies in both groups received SPECT exams before and after the treatments. Results: SPECT before treatment showed 46 foci of low perfusion and functional defect or insufficiencies in 31 HIE babies. SPECT after 1-2 period of treatments of HBO therapy in HIE babies showed disappeared or reduced low perfusion and functional defect or insufficiency in the brains. The HIE babies in the control group showed improvement with less degree than HBO treated babies. There were significant differences (P<0.01) between two groups. Conclusion: The effect of HBO on HIE babies were prominent. The treatment can improve the hypoxic status of brain cell through increase the regional cerebral blood flow perfusion and oxygen content of the brain tissue, then provoked the brain cells activities, and at last, enhance the repair of the injured brain cells

  18. Study on developing brain damage of neonatal rats induced by enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Yang Shuqin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal Wistar pure bred rats were studied. Methods: The model of irradiation induced brain damage in vivo was settled. The effects of cerebrum exposure by 235 U on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by thirteen index determination of multiple parameters. The dynamic retention of autoradiographic tracks of 235 U in cells of developing brain was observed. The changes of NSE, IL-1β, SOD, and ET in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum after expose to 235 U were examined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The somatic growth such as increase of body weight and brain weight was lower significantly. The retardation of development was found such as eye opening, sensuous function as auditory startle, movement and coordination function and activity as swimming, physiological reflexes as negative geotaxis, surface righting, grasping reflex suspension and the tendency behavior. The data showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The micro-autoradiographic tracing showed that the tracks of 235 U were mainly accumulated in the nucleus of developing brain. At the same time only few tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. Experimental study showed that when the dose of 235 U irradiation was increased, the level of NSE was decreased and the IL-1β was increased. However, the results indicated that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of 235 U, and can be inhibited by the high dose. Conclusion: The behavior of internal irradiation from 235 U on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility and compensation in nervous cells

  19. Miliary pattern in neonatal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have seen 10 newborn babies who developed respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs showed a miliary nodular pattern of disease. Of these infants only 3 had blood cultures that were positive for staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 7, 2 had conjunctivitis from which staphylococcus aureus was cultured, 4 had negative cultures and 1 did not have a blood culture done. All patients were diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia and appeared to respond favourably to antibiotic therapy. The pulmonary abnormalities resolved. The children were clinically well in less than 3 weeks. The author suggests that the miliary pattern is one of the radiological patterns of neonatal pneumonia possibly produced by hematogenous bacterial dissemination. (orig.)

  20. Neonatal imitation and an epigenetic account of mirror neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Fox, Nathan A; Tramacere, Antonella; Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal imitation should not exclusively be considered at the population-level; instead, we propose that inconsistent findings regarding its occurrence result from important individual differences in imitative responses. We also highlight what we consider to be a false dichotomy of genetic versus learning accounts of the development of mirror neurons, and instead suggest a more parsimonious epigenetic perspective.

  1. Neonatal hemochromatosis. Case series from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2013-12-01

    To review clinical presentations, diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of infants with neonatal hemochromatosis (NH). This is a retrospective review of all cases admitted to the Pediatric Department at Salmaniya Medical Center, Manama, Bahrain between March 2008 and May 2011. The diagnosis was based on serum iron and ferritin, alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP), liver and buccal biopsies, and abdominal MRI scan. Ten patients (8 males and 2 females) were diagnosed with NH. Two patients were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 6 were preterm. The median birth weight was 1.700 grams. The median age at presentation was 16 days, and at diagnosis was 23 days. Two patients had positive consanguinity. Clinical presentations of the infants were hepatosplenomegaly (n=5), ascites (n=3), and hypoglycemia (n=6). All patients had raised ferritin levels, prolonged prothrombin time, and 9 patients had high serum iron and serum AFP. Abdominal MRI showed iron overload in the liver (n=8). Liver biopsies showed evidence of hemochromatosis (n=3). Buccal biopsies stained positive for iron (n=1). Eight patients received antioxidant therapy and survived. Two patients passed away. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare liver disease of newborns with a spectrum of clinical severity. Elevated serum ferritin and AFP support the diagnosis after excluding other causes of neonatal liver failure. The use of antioxidant therapy helps to improve the outcome.

  2. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy predict increased risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism following radioiodine therapy for refractory hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Noboru; Momotani, Naoko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Konishi, Toshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    Serum levels of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves' women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves' disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves' disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves' disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves' disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism.

  3. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy predict increased risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism following radioiodine therapy for refractory hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Noboru; Konishi, Toshiaki; Momotani, Naoko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko; Okamoto, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves' women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves' disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves' disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves' disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves' disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism. (author)

  4. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda L da; Amaral, Augusto R do; Oliveira, Daniela S de; Martins, Lisiane; Silva, Mariana R E; Silva, Jean Carl

    To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5min, and need for intensive care unit admission. The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66) and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94). Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78). The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15) and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71). The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  6. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yiu Hung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy. Methods: Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. The characteristics and outcomes of mothers and fetuses were determined through a retrospective chart review and evaluated using Student's t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: The leading causes of respiratory failure were postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia in the obstetric causes group and pneumonia in the nonobstetric causes group during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The non-obstetric causes group exhibited a higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal replacement therapy as well as requiring more ventilator days. The patients in the obstetric causes group showed significant improvement after delivery in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen and peak inspiratory pressure decrease. Both groups exhibited high incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Neonatal complications resulting from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS and sepsis were more common in the non-obstetric causes group; however, neurological development impairment was more common in the obstetric causes group. Conclusion: Obstetric cause was associated with longer ventilator free days and fewer episodes of ARDS after delivery. Neonatal complications resulting from different etiologies of respiratory failure were found to differ. Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Neonatal, Obstetric, Outcome, Respiratory failure

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a digital storytelling resource to support children's nursing students in neonatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Julia; Treves, Richard

    2017-03-06

    A digital storytelling resource focusing on the experience of nursing in neonatal care was developed using the narratives of six undergraduate children's nursing students who had undergone a practice placement on a neonatal unit. An evaluation of the resource in relation to its contribution to learning for students in a new, specialised area of practice revealed that storytelling based on peers' experiences is a valuable and insightful approach to learning. This is particularly important in a specialty such as neonatal care where the unfamiliarity of the environment and patient group can cause anxiety and uncertainty among students. Overall, the resource was seen to be useful to children's nursing students who are preparing for a practice placement in an unfamiliar clinical area.

  9. Outcomes in childhood following therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy.

  11. Pelayanan Kesehatan Ibu dan Kematian Neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Fitri Yani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia bersama seluruh negara berkembang berupaya mencapai kesepakatan Millenium Development Goals (MDGs dengan salah satu sasaran menurunkan angka kematian neonatal dari 20 per 1.000 kelahiran hidup menjadi 15 per 1.000 kelahiran hidup. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan pelayanan kesehatan ibu dengan kematian neonatal di Kabupaten Lampung Timur tahun 2011. Penelitian dengan desain studi kasus kontrol ini mengamati kasus ibu yang mengalami kematian neonatal dan kontrol ibu yang tidak mengalami kematian neonatal. Analisis multivariat menemukan pelayanan antenatal dan pertolongan persalinan berhubungan secara signifikan dengan kematian neonatal, setelah mengendalikan variabel umur ibu dan riwayat kehamilan (OR = 16,32; nilai p = 0,000; dan (OR = 18,36; nilai p = 0,31. Bayi yang dilahirkan dari Ibu dengan pelayanan antenatal tidak lengkap berisiko mengalami kematian neonatal 16,32 dan 18,36 kali lebih besar daripada bayi yang dilahirkan. Ibu dengan pelayanan antenatal lengkap dan penolong persalinan profesional. Tidak ada hubungan penolong persalinan dengan kematian neonatal, setelah mengontrol variabel pelayanan antenatal, umur ibu, riwayat kehamilan, riwayat penyakit, dan riwayat persalinan. Disarankan meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan antenatal dengan memerhatikan faktor umur ibu dan riwayat persalinan, mengembangkan kegiatan audit maternal perinatal serta meningkatkan keterampilan petugas penolong persalinan. All developing countries including Indonesia seek to reach agreement the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s. It is objectives include reducing neonatal mortality by 25 percent from 20 per 1,000 live birth to 15 per 1,000 live births. This study aimed to determine the relationship of maternal health services with neonatal mortality in East Lampung District in 2011. This study used case control design to compare between the groups of mother whom have neonatal deaths (cases and neonatal life (control in East Lampung District in

  12. Perinatal and neonatal use of sedation and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Christopher; Inder, Terrie

    2017-10-01

    Optimal obstetric and neonatal care requires the provision of adequate analgesia for painful procedures. However, anesthetic and analgesic agents have the potential to adversely impact the developing fetal/neonatal brain. In this setting, clinicians must assess the risks and benefits of pharmacologic anesthesia and analgesia for specific indications in this population. General anesthesia is required for non-obstetric surgery and cesarean section in the absence of neuraxial anesthesia for the health of the mother and fetus. Although experimental data raise concerns, human data are reassuring and future research may focus on neuroprotective adjuncts in the setting of repeated or prolonged anesthetic exposures. Opioid analgesia is standard of care for preterm infants undergoing major procedures including invasive surgery and endotracheal intubation. The use of opioids for agitation resulting from mechanical ventilation is controversial, but prevalent. Randomized and retrospective studies detect short-term toxicity with inconclusive long-term impact, suggesting the need to explore alternative therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates born to opioid maintained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Nina; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Baewert, Andjela; Jagsch, Reinhold; Peternell, Alexandra; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

    2007-03-16

    Neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers are at risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which often requires pharmacological treatment. This study examined the effect of opioid maintenance treatment on the incidence and timing of NAS, and compared two different NAS treatments (phenobarbital versus morphine hydrochloride). Fifty-three neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers were included in this study. The mothers received methadone (n=22), slow-release oral morphine (n=17) or buprenorphine (n=14) throughout pregnancy. Irrespective of maintenance treatment, all neonates showed APGAR scores comparable to infants of non-opioid dependent mothers. No difference was found between the three maintenance groups regarding neonatal weight, length or head circumference. Sixty percent (n=32) of neonates required treatment for NAS [68% in the methadone-maintained group (n=15), 82% in the morphine-maintained group (n=14), and 21% in the buprenorphine-maintained group (n=3)]. The mean duration from birth to requirement of NAS treatment was 33 h for the morphine-maintained group, 34 h for the buprenorphine-maintained group and 58 h for the methadone-maintained group. In neonates requiring NAS treatment, those receiving morphine required a significantly shorter mean duration of treatment (9.9 days) versus those treated with phenobarbital (17.7 days). Results suggest that morphine hydrochloride is preferable for neonates suffering NAS due to opioid withdrawal.

  14. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne Holm, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    . While the benefits are beginning to be realised, widespread uptake of telehealth has been limited due to a range of logistical challenges. Understanding user requirements is important when planning and developing a clinical telehealth service. We therefore used participatory design to develop a clinical...... on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information...... regarding infant growth and well-being. CONCLUSION: Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design...

  15. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care......BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...

  16. Congenital hypothyroidism - Polish recommendations for therapy, treatment monitoring, and screening tests in special categories of neonates with increased risk of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna Małgorzata; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona; Walczak, Mieczysław; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Jackowska, Teresa; Lewiński, Andrzej; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Proper treatment of congenital hypothyroidism warrants normal intellectual and physical development. This paper introduces the principles of treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, the recommended levothyroxine dosage, and the aims of therapy with its justification. The principles of treatment, specialist care of the patient, and methods used to evaluate therapeutic effects are described. Based on these data, recommendations concerning treatment and its monitoring in patients with congenital hypothyroidism are formulated. The paper also highlights the importance of educating the patients and/or their caretakers as one of the basic components of an effective therapy. The interpretation of screening tests in preterm neonates is provided as well. In the current screening program in preterm children TSH was determined between days three and five of life and then after three weeks. During this time TSH values are frequently low because of the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Due to the increased risk of primary and secondary hypothyroidism in preterm and low birth weight babies the determination of TSH and fT4 between days three and five of life is recommended, irrespective of the screening test. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 536-547).

  17. Development and validation of a simple algorithm for initiation of CPAP in neonates with respiratory distress in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundalani, Shilpa G; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Oden, Maria; Kawaza, Kondwani; Gest, Alfred; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) systems have been shown to improve survival in neonates with respiratory distress, in developing countries including Malawi. District hospitals in Malawi implementing CPAP requested simple and reliable guidelines to enable healthcare workers with basic skills and minimal training to determine when treatment with CPAP is necessary. We developed and validated TRY (T: Tone is good, R: Respiratory Distress and Y=Yes) CPAP, a simple algorithm to identify neonates with respiratory distress who would benefit from CPAP. To validate the TRY CPAP algorithm for neonates with respiratory distress in a low-resource setting. We constructed an algorithm using a combination of vital signs, tone and birth weight to determine the need for CPAP in neonates with respiratory distress. Neonates admitted to the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi, were assessed in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Nurses and paediatricians-in-training assessed neonates to determine whether they required CPAP using the TRY CPAP algorithm. To establish the accuracy of the TRY CPAP algorithm in evaluating the need for CPAP, their assessment was compared with the decision of a neonatologist blinded to the TRY CPAP algorithm findings. 325 neonates were evaluated over a 2-month period; 13% were deemed to require CPAP by the neonatologist. The inter-rater reliability with the algorithm was 0.90 for nurses and 0.97 for paediatricians-in-training using the neonatologist's assessment as the reference standard. The TRY CPAP algorithm has the potential to be a simple and reliable tool to assist nurses and clinicians in identifying neonates who require treatment with CPAP in low-resource settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Quality Improvement of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Chou, An-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Lien; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Tsao, Po-Nien; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

    2017-06-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) therapy is widely used in neonates, but the clinical practice varies. However, nursing practice differs among individuals, and an inappropriate application method may delay the respiratory therapy, influence the beneficial effect of NCPAP, and increase complications. We introduced a quality improvement project to expedite the application of NCPAP therapy and decrease the incidence of nasal trauma. A new strategy of mobile NCPAP cart with prepacked fixation kits and a written protocol was implemented from April 2006. All medical staff answered a questionnaire to assess their basic knowledge before and after intensive training. The records of the patients who were treated with NCPAP from October 2005 to November 2006 were reviewed. Fifty-nine medical staff were involved in the project, and their mean score for the questionnaire improved from 69.2 points to 98.3 points after training. From October 2005 to November 2006, 113 infants were recruited in total and 82 of them were admitted after the protocol was implemented. The NCPAP cart dramatically shortened the preparation time (from 520 seconds to 72 seconds) and the application time (from 468 seconds to 200 seconds). The use of the nursing protocol significantly decreased the incidence of nasal trauma in the study population (45.2% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006), but not in infants with a birth weight of < 1000 g. Risk factors for nasal skin trauma included lower gestational age and birth weight, longer duration of NCPAP use, and lack of standardized nursing care. The mobile NCPAP cart with prepacked fixation kits is a practical way of expediting the initiation of NCPAP therapy. The written nursing protocol decreased the incidence of nasal trauma in infants, except for those with an extremely low birth weight. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Combined therapy in gastro-esophageal reflux disease of term neonates resistant to conservative therapy and monotherapy: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the most common problems in neonates. The main clinical manifestations of neonatal GERD are frequent regurgitation or vomiting associated with irritability, crying, anorexia or feeding refusal, failure to thrive, arching of the back and sleep disturbance.Aims: As no study has compared metoclopramide plus ranitidine with metoclopramide plus omeprazole in the management of neonatal GERD resistant to conservative and monotherapy, this study was carried out.Study design: This study was a randomized clinical trial of term neonates with GERD resistant to conservative and monotherapy admitted to the neonatal ward of Bahrami Children Hospital during 2013-2015. Totally, 116 term neonates (mean age 10.53 ± 8.17 days; girls 50.9% were randomly assigned to a double blind trial with either oral omeprazole plus metoclopramide (group A or oral ranitidine plus metoclopramide (group B. The changes of the symptoms and signs were recorded after one week and one month.Results: There was no significant difference in demographic and baseline characteristics between the two groups. The response rate of “omeprazole plus metoclopramide” was significantly higher than “ranitidine plus metoclopramide” (93.74% ± 7.28% vs. 75.43% ± 23.24%, p = 0.028. All clinical manifestations recovered significantly in group A while the response rate of irritability and wheezing was not significant in group B (primary outcome. There were no side effects in either group after one week and one month of treatment (secondary outcome.Conclusions: The response rate was > 70% in each group, but it was significantly higher in group A (> 90%. Combination of each acid suppressant with metoclopramide led to higher response rate in comparison with monotherapy used before intervention.

  20. Automated processing pipeline for neonatal diffusion MRI in the developing Human Connectome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiani, Matteo; Andersson, Jesper L R; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Murgasova, Maria; Hutter, Jana; Price, Anthony N; Makropoulos, Antonios; Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Hughes, Emer; Rueckert, Daniel; Victor, Suresh; Rutherford, Mary; Edwards, A David; Smith, Stephen M; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Hajnal, Joseph V; Jbabdi, Saad; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2018-05-28

    The developing Human Connectome Project is set to create and make available to the scientific community a 4-dimensional map of functional and structural cerebral connectivity from 20 to 44 weeks post-menstrual age, to allow exploration of the genetic and environmental influences on brain development, and the relation between connectivity and neurocognitive function. A large set of multi-modal MRI data from fetuses and newborn infants is currently being acquired, along with genetic, clinical and developmental information. In this overview, we describe the neonatal diffusion MRI (dMRI) image processing pipeline and the structural connectivity aspect of the project. Neonatal dMRI data poses specific challenges, and standard analysis techniques used for adult data are not directly applicable. We have developed a processing pipeline that deals directly with neonatal-specific issues, such as severe motion and motion-related artefacts, small brain sizes, high brain water content and reduced anisotropy. This pipeline allows automated analysis of in-vivo dMRI data, probes tissue microstructure, reconstructs a number of major white matter tracts, and includes an automated quality control framework that identifies processing issues or inconsistencies. We here describe the pipeline and present an exemplar analysis of data from 140 infants imaged at 38-44 weeks post-menstrual age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Aminoglycosides in the Neonate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are common in the neonates and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units received at least one antibiotic during the first week of life. Penicillins, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins comprised 53, 43 and 16%, respectively. Kinetic parameters such as the half-life (t1/2, clearance (Cl, and volume of distribution (Vd change with development, so the kinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides need to be studied in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. The aim of this study is to review the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate in a single article in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature and thus provide a useful tool in the hands of physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using PubMed, as the search engine, until February 2nd, 2010. Medline search terms were as follows: pharmacokinetics AND (penicillins OR cephalosporins OR aminoglycosides AND infant, newborn, limiting to humans. Penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides are fairly water soluble and are mainly eliminated by the kidneys. The maturation of the kidneys governs the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate. The renal excretory function is reduced in preterms compared to term infants and Cl of these drugs is reduced in premature infants. Gestational and postnatal ages are important factors in the maturation of the neonate and, as these ages proceed, Cl of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides increases. Cl and t1/2 are influenced by development and this must be taken into consideration when planning a dosage regimen with these drugs. More pharmacokinetic studies are required to ensure that the dose recommended for the treatment of sepsis in the neonate is evidence based.

  2. Neonatal follow-up program: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal follow-up program (NFP) is becoming the corner stone of standard, high quality care provided to newborns at risk of future neuorodevelopmental delay. Most of the recognized neonatal intensive care units in the developed countries are adopting NFP as part of their mandatory care for the best long term outcome of high risk infants, especially very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Unfortunately, in the developing and in underdeveloped countries, such early detection and intervention programs are rarely existing, mainly because of the lack of awareness of and exposure to such programs in spite of the increasing numbers of surviving sick newborns due to advancement in neonatal care in these countries. This is a review article to explore the Neonatal follow-up programs looking at historical development, benefts and aims, and standard requirements for successful program development that can be adopted in our countries. In conclusion, proper Neonatal follow-up programs are needed to improve neonatal outcome. Therefore all professionals working in the feld of neonatal care in developing countries should cooperate to create such programs for early detection and hence early intervention for any adverse long term outcome in high-risk newborn infants PMID:27493326

  3. [Analysis of 58 neonatal cases with cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Chen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is one of severe diseases of central nervous system in neonates, and some infants with CI could have poor prognosis in the long term. This study aimed to analyze the clinical data and prognosis of all neonatal cases with cerebral infarction in recent years and to help future clinical work. Totally 58 neonatal cases with CI admitted to NICU of the hospital from January 1999 to December 2010 were included in this study. We analyzed all clinical data and prognosis by retrospective analysis. Fifty-two term babies and six preterm babies were included. There were altogether 51 cases with asphyxia and 7 with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia was the most common high-risk factor and it accounted for 46.6%. Seizure was the most frequent initial symptom and the most common clinical manifestation (accounted for 77.6%), and it was followed by intermittent cyanosis, apnea and lethargy. Cerebral CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging were major methods to help to make the diagnosis and they also had close relation with prognosis. Diffusion weighted imaging was very helpful to diagnose infarction in early stage. Left middle cerebral artery was the most common artery to be involved. Supportive therapy and symptomatic treatment were the main methods in the acute stage of neonatal cerebral infarction. Those babies with poor prognosis mostly had large infarction involving cerebral hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Neonatal cerebral infarction was a severe brain injury affecting long tern nervous system prognosis. Perinatal hypoxia was the most common high-risk factor and seizure was the most frequent initial symptom. Diffusion weighted imaging was valuable to diagnose infarction in early stage. Most of infants with poor prognosis had large infarction involving hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Early diagnosis with brain imaging would be helpful for rehabilitation therapy and improving prognosis.

  4. Neonatal palliative care: developing consensus among neonatologists using the Delphi technique in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Joana C C; Justo da Silva, Lincoln

    2013-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care in Portugal is improving, but there is still additional work to do concerning programs or guidelines for this subject. In Portugal, physicians are the stakeholders in the decision-making process with reference to the transition to palliative care in the neonatal intensive care unit, and it was considered very important to raise their awareness and motivation about neonatal palliative care. Our research was based on Catlin and Carter's protocol from 2002 and the main goal was to assess neonatologists' willingness to build a palliative care and end-of-life protocol that could be acceptable nationwide. The survey used the Delphi technique and was developed in 3 rounds. The expert panel was composed of 57 participants who represented 41% of the Portuguese neonatologists. The study was conducted via the Internet, based in a researcher-created private Web site, and e-mail was used for data collection and feedback. Neonatologists agreed on 7 areas: (1) planning (medical education, resources, and local), (2) prenatal palliative care, (3) neonatal palliative care criteria, (4) the parents (presenting neonatal palliative care to parents, including then in the daily care of newborns and in family-centered care), (5) physicians' needs, (6) pain and symptom management, and (7) end-of-life care (withholding/withdrawing ventilation and hydration/nutrition).

  5. Biometrical relationships in developing eggs and neonates of Octopus vulgaris in relation to parental diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Lorenzo; Quintana, Daniel; Lorenzo, Antonio; Almansa, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Captive Octopus vulgaris adults were fed three mono-diets based on pilchard, crab and squid and allowed to grow until reproduction under controlled temperature. Spawns from each dietary treatment were isolated, and the embryonic development, egg length, width and wet weight, in addition to neonate dry weight, dorsal mantle length and ventral mantle length were monitored. Pilchard-diet spawns developed faster in terms of thermal time. Initial egg wet weight was higher for squid and crab diets. Irrespective of the parental diet, eggs passed through a swelling process so that egg width and wet weight increased in a nonlinear way, whereas egg length was left nearly unaffected. Egg length and initial wet weight showed a high correlation with neonate dry weight. Egg length, even at advanced incubation, can be used as a good proxy for neonate dry weight, this fact having potential implications for the ecological and aquaculture research on O. vulgaris.

  6. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care.We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups.87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived.Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  7. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaza, Kondwani; Machen, Heather E; Brown, Jocelyn; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Gest, Al; Smith, E O'Brian; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls) were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62) compared with 44.0% (11/25) for controls. 65.5% (19/29) of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13) of controls. 64.6% (31/48) of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17) of controls. 61.5% (16/26) of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  8. Cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease: incidence, risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; Rath, Mirjam E A; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Oepkes, Dick; van Zwet, Erik W; Walther, Frans J; Lopriore, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Etiology of cholestatic liver disease in neonates with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) has been associated with iron overload due to intrauterine red cell transfusions (IUTs). Data on the incidence and severity of cholestasis in neonates with HDN are scarce, and little is known about pathogenesis, risk factors, neonatal management and outcome. To evaluate incidence, risk factors, management and outcome of cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease. All (near-) term neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization admitted to our center between January 2000 and July 2010 were included in this observational study. Liver function tests (including conjugated bilirubin) were routinely performed in the neonatal period. We recorded the presence of cholestasis, investigated several potential risk factors and evaluated the management and outcome in affected neonates. A total of 313 infants with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease treated with or without IUTs were included. The incidence of cholestasis was 13% (41/313). Two risk factors were independently associated with cholestasis: treatment with at least one IUT (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.70-19.80, p = 0.005) and rhesus D type of alloimmunization (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.05-20.57, p = 0.042). Additional diagnostic tests to investigate possible causes of cholestasis were all negative. In 5 infants (12%), supportive medical and nutritional therapy was started, and one neonate required iron chelation therapy. Cholestasis occurs in 13% of neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization, and it is independently associated with IUT treatment and rhesus D type of alloimmunization. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Neonatal transport practices in Ibadan, Nigeria | Abdulraheem | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neonatal transport involves moving sick neonates in optimal conditions to ensure good outcomes. It is well organized in most developed countries but receives little attention in developing countries where the highest burden of neonatal mortality exists and a large number of newborns require referrals daily for ...

  10. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  11. Uses and misuses of sodium bicarbonate in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amélie; Sahni, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Over the past several decades, bicarbonate therapy continues to be used routinely in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates despite the lack of evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of acid-base imbalance, and evidence indicating that it may be detrimental. Clinicians often feel compelled to use bicarbonate since acidosis implies a need for such therapy and thus the justification for its use is based on hearsay rather than science. This review summarizes the evidence and refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate to treat metabolic acidosis associated with several specific clinical syndromes in neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxcarbazepine causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhong, M; Cai, F-C

    2018-01-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main methods for treatment of neonatal seizures; however, a few AEDs may cause developing brain damage of neonate. This study aims to investigate effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on developing brain damage of neonatal rats. Both of neonatal and adult rats were divided into 6 groups, including Control, OXC 187.5 mg/kg, OXC 281.25 mg/kg, OXC 375 mg/kg group, LEV and PHT group. Body weight and brain weight were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Nissl staining were used to observe neurocyte morphology and Nissl bodies, respectively. Apoptosis was examined using TUNEL assay, and caspase 8 activity was evaluated using spectrophotometer method. Cytochrome C-release was evaluated using flow cytometry. Western blot was used to examine Bax and Bcl-2 expression. OXC 375 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased brain weight compared to Control group in neonatal rats (P5 rats) (pOxcarbazepine at a concentration of 281.25 mg/kg or more causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

  13. Neonatal brucellosis and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Abdullah; Köstü, Murat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Peker, Erdal; Kırımi, Ercan

    2012-03-01

    In this case report the authors present an extremely low birth weight premature infant with neonatal brucellosis whose mother had been treated for brucellosis during pregnancy. Infant developed mild respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth. At 2nd wk of postnatal age findings of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were evident and she and her mother were diagnosed to have brucellosis at the same time. After commencement of antibrucellosis therapy and nonspesific treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infant was completely cured of the symptoms related to both brucellosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The results of the present case and a review of the literature have let to conclude that Brucella might have role in development of prematurity and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. Since discovery of brucella bacilli in early periods of 20th century, fetotoxicity of brucella bacilli seems to increase gradually suggesting an increasing virulance of the bacilli or vanishing host defense of human beings.

  14. Effect of community based behavioural change communication intervention to improve neonatal mortality in developing countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Birhanu, Zewdie

    2011-01-01

    Background A great burden of infant and under-five childhood mortality occurs during the neonatal period, usually within a few days of birth. Community based behavioural change communication (such as interpersonal, group and mass media channels, including participatory methods at community level) intervention trials have been shown to be effective in reducing this mortality. However, to guide policy makers and programme planners, there is a need to systematically appraise and synthesise this evidence.Objective To systematically search, appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the effect of community based behavioural change communication intervention to improve neonatal mortality in developing countries.Inclusion Criteria This review considered randomised controlled community trials on the effectiveness of community based behavioural change communication interventions aimed at decreasing neonatal mortality that were conducted in developing countries.Search Strategy This review considered English language articles on studies published between December, 2006 to January, 2011 and indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Mednar, popline, Proquest, or Hinari.Methodological quality Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument by two independent reviewers. Data were analysed using a fixed effects model with RevMan5 software. Community based behavioural change communication interventions were found to be associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality of 19% (average OR 0.81; 95%CI 0. to 0.88), early neonatal mortality by 20% (average 0.80; 95%CI 0. to 0.91), late neonatal mortality by 21% (average 0.79; 95%CI 0. to 0.99). In addition, the intervention also resulted in significant improvement of newborn care practice; breast feeding initiation, clean cord cutting and delay in bathing were improved by 185%, 110% and 196

  15. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  16. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  17. Neonatal pain and reduced maternal care: Early-life stressors interacting to impact brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Leber, Sean M; Brummelte, Susanne

    2017-02-07

    Advances in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have drastically increased the survival chances of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are still exposed to a wide range of stressors during their stay in the NICU, which include painful procedures and reduced maternal contact. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in response to these stressors during this critical period of brain development, has been associated with many acute and long-term adverse biobehavioral outcomes. Recent research has shown that Kangaroo care, a non-pharmacological analgesic based on increased skin-to-skin contact between the neonate and the mother, negates the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain and reduced maternal care, however the biological mechanism remains widely unknown. This review summarizes findings from both human and rodent literature investigating neonatal pain and reduced maternal care independently, primarily focusing on the role of the HPA axis and biobehavioral outcomes. The physiological and positive outcomes of Kangaroo care will also be discussed in terms of how dampening of the HPA axis response to neonatal pain and increased maternal care may account for positive outcomes associated with Kangaroo care. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal acute megakaryoblastic leukemia mimicking congenital neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Yukako; Makimoto, Masami; Nomura, Keiko; Hoshino, Akihiro; Hamashima, Takeru; Hiwatari, Mitsuteru; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Takita, Junko; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe a neonate with abdominal distension, massive hepatomegaly, and high serum neuron-specific enolase level suggestive of congenital neuroblastoma. The patient died of pulmonary hemorrhage after therapy. Autopsy revealed that the tumor cells in the liver indicated acute megakaryocytic leukemia with the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

  19. Effects of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imteyaz Khan,1 Liying Zhang,2 Moiz Mohammed,1 Faith E Archer,1 Jehan Abukharmah,1 Zengrong Yuan,2 S Saif Rizvi,1 Michael G Melek,1 Arnold B Rabson,1,2 Yufang Shi,2 Barry Weinberger,1 Anna M Vetrano1,21Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Rutgers Child Health Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USABackground: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been proposed as autologous therapy for inflammatory diseases in neonates. MSCs from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs are accessible, with high proliferative capacity. The effects of WJ-MSCs on neutrophil activity in neonates are not known. We compared the effects of WJ-MSCs on apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory, oxidant, and antioxidant mediators in adult and neonatal neutrophils.Methods: WJ-MSCs were isolated, and their purity and function were confirmed by flow cytometry. Neutrophils were isolated from cord and adult blood by density centrifugation. The effects of neutrophil/WJ-MSC co-culture on apoptosis and gene and protein expression were measured.Results: WJ-MSCs suppressed neutrophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. WJ-MSCs decreased gene expression of NADPH oxidase-1 in both adult and neonatal neutrophils, but decreased heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor and increased catalase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the presence of lipopolysaccharide only in adult cells. Similarly, generation of interleukin-8 was suppressed in adult but not neonatal neutrophils. Thus, WJ-MSCs dampened oxidative, vascular, and inflammatory activity by adult neutrophils, but neonatal neutrophils were less responsive. Conversely, Toll-like receptor-4, and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated in WJ-MSCs only in the presence of adult neutrophils, suggesting an inflammatory MSC phenotype that is not induced by neonatal neutrophils.Conclusion: Whereas WJ-MSCs altered gene expression in adult neutrophils in ways suggesting anti

  20. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  1. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Zeamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood.

  2. Comparison of two regimens of RhG-CSF in neutropenic neonatal septicemia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh; Soheili, Habib; Kaveh, Mahbod; Oloomi Yazdi, Zohre; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    Considering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran). The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10 μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10 μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05). The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10 μg/kg) was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  3. Effect of Intensive Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion on Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Serum Levels in Neonates with Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem El-Mazary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies reported that copper, zinc and magnesium play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy are known two modalities of therapy for severe neonatal hyper bilirubinemia, but the effect of them on those trace elements is unknown.Materials and MethodsCopper, Zinc and Magnesium serum levels were measured before and after treatment with intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusion in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Minia and Sohag University hospitals, Egypt, during 2014-2016 and comparison with normal healthy neonates was done.ResultsThere were significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels in neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia than controls before and after intensive phototherapy. These levels were significantly changed after exchange transfusion to be comparable with controls. Significant positive correlations between the total bilirubin levels and hemoglobin, copper, and magnesium serum levels and significant negative correlations with serum zinc levels were present. There were no significant correlations between maternal and neonatal copper, zinc or magnesium serum levels.ConclusionNeonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia had significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels than healthy neonates which were not related to their maternal serum levels. Intensive phototherapy had no effect on their levels while exchange transfusion changed these levels to be comparable with that of normal healthy neonates.

  4. The developing human connectome project: A minimal processing pipeline for neonatal cortical surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Schuh, Andreas; Wright, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Bozek, Jelena; Counsell, Serena J; Steinweg, Johannes; Vecchiato, Katy; Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Lenz, Gregor; Mortari, Filippo; Tenev, Tencho; Duff, Eugene P; Bastiani, Matteo; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Hughes, Emer; Tusor, Nora; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Hutter, Jana; Price, Anthony N; Teixeira, Rui Pedro A G; Murgasova, Maria; Victor, Suresh; Kelly, Christopher; Rutherford, Mary A; Smith, Stephen M; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Jenkinson, Mark; Rueckert, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) seeks to create the first 4-dimensional connectome of early life. Understanding this connectome in detail may provide insights into normal as well as abnormal patterns of brain development. Following established best practices adopted by the WU-MINN Human Connectome Project (HCP), and pioneered by FreeSurfer, the project utilises cortical surface-based processing pipelines. In this paper, we propose a fully automated processing pipeline for the structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the developing neonatal brain. This proposed pipeline consists of a refined framework for cortical and sub-cortical volume segmentation, cortical surface extraction, and cortical surface inflation, which has been specifically designed to address considerable differences between adult and neonatal brains, as imaged using MRI. Using the proposed pipeline our results demonstrate that images collected from 465 subjects ranging from 28 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) can be processed fully automatically; generating cortical surface models that are topologically correct, and correspond well with manual evaluations of tissue boundaries in 85% of cases. Results improve on state-of-the-art neonatal tissue segmentation models and significant errors were found in only 2% of cases, where these corresponded to subjects with high motion. Downstream, these surfaces will enhance comparisons of functional and diffusion MRI datasets, supporting the modelling of emerging patterns of brain connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal Vaccination: Challenges and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Surendran, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    While vaccines have been tremendously successful in reducing the incidence of serious infectious diseases, newborns remain particularly vulnerable in the first few months of their life to life-threatening infections. A number of challenges exist to neonatal vaccination. However, recent advances in the understanding of neonatal immunology offer insights to overcome many of those challenges. This review will present an overview of the features of neonatal immunity which make vaccination difficult, survey the mechanisms of action of available vaccine adjuvants with respect to the unique features of neonatal immunity, and propose a possible mechanism contributing to the inability of neonates to generate protective immune responses to vaccines. We surveyed recent published findings on the challenges to neonatal vaccination and possible intervention strategies including the use of novel vaccine adjuvants to develop efficacious neonatal vaccines. Challenges in the vaccination of neonates include interference from maternal antibody and excessive skewing towards Th2 immunity, which can be counteracted by the use of proper adjuvants. Synergistic stimulation of multiple Toll-like receptors by incorporating well-defined agonist-adjuvant combinations to vaccines is a promising strategy to ensure a protective vaccine response in neonates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Viral infection and antiviral therapy in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, Galina; Rentz, Alison C; Faix, Roger G

    2004-01-01

    Viral diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity among infants requiring care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with ongoing discoveries of new viral pathology likely to add to the burdens posed. Many viral diseases in NICU infants are undiagnosed or appreciated only late in the course because of subtle or asymptomatic presentation, confusion with bacterial disease, and failure to consider viral disease. We present an overview of viral disease in NICU infants, with emphasis on pharmacologic agents currently employed for prophylaxis and treatment of such diseases. Advances in molecular biology and popular demand to develop antiviral agents for viral diseases (eg, human immunodeficiency virus) offer great promise for the future.

  7. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas-Berríos, N.; García-Fragoso, L.; García-García, I.; Valcárcel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor ...

  8. Successful treatment of young infants presenting neonatal diabetes mellitus with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion before genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbone, Ivana; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Marigliano, Marco; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Piccinno, Elvira; Ortolani, Federica; Ignaccolo, Giovanna; Maffeis, Claudio; Confetto, Santino; Cerutti, Franco; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is defined as hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion with onset within 6 months of birth. While rare, NDM presents complex challenges regarding the management of glycemic control. The availability of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps (CSII) in combination with continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGM) provides an opportunity to monitor glucose levels more closely and deliver insulin more safely. We report four cases of young infants with NDM successfully treated with CSII and CGM. Moreover, in two cases with Kir 6.2 mutation, we describe the use of CSII in switching therapy from insulin to sulfonylurea treatment. Insulin pump requirement for the 4 neonatal diabetes cases was the same regardless of disease pathogenesis and c-peptide levels. No dilution of insulin was needed. The use of an integrated CGM system helped in a more precise control of BG levels with the possibility of several modifications of insulin basal rates. Moreover, as showed in the first two case-reports, when the treatment was switched from insulin to glibenclamide, according to identification of Kir 6.2 mutation and diagnosis of NPDM, the CSII therapy demonstrated to be helpful in allowing gradual insulin suspension and progressive introduction of sulfonylurea. During the neonatal period, the use of CSII therapy is safe, more physiological, accurate and easier for the insulin administration management. Furthermore, CSII therapy is safe during the switch of therapy from insulin to glibenclamide for infants with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus.

  9. Neonatal hyperthyroidism: neonatal clinical course of two brothers born to a mother with Graves-Basedow disease, before and after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, A A; Sindico, P; Savarese, I; D'Andrea, V; Fracchiolla, A; Cota, F; Romagnoli, C

    2007-04-01

    About 1-2% of infants born to mothers with Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis develop neonatal hyperthyroidism because of transplacental passage of IgG stimulating TSH receptors (TRAb). To evaluate the effect of maternal total thyroidectomy on neonatal clinical course. We describe two brothers born to a mother with Graves' disease, before and after total thyroidectomy. The first child showed persistent tachycardia, the presence of TRAb and a laboratory pattern of hyperthyroidism. Lugol's solution was started and then propylthiouracil was added. Digitalis, furosemide and diazepam were necessary for treatment of heart failure, hypertension and irritability. On the 70th day of life, hormone serum levels normalized and treatment was interrupted. TRAb normalized by the third month of life. The second infant was born 2 years after the mother underwent total thyroidectomy. In spite of a laboratory pattern of hyperthyroidism and positivity to TRAb, he showed only considerable weight loss, and no therapy was required. TRAb may persist after total thyroidectomy: clinical and instrumental follow-up of the newborn is recommended.

  10. Neonatal disease environment limits the efficacy of retinal transplantation in the LCA8 mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Hee; Song, Ji Yun; Shin, Jinyeon; Kim, Seonhee

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations of Crb1 gene cause irreversible and incurable visual impairment in humans. This study aims to use an LCA8-like mouse model to identify host-mediated responses that might interfere with survival, retinal integration and differentiation of grafted cells during neonatal cell therapy. Methods Mixed retinal donor cells (1?~?2???104) isolated from neural retinas of neonatal eGFP transgenic mice were injected into the subretinal space of LCA8-like model neonatal mice. Markers of...

  11. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Fereydouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1. This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs. OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes.

  12. Oseltamivir Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Experience in Neonates and Infants during an Outbreak of H1N1 Influenza A Virus Infection in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Angela; Tsagris, Vasileios; Kapetanakis, Ioannis; Maltezou, Helena C.; Kafetzis, Dimitris A.; Tsolia, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed oseltamivir pharmacokinetics have yet to be reported in neonates and infants; this group is at high risk of serious influenza-associated complications. Extrapolation of doses from older patients is complicated by rapid organ and drug-metabolizing enzyme maturation. A pharmacokinetic study has been conducted during an influenza A(H1N1) outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. Each included patient provided 4 samples for oseltamivir and 4 samples for its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM. Allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age based on literature values. Nine neonates and infants were recruited. A physiologically parameterized pharmacokinetic model predicted typical day 1 area under the curve (AUC0-12) values of 1,966 and 2,484 μg · h/liter for neonates and infants of ≤37 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and >37 weeks of PMA treated with 1 mg/kg of body weight and 2 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding steady-state AUC0-12 values were 3,670 and 4,559 μg · h/liter. Premature neonates treated with 1 mg/kg and term babies treated with 2 mg/kg should have average oseltamivir carboxylate concentrations in a range similar to that for adults treated with 75 mg, corresponding to >200-fold above the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for influenza A(H1N1) from the start of therapy. PMID:22564835

  13. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Yiu; Hu, Han-Chung; Chiu, Li-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Li, Li-Fu; Huang, Chung-Chi; Kao, Chuan-Chi; Cheng, Po-Jen; Kao, Kuo-Chin

    2018-05-01

    Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy. Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. The characteristics and outcomes of mothers and fetuses were determined through a retrospective chart review and evaluated using Student's t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. The leading causes of respiratory failure were postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia in the obstetric causes group and pneumonia in the nonobstetric causes group during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The non-obstetric causes group exhibited a higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal replacement therapy as well as requiring more ventilator days. The patients in the obstetric causes group showed significant improvement after delivery in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen and peak inspiratory pressure decrease. Both groups exhibited high incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Neonatal complications resulting from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and sepsis were more common in the non-obstetric causes group; however, neurological development impairment was more common in the obstetric causes group. Obstetric cause was associated with longer ventilator free days and fewer episodes of ARDS after delivery. Neonatal complications resulting from different etiologies of respiratory failure were found to differ. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, M.; Reba, R.C.; Altman, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium 99m-labeled p-isopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-PIPIDA) was used to evaluate 22 neonates with mixed jaundice. Ten patients were proved to have biliary atresia; ten others were diagnosed as having neonatal hepatitis. In the remaining two, jaundice was secondary to prolonged hyperalimentation. Initial studies in all ten patients with biliary atresia showed no evidence of excretion of the tracer into the intestinal tract. Following three to seven days of oral administration of phenobarbital, repeat studies were performed in six of the ten patients. None showed evidence of excretion. Initial studies of the 12 patients with intrahepatic cholestasis showed definite excretion in five, questionable evidence of excretion in two, and no demonstrable excretion in five. Studies after phenobarbital therapy in five of the seven patients with questionable or no excretion on the initial studies showed definite excretion in four. Only in one patient who had poor hepatic extraction did the phenobarbital therapy not change the scintigraphic pattern. The authors conclude that hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA after three to seven days of phenobarbital therapy is a highly accurate test for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice

  15. Timing of intracranial hemorrhage and monitoring of indomethacin therapy in premature neonates by cranial sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.; Duncan, C.; Eherenkranz, R.; Taylor, K.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen cranial US studies were performed in each of 31 premature neonates weighing 600-1,250 gm. The studies revealed a 61% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Forty-two percent had occurred by age 6 hours and 95% bu age 5 days. These control data were confirmed in patients given prophylactic indomethacin. Forty-eight infants weighing less than 1,250 gm were randomly assigned to treatment with indomethacin (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours given intravenously for five treatments) or a placebo at 6 hours of life. Cardiac US disclosed patent ductus arteriosus in 82% of patients at 6 hours, with subsequent closure in 84% of the treated group and in 60% of the controls. ICH occurred in 25% of the treated infant and in 58% of the controls. The authors conclude that indomethacin therapy can reduce the incidence of ICH, but requires careful sonographic monitoring by US

  16. Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen P; Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Messina, Julia; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population is poorly understood. We identified all infants with E. coli BSIs discharged from 77 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group in 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSI, as well as the number of active empiric antimicrobial agents administered, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, early-onset versus late-onset BSI, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day of the first positive blood culture. We identified 258 episodes of E. coli BSI, including 123 (48%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Unadjusted 30-day mortality did not significantly differ between infants with ampicillin-resistant versus ampicillin-susceptible E. coli BSI [11 of 123 (9%) vs. 7 of 135 (5%); P = 0.33; adjusted odds ratio = 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 4.77)]. Among ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSIs, 30-day mortality was not significantly lower for infants treated with at least one empiric antimicrobial active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli versus infants receiving no active empiric agent [adjusted odds ratio = 1.50 (0.07, 33.6)]. In this population of infants with E. coli BSI, ampicillin resistance was not associated with significantly increased mortality. Among the subset of infants with ampicillin-resistant E. coli, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower mortality.

  17. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the…

  18. Transient Neonatal Diabetes Associated with Chromosome 6Q24 Imprinting Abnormalities Part 4. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    O.Ye. Abaturov; A.O. Nikulina; O.O. Rusakova; I.O. Hirina; N.M. Lybenko

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the differential diagnosis of diseases that occur with neonatal hyperglycemia. The common causes of neonatal hypoglycemia, variants of its combination with clinical manifestations from the various organs and systems are indicated. There was presented an algorithm for the choice of therapeutic measures in transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). The features of diet in newborns, insulin therapy and other directions of drug treatment were described. There was provided t...

  19. The effectiveness of familiar auditory stimulus on hospitalized neonates' physiologic responses to procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmnejad, Elham; Sarhangi, Forogh; Javadi, Mahrooz; Rejeh, Nahid; Amirsalari, Susan; Tadrisi, Seyed Davood

    2017-06-01

    Hospitalized neonates usually undergo different painful procedures. This study sought to test the effects of a familiar auditory stimulus on the physiologic responses to pain of venipuncture among neonates in intensive care unit. The study design is quasi-experimental. The randomized clinical trial study was done on 60 full-term neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between March 20 to June 20, 2014. The neonates were conveniently selected and randomly allocated to the control and the experimental groups. Recorded maternal voice was played for the neonates in the experimental group from 10 minutes before to 10 minutes after venipuncture while the neonates in the control group received no sound therapy intervention. The participants' physiologic parameters were assessed 10 minutes before, during, and after venipuncture. At baseline, the study groups did not differ significantly regarding the intended physiologic parameters (P > .05). During venipuncture, maternal voice was effective in reducing the neonates' heart rate, respiratory rate, and diastolic blood pressure (P familiar sounds to effectively manage neonates' physiologic responses to procedural pain of venipuncture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  1. Outcome of neonates with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome; where do we go wrong?

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    MBKC Dayasiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study focuses on assessing the modifiable risk factors, which are aetiologic in IRDS and the outcome of children who were treated with surfactant therapy. Methods All neonates received by the neonatal intensive care of Anuradhapura teaching hospital with early onset respiratory distress leading to surfactant therapy and among whom chest roentgenograms were supportive of a diagnosis of IRDS, were recruited to study. Appropriate information regarding antenatal and perinatal care, NICU management, complications, and outcomes were collected using a structured questionnaire by the investigators prospectively for one year from January 2012 and retrospectively for the calendar year 2011. Results Seventy one neonates were treated for two year study period and 45(63.4% were males. Antenatal problems included poor antenatal follow up 5(7% and bad obstetric history 3(4.2% with only 52 (73.2% mothers receiving antenatal steroids. Perinatal problems included eclampsia 8 (11.3%, abruption 5(7% and fetal distress 2(2.8% with 23(32.4% children needing resuscitation at birth. The proportion of pulmonary haemorrhage following surfactant was 14/71(19.7%. Twenty three children (32.4% were discharged lively and successfully, while 48 children (67.6% succumbed secondary to extreme prematurity (maturity < 28 weeks and IRDS 34(70.8%, pulmonary haemorrage 8(17%, septicaemia 8(17%, and severe birth asphyxia 2(4.1%. Conclusion Antenatal glucocorticoids to preterm deliveries, management of maternal medical problems, and control of sepsis in NICU need further improvement to optimize care and to bring down neonatal mortality following IRDS. As pulmonary heamorrhage following surfactant therapy remains a significant factor in increasing neonatal mortality and reducing the weight of the recognized beneficial effects of surfactant, effectiveness of these low cost interventions should be further evaluated.

  2. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Two Regimens of RhG-CSF in Neutropenic Neonatal Septicemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nConsidering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran. The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05. The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05. The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10μg/kg was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  4. Pattern and prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: In Port Harcourt, evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion therapy in neonatal patients are yet to be defined and the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported.Methods: Platelet counts of 132 neonatal patients admitted into the special care baby unit (SCBU at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Nigeria were assessed using the International Committee on Standards in Hematology (ICSH approved manual procedures for hemocytometry.6Study design: This is a cross sectional study carried out on neonates to determine the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia.Results: The median platelet count of the neonates was 97.0 × 109/L (interquartile range [IQR] 50–152 while the mean age was 61.7 hours (range 1–336 hours. The overall prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 53.0%. Mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 51–100 × 109/L was found in 39.4% of the neonates, 12.1% had moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count 30–50 × 109/L, while severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30 × 109/L was detected in 1.5% of the neonates. Of these, 84.84% of the cases occurred within 72 hours (early onset. The most common clinical diagnosis among the neonates was severe birth asphyxia (33.3%, followed by neonatal jaundice (19.7%, neonatal sepsis (16.7%, low birth weight (13.6%, anemia and bleeding (6.1%, and other clinical conditions (10.6%. There was no association between clinical diagnosis and thrombocytopenia (Fisher’s exact test = 10.643; P = 0.923.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of early onset neonatal thrombocytopenia

  5. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Berríos, N; García-Fragoso, L; García-García, I; Valcárcel, M

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL), glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate's hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  6. Effect of phenobarbital on 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, M.; Reba, R.C.; Altman, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-IDA derivatives was used to evaluate 40 neonates with mixed jaundice. Fourteen patients proved to have biliary atresia. The remaining 26 patients had intrahepatic cholestasis with patent extrahepatic ducts. Sixteen of the 40 patients underwent examinations without phenobarbital stimulation. Sixteen patients had two examinations, one before and one after 3-7 days of phenobarbital therapy. The remaining 8 patients had their initial examinations after phenobarbital therapy. The results of this study show that administration of phenobarbital in a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for at least 5 days prior to the examination enhances and accelerates biliary excretion of IDA compounds and thereby significantly increases the accuracy of 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in differentiating extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. Its routine use in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice is therefore highly recommended

  7. Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate based herbicide alters the development of the rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Schimpf, Marlise; Milesi, María M.; Ingaramo, Paola I.; Luque, Enrique H.; Varayoud, Jorgelina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neonatal exposure to GBH lead to endometrial hyperplasia and increase proliferation. • GBH disrupts proteins involved in uterine organogenetic differentiation. • GBH exposure induced persistent increase of PR and Hoxa10 proteins. - Abstract: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are extensively used to control weeds on both cropland and non-cropland areas. No reports are available regarding the effects of GBHs exposure on uterine development. We evaluated if neonatal exposure to a GBH affects uterine morphology, proliferation and expression of proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation in rats. Female Wistar pups received saline solution (control, C) or a commercial formulation of glyphosate (GBH, 2 mg/kg) by sc injection every 48 h from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND7. Rats were sacrificed on PND8 (neonatal period) and PND21 (prepubertal period) to evaluate acute and short-term effects, respectively. The uterine morphology was evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The epithelial and stromal immunophenotypes were established by assessing the expression of luminal epithelial protein (cytokeratin 8; CK8), basal epithelial proteins (p63 and pan cytokeratin CK1, 5, 10 and 14); and vimentin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To investigate changes on proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), Hoxa10 and Wnt7a by IHC. The GBH-exposed uteri showed morphological changes, characterized by an increase in the incidence of luminal epithelial hyperplasia (LEH) and an increase in the stromal and myometrial thickness. The epithelial cells showed a positive immunostaining for CK8, while the stromal cells for vimentin. GBH treatment increased cell proliferation in the luminal and stromal compartment on PND8, without changes on PND21. GBH treatment also altered the expression of proteins involved in uterine organogenetic

  8. Neonatal hypoglycemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in tehran children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Einollahi, N.; Abbasi, S.

    2007-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of hypoglycemia among newborn infants in Children Hospital using a standard laboratory glucose method and to evaluate the evidence of clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia, designing appropriate strategies for prevention and treatment. The study population consisted of 673 neonates in Tehran Children's Hospital and was conducted between June 2004 and March 2005. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the present study group was 15.15% live births. The clinical features which remained significantly associated with the hypoglycemic neonates were refusal of feeding (45%), hyporeflexia (36.2%), irritability (30%), cyanosis (28.4%), tackypnea (24.5%), seizure (16.6%), weak cry (15.8%), apneic spels (9.8%), pallor (1.9%), cardiac arrest (9.1%) and sweating (1%). Hypoglycemia does occur frequently in newborn infants and requires careful monitoring and therapy of serum glucose. (author)

  9. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity: results from 10 years in a single neonatal intensive care unit

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    Inês Coutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina of preterm newborns and is an important and preventable cause of visual impairment in childhood. This study aimed to assess the incidence and main risk factors associated with the development of ROP in the last 10 years at Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca in Lisbon, Portugal.Methods: Observational and retrospective study conducted between 2005 and 2014 at Hospital Prof. Doctor Fernando Fonseca. The study included newborns of gestational age < 32 weeks. We analyzed maternal, prenatal and neonatal factors associated with the development of ROP. Statistical analysis were performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a multiple logistic regression model was carried out with a significance level α = 0.05.Results: 527 premature infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks were studied, of which 165 developed ROP. 60 of these patients needed treatment. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for the development of ROP were maternal infection in pregnancy, low birth weight, low gestational age, low Apgar score at 5 minutes, need for oxygen therapy until the 28th day of life, a high score on the CRIB and SNAPPE2 scales, use of surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for ROP were the presence of neonatal sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus and a high score on the neonatal SNAPPE2 scale.Conclusions: We found a ROP incidence rate of 31.3%, with risk factors similar to those observed in other studies.

  11. Lactoferrin and neonatology - role in neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are two most important neonatal problems in nursery which constitute the bulk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Inflammatory mediators secondary to sepsis and NEC increases morbidity, by affecting various system of body like lung, brain and eye, thus causing long term implications. Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of breast milk and multiple actions that includes antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-cancer and various other actions. Few studies have been completed and a number of them are in progress for evaluation of efficacy and safety of LF in the prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC in field of neonatology. In future, LF prophylaxis and therapy may have a significant impact in improving clinical outcomes of vulnerable preterm neonates. This review analyse the role of lactoferrin in prevention of neonatal sepsis and NEC, with emphasis on mechanism of action, recent studies and current studies going on around the globe.

  12. Transient neonatal diabetes or neonatal hyperglycaemia: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transient neonatal diabetes and neonatal hyperglycaemia both present in the neonatal period with features of hyperglycaemia, dehydration and weight loss. Differentiating these conditions clinically is difficult. We describe the case of a 13 day old female whom we managed recently who could have had either condition.

  13. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fargas-Berríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM. We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL, glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate’s hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  15. Assessment of the risk of developing hyperthyroidism in neonates of pregnant women with graves' disease through determination of maternal serum levels of TRAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinhai; Zhang Qingfeng; Wang Jianchun; Yao Qingyun; Bao Jing; Chen Shuangshuang; Guo Guiyou

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the risk of developing hyperthyroidism in neonates of women with Graves's disease through determination of maternal serum levels of TRAb. Methods: Serum TRAb TSH levels were measured with CLIA and thyroid hormones levels were measured with RIA in 258 pregnant women with Graves' disease (98 week during gstation period) and their neonates (n=259, with a case of twin-baby) (umbilical blood specimen and neonates' venous specimen) as well as once in 30 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Of the 258 pregnant women, serum TRAb levels were normal (below 1.75 IU/L) in 146 women and the neonates' serum TRAb levels were also normal. Serum TRAb levels were between 1.75∼8.75 IU/L in 109 women and the neonates' serum TRAb levels were somewhat increased but became normal within 15 days. Only three pregnant women had serum TRAb levels above 8.75 IU/L and two of their neonates were frankly hyperthyroid, requiring ATD treatment. Conclusion: Monitoring serum TRAb levels in pregnant women with history of Graves' disease is desirable. Neonates from those with high serum TRAb levels should be examined carefully for possible development of hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  16. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice.

  17. Integrative Care Therapies and Physiological and Pain-related Outcomes in Hospitalized Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hathaway, Elizabeth E.; Luberto, Christina M.; Bogenschutz, Lois H.; Geiss, Sue; Wasson, Rachel S.; Cotton, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain management is a frequent problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Few studies examining effects of integrative care therapies on pain-related outcomes in neonates have included physiological outcomes or investigated the use of such therapies in a practice-based setting. Objective: The purpose of this practice-based retrospective study was to examine the associations between integrative care therapies, particularly massage and healing touch, and pain-related outcome...

  18. Patterns of admission and factors associated with neonatal mortality among neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Demisse AG

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abayneh Girma Demisse, Fentahun Alemu, Mahlet Abayneh Gizaw, Zemene Tigabu School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant completing many of the physiologic adjustments required for life outside the uterus. As a result, there are high rates of morbidity and mortality. The three major causes of mortality in developing countries include prematurity, infection, and perinatal asphyxia. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of neonatal admission and factors associated with mortality among neonates admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of University of Gondar Hospital.Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among all admitted neonates in the NICU of University of Gondar referral hospital from December 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016. Information was extracted retrospectively during admission from patient records and death certificates, using a pretested questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 769 neonates was included in the study. There were 448 (58.3% male neonates, and 398 (51.8% neonates were rural residents. More than two-thirds of the 587 deliveries (76.3% were performed in tertiary hospitals. Neonatal morbidity included hypothermia 546 (71%, sepsis 522 (67.9%, prematurity 250 (34.9%, polycythemia 242 (31.5%, hypoglycemia 142 (18.5, meconium aspiration syndrome 113 (14.7%, and perinatal asphyxia 96 (12.5%. The overall mortality was 110 (14.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.9–16.9 of which 69 (62.7% deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of age. In the multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with perinatal asphyxia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.97; 95% CI: 3.06–11.64, instrumental delivery (AOR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.08–8.31, and early onset

  19. Pathway cross-talk network analysis identifies critical pathways in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Quan-Hong; Chen, Deng-Hong; Meng, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Pathway cross-talk analysis might contribute to the inference of the driving forces in bacterial sepsis and facilitate a better understanding of underlying pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis. This study aimed to explore the critical pathways associated with the progression of neonatal sepsis by the pathway cross-talk analysis. By integrating neonatal transcriptome data with known pathway data and protein-protein interaction data, we systematically uncovered the disease pathway cross-talks and constructed a disease pathway cross-talk network for neonatal sepsis. Then, attract method was employed to explore the dysregulated pathways associated with neonatal sepsis. To determine the critical pathways in neonatal sepsis, rank product (RP) algorithm, centrality analysis and impact factor (IF) were introduced sequentially, which synthetically considered the differential expression of genes and pathways, pathways cross-talks and pathway parameters in the network. The dysregulated pathways with the highest IF values as well as RPpathways in neonatal sepsis. By integrating three kinds of data, only 6919 common genes were included to perform the pathway cross-talk analysis. By statistic analysis, a total of 1249 significant pathway cross-talks were selected to construct the pathway cross-talk network. Moreover, 47 dys-regulated pathways were identified via attract method, 20 pathways were identified under RPpathways with the highest IF were also screened from the pathway cross-talk network. Among them, we selected 8 common pathways, i.e. critical pathways. In this study, we systematically tracked 8 critical pathways involved in neonatal sepsis by integrating attract method and pathway cross-talk network. These pathways might be responsible for the host response in infection, and of great value for advancing diagnosis and therapy of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  20. HIV and pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding epidemiological aspects, antiretroviral drug safety, and outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns are limited in Argentina. We underwent a retrospective analysis of registries of HIV-infected pregnant women assisted at Helios Salud, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1997-2006. Variables associated with preterm delivery and neonatal complications were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 204 mother-child binomium were included. Maternal age (median: 29 years; 32.5% without prior diagnosis of HIV-infection. Baseline median CD4 T-cell count: 417 cell/μl; 98% received antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy [2 nucleoside analogs plus either nevirapine (55% or a protease inhibitor (32%]. Overall incidence of toxicity was 12.5%: rash (8%, anemia (3.5% and hepatotoxicity (1%. Rash was associated with exposure to nevirapine. Eighty one percent and 50% reached HIV-viral loads <1000 and <50 copies/ml at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Twenty six percent had obstetric complications and 16% had preterm delivery. Of the newborns, 1.6% had congenital defects and 9% had neonatal complications. Overall neonatal mortality was 1% and perinatal transmission was 0.7%. Protease inhibitor use and obstetric complications were associated to preterm delivery while obstetric complications were associated with neonatal complications. In our population, hepatotoxicity was low despite frequent use of nevirapine. Protease inhibitor use was associated to preterm delivery. A favorable virological response and a low rate of perinatal transmission was observed, what supports the consensus that antiretroviral therapy benefits during pregnancy outweigh risks of maternal and neonatal adverse events.

  1. Evaluation of an automatic brain segmentation method developed for neonates on adult MR brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; Viergever, Max A.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is of clinical relevance in images acquired at all ages. The literature presents a clear distinction between methods developed for MR images of infants, and methods developed for images of adults. The aim of this work is to evaluate a method developed for neonatal images in the segmentation of adult images. The evaluated method employs supervised voxel classification in subsequent stages, exploiting spatial and intensity information. Evaluation was performed using images available within the MRBrainS13 challenge. The obtained average Dice coefficients were 85.77% for grey matter, 88.66% for white matter, 81.08% for cerebrospinal fluid, 95.65% for cerebrum, and 96.92% for intracranial cavity, currently resulting in the best overall ranking. The possibility of applying the same method to neonatal as well as adult images can be of great value in cross-sectional studies that include a wide age range.

  2. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Neonatal Arterial Switch Surgery for Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Manzano, Paula; Mendoza Soto, Alberto; Román Barba, Violeta; Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Galindo Izquierdo, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are few reports of the appearance of pulmonary arterial hypertension following arterial switch surgery in the neonatal period to correct transposition of the great arteries. We assessed the frequency and clinical pattern of this complication in our series of patients. Our database was reviewed to select patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by neonatal arterial switch at our hospital and who developed pulmonary hypertension over time. We identified 2 (1.3%) patients with transposition of the great arteries successfully repaired in the first week of life who later experienced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The first patient was a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 8 months who did not respond to medical treatment and required lung transplantation. The anatomic pathology findings were consistent with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. The second patient was a 24-month-old boy diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 13 months who did not respond to medical therapy. Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but very severe complication that should be investigated in all patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone neonatal arterial switch, in order to start early aggressive therapy for affected patients, given the poor therapeutic response and poor prognosis involved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research Progress of Mechanism and Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-fei NI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a hypoxic-ischemic brain injury caused by hypoxia after perinatal asphyxia in neonates, and one of the major causes of neonatal death, lifelong neurological disability and cognitive dysfunction. Although the mechanisms of HIE are complex and still unclear, it generally holds that HIE has a relationship with acute inflammatory reaction and is regulated by multiple cytokines and neuromodulators. Presently, therapeutic hypothermia, in the light of the lower mortality and improvement of prognosis, becomes a standard of care in many medical institutes, but there are still neonates dead or disabled after treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to use hypothermia in combination with other new adjuvant therapies (such as anti-inflammatory cytokine to improve the prognosis of neonatal HIE. Besides, glutamate receptor antagonist, calcium channel blockers, erythropoietin, and nerve growth factors also have certain therapeutic effects on neonatal HIE. Therefore, this review mainly focused on the mechanisms and treatments of HIE. Based on this, we hold that the future studies should concentrate on how to attenuate early brain injury and to improve the growth and differentiation of neuronal cells and non-neuronal cells, which is of great signifcance to prolong the therapeutic window of neuroprotection, promote long-term neural restoration and improve the prognosis.

  5. [Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Min; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Yu-Lian; Yang, Hui; Dong, Tian-Jin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deficiency. Seventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classified into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge. Fecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no significant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no significant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a significantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (Plactose intolerance tends to occur. Determination of fecal pH value has no significance in the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in neonates with diarrhea.

  6. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. State of the art. Neonatal respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L A

    1999-12-01

    Advances in ventilatory management of respiratory distress in the newborn have made dramatic strides during the last decade. Innovative treatments such as PTV, HFV, liquid ventilation, and NO therapy are just beginning to have an impact on the care of neonates in the NICU. These treatment modalities should continue to have an effect on the care of the newborn infant well into the future.

  8. TWEAK Receptor Deficiency Has Opposite Effects on Female and Male Mice Subjected to Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

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    Anton Kichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a multifunctional cytokine member of the TNF family. TWEAK binds to its only known receptor, Fn14, enabling it to activate downstream signaling processes in response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TWEAK signaling in neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI. We found that after neonatal HI, both TWEAK and Fn14 expression were increased to a greater extent in male compared with female mice. To assess the role of TWEAK signaling after HI, the size of the injury was measured in neonatal mice genetically deficient in Fn14 and compared with their wild-type and heterozygote littermates. A significant sex difference in the Fn14 knockout (KO animals was observed. Fn14 gene KO was beneficial in females; conversely, reducing Fn14 expression exacerbated the brain injury in male mice. Our findings indicate that the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway is critical for development of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in immature animals. However, as the responses are different in males and females, clinical implementation depends on development of sex-specific therapies.

  9. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  10. Regression of Cardiac Rhabdomyomas in a Neonate after Everolimus Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bornaun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rhabdomyoma often shows spontaneous regression and usually requires only close follow-up. However, patients with symptomatic inoperable rhabdomyomas may be candidates for everolimus treatment. Our patient had multiple inoperable cardiac rhabdomyomas causing serious left ventricle outflow-tract obstruction that showed a dramatic reduction in the size after everolimus therapy, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor. After discontinuation of therapy, an increase in the diameter of masses occurred and everolimus was restarted. After 6 months of treatment, rhabdomyomas decreased in size and therapy was stopped. In conclusion, everolimus could be a possible novel therapy for neonates with clinically significant rhabdomyomas.

  11. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  12. Metabolic risks of neonates at birth following in utero exposure to HIV-ART: the amino acid profile of cord blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moutloatse, Gontse P.; Schoeman, Johannes C.; Lindeque, Zander; van Reenen, Mari; Hankemeier, Thomas; Bunders, Madeleine J.; Reinecke, Carolus J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Untargeted metabolomics of cord blood indicated that antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected mothers (HIV-ART) did not compromise the exposed neonates with regard to the stress of neonatal hypoglycaemia at birth. However, identified biomarkers reflected stress in their energy metabolism,

  13. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  14. Etiologies of Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Wards

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    Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common condition among neonates. Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs when jaundice persists beyond two weeks in term neonates and three weeks in preterm neonates. This study aimed to determine the etiologies of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants admitted to the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on all infants diagnosed with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia during 2007-2012 in the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Demographic characteristics of infants, physical examination and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed to determine the etiologies of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Results: In total, 100 infants diagnosed with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled in this study, including 49 male and 51 female neonates with mean age of 20±1 days and mean bilirubin level of 17.5±4.0 mg/dL. Main causes of hyperbilirubinemia were urinary tract infection, ABO incompatibility, hypothyroidism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in 14%, 5%, 6% and 5% of neonates, respectively. Moreover, unknown etiologies, such as breastfeeding, were detected in 70% of the studied infants. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, determining the main causes of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates is of paramount importance. In the majority of cases, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with physiological factors, such as breastfeeding.

  15. [Persistent pulmonary hypertension in a neonate caused by blood aspiration following vaginal blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüse-Ruijter, M F; Zimmermann, L J I

    2007-07-14

    A preterm neonate, with a gestational age of 30 1/7 weeks, was born after a period of prolonged rupture of the membranes and a retroplacental haematoma causing vaginal bleeding. During admission to the neonatal intensive-care unit, mechanical ventilation was indicated because of acute respiratory failure following blood aspiration, which was causing oxygenation and ventilation problems. Endotracheal surfactant was administered and, because of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), NO-inhalation therapy was started. A quick recovery was seen and two days post partum the patient could be extubated. Blood aspiration may cause acute respiratory problems and PPHN, with quick recovery after effective mechanical ventilation, surfactant and NO-inhalation therapy.

  16. Providing safe surgery for neonates in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameh, Nkeiruka

    2003-07-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care, total parenteral nutrition and improvements in technology have led to a greatly improved outcome of neonatal surgery in developed countries. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, however, neonatal surgery continues to pose wide-ranging challenges. Delivery outside hospital, delayed referral, poor transportation, and lack of appropriate personnel and facilities continue to contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in neonates, particularly under emergency situations. Antenatal supervision and hospital delivery needs to be encouraged in our communities. Adequate attention needs to be paid to providing appropriate facilities for neonatal transport and support and training of appropriate staff for neonatal surgery. Neonates with surgical problems should be adequately resuscitated before referral where necessary but surgery should not be unduly delayed. Major neonatal surgery should as much as possible be performed by those trained to operate on neonates. Appropriate research and international collaboration is necessary to improve neonatal surgical care in the environment.

  17. Music From the Very Beginning-A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Music as Therapy for Preterm Infants and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bassler, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice) may also have an impact on brain maturation. Therefore, a nurturing enrichment of the auditory environment for preterm infants is warranted. Creative music therapy (CMT) addresses these demands by offering infant-directed singing in lullaby-style that is continually adapted to the neonate's needs. The therapeutic approach is tailored to the individual developmental stage, entrained to the breathing rhythm, and adapted to the subtle expressions of the newborn. Not only the therapist and the neonate but also the parents play a role in CMT. In this article, we describe how to apply music therapy in a neonatal intensive care environment to support very preterm infants and their families. We speculate that the enriched musical experience may promote brain development and we critically discuss the available evidence in support of our assumption.

  18. Development of a Gestational Age-Specific Case Definition for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cheryl; Longford, Nick; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2017-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England. We split study data into model development and validation data sets and categorized GA into groups (group 1, less than 26 weeks' GA; group 2, 26 to less than 30 weeks' GA; group 3, 30 to less than 37 weeks' GA; group 4, 37 or more weeks' GA). We entered GA, birth weight z score, and clinical and abdominal radiography findings as candidate variables in a logistic regression model, performed model fitting 1000 times, averaged the predictions, and used estimates from the fitted model to develop an ordinal NEC score and cut points to develop a dichotomous case definition based on the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUCs] and positive predictive values [PPVs]. Abdominal radiography performed to investigate clinical concerns. Ordinal NEC likelihood score, dichotomous case definition, and GA-specific probability plots. Of the 3866 infants, the mean (SD) birth weight was 2049.1 (1941.7) g and mean (SD) GA was 32 (5) weeks; 2032 of 3663 (55.5%) were male. The total included 2978 infants (77.0%) without NEC and 888 (23.0%) with NEC. Infants with NEC in group 1 were less likely to present with pneumatosis (31.1% vs 47.2%; P = .01), blood in stool (11.8% vs 29.6%; P definition were 2 or greater for infants in groups 1 and 2, 3 or greater for infants in group 3, and 4 or greater for infants in group 4. The ordinal NEC score and dichotomous case definition discriminated well between infants with (AUC, 87%) and without (AUC, 80%) NEC. The case

  19. Neonatal Marfan syndrome: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Tomas; Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Micieta, Vladimir; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Kolarovszka, Hana; Zibolen, Mirko

    2017-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is rarely diagnosed in the neonatal period because of variable expression and age-dependent appearance of clinical signs. The prognosis is usually poor due to high probability of congestive heart failure, mitral and tricuspid regurgitations with suboptimal response to medical therapy and difficulties in surgical management. The authors have studied two cases of Marfan syndrome in the newborn period. Two cases of neonatal Marfan syndrome, one male and one female, were diagnosed by characteristic physical appearance. Both infants had significant cardiovascular abnormalities diagnosed by ultrasonography. Genetic DNA analysis in the second case confirmed the mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene located on chromosome 15q21 which is responsible for the development of Marfan syndrome. The boy died at six weeks of age with signs of rapidly progressive left ventricular failure associated with pneumonia. The second infant was having only mild signs of congestive heart failure and has been treated with beta blockers. At the age of 4 years her symptoms of congestive heart failure had worsened due to progression of mitral and tricuspid insufficiency and development of significant cardiomegaly. Mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasy had to be done at that time. Early diagnosis of Marfan syndrome in the newborn period can allow treatment in the early stages of cardiovascular abnormalities and may improve the prognosis. It also helps to explain to the family the serious health problem of their child.

  20. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of neonatal staff concerning neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizakele L.T. Khoza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal pain management has received increasing attention over the past four decades. Research into the effects of neonatal pain emphasises the professional, ethical and moral obligations of staff to manage pain for positive patient outcomes. However, evaluation studies continuously report evidence of inadequate neonate pain management and a gap between theory and practice. Objective: This study reviewed current practice in neonatal pain management to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses and doctors regarding pain management for neonates in two academic hospitals. Method: A non-experimental, prospective quantitative survey, the modified Infant Pain Questionnaire, was used to collect data from 150 nurses and doctors working in the neonatal wards of two academic hospitals in central Gauteng. Results: The response rate was 35.33% (n = 53, most respondents being professional nurses (88.68%; n = 47 working in neonatal intensive care units (80.77%; n = 42; 24 (45.28% had less than 5 years’ and 29 respondents 6 or more years’ working experience in neonatal care. A review of pain management in the study setting indicated a preference for pharmacological interventions to relieve moderate to severe pain. An association (p < 0.05 was found between pain ratings on 5 procedures and frequency of administration of pharmacological pain management. Two-thirds of respondents (64% reported that there were no pain management guidelines in the neonatal wards in which they worked. Conclusion: The interventions to manage moderate neonatal pain are in line with international guidelines. However, neonatal pain management may not occur systematically based on prior assessment of neonatal pain, choice of most appropriate intervention and evaluation. This study recommends implementation of a guideline to standardise practice and ensure consistent and adequate pain management in neonates.

  2. Acute renal failure: Nephrosonographic findings in asphyxiated neonates

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    Mohd. Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF and nephrosonographic findings among asphyxiated neonates, and to correlate this with uric acid levels and the severity of hypoxic encephalopathy, we studied 80 full-term appropriate-for-date singleton neonates with perinatal asphyxia, and 30 healthy full-term neonates as controls from March 2006 to February 2007. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination along with investigations, including urine examination, 24-h urine collection, ultrasonography of abdomen and cranium, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were obtained. ARF developed in 45% (36/80 of the asphyxiated neonates. Forty-eight (60% neonates showed significant elevation of blood urea and 41 (51.3% neonates had significant elevation of serum creatinine than the control group (P < 0.001. Sixty-two (77.5% neonates developed significant elevation of serum uric acid levels, and nephrosonography revealed hyperechogenicity in all of them, while only two among the healthy neonates showed the raised uric acid levels (P < 0.001. Nonoliguric renal failure was seen 28/36 (77.8% of the neonates with ARF, whereas eight (22.2% neonates had oliguric renal failure. Eight (27.8% patients among ARF patients maintained abnormal biochemical parameters after 2 weeks, and of whom four patients died after variable lengths of time with a mortality rate of 11.11%. Kidneys are the most common organs involved in perinatal asphyxia, and uric acid might be a causative factor for failure in addition to hypoxic insult. Routine use of kidney function test, along with abdominal ultrasonography form an important screening tool to detect any additional morbidity in these patients.

  3. Safety of Reiki Therapy for Newborns at Risk for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Esber, Sandra; Zupancic, Julie; Gargiulo, Deb; Woodall, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of opioid abuse and subsequent drug withdrawal is exponentially on the rise in the United States for many populations including newborns who are born to drug-addicted mothers. These newborns often exhibit symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) within 24 to 72 hours of birth. Treatment of NAS includes monitoring of withdrawal symptoms, managing physiological parameters, and the use of supportive and pharmacologic treatments. Although a few randomized controlled trials exist, studies on supportive intervention are generally limited by small sample sizes, case study reports, expert opinions, and descriptive design. Few studies address the safety of Reiki for newborns at risk for NAS using neonatal parameters. This pilot study addresses feasibility and demonstrates that Reiki is safe when administered to this high-risk population. Considerations for future studies are discussed. PMID:29315084

  4. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    -prostaglandin-F2a was associated with any of the atopic phenotypes. Conclusion Eosinophil protein-X in urine from asymptomatic neonates is a biomarker significantly associated with later development of allergic sensitization, nasal eosinophilia and eczema during the first 6 years of life. These findings suggest...... D2 metabolite) assessed in urine from healthy at-risk neonates precede development of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life. Methods We measured eosinophil protein-X (N=369), leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 (N=367), and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (N=366) in urine from 1-month-old children participating...... untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates...

  5. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela; Glover, Jason; Skoda-Smith, Suzanne; Torgerson, Troy R; Xu, Min; Burroughs, Lauri M; Woolfrey, Ann E; Fleming, Mark D; Shimamura, Akiko

    2015-11-01

    Aplastic anemia in the neonate is rare. We report a case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia. This report highlights the importance of considering SCID early in the evaluation of neonatal aplastic anemia prior to the development of infectious complications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  8. Relationship between opioid therapy, tissue-damaging procedures, and brain metabolites as measured by proton MRS in asphyxiated term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Ashwal, Stephen; Wycliffe, Nathaniel D; Ebner, Charlotte; Fayard, Elba; Sowers, Lawrence; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    To examine the effects of opioid and tissue-damaging procedures (TDPs) [i.e. procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) known to result in pain, stress, and tissue damage] on brain metabolites, we reviewed the medical records of 28 asphyxiated term neonates (eight opioid-treated, 20 non-opioid treated) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within the first month of life as well as eight newborns with no clinical findings of asphyxial injury. We found that lower creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) (p OGM) NAA/Cr was decreased (p = 0.03) and lactate (Lac) was present in a significantly higher amount (40%; p = 0.03) in non-opioid-treated neonates compared with opioid-treated neonates. Compared with controls, untreated neonates showed larger changes in more metabolites in basal ganglia (BG), thalami (TH), and OGM with greater significance than treated neonates. Our data suggest that TDPs affect spectral metabolites and that opioids do not cause harm in asphyxiated term neonates exposed to repetitive TDPs in the first 2-4 DOL and may provide a degree of neuroprotection.

  9. Inhaled Surfactant Therapy in Newborns in Artificial Lung Ventilation

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    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of inhaled surfactant therapy in neonatal infants with respiratory failure.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 13 premature neonatal infants; their mean gestational age was 31.8±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1825±600.9 g. They had a oneminute Apgar score of 4.3±1.4. All the neonates needed mechanical ventilation (MV atbirth because the leading clinical sign was respiratory failure caused by acute intranatal hypoxia, neonatal amniotic fluid aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and cerebral ischemia. Curosurf was injected in a dose of 174.7±21 mg/kg in the infants with neonatal RDS at 35 minutes of life. All the babies included in the study were noted to have severe disease and prolonged MV. After stabilization of their status, the neonates received combination therapy involving surfactantBL inhalation to reduce the duration of MV. The dose of the agent was 75 mg. Results. After surfactantBL inhalation, effective spontaneous respiration occurred in 69.2% of the newborn infants; successful extubation was carried out. The median duration ofMV after surfactant BL inhalation was 22 hours (4—68 hours. There were no reintubated cases after inhalation therapy. Following surfactantBL inhalation, 4 (30.8% patients remained to be on MV as a control regimen; 3 of them had highfre quency MV. SurfactantBL inhalation made it possible to change the respiratory support regimen and to reduce MV parame ters in these babies. 

  10. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice and risk factors in healthy term neonates at National District Hospital in Bloemfontein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice affects one in two infants globally. The jaundice is the result of an accumulation of bilirubin as foetal haemoglobin is metabolised by the immature liver. High serum levels of bilirubin result in lethargy, poor feeding and kernicterus of the infant. Aim The main aim of this article was to determine the prevalence of neonatal jaundice and secondly to explore its risk factors in healthy term neonates. Setting Maternity ward, National District Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods In this cross-sectional study, mothers and infants were conveniently sampled after delivery and before discharge. The mothers were interviewed and their case records were reviewed for risk factors for neonatal jaundice and the clinical appearance and bilirubin levels of the infants were measured with a non-invasive transcutaneous bilirubin meter. Results A total of 96 mother-infant pairs were included in the study. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice was 55.2%; however, only 10% of black babies who were diagnosed with jaundice appeared clinically jaundiced. Normal vaginal delivery was the only risk factor associated with neonatal jaundice. Black race and maternal smoking were not protective against neonatal jaundice as in some other studies. Conclusion More than half (55.2%) of healthy term neonates developed neonatal jaundice. As it is difficult to clinically diagnose neonatal jaundice in darker pigmented babies, it is recommended that the bilirubin level of all babies should be checked with a non-invasive bilirubin meter before discharge from hospital or maternity unit as well as during the first clinic visit on day 3 after birth.

  11. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  12. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

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    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  13. Associations of Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency with Pregnancy and Neonatal Complications in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

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    Paige van der Pligt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America are at risk of vitamin D deficiency (VDD and prevalence throughout these regions are among the highest, globally. Maternal VDD has been associated with increased risk of a number of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes, yet research from developing countries is limited. We assessed the associations of maternal VDD during pregnancy with adverse health outcomes by synthesizing the literature from observational studies conducted in developing countries. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language studies published between 2000 and 2017. Thirteen studies from seven countries were included in the review. Prevalence of VDD ranged from 51.3% to 100%. Six studies assessed both maternal and neonatal outcomes, four studies assessed only maternal outcomes and three studies assessed only neonatal outcomes. Ten studies showed at least one significant association between VDD and adverse maternal and/or neonatal health outcomes including pre-eclampsia (n = 3, gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 1, postpartum depression (n = 1, emergency cesarean section delivery (n = 1, low birth weight babies (n = 4, small for gestational age (n = 2, stunting (n = 1. However most of these studies (n = 6 also showed no association with multiple health outcomes. Vitamin D assessment methods, criteria applied to define VDD, season and trimester in which studies were conducted varied considerably across studies. In conclusion, this study highlights the need to improve maternal vitamin D status in developing countries in an effort to support best maternal and child health outcomes across these regions. Future research should focus on more unified approaches to vitamin D assessment and preventative approaches that may be embedded into already existing antenatal care settings.

  14. Neonatal pressure ulcers: prevention and treatment

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    García-Molina P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pablo García-Molina,1,2 Alba Alfaro-López,1 Sara María García-Rodríguez,1 Celia Brotons-Payá,1 Mari Carmen Rodríguez-Dolz,1,2 Evelin Balaguer-López1,2 1Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 2Research Group of Pediatric Nutrition, INCLIVA Foundation, Valencia, Spain Abstract: Health professionals should be prepared to respond to the needs of hospitalized neonates. The health team must consider multiple situations, where the neonate is at risk of having an adverse effect. One of the main interventions that health professionals must practice when interacting with hospitalized newborns is skin care. Neonates often suffer from diaper rash or intravenous drugs extravasation. Recently, hospitalized neonates and especially those in an unstable clinical situation are also at a risk of developing pressure ulcers. The presence of a pressure ulcer in a neonate can lead to serious problems to survival (eg, sepsis, clinical instability. This is the reason why, with this literature review, we attempt to answer questions from health professionals caring for neonates about the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Keywords: infant, pressure ulcer, treatment, prevention, wound, assessment

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in the neonate: a review

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    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to review the published data on the pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in neonates to provide a critical analysis of the literature as a useful tool for physicians. The bibliographic search was performed for articles published up to December 3, 2010, using PubMed. In addition, the book Neofax: A Manual of Drugs Used in Neonatal Care by Young and Mangum was consulted. The cephalosporins are mainly eliminated by the kidneys, and their elimination rates are reduced at birth. As a consequence, clearance is reduced and t1/2 is more prolonged in the neonate than in more mature infants. The neonate's substantial body water content creates a large volume of distribution (Vd of cephalosporins, as these drugs are fairly water soluble. Postnatal development is an important factor in the maturation of the neonate, and as postnatal age proceeds, the clearance of cephalosporins increases. The maturation of the kidney governs the pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in the infant. Clearance and t1/2 are influenced by development, and this must be taken into consideration when planning a cephalosporin dosage regimen for the neonate.

  16. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Hemingway-Foday, Jay; Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Kodkany, Bhalchandra; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Patel, Archana; Esamai, Fabian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Krebs, Nancy F; Derman, Richard J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Hibberd, Patricia; Liechty, Edward A; Wright, Linda L; Bergel, Eduardo F; Jobe, Alan H; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-09-19

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1) diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2) training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3) providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and (4) using a color-coded tape to measure

  17. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althabe Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1 diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2 training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3 providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and

  18. Perianal Dermatitis, Its Incidence, and Patterns of Topical Therapies in a Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Anuj; Witsberger, Emily; Cottrell, Lesley; Kiefer, Autumn; Yossuck, Panitan

    2018-04-01

     To define the incidence of perianal dermatitis (PD) and determine the usage pattern and cost efficacy of diaper products among neonates admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) including those with a diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).  A retrospective cohort study to evaluate neonates with PD based on number of orders for Aquaphor, Bagbalm, Desitin, Flanders, or Nystatin. Various demographic and clinical parameters were recorded. Usage patterns of these five products were analyzed, and their costs estimated. Subgroup analysis was performed among infants with NAS.  Of 1,241 admissions, 56.2% had at least one diaper product ordered during their NICU stay, while 52.6% had multiple products ordered. Only 23.0% of all neonates had appropriate documentation of PD. The most common product ordered first was Aquaphor (64.3%), followed by Desitin (19.2%). Note that 86% term NAS infants had PD compared with 28% term non-NAS infants. The estimated product cost was $14,139 over 2 years, averaging $20 per patient.  Over half of NICU neonates were exposed to one or more diaper products, usually without documented PD diagnosis. Term NAS infants had three times higher incidence of PD than term non-NAS infants. The cost of diaper product use was significant, and possibly underestimated due to lack of documentation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Neonatal Tetanus After Home Delivery: Report of One Case

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    Shou-Chih Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal tetanus is a rare disease in developed countries, but remains common in developing countries. Pregnant women immigrating to Taiwan from developing countries may carry a risk of neonatal tetanus to the child, because of inadequate tetanus toxoid immunization and inappropriate postnatal cord care. Many young pediatricians in Taiwan are unfamiliar with this disease. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a newborn with neonatal tetanus, who was admitted with complaints of difficult feeding and muscle rigidity. After mechanical ventilation for 58 days and a prolonged hospital stay, the infant was discharged in good condition. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for neonatal sepsis when infants present with seizure-like symptoms, in order to allow its early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  20. Implementation of a protocol for the prevention and management of extravasation injuries in the neonatal intensive care patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Diane

    2011-06-01

    This project sought to determine nurses' understanding and management of infants with intravenous (IV) therapy. There were three specific aims: • To improve identification and management of extravasation injuries in neonates • To ensure management of extravasation injuries in neonates is classified according to IV extravasation staging guidelines • To develop a protocol that outlined actions required to manage extravasation injuries. This project utilised a pre- and post-implementation audit strategy using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Getting Research into Practice (GRIP) program. This method has been used to improve clinical practice by utilising an audit, feedback and re-audit sequence. The project was implemented in four stages over a 7-month period from 21 October 2009 to 30 May 2010. Initially, there was poor compliance with all four criteria, ranging from zero to 63%. The GRIP phase of the project identified five barriers which were addressed throughout this project. These related to education of staff and the development of a protocol for the prevention and management of extravasation injuries in the neonatal population. Following implementation of best practice, the second audit showed a marked improvement in all four criteria, ranging from 70 to 100% compliance. Overall, this project has led to improvements in clinical practice in line with current evidence. This has resulted in enhanced awareness of the risks associated with IV therapy and of measures to prevent an injury occurring within this clinical setting. © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2011 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  1. Visual Functions in Relation with Neonatal Cerebral Ultrasound, Neurology and Cognitive Development in Very-Low-Birthweight Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Heersema, D. J.; Baerts, W.; Fetter, W. P. F.; Smrkovsky, M.; van Hof-van Duin, J.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    In order to determine the relationship between visual functions and neonatal cerebral ultrasound, neurological examinations and cognitive development, a prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 69 high-risk very-low-birthweight children. Visual development was studied at 1 and 2.6 years of

  2. Hypertensive encephalopathy in a patient with neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, MWH; Zweens, MJ; Bink, MTE; Odink, RJ

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism may give rise to serious cardiovascular complications. A girl with severe thyrotoxicosis in whom hypertensive encephalopathy developed is described. Conclusion Neonatal thyrotoxicosis can give rise to hypertension and may lead to hypertensive encephalopathy.

  3. Persistent puhnonary hypertension ofthe neonate in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'PFC syndrome (persistence ofthe feral circulation). Circulation 1969; 40: Ill. 2. Fox WW, Duara S. Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate: diagnosis and management. J Pediatr 1983; 103: 505-. 508. 3. Dworetz AR, Moya FR, Sabo B, Gladstone I, Gross 1. Survival of infants with persisteot pulmonary hypertension ...

  4. Neonatal resuscitation: advances in training and practice

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    Sawyer T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taylor Sawyer, Rachel A Umoren, Megan M Gray Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Education and Simulation-based Training (NEST Program, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Each year in the US, some four hundred thousand newborns need help breathing when they are born. Due to the frequent need for resuscitation at birth, it is vital to have evidence-based care guidelines and to provide effective neonatal resuscitation training. Every five years, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR reviews the science of neonatal resuscitation. In the US, the American Heart Association (AHA develops treatment guidelines based on the ILCOR science review, and the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP translates the AHA guidelines into an educational curriculum. In this report, we review recent advances in neonatal resuscitation training and practice. We begin with a review of the new 7th edition NRP training curriculum. Then, we examine key changes to the 2015 AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines. The four components of the NRP curriculum reviewed here include eSim®, Performance Skills Stations, Integrated Skills Station, and Simulation and Debriefing. The key changes to the AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines reviewed include initial steps of newborn care, positive-pressure ventilation, endotracheal intubation and use of laryngeal mask, chest compressions, medications, resuscitation of preterm newborns, and ethics and end-of-life care. We hope this report provides a succinct review of recent advances in neonatal resuscitation. Keywords: neonatal resuscitation, Neonatal Resuscitation Program, NRP, simulation, deliberate practice, debriefing, eSIM

  5. Feasibility of nitric oxide administration by neonatal helmet-CPAP: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2007-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), NO concentrations were progressively increased to 5, 10, 20, and 40 p.p.m. in the neonatal helmet-CPAP pressure chamber (5 cmH2O). NO, NO2, and O2 concentrations were measured in the pressure chamber and the immediate external environment. In the chamber, NO2 levels remained low (neonatal helmet-CPAP system. This method allows the delivery of accurate NO levels and high O2 concentrations avoiding NO2 accumulation. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed.

  6. Cerebral abscess caused by Serratia marcescens in a premature neonate Abscesso cerebral causado por Serratia marcescens em prematuro

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    Tatiana Mattos Hirooka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral abscesses are extremely rare in neonates. Serratia marcescens is an unusual cause of sepsis and neurological spread is especially ominous. PURPOSE: To report the case of a 34-week neonate who developed this rare condition and to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic measures. CASE REPRT: A 34-week male neonate sequentially developed respiratory distress syndrome, early sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis; later cultures revealed S. marcescens. After deterioration, a cerebral abscess became evident, which revealed S. marcescens. Clinical improvement ensued after high-dose amikacin and meropenem. CONCLUSION: Clinical signs are often non-specific. Proper diagnostic measures, neurosurgical consultation and aggressive antibiotic therapy are essential for these high-risk neonates.INTRODUÇÃO: Abscessos cerebrais são extremamente raros em neonatos. Serratia marcescens é causadora incomum de sepse nestes pacientes e a disseminação no sistema nervoso central é grave. OBJETIVO: Relatar um prematuro de 34 semanas que desenvolveu esta condição e discutir as medidas diagnósticas e terapêuticas. RELATO DE CASO: Prematuro masculino de 34 semanas desenvolveu síndrome do desconforto respiratório, sepse neonatal e enterocolite necrotizante; hemoculturas revelaram S. marcescens. Após deterioração clínica, evidenciou-se um abscesso cerebral cuja drenagem revelou S. marcescens. Houve melhora após introdução de amicacina e meropenem. CONCLUSÃO: Os sinais clínicos são inespecíficos. Passos diagnósticos apropriados, avaliação neurocirúrgica precoce e antibioticoterapia agressiva são essenciais para estes prematuros.

  7. Efficacy of an infection control programme in reducing nosocomial bloodstream infections in a Senegalese neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (Punit, simple, low-cost and sustainable interventions led to the control of a high incidence of bacterial nosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atypical social development in neonatal intensive care unit survivors at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Futoshi; Hemmi, Hayato; Ito, Miharu; Kakita, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Hishida, Manabu; Iguchi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Keiko

    2011-12-01

    Owing to advances in neonatal intensive care, many infants who are hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can survive and grow, and are referred to as NICU survivors. However, social development in NICU survivors has not been fully explored. To examine the social development of NICU survivors, a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used. The M-CHAT was completed by the parents of either NICU survivors (n= 117) or normally delivered children (control group, n= 112) during their regular medical checkups at a corrected age of 12 months. Ninety percent of NICU survivors and 63% of control children did not pass the M-CHAT screen. As it was originally designed for children aged 18-30 months, failed M-CHAT items could have been due to developmental issues and not due to autistic spectrum disorders. However, there was a significant difference in the total number of items failed between the two groups. In particular, many NICU survivors did not pass on M-CHAT items, such as oversensitivity to noise, unusual finger movements, and attempts to attract attention. Concerning perinatal complications, infants with low birthweight and/or the need for respiratory support tended to have a higher number of failures on all M-CHAT items. NICU survivors may have distinct developmental patterns of social communication, and should be followed up for assessment of social skills and neurological development. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Dibley, Michael J; Agho, Kingsley; Roberts, Christine L; Hall, John

    2008-07-09

    Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. The data source for the analysis was the 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00), and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03) compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00) and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02). The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00), male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01), smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00), and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00). Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03). Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should address community, household and individual level factors

  10. Neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury is a cause of infantile spasms

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, GUANG; ZOU, LI-PING; WANG, JING; SHI, XIUYU; TIAN, SHUPING; YANG, XIAOFAN; JU, JUN; YAO, HONGXIANG; LIU, YUJIE

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury is one of the causes of infantile spasms. In the present study, the clinical history and auxiliary examination results of 18 patients who developed infantile spasms several months after neonatal hypoglycemia were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 666 patients with infantile spasms admitted to two pediatric centers between January 2008 and October 2012, 18 patients developed infantile spasms after being diagnosed with neonatal hypoglycemia, defined as a who...

  11. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and psychomotor development at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development. The aim of this study is to assess if high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L) at neonatal screening is linked to psychomotor development impairments in the offspring at preschool age. A total of 284 Belgian preschool children 4-6 years old and their mothers were included in the study. The children were randomly selected from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009 and 2010 by the Brussels newborn screening centre. The sampling was stratified by gender and TSH range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Infants with congenital hypothyroidism (>15 mIU/L), low birth weight and/or prematurity were excluded. Psychomotor development was assessed using the Charlop-Atwell scale of motor coordination. The iodine status of children was determined using median urinary iodine concentration. Socioeconomic, parental and child potential confounding factors were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. TSH level was not significantly associated with total motor score (average change in z-score per unit increase in TSH is 0.02 (-0.03, 0.07), p=0.351), objective motor score (p=0.794) and subjective motor score (p=0.124). No significant associations were found using multivariate regression model to control confounding factors. Mild thyroid dysfunction in the newborn-reflected by an elevation of TSH that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L)-was not associated with impaired psychomotor development at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Successful medical management of a neonate with spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Rossoff, Jenna; Yallapragada, Sushmita; Liem, Robert I; Sharathkumar, Anjali A

    2017-03-01

    Splenic rupture in neonates is a rare event, usually occurring in the setting of underlying predisposing conditions. Here, we present the case of a term neonate who presented with worsening anemia in the setting of known hemolytic disease during the newborn period and was later found to have a spontaneous splenic rupture. He was subsequently diagnosed with severe hemophilia A, and was managed medically with recombinant factor VIII replacement therapy without any surgical intervention. This is the first reported case of a neonate who had spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A, and underwent successful medical treatment without any surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Specialist teams for neonatal transport to neonatal intensive care units for prevention of morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alvin S M; Berry, Andrew; Jones, Lisa J; Sivasangari, Subramaniam

    2015-10-28

    Maternal antenatal transfers provide better neonatal outcomes. However, there will inevitably be some infants who require acute transport to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Because of this, many institutions develop services to provide neonatal transport by specially trained health personnel. However, few studies report on relevant clinical outcomes in infants requiring transport to NICU. To determine the effects of specialist transport teams compared with non-specialist transport teams on the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity among high-risk newborn infants requiring transport to neonatal intensive care. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1966 to 31 July 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 31 July 2015), CINAHL (1982 to 31 July 2015), conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials. neonates requiring transport to a neonatal intensive care unit. transport by a specialist team compared to a non-specialist team. any of the following outcomes - death; adverse events during transport leading to respiratory compromise; and condition on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the information provided in the studies and by personal communication with the author. Data on relevant outcomes were extracted and the effect size estimated and reported as risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. Data from cluster randomised trials were not combined for analysis. One trial met the inclusion criteria of this review but was considered ineligible owing to

  15. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Mendes, Monique; Rossignol, Candace; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Faraji, Ariana; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Doré, Sylvain; Weiss, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A) or carbon monoxide (HI+CO). An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes. Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury), the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury) had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10) compared the HI+A group ( p carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  16. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

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    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  17. Analysis of In-hospital Neonatal Death in the Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in China: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Hong Wang; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Xiao-Mei Tong; Hong Liu; Guo-Fang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background:Globally,the proportion of child deaths that occur in the neonatal period remains a high level of 37-41%.Differences of cause in neonate death exist in different regions as well as in different economic development countries.The specific aim of this study was to investigate the causes,characteristics,and differences of death in neonates during hospitalization in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of China.Methods:All the dead neonates admitted to 26 NICUs were included between January 1,2011,and December 31,2011.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a designed questionnaire.Data collected from each NICU were delivered to the leading institution where the results were analyzed.Results:A total of 744 newborns died during the l-year survey,accounting for 1.2% of all the neonates admitted to 26 NICUs and 37.6% of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age in these hospitals.Preterm neonate death accounted for 59.3% of all the death.The leading causes of death in preterm and term infants were pulmonary disease and infection,respectively.In early neonate period,pulmonary diseases (56.5%) occupied the largest proportion ofpreterm deaths while infection (27%) and neurologic diseases (22%) were the two main causes of term deaths.In late neonate period,infection was the leading cause of both preterm and term neonate deaths.About two-thirds of neonate death occurred after medical care withdrawal.Of the cases who might survive if receiving continuing treatment,parents' concern about the long-term outcomes was the main reason of medical care withdrawal.Conclusions:Neonate death still accounts for a high proportion of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age.Our study showed the majority of neonate death occurred in preterm infants.Cause of death varied with the age of death and gestational age.Accurate and prompt evaluation of the long-term outcomes should be carried out to guide the critical

  18. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  19. News or innovations in neonatal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Totonelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, because of the development of several clinical and technological advances, there has been a revolution in the management of neonatal and pediatric patients. These progresses reported an improvement in the survival rate of extremely ill neonates, who now have the chance to survive into adulthood. The intent of this review is to highlight not only the advances obtained in the neonatal surgery, but also the results of a multidisciplinary work focused on the fetus, preterm and newborn baby with a surgical anomaly or disease.Attention is also paid to the recent tendency to share knowledge, protocols and database out of the single Institution or country and to follow these delicate and fragile neonatal patients to the adulthood, developing the transitional care. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  20. Advancing Neurologic Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a Neonatal Neurologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal neurology is a growing sub-specialty area. Given the considerable amount of neurologic problems present in the neonatal intensive care unit, a neurologist with expertise in neonates is becoming more important. We sought to evaluate the change in neurologic care in the neonatal intensive care unit at our tertiary care hospital by having a dedicated neonatal neurologist. The period post-neonatal neurologist showed a greater number of neurology consultations (Pneurology encounters per patient (Pneurology became part of the multi-disciplinary team providing focused neurologic care to newborns. PMID:23271754

  1. CNS development under altered gravity: cerebellar glial and neuronal protein expression in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Li, G.-H.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity, specifically in relation to the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously employed a hypergravity paradigm to assess the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum [Exp. Biol. Med. 226 (2000) 790]. The present study addresses the molecular mechanisms involved in the cerebellar response to hypergravity. Specifically, the study focuses on the expression of selected glial and neuronal cerebellar proteins in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5 G) from embryonic day (E)11 to postnatal day (P)6 or P9 (the time of maximal cerebellar changes) comparing them against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using quantitative PCR. Densitometric analysis of Western blots suggested a reduction in glial (glial acidic protein, GFAP) and neuronal (neuronal cell adhesion moiecule, NCAM-L1, synaptophysin) proteins, but the changes in individual cerebellar proteins in hypergravity-exposed neonates appeared both age- and gender-specific. RNA analysis suggested a reduction in GFAP and synaptophysin mRNAs on P6. These data suggest that exposure to hypergravity may interfere with the expression of selected cerebellar proteins. These changes in protein expression may be involved in mediating the effect of hypergravity on the developing rat cerebellum.

  2. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  3. Trends in profiles of bacteria causing neonatal sepsis in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing countries suffer from a huge burden of neonatal sepsis. Neonatal mortality and long term sequelae or morbidity portends huge costs for the poor Nigerian economy. We identified trends in bacterial agents implicated in neonatal sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles at the National Hospital Abuja over ...

  4. Surfactant therapy and antibiotics in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, C K; Sankar, M J; Jain, K; Agarwal, R; Paul, V K

    2016-05-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), a common cause of respiratory failure in neonates, is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effects of administration of (a) surfactant-either as lung lavage (SLL) or bolus surfactant (BS) and (b) antibiotics on mortality and severe morbidities in neonates with MAS. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHOLIS and CABI using sensitive search strategies. We included eight studies on use of surfactant and three studies on use of antibiotics. Neither SLL nor BS reduced the risk of mortality in neonates with MAS (relative risk (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 1.57; and RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.66, respectively). Both SLL and BS reduced the duration of hospital stay (mean difference -2.0, 95% CI -3.66 to -0.34; and RR -4.68, 95% CI -7.11 to -2.24 days, respectively) and duration of mechanical ventilation (mean difference -1.31, 95% CI -1.91 to -0.72; and mean difference 5.4, 95% CI -9.76 to -1.03 days). Neonates who received BS needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) less often than the controls (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91). Use of antibiotics for MAS did not result in significant reduction in the risk of mortality, sepsis or duration of hospital stay. Surfactant administration either as SLL or BS for MAS was found to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay; BS also reduced the need for ECMO. Administration of antibiotics did not show any significant clinical benefits in neonates with MAS and no evidence of sepsis. Given the limited number of studies and small number of neonates enrolled, there is an urgent need to generate more evidence on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of these two treatment modalities before recommending them in routine clinical practice.

  5. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN: Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study

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    Jennifer Garcia Jetton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition of neonatal AKI, identify primary risk factors for neonatal AKI, and investigate the contribution of fluid management to AKI events and short term outcomes. METHODS and ANALYSIS: The NKC was established with at least one pediatric nephrologist and neonatologist from 24 institutions from 4 countries (USA, Canada, Australia, India. A Steering Committee and four subcommittees were created. The database subcommittee oversaw the development of the web-based database (MediData Rave™ that captured all NICU admissions from 1/1/14-3/31/14. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate babies with a low likelihood of AKI. Data collection includes: 1 baseline demographic information; 2 daily physiologic parameters and care received during the first week of life; 3 weekly snapshots; 4 discharge information including growth parameters, final diagnoses, discharge medications and need for renal replacement therapy; and 5 all serum creatinine values. ETHICS and DISSEMINATION: AWAKEN was proposed as human subjects research. The study design allowed for a waiver of informed consent/parental permission. NKC investigators will disseminate data through peer-reviewed publications and educational conferences. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this publication is to describe the formation of the NKC, the establishment of the AWAKEN cohort and database, future directions and a few lessons learned. The AWAKEN database includes ~325 unique variables and >4 million discrete data

  6. Transient Neonatal Diabetes Associated with Chromosome 6Q24 Imprinting Abnormalities Part 4. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

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    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the differential diagnosis of diseases that occur with neonatal hyperglycemia. The common causes of neonatal hypoglycemia, variants of its combination with clinical manifestations from the various organs and systems are indicated. There was presented an algorithm for the choice of therapeutic measures in transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM. The features of diet in newborns, insulin therapy and other directions of drug treatment were described. There was provided the information about medical funds of this syndrome, which can be used in the organization of the diagnosis and treatment in children with 6q24-TNDM.

  7. Neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Evelyn Ning Man; George, Susan R.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Silversides, Candice K.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypocalcemia is a common endocrinological condition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Neonatal hypocalcemia may affect neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that neonatal hypocalcemia would be associated with rare, more severe forms of intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used a logistic regression model to investigate potential predictors of intellectual disability severity, including neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and complex congenital heart disease, e.g., interrupted aortic arch, in 149 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Ten subjects had moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Results The model was highly significant (P < 0.0001), showing neonatal seizures (P = 0.0018) and neonatal hypocalcemia (P = 0.047) to be significant predictors of a more severe level of intellectual disability. Neonatal seizures were significantly associated with neonatal hypocalcemia in the entire sample (P < 0.0001), regardless of intellectual level. There was no evidence for the association of moderate- to-severe intellectual disability with other factors such as major structural brain malformations in this sample. Conclusion The results suggest that neonatal seizures may increase the risk for more severe intellectual deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, likely mediated by neonatal hypocalcemia. Neonatal hypocalcemia often remains unrecognized until the postseizure period, when damage to neurons may already have occurred. These findings support the importance of early recognition and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia and potentially neonatal screening for 22q11.2 deletions. PMID:23765047

  8. Candida parapsilosis is a Significant Neonatal Pathogen: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Holland, Linda; Butler, Geraldine; Gacser, Attila; Bliss, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida is the third most common cause of late-onset neonatal sepsis in infants born at Candida infections. C. parapsilosis rates were similar in studies performed before the year 2000, 33.53 % [95% CI, 30.06, 37.40] (28 studies), to those after 2000, 27.00% [95% CI, 8.25, 88.37] (8 studies). The mortality due to neonatal Candida parapsilosis infections was 10.02% [95% CI, 7.66, 13.12]. Geographical variations in C. parapsilosis infections included a low incidence in Europe and higher incidence in North America and Australia. Biofilm formation was a significant virulence determinant and predominant risk factors for C. parapsilosis infections were prematurity, prior colonization and catheterization. Amphotericin B remains the antifungal drug of choice and combination therapy with caspofungin or other echinocandins may be considered in resistant cases. Conclusion C. parapsilosis is a significant neonatal pathogen, comprises a third of all Candida infections and is associated with 10% mortality. Availability of tools for genetic manipulation of this organism will identify virulence determinants and organism characteristics that may explain predilection for preterm neonates. Strategies to prevent horizontal transmission in the neonatal unit are paramount in decreasing infection rates. PMID:23340551

  9. Type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallı, Hale; Bucak, Hakan İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. Sometimes a few status may be nested, as in our case presented here. An 8-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with of intractable diarrhea, polyuria, persistent hypokalemia, abdominal distension and failure to thrive. He was born in the 34 6/7 gestational week (GW) to consanguineous parents. In the 30(th) GW polyhydramnios was verified by ultrasonography. The laboratory results showed hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, and increased urinary loss of chloride, potassium and calcium. An audiogram test revealed complete sensorineural deafness. Ultrasonography revealed medullary nephrocalcinosis in both kidneys. Elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone were found and a provisional diagnosis of type-IV neonatal Bartter syndrome was made. Treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl/KCl was initiated. Despite these therapies, the child's diarrhea persisted but serum potassium concentration normalized, and hypercalciuria and urine output reduced. After determining the high fecal chloride concentration, there was an immediate decompensation of the disease on indomethacin withdrawal, thus a diagnosis of type IV neonatal Bartter syndrome complicated with congenital chloride diarrhea was considered. Indomethacin, spironolactone and supplementary therapies with NaCl/KCl were continued, which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes as well as his physical development, but high contents of chloride in urine and faeces and nephrocalcinosis remains unchanged during 1-year follow-up. Because of the clinical and laboratory simulations between the various diseases that lead to hypokalemic-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, patients must be evaluated carefully.

  10. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

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    Agho Kingsley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. Methods The data source for the analysis was the 2002–2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. Results At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00, and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03 compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00 and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02. The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00, male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01, smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00, and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00. Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03. Conclusion Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should

  11. [Uncommon neonatal case of hypoglycemia: ACTH resistance syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, O; Marrec, C; Caietta, E; Simonin, G; Morel, Y; Girard, N; Roucher, F; Sarles, J; Chabrol, B; Reynaud, R

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring of blood glucose is usually reported to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in term newborns with high risk factors and for prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Differential diagnosis has rarely been discussed. In the eutrophic term newborn, hypoglycemia remains rare and an etiological diagnosis must be made. Intensive management of neonatal hypoglycemia is required to prevent neurodevelopmental defects. Without evident cause or if hypoglycemia persists, a systematic review of possible causes should be made. We report isolated glucocorticoid deficiency diagnosed in an infant at 10 months of age. This boy had neonatal hypoglycemia and mild jaundice that had not been investigated. During his first 9 months of life, he presented frequent infections. At 10 months of age, febrile seizures occurred associated with shock, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, mild hyperpigmentation, and coma. He was diagnosed with hypocortisolemia and elevated ACTH levels. Brain injury was revealed by MRI after resuscitation, with hypoxic-ischemic and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. The molecular studies demonstrated the presence of p.Asp107Asn and previously unreported frameshift p.Pro281GlnfsX9 MC2R gene mutations. A substitutive hormone therapy was provided and during a follow-up of 12 months no adrenal crisis was noted. We report an unusual case of familial glucocorticoid deficiency with severe neurological injury. This case demonstrates the importance of an appropriate etiological diagnosis in neonatal hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The OSR1 rs12329305 polymorphism contributes to the development of congenital malformations in cases of stillborn/neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozić, Bernarda; Krželj, Vjekoslav; Kuzmić-Prusac, Ivana; Kuzmanić-Šamija, Radenka; Čapkun, Vesna; Lasan, Ružica; Zemunik, Tatijana

    2014-08-28

    Involvement of development-related gene polymorphisms in multifactorial/polygenic etiology of stillborn/neonatal deaths due to malformations has been insufficiently tested. Since these genes showed evolutional stability and their mutations are very rare, we can assume that their polymorphic variants may be a risk factor associated with the occurrence of developmental disorders of unknown etiology or can enhance the phenotypic variability of known genetic disorders. To determine the association of 3 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of the early embryonic development of different organs, we conducted an association study of their relation to the particular malformation. We selected 140 samples of archived paraffin tissue samples from deceased patients in which fetal/neonatal autopsy examination had shown congenital abnormalities as the most likely cause of death. The polymorphisms of OSR1 rs12329305, rs9936833 near FOXF1, and HOXA1 rs10951154 were genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, significant allelic association with stillborn/neonatal deaths was observed for rs12329305 (p=7×10-4). In addition, association analysis for the same polymorphism was shown in the subgroup with isolated anomalies (1.25×10^-5), particularly in the subgroup of cases with kidney and heart anomalies (p=4.18×10^-5, p=5.12×10^-8, respectively). The findings of the present study showed, for the first time, the role of the OSR1 rs12329305 polymorphism in the development of congenital malformations in cases of stillborn/neonatal death, particularly in those with congenital kidney and heart developmental defects.

  13. Losartan in combination with propranolol slows the aortic root dilatation in neonatal Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Hang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Marfan syndrome, in contrast to classical Marfan syndrome, is characterized by rapidly progressive multi-valvular cardiac disease and death from congestive heart failure, typically within the first year of life. Due to the rarity of this condition, treatment for neonatal Marfan syndrome has not been well studied. In this report, a combination of losartan and propranolol reduced the aortic root dilatation rate after three months of losartan therapy. Genetic analysis in this patient revealed a mutation in exon 25 of the FBN1 gene, which typically results in a shorter life expectancy. However, the patient's heart failure was controlled by losartan, propranolol and other anti-congestive medications, which may have prolonged his survival. Key Words: FBN1, losartan, neonatal Marfan syndrome

  14. Kangaroo mother care for clinically unstable neonates weighing ≤2000 g: Is it feasible at a hospital in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-06-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff

  15. Model of excitation-contraction coupling of rat neonatal ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Topi; Hänninen, Sandra L; Tavi, Pasi

    2009-02-01

    The neonatal rat ventricular myocyte culture is one of the most popular experimental cardiac cell models. To our knowledge, the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) of these cells, i.e., the process linking the electrical activity to the cytosolic Ca2+ transient and contraction, has not been previously analyzed, nor has it been presented as a complete system in detail. Neonatal cardiomyocytes are in the postnatal developmental stage, and therefore, the features of their ECC differ vastly from those of adult ventricular myocytes. We present the first complete analysis of ECC in these cells by characterizing experimentally the action potential and calcium signaling and developing the first mathematical model of ECC in neonatal cardiomyocytes that we know of. We show that in comparison to adult cardiomyocytes, neonatal cardiomyocytes have long action potentials, heterogeneous cytosolic Ca2+ signals, weaker sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, and stronger sarcolemmal Ca2+ handling, with a significant contribution by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The developed model reproduces faithfully the ECC of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with a novel description of spatial cytosolic [Ca2+] signals. Simulations also demonstrate how an increase in the cell size (hypertrophy) affects the ECC in neonatal cardiomyocytes. This model of ECC in developing cardiomyocytes provides a platform for developing future models of cardiomyocytes at different developmental stages.

  16. Design of wireless sensor system for neonatal monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Nguyen, S.T.; Bouwstra, S.; Coops, R.; Brown, L.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the application of wireless sensor technology and the advantages it will inherently have for neonatal care and monitoring at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). An electrocardiography (ECG) readout board and a wireless transceiver module developed by IMEC at the Holst

  17. Renal injury in neonates: use of "omics" for developing precision medicine in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mandar S; Montgomery, Kelsey A; Giannone, Peter J; Bauer, John A; Hanna, Mina H

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality along with increased healthcare costs. Advances in medicine have enhanced survival for preterm infants but the overall incidence of major morbidities has changed very little. Abnormal renal development is an important consequence of premature birth. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal period is multifactorial and may increase lifetime risk of chronic kidney disease.Traditional biomarkers in newborns suffer from considerable confounders, limiting their use for early identification of AKI. There is a need to develop novel biomarkers that can identify, in real time, the evolution of renal dysfunction in an early diagnostic, monitoring and prognostic fashion. Use of "omics", particularly metabolomics, may provide valuable information regarding functional pathways underlying AKI and prediction of clinical outcomes.The emerging knowledge generated by the application of "omics" (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) in neonatology provides new insights that can help to identify markers of early diagnosis, disease progression, and identify new therapeutic targets. Additionally, omics will have major implications in the field of personalized healthcare in the future. Here, we will review the current knowledge of different omics technologies in neonatal-perinatal medicine including biomarker discovery, defining as yet unrecognized biologic therapeutic targets, and linking of omics to relevant standard indices and long-term outcomes.

  18. [Clinical analysis and follow-up of neonatal purulent meningitis caused by group B streptococcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minli; Zhu, Jianghu; Li, Haijing; Liu, Peining; Lin, Zhenlang

    2014-02-01

    To study the clinical characteristics, antibiotics sensitivity and outcome of group B streptococcus (GBS) meningitis in neonates in order to provide the guide for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. A retrospective review was performed and a total of 13 cases of neonatal purulent meningitis caused by GBS were identified in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January 1, 2005 to May 31, 2013. The clinical characteristics, antibiotics sensitivity test results and outcome were analyzed. Fever, poor feeding, seizure and lethargy were common clinical signs of neonatal purulent meningitis caused by GBS. Three cases of early onset GBS meningitis received prepartum antibiotics. All 13 cases had abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and 11 cases had increased CRP within hours after admission. Of the 13 patients, 7 were cured, 4 discharged with improvement, 2 patients died during hospitalization after being given up because of serious complication. The average length of stay for recovered patients was (47 ± 21)d. Acute complications mainly included hyponatremia (5 cases), intracranial hemorrhage (3 cases) , ventriculomegaly (3 cases) , subdural collection (2 cases) , hydrocephalus (2 cases), septic shock (2 cases), cerebral hernia (1 case), encephalomalacia (1 case). One preterm patient with early onset GBS meningitis died 1 month after hospital discharge. Among 7 survivors with 10-24 months follow-up, 3 were early onset GBS meningitis, 2 with normal results of neurologic examination, 1 with delayed motor development, 4 were late onset GBS meningitis, 1 with normal results of neurologic examination, 3 were neurologically impaired with manifestations including delayed motor development (2 cases) and seizures (1 case). All the GBS strains were sensitive to penicillin and linezolid (13/13, 10/10), the susceptibility to levofloxacin, ampicillin and vancomycin were 11/12, 9/10, 8/13 respectively. The clinical

  19. Noise levels in a neonatal intensive care unit in the Cape metropole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-14

    May 14, 2008 ... stress for the neonate.2 Numerous published studies have ... The effects of noise on infants in the NICU have been well ... difficulties and information processing disorders at pre- and ... Division of Speech, Language and Hearing Therapy, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch ...

  20. Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Cecile

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT results from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet antigens inherited from the father and different from those present in the mother, and usually presents as a severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in otherwise healthy newborns. The incidence has been estimated at 1/800 to 1/1 000 live births. NAIT has been considered to be the platelet counterpart of Rh Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn (RHD. Unlike RHD, NAIT can occur during a first pregnancy. The spectrum of the disease may range from sub-clinical moderate thrombocytopaenia to life-threatening bleeding in the neonatal period. Mildly affected infants may be asymptomatic. In those with severe thrombocytopaenia, the most common presentations are petechiae, purpura or cephalohaematoma at birth, associated with major risk of intracranial haemorrhage (up to 20% of reported cases, which leads to death or neurological sequelae. Alloimmune thrombocytopaenia is more often unexpected and is usually diagnosed after birth. Once suspected, the diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of maternal antiplatelet alloantibodies directed against a paternal antigen inherited by the foetus/neonate. Post-natal management involves transfusion of platelets devoid of this antigen, and should not be delayed by biological confirmation of the diagnosis (once the diagnosis is suspected, especially in case of severe thrombocytopaenia. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce the chances of death and disability due to haemorrhage. Due to the high rate of recurrence and increased severity of the foetal thrombocytopaenia in successive pregnancies, antenatal therapy should be offered. However, management of high-risk pregnancies is still a matter of discussion.

  1. Surgical procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit on critically ill neonates: feasibility and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, M.S.; Jado, A.M.; Al-Bassam, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Transferring unstable, ill neonates to and from the operating rooms carries significant risks and can lead to morbidity. We report on our experience in performing certain procedures in critically ill neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined the feasibility and safety for such an approach. All surgical procedures performed in the NICU between January 1999 and December 2005 were analyzed in terms of demographic data, diagnosis, preoperative stability of the patient, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Operations were performed at beside in the NICU in critically ill, unstable neonates who needed emergency surgery, in neonates of low birth weight (<1000 gm) and in neonates on special equipments like higher frequency ventilators and nitrous oxide. Thirty-seven surgical procedures were performed including 12 laparotomies, bowel resection and stomies, 7 repairs of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, 4 ligations of patent ductus arteriosus and various others. Birth weights ranged between 850 gm and 3500 gm (mean 2000 gm). Gestational age ranged between 25 to 42 weeks (mean, 33 weeks). Age at surgery was between 1 to 30 days (mean, 30 days). Preoperatively, 19 patients (51.3%) were on inotropic support and all were intubated and mechanically ventilated. There was no mortality related to surgical procedures. Postoperatively, one patient developed wound infection and disruption. Performing major surgical procedures in the NICU is both feasible and safe. It is useful in very low birth weight, critically ill neonates who have definite risk attached to transfer to the operating room. No special area is needed in the NICU to perform complication-free surgery, but designing an operating room within the NICU will be ideal. (author)

  2. An agent based architecture for high-risk neonate management at neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Jaleh Shoshtarian; Safdari, Reza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Nayeri, Fatemeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Farajollah, Seide Sedighe Seied

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the use of new tools and technologies has decreased the neonatal mortality rate. Despite the positive effect of using these technologies, the decisions are complex and uncertain in critical conditions when the neonate is preterm or has a low birth weight or malformations. There is a need to automate the high-risk neonate management process by creating real-time and more precise decision support tools. To create a collaborative and real-time environment to manage neonates with critical conditions at the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) and to overcome high-risk neonate management weaknesses by applying a multi agent based analysis and design methodology as a new solution for NICU management. This study was a basic research for medical informatics method development that was carried out in 2017. The requirement analysis was done by reviewing articles on NICU Decision Support Systems. PubMed, Science Direct, and IEEE databases were searched. Only English articles published after 1990 were included; also, a needs assessment was done by reviewing the extracted features and current processes at the NICU environment where the research was conducted. We analyzed the requirements and identified the main system roles (agents) and interactions by a comparative study of existing NICU decision support systems. The Universal Multi Agent Platform (UMAP) was applied to implement a prototype of our multi agent based high-risk neonate management architecture. Local environment agents interacted inside a container and each container interacted with external resources, including other NICU systems and consultation centers. In the NICU container, the main identified agents were reception, monitoring, NICU registry, and outcome prediction, which interacted with human agents including nurses and physicians. Managing patients at the NICU units requires online data collection, real-time collaboration, and management of many components. Multi agent systems are applied as

  3. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus - a case report of a rare cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulting from a mutation in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit. Despite the rarity of permanent neonatal diabetes, this diagnosis should be considered in infants with persis- tent hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy. Children with an ATP-sensitive potassium channel defect in the pancreatic beta cell have an ...

  4. [Neonatal and pediatirc intensive care in developing countries. Myth or reality? Luxury or necessity? From theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, I

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal and pediatric intensive care poses a major challenge in developing countries where the socio-economic level is low and health care resources are limited. Given the large size of the pediatric population as well as of great socio-cultural and symbolic importance of the child, there is a natural, compelling need for management of serious diseases in newborns and infants. The lack of timely disease prevention and treatment accounts in part for the frequency and severity of cases. Thus the status of intensive care units can exist in this setting is a pertinent question. The purpose of this study was to attempt to answer this question by surveying neonatal and pediatric care in developing countries based on experience in Morocco over the last 25 years.

  5. Neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalo, R

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major factor in neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. High prevalence of hypothermia has been reported widely even from warmer tropical countries. In spite of the World Health Organization's recommendation of maintenance of warm chain in newborn care, hypothermia continues to be a common neonatal condition which has remained under-recognized, under-documented, and poorly-managed. This review aims at providing the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal hypothermia as well as provides a pathophysiological overview and management options for neonates with the condition in sub-Saharan Africa. All available published literature on neonatal hypothermia was searched electronically and manually. The principal electronic reference libraries and sites searched were PubMed, Embase, Ajol, Cochrane Reference Libraries and Google Scholar. The search terms used included 'neonatal hypothermia,' 'Cold stress in newborn' 'thermal care of the newborn,' 'neonatal thermogenesis,' 'neonatal cold injury,' among others. Pertinent books and monographs were accessed. Data in formats inaccessible to the reviewer were excluded. Neonatal hypothermia is a major condition of public health importance in countries of sub- Saharan Africa. Awareness of the burden of the disease is still low in some communities. Risk factors for neonatal hypothermia in the region include poverty, home delivery, low birthweight, early bathing of babies, delayed initiation of breastfeeding and inadequate knowledge among health workers. Low-tech facilities to prevent heat losses and provide warmth are available in sub-Saharan Africa and are thus recommended as well as continuous efforts at sensitizing caregivers on the thermal needs of newborns.

  6. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; Mehta, R.; St. Lawrence, K.; Fenster, A.

    2013-11-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular system. There is the potential to use this system to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time in patients with IVH.

  7. Failure to thrive among neonates, associated factors and early neonatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Erica; Manji, Karim; Mpembeni Rose

    2005-01-01

    Failure to thrive or growth failure is an important feature of problems prevalent in the neonate. It remains one of the greatest challenges for the practicing pediatrician and it is a common pathway or outcome of several different underlaying infant and maternal conditions. To determine the prevalence, possible causes and early neonatal outcome of failure to thrive among young infants admitted to the Neonatal Unit in this hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive hospital based study, was carried for 10 months from April 2001 to January 2002 at the Neonatal Unit at Muhimbili National Hospital. (author)

  8. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  9. Development of a Diagnostic Prediction Model for Conductive Conditions in Neonates Using Wideband Acoustic Immittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joshua; Kei, Joseph; Aithal, Sreedevi; Aithal, Venkatesh; Driscoll, Carlie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Manuel, Alehandrea; Joseph, Anjali; Malicka, Alicja N

    2018-03-03

    Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is an emerging test of middle-ear function with potential applications for neonates in screening and diagnostic settings. Previous large-scale diagnostic accuracy studies have assessed the performance of WAI against evoked otoacoustic emissions, but further research is needed using a more stringent reference standard. Research into suitable quantitative techniques to analyze the large volume of data produced by WAI is still in its infancy. Prediction models are an attractive method for analysis of multivariate data because they provide individualized probabilities that a subject has the condition. A clinically useful prediction model must accurately discriminate between normal and abnormal cases and be well calibrated (i.e., give accurate predictions). The present study aimed to develop a diagnostic prediction model for detecting conductive conditions in neonates using WAI. A stringent reference standard was created by combining results of high-frequency tympanometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. High-frequency tympanometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were performed on both ears of 629 healthy neonates to assess outer- and middle-ear function. Wideband absorbance and complex admittance (magnitude and phase) were measured at frequencies ranging from 226 to 8000 Hz in each neonate at ambient pressure using a click stimulus. Results from one ear of each neonate were used to develop the prediction model. WAI results were used as logistic regression predictors to model the probability that an ear had outer/middle-ear dysfunction. WAI variables were modeled both linearly and nonlinearly, to test whether allowing nonlinearity improved model fit and thus calibration. The best-fitting model was validated using the opposite ears and with bootstrap resampling. The best-fitting model used absorbance at 1000 and 2000 Hz, admittance magnitude at 1000 and 2000 Hz, and admittance phase at 1000 and 4000 Hz modeled

  10. Regulation of an antisense RNA with the transition of neonatal to IIb myosin heavy chain during postnatal development and hypothyroidism in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandorf, Clay E; Jiang, Weihua; Qin, Anqi X; Bodell, Paul W; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Haddad, Fadia

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal development of fast skeletal muscle is characterized by a transition in expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, from primarily neonatal MHC at birth to primarily IIb MHC in adults, in a tightly coordinated manner. These isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, which are separated by ∼17 kb on rat chromosome 10. The neonatal-to-IIb MHC transition is inhibited by a hypothyroid state. We examined RNA products [mRNA, pre-mRNA, and natural antisense transcript (NAT)] of developmental and adult-expressed MHC genes (embryonic, neonatal, I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) at 2, 10, 20, and 40 days after birth in normal and thyroid-deficient rat neonates treated with propylthiouracil. We found that a long noncoding antisense-oriented RNA transcript, termed bII NAT, is transcribed from a site within the IIb-Neo intergenic region and across most of the IIb MHC gene. NATs have previously been shown to mediate transcriptional repression of sense-oriented counterparts. The bII NAT is transcriptionally regulated during postnatal development and in response to hypothyroidism. Evidence for a regulatory mechanism is suggested by an inverse relationship between IIb MHC and bII NAT in normal and hypothyroid-treated muscle. Neonatal MHC transcription is coordinately expressed with bII NAT. A comparative phylogenetic analysis also suggests that bII NAT-mediated regulation has been a conserved trait of placental mammals for most of the eutherian evolutionary history. The evidence in support of the regulatory model implicates long noncoding antisense RNA as a mechanism to coordinate the transition between neonatal and IIb MHC during postnatal development.

  11. Hematopoietic growth factors in neonatal medicine: the use of enterally administered hematopoietic growth factors in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Darlene A; Christensen, Robert D

    2004-03-01

    The practice of complete bowel rest in prematurely delivered neonates and those who have undergone surgery for congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is common in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). However, increased recognition of the critical role of growth factors in GI development suggests that this practice might be modified to include the administration of synthetic amniotic fluid-like solutions designed to bridge the neonate between their intra-uterine environment and that of the NICU. This article reviews advances in administering synthetic amniotic fluid-like solutions in the NICU.

  12. Neonatal carrier: An easy to make alternative device to costly transport chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Milind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of sick neonates to the surgical centers or transportation within the center is an essential requirement of neonatal surgery. Neonatal transport incubators are costly, space occupying, and are not available at many places in the developing countries. We report here a cheap yet effective and easy to make, alternate neonatal carrier device.

  13. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al Departamento de Neonatología con diagnóstico de hiperbilirrubinemia agravada. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada fue del 3,67 % y predominó en hermanos con antecedentes de ictericia (56,65 %. El tiempo de aparición fue de 48 a 72 h (76,87 % y entre los factores agravantes se hallaron el nacimiento pretérmino y el bajo peso al nacer. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con luminoterapia (90,17 %. CONCLUSIÓN. La hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada constituye un problema de salud. Los factores agravantes son la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La luminoterapia es una medida terapéutica eficaz para su tratamiento.INTRODUCTION. Most of times jaundice in newborn is a physiological fact due to hyperbilirubinemia of indirect predominance, secondary to liver immaturity and to bilirubin hyperproduction. The aim of present of present study was to determine the behavior of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from 2007 to 2009. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 173 newborn patients admitted in the Neonatology Department diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS. The incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was of 3,67% with predominance in brothers with a history of jaundice (56,65%. The time of appearance was of 48 to 72 hrs (76,87% and among the aggravating factors were the preterm birth and

  14. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung after exposure to fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Razieh; Taghipour, Zahra; Karimi, Akbar; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Shariati, Mahdi; Shabanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari Naveh, Hamid Reza; Bidaki, Reza; Aminzadeh, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group ( P fluoxetine treatment group morphologically appears to be similar to the pseudoglandular phase, whereas the control group lungs experienced more development. According to the upregulated expression of HoxB5 concerning histological findings, results of the present study showed that fluoxetine can influence lung growth and may in turn lead to delay in lung development. So establishment of studies to identify the effects of antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is deserved.

  15. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. [Neonatal septicemia in the G-DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, M; Hentschel, R; Böhler, T; Dirschedl, P

    2006-12-01

    The introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups in Germany (G-DRG) has brought forward the obligation for physicians to take into account an intricate system of medical, economical and legal implementations. Mistakes in the process of encoding the principal diagnosis or procedures may have financial consequences. Problems to determine the correct ICD-code will be most prominent for diseases with poorly defined or even inconsistent diagnostic criteria as is the case for neonatal septicemia. We decided to evaluate whether the introduction of G-DRG resulted in a change of frequency of the diagnosis "neonatal septicemia". We analysed data derived from the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" in the state of Baden-Württemberg during the years of 2001 through 2004, i. e., 2 years before and 2 years during the introduction of G-DRG. During this period an annual number of 12,316 up to 13,172 newborns were admitted to the participating hospitals. The mean number of diagnoses per patient increased from 2.2 to 3.8. The frequency of the diagnosis of septicemia remained constant. The percentage of newborns receiving antibiotic therapy did not change. The ratio of cases with "septicemia yes" over "antibiotics yes" did not change. Although it is difficult to determine the diagnosis of neonatal septicemia and in spite of the economic implications of this diagnosis, no change in the frequency of this diagnosis occurred during the introduction of DRG. Assuming that the participating hospitals used an identical database for the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" and for accounting, we conclude that the DRG system is stable with respect to neonatal septicemia.

  17. Decision-making and the role of surrogacy in withdrawal or withholding of therapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, A

    1998-09-01

    Ideally, decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments in neonates should be arrived at by a team of expert physicians, nurses, and social workers, together with both parents. Surrogates, however, may occasionally have other considerations than the best interest of the ill neonate, and sometimes the postpartum mother may be temporarily incompetent to make such grave decisions. Therefore, a careful assessment of the parents' decision is required. Physical help in the caring for the child, psychologic family counseling, educational and vocational assistance, and even quality institutionalization must be provided if the parents are unable to fully care for the child.

  18. Hazards of pentazocine for neonatal analgesia: a single-centre experience over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, O D; Aghahowa, S E

    2008-09-01

    In developing countries, neonatal analgesia for surgical procedures is a major challenge where postoperative care is inadequate. To report experience of pentazocine for neonatal surgery in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. A retrospective study of surgical neonates who received pentazocine at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Benin City between January 1998 and December 2007. During the period, 2590 paediatric operations were performed including 368 (14.2%) neonates, 49 (13.3%) of whom had pentazocine. The other neonates received a variety of analgesics. Of 56 neonates who developed respiratory depression, 40 (71.4%) had pentazocine (pneonates aged between 9 hours and 28 days [mean (SD) 12 (1.2) days] died between 1 and 36 hours following 8-hourly administration of 0.5 mg/kg pentazocine. In older children who had pentazocine, over-sedation was also a problem but there were no deaths. Deaths in neonates were mainly owing to persistent respiratory depression which was compounded by the unavailability of a paediatric ventilator. However, many neonates responded to naloxone. All neonates who died had an autopsy and no lesion was found which could have compromised respiratory function. The use of pentazocine in neonates was associated with high morbidity and mortality. Caution is required when using pentazocine for neonatal analgesia where post-operative respiratory support is insufficient.

  19. Acute kidney injury in preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vesna; Barišić, Nenad; Milanović, Borko; Doronjski, Aleksandra

    2014-11-01

    The factors that contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and treatment outcome among prematurely born neonates are not clearly understood. This retrospective study included 150 prematurely born neonates. AKI was defined as an increase of serum creatinine levels ≥0.3 mg/dl compared to basal values. The majority of neonates with AKI (94.8 %) had a body weight 5 on the first day of life, core body temperature hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, as well as a treatment with vancomycin or dopamine were independent risk factors for the development of AKI. After the groups of neonates with and without AKI were adjusted, the calculated risk ratio for a negative outcome of treatment (death) was 2.215 (CI 1.27-3.86) for neonates with AKI. Neonates with AKI had higher serum sodium levels in the third and fourth days of life. AKI is associated with high mortality in preterm neonates. It is very important to identify, as quickly as possible, all infants who are at high risk of developing AKI.

  20. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

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    McKay SiripoomV

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of  mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were  mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was versus hours respectively (. The duration of CaI was versus hours respectively (. Conclusions. The addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  1. Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected Neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of suspected septicaemia in neonates in this locality. Five hundred and forty seven ...

  2. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, Do Huu; Phuong, Cam Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  3. Repair of neonatal brain injury : bringing stem cell-based therapy into clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Nienke; Nijboer, Cora H.; van Bel, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury is one of most important causes of neonatal mortality and long-term neurological morbidity in infants born at term. At present, only hypothermia in infants with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy has shown benefit as a neuroprotective strategy. Otherwise,

  4. Disseminated candidemia refractory to caspofungin therapy in an infant with extremely low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ju Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, especially neonates with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW. Here, we describe a 21-day-old ELBW female infant with an amphotericin B-unresponsive congenital Candida albicans infection that was treated with caspofungin. Blood sterilization was performed during the first episode, but a second episode of candidemia occurred after the discontinuation of caspofungin. Blood sterilization was again performed during the second round of caspofungin treatment, but fungal endocarditis and renal fungal balls still developed during the second episode. Caspofungin can be considered for invasive candidiasis in premature infants, especially in life-threatening situations. As for the focal lesions, more aggressive treatments other than just parenteral antibiotics should be considered. The literature regarding caspofungin therapy for neonatal candidiasis is also reviewed.

  5. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  6. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of teicoplanin in neonates: making better use of C-reactive protein to deliver individualized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martín, V; Neely, M N; McGowan, P; Siner, S; Padmore, K; Peak, M; Beresford, M W; Turner, M A; Paulus, S; Hope, W W

    2016-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the optimal teicoplanin regimens for neonates. The study aim was to determine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of teicoplanin in neonates, evaluate currently recommended regimens and explore the exposure-effect relationships. An open-label PK study was conducted. Neonates from 26 to 44 weeks post-menstrual age were recruited (n = 18). The teicoplanin regimen was a 16 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 8 mg/kg once daily. Therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment were not conducted. A standard two-compartment PK model was developed, followed by models that incorporated weight. A PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) model with C-reactive protein serial measurements as the PD input was fitted to the data. Monte Carlo simulations (n = 5000) were performed using Pmetrics. The AUCs at steady state and the proportion of patients achieving the recommended drug exposures (i.e. C min >15 mg/L) were determined. The study was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database Registry (EudraCT: 2012-005738-12). The PK allometric model best accounted for the observed data. The PK parameters medians were: clearance = 0.435 × (weight/70) 0.75 (L/h); volume = 0.765 (L); K cp  = 1.3 (h -1 ); and K pc  = 0.629 (h -1 ). The individual time-course of C-reactive protein was well described using the Bayesian posterior estimates for each patient. The simulated median AUC 96-120 was 302.3 mg·h/L and the median C min at 120 h was 12.9 mg/L; 38.8% of patients attained a C min >15 mg/L by 120 h. Teicoplanin population PK is highly variable in neonates, weight being the best descriptor of PK variability. A low percentage of neonates were able to achieve C min >15 mg/L. The routine use of therapeutic drug monitoring and improved knowledge on the PD of teicoplanin is required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  8. Does aetiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy influence the outcome of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve; Nelson, Karin B

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy, a clinical syndrome affecting term-born and late preterm newborn infants, increases the risk of perinatal death and long-term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, a treatment designed for hypoxic or ischaemic injury, associated mortality and morbidity rates have decreased. Unfortunately, only about one in eight neonates (95% confidence interval) who meet eligibility criteria for therapeutic cooling apparently benefit from the treatment. Studies of infants in representative populations indicate that neonatal encephalopathy is a potential result of a variety of antecedents and that asphyxial complications at birth account for only a small percentage of neonatal encephalopathy. In contrast, clinical case series suggest that a large proportion of neonatal encephalopathy is hypoxic or ischaemic, and trials of therapeutic hypothermia are specifically designed to include only infants exposed to hypoxia or ischaemia. This review addresses the differences, definitional and methodological, between infants studied and investigations undertaken, in population studies compared with cooling trials. It raises the question if there may be subgroups of infants with a clinical diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in whom the pathobiology of neonatal neurological depression is not fundamentally hypoxic or ischaemic and, therefore, for whom cooling may not be beneficial. In addition, it suggests approaches to future trials of cooling plus adjuvant therapy that may contribute to further improvement of care for these vulnerable neonates. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Orff Music Therapy: History, Principles and Further Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Voigt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orff Music Therapy, a developmental approach to music therapy, was developed by Gertrud Orff within the framework of social paediatrics in Munich, Germany. A short historical background of Orff Music Therapy is discussed. The history of the clinical setting in which it was developed is described as is Gertrud Orff’s professional background. The role of Orff-Schulwerk in Orff Music Therapy and the development of theoretical foundations are discussed. Current principles and practice of Orff Music Therapy, illustrated by a case example show how the profile of Orff Music Therapy has developed. On the basis of the case example, theory is related to practice. Finally, changes influencing Orff Music Therapy today, training and research are considered.

  10. Neonatal Hemoperitoneum Secondary to Hemorrhage from Omental Venous Malformation

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    So-Hyun Nam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum in the neonate is uncommon. We report our experience with a neonate who suddenly developed hemoperitoneum in late gestation. Ascites with right pleural effusion initially suggested fetal hydrops. However, a decrease in hemoglobin with bloody ascites from the paracentesis gave the impression of hemoperitoneum. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed no abnormality in the solid organs. Using 3-mm laparoscopic exploration, we found the omental mass and excised it. It was histologically confirmed as a venous malformation. Venous malformation of the omentum with significant bleeding requiring exploration is a very rare condition in the neonate, but it should be considered as a cause of neonatal hemoperitoneum.

  11. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  12. Urinary Levels of IL-1β and GDNF in Preterm Neonates as Potential Biomarkers of Motor Development: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coelho Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers, neurotrophic factors, birth conditions, and the presence of motor development abnormalities in preterm neonates. Methods. Plasma and urinary levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70, chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL9/MIG, and neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF were evaluated in 40 preterm neonates born between 28 and 32 incomplete weeks of gestation, at four distinct time points: at birth (umbilical cord blood (T0, at 48 (T1, at 72 hours (T2, and at 3 weeks after birth (T3. Biomarkers levels were compared between different time points and then associated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP percentiles. Results. Maternal age, plasma, and urinary concentrations of inflammatory molecules and neurotrophic factors were significantly different between groups with normal versus lower than expected motor development. Higher levels of GDNF were found in the group with lower than expected motor development, while IL-1β and CXCL8/IL-8 values were higher in the group with typical motor development. Conclusion. Measurements of cytokines and neurotrophic factors in spot urine may be useful in the follow-up of motor development in preterm neonates.

  13. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  14. Antiretroviral Therapy during the Neonatal Period | Nuttall | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 6–9 weeks of age has been shown to reduce early infant mortality by 76% and HIV progression by 75% compared with cART deferred until clinical or CD4 criteria were met. In the landmark Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial, although the ...

  15. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Douglas-Escobar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates.Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A or carbon monoxide (HI+CO. An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes.Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury, the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10 compared the HI+A group (p < 0.05.Conclusion: CO exposure of 250 ppm did not reach carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  16. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  17. Neonatal Seizure Models to Study Epileptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kasahara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Current therapeutic strategies for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs and surgical treatments that are mainly focused on the suppression of existing seizures rather than the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure. These symptomatic treatments help a certain proportion of patients, but these strategies are not intended to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the primary process of epilepsy development, i.e., epileptogenesis. Epileptogenic changes include reorganization of neural and glial circuits, resulting in the formation of an epileptogenic focus. To achieve the goal of developing “anti-epileptogenic” drugs, we need to clarify the step-by-step mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis for patients whose seizures are not controllable with existing “anti-epileptic” drugs. Epileptogenesis has been studied using animal models of neonatal seizures because such models are useful for studying the latent period before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures and the lowering of the seizure threshold. Further, neonatal seizure models are generally easy to handle and can be applied for in vitro studies because cells in the neonatal brain are suitable for culture. Here, we review two animal models of neonatal seizures for studying epileptogenesis and discuss their features, specifically focusing on hypoxia-ischemia (HI-induced seizures and febrile seizures (FSs. Studying these models will contribute to identifying the potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers of epileptogenesis.

  18. [Prenatal lead exposure related to cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impaired neonatal neurobehavioral development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W

    2016-06-01

    To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, PBDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, PBDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were BDNF was negatively correlated with neonatal neurodevelopment, may serve as a useful biomarker.

  19. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  20. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  1. Cerebral blood oxygenation measurements in neonates with optoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxia is a major contributor to neonatal/infant mortality and morbidity including severe neurological complications such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, motor impairment, and epilepsy. Currently, no technology is capable of accurate monitoring of neonatal cerebral oxygenation. We proposed to use optoacoustics for this application by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and laser diode optoacoustic systems for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation in the reflection mode through open anterior or posterior fontanelles and in the transmission mode through the skull in the occipital area. In this paper we present results of initial tests of the laser diode system for neonatal cerebral oxygenation measurements. First, the system was tested in phantoms simulating neonatal SSS. Then, using the data obtained in the phantoms, we optimized the system's hardware and software and tested it in neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The laser diode system was capable of detecting SSS signals in the reflection mode through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as in the transmission mode through the skull with high signal-to-noise ratio. Using the signals measured at different wavelengths and algorithms developed for oxygenation measurements, the laser diode system provided real-time, continuous oxygenation monitoring with high precision at all these locations.

  2. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreela S Pauliah

    Full Text Available Although selective or whole body cooling combined with optimal intensive care improves outcomes following neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, the safety and efficacy of cooling in low-and middle-income countries is not known.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cooling therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries.Seven trials, comprising a total of 567 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Most study infants had mild (15% or moderate encephalopathy (48% and did not receive invasive ventilation (88%. Cooling devices included water-circulating cooling caps, frozen gel packs, ice, water bottles, and phase-changing material. No statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality was seen with cooling (risk ratio: 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44 to 1.25. Data on other neonatal morbidities and long-term neurological outcomes were insufficient.Cooling therapy was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality in low-and middle-income countries although the confidence intervals were wide and not incompatible with results seen in high-income countries. The apparent lack of treatment effect may be due to the heterogeneity and poor quality of the included studies, inefficiency of the low technology cooling devices, lack of optimal neonatal intensive care, sedation and ventilatory support, overuse of oxygen, or may be due to the intrinsic difference in the population, for example higher rates of perinatal infection, obstructed labor, intrauterine growth retardation and maternal malnutrition. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cooling in adequately powered randomised controlled trials is required before cooling is offered in routine clinical practice in low-and middle-income countries.

  3. Dacriocistitis aguda neonatal (1996-2005 Acute neonatal dacryocystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S López Díaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y retrospectivo en diez años (1996-2005, de todos los neonatos cuyo motivo de ingreso en nuestra Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales fue ser portadores de dacriocistitis aguda. Se obtuvo los siguientes resultados: incidencia 0,04 c/ 100 ingresos. Predominio: edades entre 7-27días (sepsis tardía, sexo femenino 66,6 %, nacidos de embarazos a término y con buen peso al nacer 100 %. Etiología no precisada 83,3 %. Tratamiento utilizado: antibioticoterapia (penicilina + gentacina, 4 pacientes, 66,6 %, (unasyn, 1 paciente, 16,6 %, (amoxicilina + unasyn + gentamicina, 1 paciente, 16,6 %; uso de inmunoglobulina humana en 2 pacientes. Complicaciones: celulitis facial y periorbitaria 66,6 %; absceso periorbitario 33,3 %; fiebre (33,3 % y obstrucción nasal 16,6 %. Evolución satisfactoria con seguimiento por Oftalmología después del egreso hospitalario, en 100 % de los casosA retrospective longitudinal study of all neonates admitted to our Intensive Care Unit because they suffered from acute dacryocystitis was performed for 10 years (1996-2005. The results were as follows: incidence rate of 0,04 per 100 admissions; prevalence: 7-27d age groups (late sepsis, females with 66,6%; neonates born to term pregnancies and with good birthweight in 100%. Inaccurate etiology in 83,3 %. Treatment: antibiotic therapy (penicilline + gentamycin in 4 paients, 66,6%, (unasyn, one patient, 16,6 %, (amoxycillin + unasyn +gentamycin, 1 patient, 16.6 %. Use of human immunoglobulin in 2 patients. Complications: facial and periorbital cellulitis, 66,6%; periorbital abscess 33,3 %; fever (33,3 % and nasal obstruction (16,6 %. Satisfactory recovery with ophtalmological follow-up after discharge from hospital in 100 % of cases

  4. Neonatal neurosonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside.

  5. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flick Louise H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

  6. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  7. [Risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Hei, Ming-Yan; Huang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a municipal hospital, and to provide a basis for the early identification and treatment of NPH. A total of 112 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Shaoyang Central Hospital of Hunan Province and diagnosed with NPH were enrolled as the case group. A nested case-control method was used to select, as a control group (n=224), the neonates who underwent the treatment with an assisted mechanical ventilator and did not experience pulmonary hemorrhage. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to identify the high risk factors for NPH. The univariate analysis showed that compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher incidence rates of gestational diabetes and cholestasis in mothers, cesarean delivery, gestational age <34 weeks, 5-minute Apgar score ≤5, birth weight <2 500 g, heart failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) before the development of NPH, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (oxygenation index, OI) ≤100, and a reduction in mean platelet volume. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DIC, heart failure, and OI ≤100 were independent risk factors for NPH (OR=33.975, 3.975, 1.818 respectively; P<0.05). Heart failure, OI ≤100, and DIC are risk factors for the development of NPH in the NICU of the municipal hospital.

  8. Bayesian automated cortical segmentation for neonatal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Zane; Paquette, Natacha; Ganesh, Bhavana; Wang, Yalin; Ceschin, Rafael; Nelson, Marvin D.; Macyszyn, Luke; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past few years to develop and implement an automated segmentation of neonatal brain structural MRI. However, accurate automated MRI segmentation remains challenging in this population because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, large partial volume effects and inter-individual anatomical variability of the neonatal brain. In this paper, we propose a learning method for segmenting the whole brain cortical grey matter on neonatal T2-weighted images. We trained our algorithm using a neonatal dataset composed of 3 fullterm and 4 preterm infants scanned at term equivalent age. Our segmentation pipeline combines the FAST algorithm from the FSL library software and a Bayesian segmentation approach to create a threshold matrix that minimizes the error of mislabeling brain tissue types. Our method shows promising results with our pilot training set. In both preterm and full-term neonates, automated Bayesian segmentation generates a smoother and more consistent parcellation compared to FAST, while successfully removing the subcortical structure and cleaning the edges of the cortical grey matter. This method show promising refinement of the FAST segmentation by considerably reducing manual input and editing required from the user, and further improving reliability and processing time of neonatal MR images. Further improvement will include a larger dataset of training images acquired from different manufacturers.

  9. [Neonatal hyperthyroidism in a premature infant born to a mother with Grave's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, C; Gire, C; Brémond, V; Minodier, P; Soula, F; d'Ercole, C; Palix, C

    2000-05-01

    Neonatal thyrotoxicosis is most commonly due to transplacental transfer of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb). Bioassay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies may help to determine the risk for neonatal hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxicosis developed in a premature infant born to a mother with Graves' disease, with a low level of TRAb by bioassay. The infant was treated with carbimazole for two months, until TRAb had disappeared. Bioassay TRAb is not always reliable for predicting the development of neonatal hyperthyroidism in infants born to mothers with Graves' disease. Thyroid function should be measured in all these neonates.

  10. Incidence, risk factors, and mortality of neonatal and late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac neonatal lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Nathalie; Lévesque, Kateri; Maltret, Alice; Baron, Gabriel; Hamidou, Mohamed; Orquevaux, Pauline; Piette, Jean-Charles; Barriere, François; Le Bidois, Jérôme; Fermont, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Theulin, Arnaud; Sassolas, François; Hauet, Quentin; Guettrot-Imbert, Gaëlle; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Deligny, Christophe; Hachulla, Eric; Mouthon, Luc; Le Jeunne, Claire; Ravaud, Philippe; Le Mercier, Delphine; Romefort, Bénédicte; Villain, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Damien; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie

    2017-12-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a well-known complication of cardiac neonatal lupus, is associated with high mortality rate. Its risk factors remain unclear. We analyzed occurrence of postnatal DCM among children with high-degree congenital heart block (CHB) and mothers with anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. Among 187 neonates with CHB, 35 (18.8%, one missing data) had DCM and 22 (11.8%) died during a median follow-up of 7years [range: birth-36years]. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with postnatal DCM were in utero DCM (P=0.0199; HR=3.13 [95% CI: 1.20-8.16]), non-European origin (P=0.0052; HR=4.10 [95% CI: 1.81-9.28]) and pacemaker implantation (P=0.0013; HR=5.48 [95% CI: 1.94-15.47]). Postnatal DCM could be categorized in two subgroups: neonatal DCM (n=13, diagnosed at a median age of 0day [birth-4days]) and late-onset DCM (n=22, diagnosed at a median age of 15.2months [3.6months-22.8years]). Factors associated with neonatal DCM were in utero DCM, hydrops, endocardial fibroelastosis and pericardial effusion, whereas those associated with late-onset DCM were non-European origin, in utero mitral valve insufficiency, and pacemaker implantation. Fluorinated steroids showed no protective effect against late-onset DCM (P=0.27; HR=1.65 [95% CI: 0.63-4.25]). Probability of survival at 10years was 23.1% for newborns diagnosed neonatally with DCM, 53.9% for those who developed late-onset DCM, and 98.6% for those without DCM. Neonatal and late-onset DCM appear to be two different entities. None of the known risk factors associated with neonatal DCM predicted late-onset DCM. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function is warranted in all children with CHB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal immunization with ovalbumin prevents neonatal allergy development and up-regulates inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB expression on B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alberto JS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception allergen immunization prevents neonatal allergen sensitization in mice by a complex interaction between regulatory cells/factors and antibodies. The present study assessed the influence of maternal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA on the immune response of 3 day-old and 3 week-old offspring immunized or non-immunized with OVA and evaluated the effect of IgG treatment during fetal development or neonatal period. Results Maternal immunization with OVA showed increased levels of FcγRIIb expression in splenic B cells of neonates, which were maintained for up to 3 weeks and not affected by additional postnatal OVA immunization. Maternal immunization also exerted a down-modulatory effect on both IL-4 and IFN-γ-secreting T cells and IL-4 and IL-12- secreting B cells. Furthermore, immunized neonates from immunized mothers showed a marked inhibition of antigen-specifc IgE Ab production and lowered Th2/Th1 cytokine levels, whereas displaying enhanced FcγRIIb expression on B cells. These offspring also showed reduced antigen-specific proliferative response and lowered B cell responsiveness. Moreover, in vitro evaluation revealed an impairment of B cell activation upon engagement of B cell antigen receptor by IgG from OVA-immunized mice. Finally, in vivo IgG transference during pregnancy or breastfeeding revealed that maternal Ab transference was able to increase regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10, in the prenatal stage; yet only the postnatal treatment prevented neonatal sensitization. None of the IgG treatments induced immunological changes in the offspring, as it was observed for those from OVA-immunized mothers. Conclusion Maternal immunization upregulates the inhibitory FcγRIIb expression on offspring B cells, avoiding skewed Th2 response and development of allergy. These findings contribute to the advancement of prophylactic strategies to prevent allergic diseases in early life.

  12. Triagem auditiva neonatal: incidência de deficiência auditiva neonatal sob a perspectiva da nova legislação paulista Neonatal auditory screening: the incidence of neonatal hearing impairment in the context of the new São Paulo legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Fouad Hanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a incidência de recém-nascidos com deficiência auditiva, em maternidade particular da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: estudo de coorte transversal, realizado no período de 2004 a 2008, em maternidade localizada na zona sul da cidade de São Paulo, com 20.615 recém-nascidos de ambos os sexos, sem indicadores de risco para deficiência auditiva e submetidos à triagem auditiva neonatal. O teste foi realizado por intermédio das Emissões Otoacústicas Evocadas Transientes (EOAET. Os pacientes que falharam nas EOAET nas duas fases foram encaminhados para a realização do Potencial Evocado Auditivo do Tronco Encefálico (PEATE para a confirmação da deficiência auditiva neonatal. Empregou-se o Teste Exato de Fischer e o nível de significância adotado foi de 0,05 oupOBJECTIVES: to determine the incidence of hearing impairment in newborns, at a private maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: a cross-sectional cohort study was carried out covering the period between 2004 and 2008, at a maternity hospital located in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo, including 20,615 newborns of both sexes, with no risk factors for hearing impairment and who had undergone neonatal auditory screening. The test was carried out using the Evoked Transient Otoacoustic Emissions test. Patients who failed both phases of this test were referred to do a Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential test to confirm the presence of neonatal auditory deficiency. Fischer 's exact test was used with a level of significance of 0.05 orp<0.05. RESULTS: the incidence of neonatal hearing impairment found in this study was 1.2/1000. CONCLUSION: state legislation allows neonatal auditory screening to be more effective in achieving early detection of neonatal hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory screening prevents future impairment of oral development and language acquisition in a social, professional and educational context.

  13. [Treatment of neonatal jaundice by efficient phototherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, G

    1985-01-01

    Idiopathic neonatal jaundice derives from an initial insufficiency of all processes which metabolize hydrophobic bilirubin into diglucuronide excretable in bile. The term 'neonatal hyperbilirubinemia' should only be used when there is a potential risk of bilirubin intoxication. Thus, the concept hyperbilirubinemia is not necessarily linked to the exceeding of a certain threshold value, but rather to the maturity of the child and its clinical condition. In this sense, hyperbilirubinemia is, therefore, always a syndrome requiring treatment. Besides substitution transfusion, which is highly effective per se, but risky and costly, enzyme induction (e.g., by administration of phenobarbital) represents an elegant causal therapy; however, because of its slow onset of action, it has to be given prophylactically to almost all newborns. In addition, this method requires a general induction of all microsomal enzyme systems, and is hence a major intervention in the process of maturation of the neonatal enzyme systems. Therefore, phototherapy must be regarded as the treatment of choice in cases of idiopathic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. It leads to a bypassing of the hepatic enzyme insufficiency in that by interaction between light with a wavelength of around 460 nm and the bilirubin molecules in the skin, an isomeric, water-soluble, renally secretable bilirubin is produced. The effect of phototherapy, i.e., the reduction in the serum bilirubin concentration under phototherapy, may be described as a simple e-function. The evaluation of this regular occurrence provides important information applicable to the phototherapy procedure: it should not be initiated prematurely, the duration of radiation should be as short as possible, the irradiated surface as large as possible, the radiation source should be exploited to a maximum by keeping the distance from the light source short and using lateral reflectors. As supporting measures intestinal lavage, early oral administration of

  14. Reproductive performance and neonatal development of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed mine sites on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshwani, H.; Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The ability of reclaimed wetlands created from oil sand tailings to support populations of tree swallows was examined. Nests were provided on the sites of interest to allow swallows to breed, raise their young and feed on flying insects from local wetlands. In order to determine if the bird's health was affected by stressors such as contaminants accumulated through the diet, this study examined reproductive performance and neonatal development of the birds. Two experimental wetlands differing in age were used in this study, notably a 15 year old and 3 year old wetland. Reproduction was measured by clutch size, egg mass, hatchability and offspring survival. Neonatal development was assessed through body measurements, taken on 12 day old nestlings. It was shown that the reproductive success of the adults, and clutch size did not differ between the sites. However, initiation of breeding was earlier at the younger reclamation site. Neonatal development was different between sites, but body mass was not. Birds at the younger site exhibited accelerated tail and wing feather maturation, but birds on the mature site had a larger skeletal size. These findings may be attributed to different dietary, nutritional, and/or endocrine modulating substances moving through the food chain. It was noted that insect density and diversity may have been influenced by different altitudes and vegetation cover at the 2 sites.

  15. Frequency of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS and type of the narcotic substance in neonates born from drug addicted mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: NAS is a combination of signs and symptoms that due to physical and mental dependency, develops in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. The onset of NAS varies in accordance with the type, amount, frequency and duration of substance used. Because of diverse and unclear pattern of substance abuse in Iranian addicted pregnant mothers in comparison with western countries, this multi-center study has been designed to evaluate NAS in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. Material and method: A cross sectional study was carried out on newborns of narcotic addicted mothers during the first six months of 2008. The newborn’s status and clinical signs were checked by physical examination and scored by the Finnegan scoring system. Results: In this study 100 neonates born from narcotic addicted mothers were examined; the most used narcotic was crack (36%. 60% of neonates showed signs of NAS. The most prevalent signs of NAS were increased muscle tonicity (60%/7, irritability (59%/6 and increased moro reflex (51%/8. Neonates born from crack abusers, in comparison with other drugs, were significantly at risk of NAS (100% vs.87%, p

  16. Exposure assessment of neonates in israel to x-ray radiation during hospitalization at neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, H.

    2005-03-01

    Nowadays nearly 10% of all births in western countries are premature. In the last decade, there has been an increase of 45% in the number of neonates that were born in Israel. At the same time, the survival of neonates, especially those with very low birth weight, VLBW, (less than 1,500 gr), has increased dramatically. Diagnostic radiology plays an important role in the assessment and treatment of neonates requiring intensive care. During their prolonged and complex hospitalization, these infants are exposed to multiple radiographic examinations involving X-ray radiation. The extent of the examinations that the infant undergoes depends on its birth weight, gestational age and its medical problems, where most of the treatment effort is focused especially on VLBW neonates. Most of the diagnostic X-ray examinations taken during the hospitalization of neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) consist of imaging of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, namely, the chest and abdomen. The imaging process is done using mobile X-ray units located at the NICUs. Due to their long hospitalization periods and complex medical condition, all neonates, and neonates with VLBW in particular, are exposed to a much higher level of diagnostic radiation, compared to normal newborns. The goal of this research was to assess the extent of the exposure of neonates in Israel to X-ray radiation during their hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit. Five NICUs, located at different geographical zones in Israel and treating 20% of all newborns in Israel every year, participated in this research. The research was conducted in three phases: Phase I: Collection of information on radiographic techniques and exposure parameters (e.g. kV, mAs, focus to skin distance (FSD), examination borders). 499 X-ray examinations (from 157 neonates) were evaluated for necessary and unnecessary exposure of the neonate's organs to X-ray radiation during these examinations. Phase II

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi

    1994-01-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author).

  19. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  20. Neonatal Outcomes in the Birth Center Setting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Danhausen, Kathleen; Alliman, Jill; Phillippi, R David

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review investigates the effect of the birth center setting on neonatal mortality in economically developed countries to aid women and clinicians in decision making. We searched the Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PubMed databases using key terms birth/birthing center or out of hospital with perinatal/neonatal outcomes. Ancestry searches identified additional studies, and an alert was set for new publications. We included primary source studies in English, published after 1980, conducted in a developed country, and researching planned birth in centers with guidelines similar to American Association of Birth Centers standards. After initial review, we conducted a preliminary analysis, assessing which measures of neonatal health, morbidity, and mortality were included across studies. Neonatal mortality was selected as the sole summary measure as other measures were sporadically reported or inconsistently defined. Seventeen studies were included, representing at least 84,500 women admitted to a birth center in labor. There were substantial differences of study design, sampling techniques, and definitions of neonatal outcomes across studies, limiting conclusive statements of the effect of intrapartum care in a birth center. No reviewed study found a statistically increased rate of neonatal mortality in birth centers compared to low-risk women giving birth in hospitals, nor did data suggest a trend toward higher neonatal mortality in birth centers. As in all birth settings, nulliparous women, women aged greater than 35 years, and women with pregnancies of more than 42 weeks' gestation may have an increased risk of neonatal mortality. There are substantial flaws in the literature concerning the effect of birth center care on neonatal outcomes. More research is needed on subgroups at risk of poor outcomes in the birth center environment. To expedite research, consistent use of national and international definitions of perinatal and neonatal mortality within

  1. Assessment of Physical Environment of Iran’s Neonatal Tertiary Care Centers from the Perspective of the Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostajab Razavi Nejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally,it is estimated that approximately 13 million neonates are born prematurely each year. The development of the central nervous system in premature neonates continues outside of the uterus and in the environment of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study aimed to evaluate the physical environment of hospital and nursery in Iran’s tertiary care centers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 23 NICUs of nine Universities of Medical Sciences, where students are trained in the neonatal fellowship course, from seven provinces of Iran, 20th July to 21th September 2015. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 16, and descriptive statistics. Results: In this study, four dimensions of physical environment of hospitals and NICUs including the accessibility of NICU, the physical environment of NICU, infants’ bed space, and the sensory elements of bed spaces were evaluated. The obtained scores for each item was 41.17, 39.95, 38.83, and 39.28 out of 100, respectively. The highest mean score was 71.30 that was related to NICU temperature and ventilation considerations. The lowest mean score was 20, which was related to controlling over the movements around the infants’ beds. The total mean score of the physical environment of hospital and NICU was 39.77. Conclusion: According to the results, it is recommended to take appropriate action to develop physical space and infrastructures for neonatal care regarding developmental care along with other dimensions.

  2. Neonatal delivery weight and risk of future maternal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrea E; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Källen, Karin B M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate associations between neonatal delivery weight and future risk of maternal type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Data included in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and Swedish National Diabetes Registry were merged to include all women born during 1930-1989; patients with pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes were excluded. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify associations between the neonatal delivery weight from the most recent pregnancy and later occurrence of diabetes. There were 1 873 440 patients included in the analyses. An increased risk of type 1 (hazard ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23-4.01) or type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 2.77, 95% CI 2.68-2.87) was observed among patients who had a large for gestational age neonate compared with patients who had neonates within one standard definition of the mean weight for gestational age; the odds of developing type 1 (odds ratio 10.27, 95% CI 7.37-14.31) or type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 8.50, 95% CI 6.01-12.02) within 1 year of delivery was also increased compared with patients who had a neonate within one standard deviation of the mean weight for gestational age. Delivering a large for gestational age neonate was a potent risk factor for the later development of maternal type 1 or type 2 diabetes. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia: 10-year experience suggests the condition is increasingly common but often transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Asaf; Wang, Michael K; Brnjac, Lori; Mahmud, Farid H; Palmert, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    To examine a large population of infants with mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia (MNH) and determine prevalence, clinical characteristics and treatment history. Retrospective study of infants with MNH followed at The Hospital for Sick Children between 2000 and 2011. MNH was defined by an abnormal newborn screen followed by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between 5 and 30 mU/l and normal free T4 (FT4) on confirmatory tests. Mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia represented 22·3% of patients (103/462; 60 boys, 43 girls) within our clinic. Incidence increased from two of 20 in 2000 to 31 of 74 cases in 2010. Seventy eight percent of patients started L-thyroxine (initial dose: 8·3 ± 2·5 mcg/kg). The treated group had higher confirmatory TSH levels (P = 0·001) and had undergone thyroid scintigraphy more often (P = 0·0001) compared with the nontreated group. Evidence of overtreatment was detected in 45% of thyroid function tests obtained during treatment. Among the treated infants who had reached 3 years of age, 45% (N = 14) underwent a trial-off medication. Compared with those not trialled-off therapy, these infants were less likely to have had dose escalations during treatment (P = 0·001). The trial-off treatment was successful in 50% of cases. In the subset of infants with confirmatory TSH >10 mU/l, trial-off therapy was successful in 40%. None of the assessed variables predicted success of trial-off therapy. Mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia is an increasingly common diagnosis. It is more common in males and is often transient, but predictors of success of trial-off therapy were not identified. Further studies are needed to determine optimum L-thyroxine dosing and to determine whether treatment improves neurocognitive outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a term neonate with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who underwent a 72-hour therapeutic hypothermia. He developed unstable body temperature associated with coagulase negative staphylococcus septicemia 2 weeks later which was promptly treated with intravenous antibiotics and made a good recovery. PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “therapeutic hypothermia” and “septicemia,” with limits activated (humans, English, age 0–18 years. There were only 6 randomized controlled trials, 1 non-randomized controlled trial, 1 retrospective cohort, and 1 case-control trial, which showed no definite evidence of increased risk of septicemia or neutrophil dysfunction in infants following hypothermia therapy.

  5. Epidural analgesia in labour and neonatal respiratory distress: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sue; Ijaz, Zainab; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2014-03-01

    Epidural analgesia is the commonest mode for providing pain relief in labour, with a combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl most often used in practice. To test whether late-preterm and term neonates exposed to opioids in epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period. A case-control study was conducted of singleton infants born during January 2006 to December 2010. Cases were neonates ≥34 weeks gestation, who developed respiratory distress within 24 h of life requiring supplemental oxygen ≥2 h and/or positive pressure ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Controls were gestation and site-matched neonates who did not develop any respiratory distress within the same period. The information on exposure to epidural analgesia and on potential confounding variables was obtained from the standardised delivery record, routinely filled out on all women admitted to the labour wards. In our study, 206 cases and 206 matched controls were enrolled. Exposure to epidural analgesia was present in 146 (70.9%) cases as compared with 131 (63.6%) of the controls. The association between exposure to epidural analgesia and respiratory distress in neonates was statistically significant upon adjustment for all potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.99; p = 0.04). When data was separately analysed for term and late-preterm infants, the results were consistent across these subpopulations, showing no interaction effect. Late-preterm and term infants exposed to maternal epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period.

  6. Cortisol intermediates and hydrocortisone responsiveness in critical neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Saarela, Timo; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2017-07-01

    Therapy-resistant hypotension complicates diseases in neonates. Our objective was to investigate whether lack of therapeutic response to plasma expanders and inotropes associates with serum levels of cortisol and its precursors. We investigated 96 infants with hypotension and critical neonatal disease for cortisol metabolism and are divided into responders and non-responders to plasma expanders and inotropes. Serum concentrations of steroids were analysed soon after the onset of volume expansion and inotrope treatment for shock. The 48 non-responders were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) and serum cortisol concentrations were monitored a week later. The mean cortisol concentrations did not differ between the responders and non-responders: 13.6 ± 2.5 and 12.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL, respectively. Dehydroepiandrosterone (37.3 ± 19.5 versus 324.0 ± 106.3; p cortisol and cortisone between the responders and non-responders. Hydrocortisone administration acutely increased blood pressure. Six non-responders who died despite HC administration had low levels of cortisol. The responders had normal serum cortisol after HC treatment. Precursors of cortisol, proximal to the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, accumulated in neonates with hypotension, responding to HC treatment.

  7. Phenobarbital and midazolam increase neonatal seizure-associated neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torolira, Daniel; Suchomelova, Lucie; Wasterlain, Claude G; Niquet, Jerome

    2017-07-01

    Status epilepticus is common in neonates and infants, and is associated with neuronal injury and adverse developmental outcomes. γ-Aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) drugs, the standard treatment for neonatal seizures, can have excitatory effects in the neonatal brain, which may worsen the seizures and their effects. Using a recently developed model of status epilepticus in postnatal day 7 rat pups that results in widespread neuronal injury, we found that the GABA A agonists phenobarbital and midazolam significantly increased status epilepticus-associated neuronal injury in various brain regions. Our results suggest that more research is needed into the possible deleterious effects of GABAergic drugs on neonatal seizures and on excitotoxic neuronal injury in the immature brain. Ann Neurol 2017;82:115-120. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  8. Volume and leak measurements during neonatal CPAP in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Hendrik S.

    2011-01-01

    As yet, little is known about the effects of air leakages during CPAP in newborns. The present doctoral dissertation investigates tidal volume and leak measurements during nasal continuous positive airway pressure in neonates using a commercial ventilatory device. Investigations include in vitro studies, modelling and computer simulation as well as a clinical randomized cross-over trial in neonates.

  9. Fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de sepse neonatal precoce em hospital da rede pública do Brasil Risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis in Brazilian public hospital short-title: early-onset neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Goulart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O conhecimento dos fatores de risco associados à sepse neonatal precoce em unidade de neonatologia, inserida na realidade de nosso sistema de saúde, no sentido de se detectar, prevenir e adotar medidas específicas e reduzir as taxas de mortalidade nessa faixa etária. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os fatores de risco associados a sepse neonatal precoce em hospital de referência em neonatologia ligado à rede pública de saúde. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo, tipo caso-controle. Foram incluídos os recém-nascidos com diagnóstico de sepse precoce e como controle, recém-nascidos sem infecção neonatal nascido na mesma data do recém-nascido considerado como caso. Foram incluídos 50 casos e três controles para cada caso, resultando em amostra total de 200 pacientes. Foi considerada estatisticamente significativa a associação quando p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The determination of the risk factors to early-onset neonatal sepsis in our country is essential to prevent and reduce the mortality associated with this syndrome. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the frequency and associated risk factors to early-onset neonatal sepsis in public hospital in Southern Brazil. METHODS: Observational, case-control study. Were included neonates with diagnostic of early-onset neonatal sepsis and as controls, neonates without neonatal infection. Were included 50 cases and 3 controls for each case resulting in a total sample of 200 patients. Associations were considered significant when p < 0.05. RESULTS: The sepsis frequency was 50.3 per 1000 born-alive. Risk factors associated to the development of neonatal sepsis were prematurity (OR 9.33; p < 0.001, low birth weight (OR 11.74; p < 0.001, maternal infection (OR 2.28; p = 0.009, mother with history of previous infant with neonatal sepsis (OR 6.43; p = 0.035 and rupture of the membranes more than 18 hours before delivery

  10. Study of intraventricular hemorrhage in VLBW neonates admitted in Al-Zahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodeiry, B; Heidarzadeh, M; Sahmani-Asl, S; Hoseini, M; Javaherizadeh, H; Eliasi, S; Abedini, K

    2012-01-01

    Intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is an important predictor of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. IVH risk factor identification may conduct improvement of quality of care in neonatal intensive care units. The aim of the current study was to determine possible risk factors associated with IVH in VLBW neonates admitted in our hospital. All neonates with birth weight below 1500 gr admitted to NICU. Cranial ultrasonography was done for premature neonates weighed 1000 g, sonography was done in 7 days and 30 days of life respectively. If there is any conditions such as apnea, seizure, significant decrease in level of hemoglobin, increased head circumference, increased oxygen consumption, and other significant changes another sonography was done again. Exclusion criteria were cerebral malformations, metabolic disturbances, chromosomal anomalies, central nervous system infection, and genetic syndromes. Data was analyzed by SPSS ver 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). In this study 64 cases with IVH and without IVH were included. Mean of gestational age was 28.78 +/- 12.08. From neonates, 54.6% were boys and 45.4% were girls. Vaginal delivery and cesarean section was done in 56 (32.2%) and 118 (67.8%) cases respectively. Mean +/- SD of pH in cases with IVH and without IVH was 7.19 +/- 0.22 and 7.30 +/- 0.12 respectively (p = 0.001). Mean ISD of pco2 in cases with IVH and without IVH was 65.15 +/- 29.89 and 49.88 +/- 40.89 respectively(p = 0.001). Mean of 5th min APGAR score in patients required CPR was 7.36 +/- 1.57 and in patients without CPR was 8.68 +/- 1.25 (P = 0.001). From cases with IVH, hydrocephaly was detected in 20 cases. From cases without IVH, hydrocephaly was detected in 6 cases. Result of chi-square show significant correlation between IVH and prematurity (chi2 = 21.94, df=1, P preclampsia in mother was significantly higher in cases without IVH (chi-square, p < 0.05). PDA, pressure support, surfactant therapy, inotrop drug administration, vaginal delivery

  11. The initial experience of antithrombin III in the management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peter, Shawn D; Little, Danny C; Calkins, Casey M; Holcomb, George W; Snyder, Charles L; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2007-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the devastating enteric process of premature neonates, is marked by severe intravascular abnormalities and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment to date remains historical and continues to be merely supportive without attempts to ameliorate progress within the inflammatory or coagulation cascades. Antithrombin III (ATIII) supplementation has been shown to favorably alter the process of disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis in adults. However, no reported use of this treatment exists in neonates. Therefore, we analyze the efficacy of our recent experience with ATIII replacement therapy in neonates with NEC. Age and diseased-matched controls with NEC were identified before the introduction of ATIII in our institution and compared against neonates with NEC undergoing ATIII replacement for diminished ATIII levels. Data collected included demographics, course of treatment parameters, and outcomes. Course of treatment parameters included hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time over the first 10 consecutive days of treatment. Outcome variables included packed red blood cell, platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate transfusions, as well as transfusion cost, length of stay, and survival. Over a 5-year period, 19 neonates with NEC received ATIII and were compared to 17 historical controls. Treatment hematologic profiles were not worsened in the ATIII-treated patients. The control patients received less overall transfusions and had a shorter length of stay. Antithrombin III appears to be safe in neonates with NEC, and its impact on reversing intravascular pathology in these patients warrants more thorough investigation.

  12. Cost analysis of neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition in Europe: a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, E; Liu, F X; Maton, P; Storme, T; Perrinet, M; von Delft, O; Puntis, J; Hartigan, D; Dragosits, A; Sondhi, S

    2012-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is critical in neonatal and pediatric care for patients unable to tolerate enteral feeding. This study assessed the total costs of compounding PN therapy for neonates, infants and children. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted in 12 hospitals across four European countries (Belgium, France, Germany and UK) to collect information on resources utilized to compound PN, including nutrients, staff time, equipment cost and supplies. A bottom-up cost model was constructed to assess total costs of PN therapy by assigning monetary values to the resource utilization using published list prices and interview data. A total of 49,922 PN bags per year were used to treat 4295 neonatal and pediatric patients among these hospitals. The daily total costs of one compounded PN bag for neonates in the 12 hospitals across the four countries equalled euro 55.16 (Belgium euro 53.26, France euro 46.23, Germany euro 64.05, UK Ł 37.43/\\[euro]42.86). Overall, nutrients accounted for 25% of total costs, supplies 18%, wages 54% and equipment 3%. Average costs per bag for infants France, euro 92.70 in Germany and Ł 52.63/euro 60.26 in the UK), and for children 2-18 years euro 118.02 (euro 93.85 in Belgium, euro 121.35 in France, euro 124.54 in Germany and Ł 69.49/euro 79.56 in the UK), of which 63% is attributable to nutrients and 28% to wages. The data indicated that PN costs differ among countries and a major proportion was due to staff time (Ł 1=euro 1.144959).

  13. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  14. A gap between need and reality: neonatal nursing staff requirements on a German intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Patry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new staffing rules for neonatal nurses in intensive care units (ICU were issued in Germany, using categories of care of the British Association of Perinatal Medicine as blueprint. Neonates on intensive care require a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:1, on intensive surveillance (high dependency care of 1:2. No requirements exist for special care, transitional care, and pediatric ICU patients. Using these rules, nursing staff requirement was calculated over a period of 31 consecutive days once a day in a combined pediatric and neonatal ICU of a metropolitan academic medical center in south-west Germany. Each day, 18.9±0.98 patients (mean±standard deviation were assessed (14.26±1.21 neonatal, 4.65±0.98 pediatric. Among neonates, 9.94±2.56 received intensive therapy, 3.77±1.85 intensive surveillance, and 0.65±0.71 special care. Average nursing staff requirement was 12.10±1.81 full time equivalents (FTE per shift. Considering additional pediatric patients in the ICU and actual nursing staff availability (8.97±0.87 FTE per shift, this ICU seems understaffed.

  15. [Neonatal meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes after 3 weeks of maternal treatment during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Beizig, S; Le Monnier, A; Lacroze, V; Simeoni, U

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman with listeriosis at 26 gestational weeks followed by premature labor at 30 gestational weeks. Bacterial meningitis was suspected in the neonate with ventriculitis on sonography, a high level of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and an identified specific bacterial genome of Listeria monocytogenes (PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing and specific amplification of L. monocytogenes hly gene) in CSF. Neonatal meningitis was complicated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and ventriculomegaly. Listeriosis during pregnancy can lead to severe complications in the neonate. Thus, listeriosis should be a diagnostic concern in febrile pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy. First-line treatment is based on high-dose amoxicillin (> or =6g/day) and must be used for at least 3 weeks for treatment of listeriosis during pregnancy. If the fetus survives, longer therapy until delivery can be discussed.

  16. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photodegradation of riboflavin in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The biologically most important flavins are riboflavin and its related nucleotides, all highly sensitive to light. It is because of its photoreactivity and its presence in almost all body fluids and tissues that riboflavin assumes importance in phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The absorption maxima of both bilirubin and riboflavin in the body are nearly identical: 445-450 (447) nm. In consequence, blue visible light will cause photoisomerization of bilirubin accompanied by photodegradation of riboflavin. This results in diminished erythrocyte glutathione reductase, which indicates generalized tissue riboflavin deficiency and red cell lysis. Single- and double-strand breaks in intracellular DNA have occurred with phototherapy. This light exposure of neonates may result also in alterations of bilirubin-albumin binding in the presence of both riboflavin and theophylline (the latter frequently given to prevent neonatal apnea). Many newborns, especially if premature, have low stores of riboflavin at birth. The absorptive capacity of premature infants for enteral riboflavin is likewise reduced. Consequently, inherently low stores and low intake of riboflavin plus phototherapy for neonatal jaundice will cause a deficiency of riboflavin at a critical period for the newborn. Supplementation to those infants most likely to develop riboflavin deficiency is useful, but dosage, time, and mode of administration to infants undergoing phototherapy must be carefully adjusted to avoid unwanted side effects

  18. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  19. A Pediatrician’s Practical Guide to Diagnosing and Treating Hereditary Spherocytosis in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Hassan M.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn infants who have hereditary spherocytosis (HS) can develop anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction is less likely in these neonates if the diagnosis of HS is recognized and appropriate treatment provided. Among neonates listed in the USA Kernicterus Registry, HS was the third most common underlying hemolytic condition after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ABO hemolytic disease. HS is the leading cause of direct antiglobulin test (direct Coombs) negative hemolytic anemia requiring erythrocyte transfusion in the first months of life. We anticipate that as physicians become more familiar with diagnosing HS in the newborn period, fewer neonates with HS will develop hazardous hyperbilirubinemia or present to emergency departments with unanticipated symptomatic anemia. We predict that early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and anticipatory guidance will prevent adverse outcomes in neonates with HS. The purpose of this article was to review the neonatal presentation of HS and to provide practical and up-to-date means of diagnosing and treating HS in neonates. PMID:26009624

  20. Neonatal Informatics: Transforming Neonatal Care Through Translational Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jonathan P.; Benitz, William E.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Butte, Atul J.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of neonatal informatics will be driven by the availability of increasingly vast amounts of clinical and genetic data. The field of translational bioinformatics is concerned with linking and learning from these data and applying new findings to clinical care to transform the data into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health. As a result of advances in translational informatics, the care of neonates will become more data driven, evidence based, and personalized. PMID:22924023

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Preterm and Term Neonates: Model Development and External Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; Roberts, Jessica K; Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Stockmann, Chris; King, Amber D; Deutsch, Nina; Williams, Elaine F; Allegaert, Karel; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T; van den Anker, John N

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for intravenous paracetamol in preterm and term neonates and to assess the generalizability of the model by testing its predictive performance in an external dataset. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were constructed from paracetamol concentration-time data in NONMEM 7.2. Potential covariates included body weight, gestational age, postnatal age, postmenstrual age, sex, race, total bilirubin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. An external dataset was used to test the predictive performance of the model through calculation of bias, precision, and normalized prediction distribution errors. The model-building dataset included 260 observations from 35 neonates with a mean gestational age of 33.6 weeks [standard deviation (SD) 6.6]. Data were well-described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Weight predicted paracetamol clearance and volume of distribution, which were estimated as 0.348 L/h (5.5 % relative standard error; 30.8 % coefficient of variation) and 2.46 L (3.5 % relative standard error; 14.3 % coefficient of variation), respectively, at the mean subject weight of 2.30 kg. An external evaluation was performed on an independent dataset that included 436 observations from 60 neonates with a mean gestational age of 35.6 weeks (SD 4.3). The median prediction error was 10.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.1-14.3] and the median absolute prediction error was 25.3 % (95 % CI 23.1-28.1). Weight predicted intravenous paracetamol pharmacokinetics in neonates ranging from extreme preterm to full-term gestational status. External evaluation suggested that these findings should be generalizable to other similar patient populations.

  2. Neonatal mortality in a referral hospital in Cameroon over a seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neonatal mortality rate followed a downward trend dropping from 12.4% in 2004 to 7.2% in 2010. ... Neonatal sepsis, prematurity, birth asphyxia and congenital malformations were ... in developing countries where access to health care.

  3. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother′s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  4. Music From the Very Beginning—A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Music as Therapy for Preterm Infants and Their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Barbara Haslbeck

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice may also have an impact on brain maturation. Therefore, a nurturing enrichment of the auditory environment for preterm infants is warranted. Creative music therapy (CMT addresses these demands by offering infant-directed singing in lullaby-style that is continually adapted to the neonate’s needs. The therapeutic approach is tailored to the individual developmental stage, entrained to the breathing rhythm, and adapted to the subtle expressions of the newborn. Not only the therapist and the neonate but also the parents play a role in CMT. In this article, we describe how to apply music therapy in a neonatal intensive care environment to support very preterm infants and their families. We speculate that the enriched musical experience may promote brain development and we critically discuss the available evidence in support of our assumption.

  5. Design of smart neonatal health monitoring system using SMCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debashis; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Sau, Arkaprabha; Bhakta, Ishita

    2017-02-01

    Automated health monitoring and alert system development is a demanding research area today. Most of the currently available monitoring and controlling medical devices are wired which limits freeness of working environment. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a better alternative in such an environment. Neonatal intensive care unit is used to take care of sick and premature neonates. Hypothermia is an independent risk factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity. To prevent it an automated monitoring system is required. In this Letter, an automated neonatal health monitoring system is designed using sensor mobile cloud computing (SMCC). SMCC is based on WSN and MCC. In the authors' system temperature sensor, acceleration sensor and heart rate measurement sensor are used to monitor body temperature, acceleration due to body movement and heart rate of neonates. The sensor data are stored inside the cloud. The health person continuously monitors and accesses these data through the mobile device using an Android Application for neonatal monitoring. When an abnormal situation arises, an alert is generated in the mobile device of the health person. By alerting health professional using such an automated system, early care is provided to the affected babies and the probability of recovery is increased.

  6. Reducing neonatal deaths in South Africa: Progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rhoda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although current levels of the neonatal mortality rate (NMR are within reach of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG target of 12 per 1 000 live births, the absolute number of deaths is unacceptably high for a lower-middle-income country such as South Africa (SA. Neonatal mortality over the last decade has declined very slowly, and is not commensurate with the level of government investment in healthcare. The recent neonatal mortality rate of 21 per 1 000 live births reported by the SA Demographic Health Survey is of major concern. This paper reviews recent efforts to reduce the neonatal mortality rate, including support for the implementation of neonatal policies and plans, and strengthening programmes to deliver low-cost, high-impact interventions. We review recent estimates of the NMR and causes of neonatal deaths, and discuss how the mortality from preventable causes of death could be reduced. If SA is to meet the SDG target, special attention should be given to the availability of high-impact interventions, providing an adequate number of appropriately trained healthcare providers and a more active role played by ward-based community health workers and district clinical specialist teams.

  7. Neonatal mortality in a referral hospital in Cameroon over a seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neonatal mortality rate followed a downward trend dropping from12.4% in 2004 to 7.2% in 2010. ... Neonatal sepsis, prematurity, birth asphyxia and congenital malformations were ... cur in developing countries where access to health care.

  8. Bilirubin isomer distribution in jaundiced neonates during phototherapy with LED light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Finn; Madsen, Poul H; Vandborg, Pernille K; Jakobsen, Lasse H; Trydal, Torleif; Vreman, Hendrik J

    2016-10-01

    Phototherapy using blue light is the treatment of choice worldwide for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, treatment with turquoise light may be a desirable alternative. Therefore, the aim of this randomized, controlled study was to compare the bilirubin isomer distribution in serum of jaundiced neonates after 24 h of therapy with narrow-band (LED) light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue), of essentially equal irradiance. Eighty-three neonates (≥33 wk gestational age) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were included in the study. Forty neonates were exposed to light centered at 497 nm and 43 infants with light centered at 459 nm. Irradiances were 5.2 × 10(15) and 5.1 × 10(15) photons/cm(2)/s, respectively. After 24 h of treatment no significant differences in serum concentrations of total bilirubin isomers and Z,Z-bilirubin were observed between the 2 groups. Interestingly, concentrations of Z,E-bilirubin, and thus also total bilirubin isomers formed during therapy, were highest for infants receiving light centered at 459 nm, while the concentration of E,Z-bilirubin was highest for those receiving light centered at 497 nm. No significant difference was found between concentrations of E,Z-lumirubin. Therapy with LED light centered at 497 nm vs. 459 nm, applied with equal irradiance on the infants, resulted in a different distribution of bilirubin isomers in serum.

  9. Creative music therapy to promote brain structure, function, and neurobehavioral outcomes in preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Bassler, Dirk; Hagmann, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins. CMT may promote brain development in preterm infants via concurrent interaction and meaningful auditory stimulation. We hypothesize that preterm infants who receive creative music therapy during neonatal intensive care admission will have developmental benefits short- and long-term brain function. A prospective, randomized controlled single-center pilot trial involving 60 clinically stable preterm infants under 32 weeks of gestational age is conducted in preparation for a multi-center trial. Thirty infants each are randomized to either standard neonatal intensive care or standard care with CMT. Music therapy intervention is approximately 20 min in duration three times per week. A trained music therapist sings for the infants in lullaby style, individually entrained and adjusted to the infant's rhythm and affect. Primary objectives of this study are feasibility of protocol implementation and investigating the potential mechanism of efficacy for this new intervention. To examine the effect of this new intervention, non-invasive, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at corrected age and standardized neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition at a corrected age of 24 months and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years will be performed. All assessments will be performed and analyzed by blinded experts. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to systematically examine possible

  10. A study investigating sound sources and noise levels in neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Exposure to noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has the potential to affect neonatal auditory development, sleep patterns and physiological stability, thus impacting on developmental progress. Objectives. This study aimed to identify noise sources in three NICUs in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ...

  11. Neonatal colonisation expands a specific intestinal antigen-presenting cell subset prior to CD4 T-cell expansion, without altering T-cell repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte F Inman

    Full Text Available Interactions between the early-life colonising intestinal microbiota and the developing immune system are critical in determining the nature of immune responses in later life. Studies in neonatal animals in which this interaction can be examined are central to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota impacts on immune development and to developing therapies based on manipulation of the microbiome. The inbred piglet model represents a system that is comparable to human neonates and allows for control of the impact of maternal factors. Here we show that colonisation with a defined microbiota produces expansion of mucosal plasma cells and of T-lymphocytes without altering the repertoire of alpha beta T-cells in the intestine. Importantly, this is preceded by microbially-induced expansion of a signal regulatory protein α-positive (SIRPα(+ antigen-presenting cell subset, whilst SIRPα(-CD11R1(+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs are unaffected by colonisation. The central role of intestinal APCs in the induction and maintenance of mucosal immunity implicates SIRPα(+ antigen-presenting cells as orchestrators of early-life mucosal immune development.

  12. Laparoscopic management of a large ovarian cyst in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, A; Jibril, A; Youngson, G

    1998-10-01

    Laparotomy has become the preferred approach to the excision of large, complex abdominal cysts in the neonate. We describe a laparoscopic-assisted decapsulation of an antenatally diagnosed abdominal cyst that was noted on postnatal ultrasound scan to have a complex echo pattern. This limited procedure allows for accurate verification of the diagnosis, institution of appropriate therapy, and organ salvage. It represents a superior management option that obviates the significant complications associated with conservative management.

  13. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

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    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  14. Swine as a model for the study of maternal neonatal immunoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.E.; Cambier, J.C.; Klobasa, F.; Werhahn, E.

    1986-01-01

    Swine provide a useful model for evaluating maternal antibody influences on the immune system of developing neonates. Unlike rodents and humans, no antibodies are transferred passively in utero so that newborn piglets, unlike mice pups and babies, enter the world having had no previous exposure to antibodies of their mothers. If maternal antibodies transmitted in utero are immunoregulatory and are in part the basis for neonatal unresponsiveness in neonatal mice and infants, swine offer a model with which to study this regulation. Neonatal piglets can be obtained at birth before suckling and reared in ''artificial sows'' without maternal antibodies which may be administered to neonates in metered amounts with regard to specificity, isotype and idiotype. Fetal piglets can be manipulated surgically in utero; their blood vascular system can be cannulated permitting in utero immunization and continuous sampling. Maternal immunoglobulins play an immunoregulatory role in both conventional and artificial feeding experiments. Data are presented which illustrate the magnitude of this phenomenon and which show that such an effect occurs naturally when piglets suckling first gestation and multilitter sows are compared. Finally, data are reviewed on the characterization of an idiotype anti-idiotype system developed to probe the mechanism of maternal neonatal immunoregulation

  15. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  16. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, J; Lawrence, K St; De Ribaupierre, S; Fenster, A; Lee, D S C; Mehta, R

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of 3 for a single observer. Results from ANOVA for three observers segmenting three patients of IVH grade II did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular system. There is the potential to use this system to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time in patients with IVH. (paper)

  17. Colonization with hospital flora and its associated risk factors in neonates hospitalized in neonatal ward of a teaching center in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kiana; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Ataei, Behrouz; Akhani, Khatere

    2018-01-01

    Due to the high incidence and prevalence of infection in neonatal ward, especially Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) reported by different studies and the important role of colonization with hospital germs in the development of nosocomial infections, we intended to evaluate the risk of colonization with hospital germs in neonates and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2016 in a Teaching Center in Iran. In total, 51 neonates were selected based on the inclusion criteria, and after recording their information in a checklist, samples were taken by swab from outer ear, axilla, and groin for culture. Neonates with negative culture from mentioned regions were enrolled in the study. The swab samples again were taken and sent for culture from mentioned regions in at least 3 days after hospitalization. Culture results from first and second sampling were collected and analyzed statistically. This study was conducted on 51 neonates. The mean gestational age among the neonates ranged from 35.25 (Week) ± 2.98. 22 girls (43.1%) and 29 boys (56.9%), most of them were born by cesarean. Based on the results of logistic regression, a significant association was found between the occurrence of colonization of hospital flora and the place hospitalization of the newborns (odds ratio (OR): 4.750; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-17.85). This study revealed that the only risk factors of colonization with hospital flora in neonates are the type of delivery and place of hospitalization. Based on findings of the study, it is recommended to focus on efforts in increasing the rate of natural birth as well as improving conditions of infection control in NICUs to reduce the number of incidences of colonization with hospital flora in neonates.

  18. Neonatal Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Doreen; Morris, Maryke

    1994-01-01

    "Neonatal Nursing" offers a systematic approach to the nursing care of the sick newborn baby. Nursing actions and responsibilities are the focus of the text with relevant research findings, clinical applications, anatomy, physiology and pathology provided where necessary. This comprehensive text covers all areas of neonatal nursing including ethics, continuing care in the community, intranatal care, statistics and pharmokinetics so that holistic care of the infant is described. This book shou...

  19. The Impact of Twin Birth on Early Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Monica; Schiavolin, Paola; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Uccella, Sara; De Carli, Agnese; Passera, Sofia; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Dessimone, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Acaia, Barbara; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the impact of twin birth, chorionicity, intertwin birth weight (BW) discordance and birth order on neonatal outcomes. We performed a hospital-based retrospective study on 2,170 twins (6.4% of all live births) and 2,217 singletons inborn 2007 to 2011. Data on neonatal characteristics, morbidities, and mortality were collected and compared. Univariate and multiple (adjusted for gestational age [GA] and gender) linear random intercept regression models were used. Overall, 62.3% of twins were born premature. At multiple regression, twins were similar to singletons for neonatal morbidities, but they were more likely to have lower BW and to be born by cesarean delivery. Monochorionic twins had lower GA and BW compared with dichorionic ones and were more likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), hypoglycemia (OR, 3.3), need for transfusion, (OR, 3.4) but not brain abnormalities. Moderate and severe BW discordance were associated with longer length of stay and increased risk for morbidities but not for death. Birth order had no effects. Prematurity was the most common outcome in twins and accounted for the apparently increased risk in morbidities. Monochorionicity was confirmed as risk factor for lower GA and neonatal morbidities. BW discordance may play a role in developing neonatal complications and needs to be further investigated. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Neonatal Outcomes of Rh-Negative Pregnancies in a Tertiary Level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Study

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    Chacham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Rhesus incompatibility is a preventable cause for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, hydrops fetalis and still births. The prevalence of the Rh-negative blood group among Indian woman varies from 2% - 10%. Despite declining the incidence of Rhesus incompatibility, due to availability of anti-D immunoglobulin, and improved antenatal care of the Rh-negative pregnant woman, it still accounts for a significant proportion of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and neuro-morbidity. The prevalence of Rh-negative women having Rh-positive neonates is 60%. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the incidence of Rh iso-immunization and evaluate the outcomes of Rh iso-immunized neonates. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit, Princess Esra hospital, Deccan college of medical sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Consecutive intramural and extramural neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit with the Rh-negative mother’s blood group and hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled. Neonates born to Rh+ve mothers were excluded. Neonatal gestational age, birth weight, age at admission, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, neonatal examination and investigations were recorded in a predesigned, pretested performa. Results A total of 90 neonates were born to Rh-negative mothers, of which 70% (63 had the Rh-positive blood group and 30% had the Rh-negative blood group. Of these 63 neonates, 48 (76.2% had hyperbilirubinemia and 43 neonates (68.3% had significant hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin > 15mg/dL. Among them, 2%, 75% and 23% were born to primi, multi and grandmutli, respectively. Also, 14.5% of the neonates were large for dates (LFD, 75% appropriate for dates (AFD and 10.5% were small for dates (SFD. Premature and SFD neonates had higher incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Significantly higher incidence of jaundice occurred within 72 hours of life. The mean

  1. SERUM SODIUM CHANGES IN NEONATES RECEIVING PHOTOTHERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

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    Sunil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Neonates receiving phototherapy have side effects like hypocalcemia and electrolyte changes. Our study is hereby intended to study the serum sodium changes due to phototherapy. AIMS : To evaluate the serum sodium changes in neonates receiving phototherapy f or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A prospective hospital based comparative study conducted on neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit receiving phototherapy. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A predesigned proforma has aided the enroll ment of 252 newborns into the study. Serum bilirubin and serum sodium were determined before and after termination of phototherapy. The first samples were considered as controls. A comparative study was made between before and after phototherapy groups to determine the incidence of serum sodium imbalances. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Proportions will be compared using chi - square test. All data of various groups will be tabulated and statistically analyzed using suitable statistical tests (Student's t test. RESULTS : Male to Female ratio was 1.45 : 1. Incidence of low birth weight babies was 23% and preterm was 20.2%. Mean birth weight and gestational age was 2.84±0.51 kg and 38.44±1.98 wks respectively. Mean duration of phototherapy was 37.65±11.06 hrs. The incidence of hyponatremia post phototherapy found to be 6% which was more in low birth weight (LBW babies (17.2% , p48 hrs (p<0.001. Even the decline in mean serum sodium values after phototherapy found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Our study shows that neonates u nder phototherapy are at higher risk of hyponatremia. This risk is greater in premature and LBW babies and hence this group of babies should be closely monitored for changes in serum sodium and should be managed accordingly.

  2. Aspectos clínicos da fenilcetonúria em serviço de referência em triagem neonatal da Bahia Clinical aspects of phenylketonuria in a reference service for neonatal screening in Bahia

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    Tatiana Amorim

    2005-12-01

    (78,4% were diagnosed on neonatal screening, thus receiving early treatment. Consanguinity was registered in 32.6% of the families. The average age at the adoption of therapy was 56.6 37.8 days on the patients diagnosed on neonatal screening and 7.1 years among those with a late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: the relevance of this study to public health lies upon the fact that it describes clinical features of a group of patients with a disease included on the National Neonatal Screening Program. Among clinical data, we highlight the average age at the adoption of therapy, which is higher than the recommended by medical literature, stressing the need of reinforcing the importance of early diagnosis.

  3. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother's age at birth (birth interval (long, short) and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+). Socio-economic variables included: mother education level (none, primary

  4. Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy independently predict mortality in neonatal and pediatric noncardiac patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, David J; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Hamilton, Kiya; Cutter, Gary; Laney, Debbie; Kaslow, Richard; Georgeson, Keith; Barnhart, Douglas C; Dimmitt, Reed A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the independent impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in infants and children who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Despite continued expertise/technological advancement, patients who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have high mortality. AKI and RRT portend poor outcomes independent of comorbidities and illness severity in several critically ill populations. Retrospective cohort study. The primary variables explored are AKI (categorical complication code for serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Revision 9 for acute renal failure), and RRT (complication/Current Procedural Terminology code for dialysis or hemofiltration). Multiple variables previously associated with mortality in this population were controlled, using logistic stepwise regression. Decision tree modeling was performed to determine optimal variables and cut points to predict mortality. Critically ill neonates (0-30 days old) and children (> 30 days but optimizing the timing/delivery of RRT may positively impact survival.

  5. Cause of neonatal deaths in Northern Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

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    Hayelom Gebrekirstos Mengesha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant reduction in childhood mortality, neonatal mortality has shown little or no concomitant decline worldwide. The dilemma arises in that the lack of documentation of cause of death in developing countries, where registration of vital events is virtually nonexistent. Understanding of the causes of death in neonates is important to guide public health interventions. The present study identifies the common causes of neonatal death in Ethiopia. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among neonates born between April 2014 and July 2014 in seven hospitals, in Tigray region, Ethiopia. Mothers were interviewed by midwifes respecting risk factors and infant survival. For neonates who died in hospital, causes of death were extracted from medical records, whereas a verbal autopsy method provided presumptive assignment of cause of death for those infants who died at home. Results Of the1152 live births, there were 68 deaths (63 per 1000 live births. Two thirds of deaths were attributable to prematurity 23 (34% or asphyxia 21 (31%. Slight variance was seen between the morality patterns in early and late neonatal periods. In the early neonatal period, 37% were due to prematurity, while asphyxia (35% was more common in the late neonatal period. All infection-related deaths occurred in neonate-mother dyads from rural areas. Conclusion Prematurity, asphyxia, and infections were the leading causes of neonatal deaths in Tigray region during the study period. Causes of deaths identified during early and late neonatal mortality differed, which clearly indicates the need for responsive and evidence-based interventions and policies.

  6. Rescuer fatigue during simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, E S; Cheung, P-Y; O'Reilly, M; Aziz, K; Schmölzer, G M

    2015-02-01

    To assess development of fatigue during chest compressions (CCs) in simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prospective randomized manikin crossover study. Thirty neonatal healthcare professionals who successfully completed the Neonatal Resuscitation Program performed CPR using (i) 3:1 compression:ventilation (C:V) ratio, (ii) continuous CC with asynchronous ventilation (CCaV) at a rate of 90 CC per min and (iii) CCaV at 120 CC per min for a duration of 10 min on a neonatal manikin. Changes in peak pressure (a surrogate of fatigue) and CC rate were continuously recorded and fatigue among groups was compared. Participants were blinded to pressure tracings and asked to rate their level of comfort and fatigue for each CPR trial. Compared with baseline, a significant decrease in peak pressure was observed after 72, 96 and 156 s in group CCaV-120, CCaV-90 and 3:1 C:V, respectively. CC depth decreased by 50% within the first 3 min during CCaV-120, 30% during CCaV-90 and 20% during 3:1 C:V. Moreover, 3:1 C:V and CCaV were similarly preferred by healthcare professionals. Similarly, 3:1 C:V and CCaV CPR were also fatiguing. We recommend that rescuers should switch after every second cycle of heart rate assessment during neonatal CPR.

  7. Neonatal and obstetric outcomes in diet- and insulin-treated women with gestational diabetes mellitus : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Scheuneman, Kirsten A.; Baas, Mick G.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Schering, Bertine J.; van Loon, Aren J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Lutgers, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the neonatal and obstetric outcomes of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Screening and treatment-diet-only versus additional insulin therapy-were based on the 2010 national Dutch guidelines. Methods: Retrospective study of the electronic medical

  8. Effects of tactile-kinesthetic stimulation on low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Faranak; Askary, Reihaneh K

    2013-06-01

    Low Birth Weight [LBW] (1500gr ≤ Birth Weight ≤ 2499 gr) is one of the most serious health problems in neonates. These neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile-kinesthetic stimulation) to promote development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS) on physical and behavioral development of Low Birth Weight neonates. This was a randomized controlled trial with equal randomization (1:1 for two groups) and parallel group design. Forty LBW neonates were randomly allocated into test (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. TKS was provided for three 15 minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in supine and prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment (Philips electronic weighing scale with an accuracy of ±5 grams and Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment) and by the same person. There was a trend towards increased daily weight gain, but without statistical significance. On the Brazelton scale, the test group showed statistically significant improved scores on the 'motor' (P-value <0.001) and 'regulation of state' (P-value = 0.039) clusters after the 10 days TKS. TKS has no adverse effects on physiologic parameters and gives better adaptive behavior of LBW neonates compared to those without TKS.

  9. A machine learning approach to automated structural network analysis: application to neonatal encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etay Ziv

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy represents a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with life-long developmental disabilities and neurological deficits. Clinical measures and current anatomic brain imaging remain inadequate predictors of outcome in children with neonatal encephalopathy. Some studies have suggested that brain development and, therefore, brain connectivity may be altered in the subgroup of patients who subsequently go on to develop clinically significant neurological abnormalities. Large-scale structural brain connectivity networks constructed using diffusion tractography have been posited to reflect organizational differences in white matter architecture at the mesoscale, and thus offer a unique tool for characterizing brain development in patients with neonatal encephalopathy. In this manuscript we use diffusion tractography to construct structural networks for a cohort of patients with neonatal encephalopathy. We systematically map these networks to a high-dimensional space and then apply standard machine learning algorithms to predict neurological outcome in the cohort. Using nested cross-validation we demonstrate high prediction accuracy that is both statistically significant and robust over a broad range of thresholds. Our algorithm offers a novel tool to evaluate neonates at risk for developing neurological deficit. The described approach can be applied to any brain pathology that affects structural connectivity.

  10. Neonatal Platelet Transfusions and Future Areas of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Visner, Martha; Bercovitz, Rachel S

    2016-10-01

    Thrombocytopenia affects approximately one fourth of neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units, and prophylactic platelet transfusions are commonly administered to reduce bleeding risk. However, there are few evidence-based guidelines to inform clinicians' decision-making process. Developmental differences in hemostasis and differences in underlying disease processes make it difficult to apply platelet transfusion practices from other patient populations to neonates. Thrombocytopenia is a risk factor for common preterm complications such as intraventricular hemorrhage; however, a causal link has not been established, and platelet transfusions have not been shown to reduce risk of developing intraventricular hemorrhage. Platelet count frequently drives the decision of whether to transfuse platelets, although there is little evidence to demonstrate what a safe platelet nadir is in preterm neonates. Current clinical assays of platelet function often require large sample volumes and are not valid in the setting of thrombocytopenia; however, evaluation of platelet function and/or global hemostasis may aid in the identification of neonates who are at the highest risk of bleeding. Although platelets' primary role is in establishing hemostasis, platelets also carry pro- and antiangiogenic factors in their granules. Aberrant angiogenesis underpins common complications of prematurity including intraventricular hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity. In addition, platelets play an important role in host immune defenses. Infectious and inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are commonly associated with late-onset thrombocytopenia in neonates. Severity of thrombocytopenia is correlated with mortality risk. The nature of this association is unclear, but preclinical data suggest that thrombocytopenia contributes to mortality rather than simply being a proxy for disease severity. Neonates are a distinct patient population in whom

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Thornton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal brain injury is an important cause of neurological disability. Hypoxia-ischemia and excitotoxicity are considered important insults, and, in spite of their acute nature, brain injury develops over a protracted time period during the primary, secondary, and tertiary phases. The concept that most of the injury develops with a delay after the insult makes it possible to provide effective neuroprotective treatment after the insult. Indeed, hypothermia applied within 6 hours after birth in neonatal encephalopathy reduces neurological disability in clinical trials. In order to develop the next generation of treatment, we need to know more about the pathophysiological mechanism during the secondary and tertiary phases of injury. We review some of the critical molecular events related to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis during the secondary phase and report some recent evidence that intervention may be feasible also days-weeks after the insult.

  12. Development of a 3D ultrasound system to investigate post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in pre-term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Lee, D.; St. Lawrence, K.; Romano, W.; Fenster, A.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2013-03-01

    Clinical intracranial ultrasound (US) is performed as a standard of care on neonates at risk of intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) and is also used after a diagnosis to monitor for potential ventricular dilation. However, it is difficult to estimate the volume of ventricles with 2D US due to their irregular shape. We developed a 3D US system to be used as an adjunct to a clinical system to investigate volumetric changes in the ventricles of neonates with IVH. Our system has been found have an error of within 1% of actual distance measurements in all three directions and volume measurements of manually segmented volumes from phantoms were not statistically significantly different from the actual values (p>0.3). Interobserver volume measurements of the lateral ventricles in a patient with grade III IVH found no significant differences between measurements. There is the potential to use this system in IVH patients to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time.

  13. Indices of Neonatal Prematurity as Discriminators of Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Harvey B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The comparative value of various parameters of neonatal prematurity for differentiating intellective, scholastic, and social functioning in middle childhood was assessed for a sample of 38 prematurely born and 26 maturely born subjects aged 7 to 9.5 years. (Author/JMB)

  14. NEONATAL SURGERY, A STUDY OF TWO YEARS AT NELSON MANDELA ACADEMIC HOSPITAL, MTHATHA, EASTERN CAPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A; Cejas, A; Bangasa, D

    2017-09-01

    Advances in diagnostic techniques and perioperative care have greatly improved the outcome of neonatal surgery. Despite this, disparity still exists in the outcome of neonatal surgery between developed and developing countries. We performed a prospective study of neonates admitted and treated due to surgical congenital diseases and other conditions in our hospital from April 2015 to April 2017. There were 19 (28,7%) females and 47 (70,3%) males in this group. It was found that 41 neonates had 7 days after birth or less by a 62% and 25 with more than 7 days by 38%. The Anorectal malformations (ARM) were the most frequent congenital anomaly in 21 patients (47%), followed by Gastroquises with 7 neonates (10,6%), Omphalocele with 8 (12%), and Oesophagus Atresia in 5 neonates (7,5%). Intestinal Malrotation with midgut volvulus, Pyloric Stenoses and Duodenal Atresia in 4 neonates (6,2 % each). Others alterations such as, Ileal Atresia, Strangulated Inguinal Hernia, Limb Gangrene, Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Sacro Coxigeal Theratoma, Megacolon Aganglionic, Colon perforation, Gastric perforation and Hydromethrocolpus accounted in 13 neonates by 19,7% from the total of patients. Ten babies died (15%). We conclude that Anorectal Malformations, Gastroquises and Omphalocele were the most frequent malformations. Considering the mortality is above the average of developed countries this could be improved by increasing the knowledge about the neonatal surgery characteristics among medical doctors and improving the necessary facilities and back up.

  15. Incidence of respiratory disorders in neonates born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation following exposure to antenatal corticosteroids between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventolini, Gary; Neiger, Ran; Mathews, Lindsey; Adragna, Norma; Belcastro, Marc

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on the incidence of respiratory disorders in singleton neonates born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. Retrospective analysis was conducted of the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and other respiratory disorders (need for mechanical ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, and prolonged oxygen therapy) among singleton neonates delivered between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation who were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids, compared with neonates who were not exposed. Statistical analyses included two-tailed T tests, two-way analysis of variance for continuous data, and chi-square analysis for ratios. A probability of 0.05 was considered significant. Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, 1078 neonates were born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. Information regarding antenatal corticosteroids was available in 1044: 574 neonates (53.2%) were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and 470 (43.6%) were not. One thousand and eighteen neonates were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 140 of those exposed to antenatal steroids (24.4%) and in 382 of the nonexposed (81.3%) ( P < 0.0001). Two hundred and ten neonates (20.6%) developed RDS: Of those, 43 were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and 167 were not (incidence of RDS was 7.5% and 35.5%, respectively; P = 0.0001). The beneficial effects of corticosteroids were similar in both genders. It appears that the exposure of singleton pregnancies to antenatal corticosteroids between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation is associated with a significantly lower incidence of respiratory disorders among neonates born at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation. Further studies are needed to determine whether administering antenatal steroids to women experiencing preterm labor after 34 weeks of gestation would be associated with a similar beneficial effect.

  16. Ventilator flow data predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann H. Bentsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP. In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow–volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD. Of 33 neonates, 18 developed moderate/severe and 15 no/mild BPD. The groups did not differ in gestational age, surfactant treatment or ventilator settings. The infants who developed moderate/severe BPD had evidence of less airflow obstruction, significantly so for tidal expiratory flow at 50% of tidal expiratory volume (TEF50 expressed as a ratio of peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF (p=0.007. A compound model estimated by multiple logistic regression incorporating TEF50/PTEF, birthweight z-score and sex predicted moderate/severe BPD with good accuracy (area under the curve 0.893, 95% CI 0.735–0.973. This study suggests that flow data obtained from ventilators during the first hours of life may predict later BPD in premature neonates. Future and larger studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine their clinical usefulness.

  17. Developing evaluation scales for horticultural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ae; Park, Sin-Ae; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2018-04-01

    This study developed evaluation scales for measuring the effects of horticultural therapy in practical settings. Qualitative and quantitative research, including three preliminary studies and a main study, were conducted. In the first study, a total of 779 horticultural therapists answered an open-end questionnaire based on 58 items about elements of occupational therapy and seven factors about singularity of horticultural therapy. In the second study, 20 horticultural therapists participated in in-depth interviews. In the third study, a Delphi method was conducted with 24 horticultural therapists to build a model of assessment indexes and ensure the validity. In the final study, the reserve scales were tested by 121 horticultural therapists in their practical settings for 1045 clients, to verify their reliability and validity. Preliminary questions in the effects area of horticultural therapy were developed in the first study, and validity for the components in the second study. In the third study, an expert Delphi survey was conducted as part of content validity verification of the preliminary tool of horticultural therapy for physical, cognitive, psychological-emotional, and social areas. In the final study, the evaluation tool, which verified the construct, convergence, discriminant, and predictive validity and reliability test, was used to finalise the evaluation tool. The effects of horticultural therapy were classified as four different aspects, namely, physical, cognitive, psycho-emotional, and social, based on previous studies on the effects of horticultural therapy. 98 questions in the four aspects were selected as reserve scales. The reliability of each scale was calculated as 0.982 in physical, 0.980 in cognitive, 0.965 in psycho-emotional, and 0.972 in social aspects based on the Cronbach's test of intra-item internal consistency and half reliability of Spearman-Brown. This study was the first to demonstrate validity and reliability by simultaneously

  18. Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C during different neonatal periods can differently affect depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either saline or Poly I:C (1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg on postnatal days (PND 3-5 (early neonatal phase or PND 14-16 (late neonatal phase, and then subjected to behavioral tests, including tail suspension test and forced swimming test, during adolescence (PND 35 or 40 and adulthood (PND 85 or 90. Results: The results demonstrated that early neonatal immune activation increases depression-related behaviors in both adolescent and adult mice, but late neonatal immune activation only increases depression in adult mice. In other words, these findings indicated that the nature of the offspring's neuropathology can depend on the severity of the insult, the pup's age at the time of the insult, and offspring age at the time of behavioral testing. Conclusion: These findings suggest that dose and timing of neonatal insult and offspring age may be important factors for evaluating neuropsychiatric disorders in adults who experienced early life infection.

  19. Hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates based on gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M.; Razzaq, A.; Kiyani, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates based on gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Dec 2011 to Jul 2012. Material and Methods: We included 383 small for gestational age (SGA) neonates admitted in NICU. Blood glucose levels were checked in all neonates. Variables included in study were gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Results: Out of 383 SGA neonates enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling, 191 (49.87%) were males and 192 (50.13%) were females. Out of these 203 (53%) were preterm, 165 (43.08%) were delivered at term and 15 (3.92%) were post-term SGA neonates with mean gestational age of 34 weeks 5 days. Out of the total 383 SGA neonates 208 (54.31%) developed hypoglycemia during stay in NICU and 175 (45.69%) remained euglycemic. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates were at highest risk to develop hypoglycemia (82.35%). It was seen that SGA neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery had highest risk of developing hypoglycemia i.e. 20 (76.92) out of 26 neonates. Out of 103 vaginal deliveries 41 (39.81%) had hypoglycemia and out of 254 Caesarean section 147 (57.87%) had hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Low birth weight neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery were found to be at a higher risk of developing hypoglycemia. (author)

  20. Neonatal Tele-Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne

    Neonatal homecare (NH) implies that parents manage tube feeding and care of their preterm infant at home supported by home visits from neonatal nurses, to monitor infant growth and the well-being of the family. Home visits are costly and time consuming in rural areas. The overall aim of this study...

  1. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    were evaluated, the girls in the liberal group had the most significant abnormalities. In conclusion, it would seem preferable to adopt restrictive criteria. Current recommendation on transfusion therapy should be revised to take into account this suggestion.Keywords: preterm neonates, red blood cells, transfusion, anemia

  2. [Neonatal tumours and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel Tornero, O; Ortega García, J A; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; García Castell, J; Donat i Colomer, J; Soldin, O P; Fuster Soler, J L

    2008-06-01

    The association between pediatric cancer and congenital abnormalities is well known but, there is no exclusive data on the neonatal period and the underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. First, to analyze the frequency of neonatal tumours associated with congenital abnormalities; and second, to comment on the likely etiopathogenic hypotheses of a relationship between neonatal tumours and congenital abnormalities. Historical series of neonatal tumours from La Fe University Children's Hospital in Valencia (Spain), from January 1990 to December 1999. Histological varieties of neonatal tumours and associated congenital abnormalities were described. A systematic review of the last 25 years was carried out using Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science and Embase. The search profile used was the combination of "neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms" and "congenital malformations/birth defects". 72 neonatal tumours were identified (2.8% of all pediatric cancers diagnosed in our hospital) and in 15 cases (20.8%) there was some associated malformation, disease or syndrome. The association between congenital abnormalities and neonatal tumours were: a) angiomas in three patients: two patients with congenital heart disease with a choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia; b) neuroblastomas in two patients: horseshoe kidney with vertebral anomalies and other with congenital heart disease; c) teratomas in two patients: one with cleft palate with vertebral anomalies and other with metatarsal varus; d) one tumour of the central nervous system with Bochdaleck hernia; e) heart tumours in four patients with tuberous sclerosis; f) acute leukaemia in one patient with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease; g) kidney tumour in one case with triventricular hydrocephaly, and h) adrenocortical tumour: hemihypertrophy. The publications included the tumours diagnosed in different pediatric periods and without unified criteria to classify the congenital abnormalities. Little data

  3. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbas K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI detection and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors.

  4. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis.

  5. Neonatal hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarici D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dilek Sarici1, S Umit Sarici21Kecioren Research and Education Hospital, Kecioren, Ankara, 2Chief of Division of Neonatology, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: In this article, distribution of potassium (K+ in body fluids, pathophysiology, causes, clinical signs and symptoms, and the evaluation and treatment of neonatal hypokalemia are reviewed. K+ is the most important intracellular cation and normal serum K+ is stabilized between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia may be caused by increased renal losses, increased extrarenal (gastrointestinal losses, redistribution or prolonged insufficient K+ intake. Clinical signs and symptoms occur as the result of functional changes in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and the heart. Hypokalemia is usually asymptomatic when K+ levels are between 3.0 and 3.5 mEq/L; however, there may sometimes be slight muscle weakness. Moderate hypokalemia is observed when serum K+ is between 2.5 and 3.0 mEq/L. Proximal muscle weakness is observed most commonly in lower extremities; cranial muscles are normal, but constipation and distention are prominent. Severe hypokalemia develops when serum K+ falls below 2.5 mEq/L. Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, severe muscle weakness, paralysis, respiratory distress, and respiratory arrest are observed. The clinical signs and symptoms may be unremarkable in cases of chronically developing hypokalemia; however, appropriate treatment is essential when serum K+ level falls below 2.5 mEq/L as the most dangerous complication of hypokalemia is fatal cardiac arrythmia, and changes visible with electrocardiography may not always correlate with the level of hypokalemia. Sodium (Na+, K+, chloride (Cl-, bicarbonate, creatinine, blood sugar, magnesium (Mg, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and blood gases should be investigated by laboratory testing. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and

  6. Perinatal risk indicators for long-term neurological morbidity among preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, M.J.; Wassenaer, A.G. van; Dommelen, P. van; Mol, B.W.J.; Opmeer, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Many obstetric interventions are performed to improve long-term neonatal outcome. However, long-term neonatal outcome is usually not a primary outcome because it is time-consuming and expensive. The aim of this project was to identify different perinatal risk indicators and to develop

  7. Treatment of valvular heart disease during pregnancy for improving maternal and neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Dacia Dca; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Schalij, Martin J; Klautz, Robert Jm; Helmerhorst, Frans M; de Groot, Christianne Jm

    2011-05-11

    Valvular heart disease constitutes the majority of all causes of heart disease in pregnancy. In the presence of valvular heart disease, the necessary haemodynamic changes of pregnancy might cause heart failure, leading to severe maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. Treatment of valvular heart disease is indicated when patients experience a deterioration of symptoms and in case of a severe valvular lesion. Whether medical therapy or interventional therapy is the optimal treatment for both mother and child is unclear. To assess effectiveness and adverse effects of the different treatment modalities of valvular heart disease in pregnancy to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 23 March 2011) and the reference lists of background review articles. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled and cluster-randomised controlled trials comparing medical therapy with percutaneous or surgical intervention for the treatment of valvular heart disease in pregnancy. We identified no (randomised) controlled trials to assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of the treatment of valvular heart disease in pregnancy. There were no randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised trials identified from the search strategy. There is insufficient evidence to define the most effective treatment of valvular heart disease in pregnancy to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  8. Neonatal Cushing Syndrome: A Rare but Potentially Devastating Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Christina; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-03-01

    Neonatal Cushing syndrome (CS) is most commonly caused by exogenous administration of glucocorticoids and rarely by endogenous hypercortisolemia. CS owing to adrenal lesions is the most common cause of endogenous CS in neonates and infants, and adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) represent most cases. Many ACTs develop in the context of a TP53 gene mutation, which causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome. More rarely, neonatal CS presents as part of other syndromes such as McCune-Albright syndrome or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Management usually includes resection of the primary tumor with or without additional medical treatment, but manifestations may persist after resolution of hypercortisolemia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A mortalidade neonatal em 1998, no município de Botucatu - SP La mortalidad neonatal en 1998, en el município de Botucatu-SP The neonatal mortality in 1998 at the municipality of Botucatu-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Poles

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a mortalidade neonatal é indicador da qualidade da assistência prestada à gestante, ao parto e ao recém-nascido, realizamos o presente trabalho, cujo objetivo foi identificar as causas e o índice de mortalidade neonatal durante o ano de 1998 em Botucatu-SP. O coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal obtido foi de 8,3/1000 nascidos vivos e o coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal precoce foi de 7,3/1000 nascidos vivos, confirmando a importância dos óbitos na primeira semana de vida. Aproximadamente três quartos dos óbitos puderam ser classificados como reduzíveis por diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, reduzíveis por adequada atenção ao parto ou parcialmente reduzíveis por adequado controle da gravidez, evidenciando que para se reduzir os índices de morte neonatal, deveremos investir na melhoria da qualidade da assistência prestada à gestante, à parturiente e ao neonato.Considerando que la mortalidad neonatal es un indicador de la calidad de la asistencia ofrecida en la gestación, al parto y al recién- nacido, realizamos el presente trabajo, con el objetivo de estudiar la mortalidad neonatal durante el año de 1998 en Botucatu-SP. El coeficiente de mortalidad neonatal encontrado fue 8,3/1000 nacidos vivos y el coeficiente de mortalidad neonatal precoz fue de 7,3/1000 nacidos vivos, confirmando la importancia de las defunciones en la primera semana de vida. Los resultados mostraron que aproximadamente tres cuartos de las defunciones pueden ser reducidas con el control del embarazo, con el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz o con la adecuada atención al parto, evidenciando que para reducir los índices de mortalidad neonatal, deberemos invertir en la mejoría de la calidad de la asistencia ofrecida en la gestación, en el parto y al recién-nacido.Considering that neonatal mortality is an indicator of the quality of the care provided to pregnant women, at childbirth as well as to the new born, authors developed the

  10. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh; Mohammad-Kazem Sabzehei; Seyyed-Ali-Reza Fahimzad; Farideh Shiva; Ahmad-Reza Shamshiri; Fatemeh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. ...

  11. Influence of mode of delivery at term on the neonatal respiratory morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdashtian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory morbidity is an important complication of elective cesarean section. Our objective was to find out the incidence of respiratory distress in term neonates delivered by elective cesarean section and compare it with neonates delivered vaginally. We evaluated one thousands infants delivered by elective cesarean section and normal vaginal delivery for respiratory distress. Among 500 cesarean done, 27 (5.4%) neonates had respiratory distress and among 500 vaginal delivery infants, 8(1.6%) developed respiratory Distress (P<0.001). The odd ratio for neonatal respiratory distress was 3.38, almost threefold higher in cesarean section group than those delivered vaginally. (author)

  12. [Clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Zhu; Lai, Ji-Dong; Lv, Mei; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Lian; Chen, Chao

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH). A total of 122 neonates diagnosed with NPH between January 2010 and June 2014 were enrolled. After being stratified by gestational age, the neonates were randomly divided into treatment (HFOV+PS) and control (HFOV alone) groups (n=61 each). Both groups were treated with HFOV after the onset of NPH. After 2-4 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group received PS via intratracheal injections, followed by continuous use of HFOV. Dynamic changes in the blood gas, oxygenation index (OI), and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values of the neonates were determined before HFOV treatment and after 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment. The time to hemostasis, duration of ventilation, incidence of complications, and cure rate were compared between groups. After 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group had significantly improved PaO2, PaCO2, O/I, and P/F values compared with the control group (P0.05). HFOV combined with PS is an effective treatment to improve oxygenation, shorten the time to hemostasis and the duration of ventilation, and reduce the incidence of complications in neonates with NPH. However, the dual therapy is unable to reduce the mortality of neonates compared with HFOV monotherapy.

  13. Ontogeny of open field activity in rats after neonatal lesioning of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; de Bruin, J. P.; Matthijssen, M. A.; Uylings, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of neonatal depletion of the dopaminergic mesocortical projection on the development of a prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviour the ontogeny of open field behaviour was studied after neonatal depletion of cortical dopamine. Cortical dopamine was depleted by neonatal

  14. Hepatic Dysfunction in Asphyxiated Neonates: Prospective Case-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    to discover the severity of perinatal asphyxia because of easy accessibility and feasibility of tests. The outcomes of this survey would be useful for physicians who receive neonates for whom birth details are not easily documented as most of the time the referred newborn infants lack asphyxia history either because the attendants do not know clearly the whole birth history or it was an unattended delivery, or the referring healthcare professional has not been observant because of legal threats. The neurological assessment also becomes difficult and inconclusive as ventilator treatment, sedative drugs, and anticonvulsant therapy would produce an evaluation of severity of hypoxic ischemic brain disease and neurological insult difficult.

  15. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  16. Neonatal hypoglycemia: A wide range of electroclinical manifestations and seizure outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhan, Ebru; Öztürk, Zeynep; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Aydın, Kürşad; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Akbaş, Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    We examined the various types of epilepsy in children with neonatal hypoglycemia in order to define electroclinical and prognostic features of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia who have been followed at Gazi University Hospital Pediatric Neurology Department between 2006 and 2015. Patients with perinatal asphyxia were excluded. Details of each patient's perinatal history, neurological outcome, epilepsy details, seizure outcome and EEG and brain MRI findings were reviewed. Fourty five patients (range 6 mo-15 y) with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia were included the study. Epilepsy developed in 36 patients and 23 of them had intractable epilepsy. All patients had occipital brain injury. We observed that most of the patients, either manifesting focal or generalized seizures, further develop intractable epilepsy. This finding establishes neonatal hypoglycemia as a possible cause to be considered in any case of intractable epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontor, Kate Adomakowaah; Bentsil, Joseph-Josiah; Anderson, Maxwell; Nsiah, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (P jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, P = 0.003; OR = 2.389, P = 0.025, resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, P = 0.044). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes. PMID:29686715

  19. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza- Tanzania

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    Jeremiah Seni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment in a given setting is crucial as pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity pattern can considerably vary in different settings. This study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, predictors of positive blood culture, deaths and antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for management of neonatal sepsis. Methods This was a prospective cross sectional study involving 300 neonates admitted at BMC neonatal unit between March and November 2009. Standard data collection form was used to collect all demographic data and clinical characteristics of neonates. Blood culture was done on Brain Heart Infusion broth followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. Results Among 770 neonates admitted during the study period; 300 (38.9% neonates were diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis by WHO criteria. Of 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis 121(40% and 179(60% had early and late onset sepsis respectively. Positive blood culture was found in 57 (47.1% and 92 (51.4% among neonates with early and late onset neonatal sepsis respectively (p = 0.466. Predictors of positive blood culture in both early and late onset neonatal sepsis were inability to feed, lethargy, cyanosis, meconium stained liquor, premature rupture of the membrane and convulsion. About 49% of gram negatives isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and 28% of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Deaths occurred in 57 (19% of neonates. Factors that predicted deaths were positive blood culture (p = 0.0001, gram negative sepsis (p = 0.0001 and

  20. Comparison of the Therapeutic Effects of Bubble CPAP and Ventilator CPAP on Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Premature Neonates

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    Mahmoud Noori Shadkam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory distress syndrome is one of the main complications associated with low birth weight, and a main cause of mortality in premature neonates. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of ventilator continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bubble CPAP in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in premature neonates. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 119 neonates diagnosed with RDS, with the gestational age of 28-34 weeks and birth weight of 1000-2200 grams, who were admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Infants were allocated to two groups of ventilator CPAP (VCPAP and bubble CPAP (BCPAP therapy. Results: Mean weight, gestational age, and one-minute Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. However, duration of treatment with mechanical ventilation in the BCPAP group was significantly lower compared to the VCPAP group. In addition, frequency of complications had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: In the treatment of RDS, duration of mechanical ventilation was lower in the BCPAP group compared to the VCPAP group in premature neonates

  1. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

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    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  2. Effect of intrapartum fetal stress associated with obstetrical interventions on viability and survivability of canine neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik V. Kuttan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of identifying and evaluating intrapartum fetal stress in connection with the type of delivery in bitches. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 bitches between 1 and 5 years, belonging to 10 different breeds were evaluated. Bitches were subjected to detailed clinico-gynecological examination based on history. Neonatal stress associated with spontaneous whelping (SW, assisted whelping (AW, and emergency cesarean section (EC was evaluated using umbilical vein lactate (UL estimation by collecting the blood from umbilical vein. Results: A high umbilical vein lactate value was associated with fetal distress. The mean umbilical lactate value was highest in EC (12.54±0.8 mmol/L followed by AW (8.86±0.9 mmol/L and the lowest value was found in SW (7.56±0.58 mmol/L. A significant increase (p<0.05 in umbilical lactate level was observed in EC group of canine neonates compared with AW and SW groups. Overall mean umbilical lactate values of neonates which died within 24 h (13.31±1.08 mmol/L and the neonates which survived beyond 24 h (8.87±0.55 mmol/L differed significantly at 5% level. Conclusion: Immediate identification of neonatal distress by use of umbilical vein lactate estimation is helpful for the clinician to undertake resuscitation or medical therapy to ensure better neonatal survivability.

  3. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  4. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  5. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefkothea Karaviti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of ≥1.1 mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were ≥1.1 mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was 7.2 ± 1.9 versus 11.5 ± 3.4 hours respectively (p=.26. The duration of CaI was 15.0 ± 1.5 versus 24.8 ± 4.4 hours respectively (p=.012. Conclusions. The addition of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  6. Radiation doses and risks to neonates undergoing common radiographic examinations in the neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McParland, B.J.; Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    Neonates in the-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can receive large numbers of radiographs owing to the clinical conditions they may present. More neonatal radiation dosimetry data are required for three fundamental reasons: (1.) to aid in the establishment of reference dose levels for interinstitutional comparisons; (2.) to improve childhood cancer risk estimates following neonatal exposure; and (3.) to indicate appropriate directions for dose reduction. This paper describes an investigation of two different NICU radiological techniques with significantly different neonate doses. While patient-matched images taken with both techniques were assessed in a blind review, this component of the study is beyond the scope of this paper and is not discussed here. (author)

  7. Classifier models and architectures for EEG-based neonatal seizure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, B R; Marnane, W P; Lightbody, G; Reilly, R B; Boylan, G B

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological emergency in the neonatal period and are associated with a poor long-term outcome. Early detection and treatment may improve prognosis. This paper aims to develop an optimal set of parameters and a comprehensive scheme for patient-independent multi-channel EEG-based neonatal seizure detection. We employed a dataset containing 411 neonatal seizures. The dataset consists of multi-channel EEG recordings with a mean duration of 14.8 h from 17 neonatal patients. Early-integration and late-integration classifier architectures were considered for the combination of information across EEG channels. Three classifier models based on linear discriminants, quadratic discriminants and regularized discriminants were employed. Furthermore, the effect of electrode montage was considered. The best performing seizure detection system was found to be an early integration configuration employing a regularized discriminant classifier model. A referential EEG montage was found to outperform the more standard bipolar electrode montage for automated neonatal seizure detection. A cross-fold validation estimate of the classifier performance for the best performing system yielded 81.03% of seizures correctly detected with a false detection rate of 3.82%. With post-processing, the false detection rate was reduced to 1.30% with 59.49% of seizures correctly detected. These results represent a comprehensive illustration that robust reliable patient-independent neonatal seizure detection is possible using multi-channel EEG

  8. Gestalt Therapy: Development, Theory, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Robert

    This paper presents a full review of the literature in the area of Gestalt Therapy and could be helpful in familiarizing people with this discipline. The roots contributing to the development of Gestalt therapy as presently practiced are explored briefly. Gestalt theory is presented in a developmental way, initially exploring the relationship…

  9. Bumetanide augments the neuroprotective efficacy of phenobarbital plus hypothermia in a neonatal hypoxia-ischemia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YiQing; Shangguan, Yu; Barks, John D.E.; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The NaKCl cotransporter NKCC1 facilitates intraneuronal chloride accumulation in the developing brain. Bumetanide, a clinically available diuretic, inhibits this chloride transporter, and augments the antiepileptic effects of phenobarbital in neonatal rodents. In a neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model, elicited by right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8% O2 exposure in 7-day-old(P7) rats, phenobarbital(PB) increases the neuroprotective efficacy of hypothermia. We evaluated whether bumetanide influenced the neuroprotective efficacy of combination treatment with PB and hypothermia(HT). P7 rats underwent HI lesioning; 15 min later, all received PB (30 mg/kg). 10 min later, half received bumetanide (10 mg/kg, PB-HT+BUM) and half received saline (PB-HT+SAL). One hour after HI, all were cooled (30°C, 3h). Contralateral forepaw sensorimotor function and brain damage were evaluated 1 to 4 weeks later. Forepaw functional measures were close to normal in the PB-HT+BUM group, while deficits persisted in PB-HT+SAL controls; there were corresponding reductions in right cerebral hemisphere damage (at P35, % damage: PB-HT+BUM, 21±16 versus 38±20 in controls). These results provide evidence that NKCC1 inhibition amplifies phenobarbital bioactivity in the immature brain, and suggest that co-administration of phenobarbital and bumetanide may represent a clinically feasible therapy to augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:22398701

  10. A review of neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, North-eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaji, M. A.; Bello, M. A.; Elechi, H. A.; Akuhwa, R. T.; Bukar, F. L.; Ibrahim, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease and is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in developing countries. The effectiveness of immunization and hygienic umbilical cord care practices in the prevention of the disease has been established. Objective: The objective of this study was to audit the scourge of neonatal tetanus in a tertiary health facility in a resource-limited setting. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective study. Case notes of neonates admit...

  11. Physiological effects of a single chest physiotherapy session in mechanically ventilated and extubated preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Y; Shetye, J; Nanavati, R; Mehta, A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the changes on various physiological cardio-respiratory parameters with a single chest physiotherapy session in mechanically ventilated and extubated preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. This is a prospective observational study in a neonatal intensive care unit setting. Sixty preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, thirty mechanically ventilated and thirty extubated preterm neonates requiring chest physiotherapy were enrolled in the study. Parameters like heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), Silverman Anderson score (SA score in extubated), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and auscultation findings were noted just before, immediately after chest physiotherapy but before suctioning, immediately after suctioning and after 5 minutes of the session. The mean age of neonates was 9.55±5.86 days and mean birth weight was 1550±511.5 g. As there was no significant difference in the change in parameters on intergroup comparison, further analysis was done considering two groups together (n = 60) except for SA score. As SA score was measured only in extubated neonates. HR did not change significantly during chest physiotherapy compared to the baseline but significantly decreased after 15 minutes (p = 0.01). RR and SA score significantly increased after suctioning (p = 0.014) but reduced after 15 minutes (p = physiotherapy (p = physiotherapy may help facilitate the overall well-being of a fragile preterm neonate. Lung auscultation finding suggests that after suctioning, there was a significant reduction in crepitation (p = 0.0000) but significant increase in crepitation after 15 minutes (p = physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy is safe in preterm neonates. Suctioning causes significant cardio-respiratory parameter changes, but within normal physiological range. Thus, chest physiotherapy should be performed with continuous monitoring only when indicated and not as a routine procedure. More research is needed

  12. Incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury among the critically ill neonates

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    Ayman A El-Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild dysfunction to complete kidney failure. The published literature on the incidence and outcome of AKI in the critically ill neonatal population is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the types, the associated risk factors and short-term outcome of AKI in the critically ill neonates. A cohort study was conducted including 100 critically ill neonates successively admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The inclusion criteria were a gestational age ≥28 weeks and body weight ≥1 kg. Exclusion criteria included those with multiple congenital anomalies or on drugs altering glomerular filtration rate or AKI developing postoperatively. Neonates were evaluated for the development of AKI [creatinine >1.5 mg/dL and/or blood urea nitrogen (BUN >20 mg/dL] and were assigned as group A (who developed AKI and group B (who did not develop AKI. Forty-one patients developed AKI (group A among whom nine (22% showed oliguric AKI. The most common risk factors among group A patients were sepsis (75.6% and nephrotoxic drug administration (75.6%, followed by shock (39%. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups except for male sex predominance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, which were significantly higher among group A (P <0.05. Use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP ventilation was significantly higher in neonates without AKI (13.6% vs 0.0%, P = 0.02. The mortality rate among group A reached 51.2%. Various risk factors including gender, gestational age, birth weight, shock, NEC, sepsis, nephrotoxic drugs, oliguria and mechanical ventilation were studied as regards outcome of group A, and all factors except gender and oliguria proved to be significantly higher in deceased neonates. Male sex and NEC were important risk factors for developing AKI that was predominantly non-oliguric. CPAP ventilation may have a

  13. "Maternal and neonatal outcome in teenage pregnancy in Tehran Valiasr Hospital "

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    "Nili F

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Among 2357 prenant women at Tehran Valiasr hospital, 99 women under 18 years with their 102 neonates were evaluated retrospectively during Aprill 1999 to April 2000. frequency of adolescent pregnancy was detected in 41.5 per 1000 live birth 7 (7.1% of mothers had preeclampisa, 7 thyroidal diseases, 3 valvular heart diseases, 2 urinary tract infections and 20.3% of women had prolonged rupture of membrane (more than 24 hrs. the route of delivery in 21.2% of women was cesarean section. 32% of neonates were low birth weight and the gestational age in 38.2% of neonates was lower than 37 weeks. Intrauterine growth retardiation was detected in 11.8% of patients 38.2% of babies were admitted into neonatal care unit. Perinatal resuscitation and ventilator care were needed in 9.8% and 3.9% of neonates respectively. Nonatal mortality occurred in 6.9% of patients. Compared with total deliveries the frequency of variables was higher than could be expected except for cesarean section. Our adolescent pregnancy rate is lower than worldwide range but rates for prematurity and low birth weight are the same as other reports from developed and developing countries. Frequency of cesarean section was lower than expected range in this group as in developed countries.With respect to higher rates for rheumatic heart disease, premature labor, prolonged rupture o membrane and low birth weight, it seems that lower socioeconomic factors may result in these adverse outcomes.Higher neonatal ICU admissions, artificial ventilation and resuscitation in adolescent pregnancies suggest that confinement in hospitals with level III nurseries is advisable in these high risk group

  14. Development and validation of a simple algorithm for initiation of CPAP in neonates with respiratory distress in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Hundalani, Shilpa G; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Oden, Maria; Kawaza, Kondwani; Gest, Alfred; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-cost bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) systems have been shown to improve survival in neonates with respiratory distress, in developing countries including Malawi. District hospitals in Malawi implementing CPAP requested simple and reliable guidelines to enable healthcare workers with basic skills and minimal training to determine when treatment with CPAP is necessary. We developed and validated TRY (T: Tone is good, R: Respiratory Distress and Y=Yes) CPAP, a s...

  15. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care: Identifying Parental Needs Through Participatory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Clemensen, Jane

    2016-07-08

    For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. The study used participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care with telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. Three overall themes were identified: being a family, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a "bell cord" to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when combined with nursing guidance. Parents did not request hands-on support for infant care, but instead expressed a need for communication and guidance, which could be met using telemedicine.

  16. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

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    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  17. Drugs of abuse in pregnancy, poor neonatal development, and future neurodegeneration. Is oxidative stress the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Riezzo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of licit and illicit drugs is a worldwide issue that is a cause for concern in pregnant women. It may lead to complications in pregnancy that may affect the mother, fetus, and /or neonate. The effects of any substance on the developing embryo and fetus are dependent upon dosing, timing, duration of drug exposure, and the extent of drug distribution. Teratogenic effects have been described when exposure takes place during the embryonic stage; however drugs have subtle effects, including abnormal growth and/or maturation, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and brain organization. The mechanisms by which intrauterine exposure to many substances may result in neuronal injury have not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress and epigenetic changes have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long - term adverse health sequelae, and neuro-developmental impairment in the offspring of addicted mothers. Transgenerational epigenetics may also explain the alarming datum that developmental abnormalities, impairment in learning and memory, and attention deficit can occur even in the absence of direct fetal exposure, when drugs are consumed prior to conception. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating a link between redox state unbalance, epigenetic markers, developmental anomalies, and neurodegeneration. The reviewed literature data uphold redox homeostasis disruption as an important factor in the pathogenesis of drug of abuse- induced neurodegeneration, and highlight the potential for new therapies that could prevent neurodegeneration through antioxidant and epigenetic modulatory mechanisms. This therefore reveals important targets for novel neuroprotective strategies.

  18. Neonatal mortality in a referral hospital in Cameroon over a seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goals targets reduction of the mortality rate of under-fives by 2/3 by the year 2015. This reduction starts with that of neonatal mortality representing 40% of childhood mortality. In Cameroon neonatal mortality was 31% in 2011. Objectives: We assessed the trends, associated ...

  19. Impact of neonatal iron deficiency on hippocampal DNA methylation and gene transcription in a porcine biomedical model of cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, Kyle M; Liu, Yingkai; Rund, Laurie A; Madsen, Ole; Johnson, Rodney W; Groenen, Martien A M; Schook, Lawrence B

    2016-11-03

    Iron deficiency is a common childhood micronutrient deficiency that results in altered hippocampal function and cognitive disorders. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which neonatal iron deficiency results in long lasting alterations in hippocampal gene expression and function. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark involved in gene regulation and altered by environmental factors. In this study, hippocampal DNA methylation and gene expression were assessed via reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA-seq on samples from a previous study reporting reduced hippocampal-based learning and memory in a porcine biomedical model of neonatal iron deficiency. In total 192 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the iron deficient and control groups. GO term and pathway enrichment analysis identified DEGs associated with hypoxia, angiogenesis, increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and altered neurodevelopment and function. Of particular interest are genes previously implicated in cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders in humans and mice, including HTR2A, HTR2C, PAK3, PRSS12, and NETO1. Altered genome-wide DNA methylation was observed across 0.5 million CpG and 2.4 million non-CpG sites. In total 853 differentially methylated (DM) CpG and 99 DM non-CpG sites were identified between groups. Samples clustered by group when comparing DM non-CpG sites, suggesting high conservation of non-CpG methylation in response to neonatal environment. In total 12 DM sites were associated with 9 DEGs, including genes involved in angiogenesis, neurodevelopment, and neuronal function. Neonatal iron deficiency leads to altered hippocampal DNA methylation and gene regulation involved in hypoxia, angiogenesis, increased BBB permeability, and altered neurodevelopment and function. Together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms through which neonatal iron deficiency results in long lasting reductions in cognitive

  20. Feminist Identity Development: Implications for Feminist Therapy with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses implications of the Downing and Roush (1985) feminist identity development model for feminist therapy with women. Describes potential pitfalls of feminist therapy and emergent issues at subsequent stages of client's identity development. Proposes research agenda for hypothesis testing of model when applied to therapy with women clients.…

  1. [Variables determining the amount of care for very preterm neonates: the concept of medical stance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, A; Menget, A; Chary-Tardy, A-C; Savajols, E; Abed, N; Thiriez, G

    2014-02-01

    To compare the amount of medical interventions on very preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in two French university tertiary care centers, one of which is involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. A secondary objective is to assess whether this difference in medical interventions can be linked to a difference in mortality and morbidity rates. We prospectively included all very preterm neonates free from lethal malformation born live in these two centers between 2006 and 2010. These inclusion criteria were met by 1286 patients, for whom we compared the rate of five selected medical interventions: birth by caesarean section, chest intubation in the delivery room, surfactant therapy, pharmacological treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, and red blood cell transfusion. The rates of the five medical interventions were systematically lower in the center that is involved in Neonatal Developmental Care. There was no significant difference in survival at discharge with no severe cerebral ultrasound scan abnormalities between the two centers. There were, however, significantly higher rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and nosocomial sepsis and longer hospital stays when the patients were not involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. This benchmarking study shows that in France, in the first decade of the 21st century, there are as many ways to handle very preterm neonates as there are centers in which they are born. This brings to light the concept of medical stance, which is the general care approach prior to the treatment itself. This medical stance creates the overall framework for the staff's decision-making regarding neonate care. The different parameters structuring medical stance are discussed. Moreover, this study raises the problematic issue of the aftermath of benchmarking studies when the conclusion is an increase of morbidity in cases where procedure leads to more interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  2. Radiological imaging of the neonatal chest. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica (ed.) [Children' s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Radiology; National Maternity Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-07-01

    This second, revised edition of Radiological Imaging of the Neonatal Chest provides a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the subject. It is written primarily from the point of view of the paediatric radiologist but will be of particular interest to all antenatal ultrasonographers, neonatologists, paediatric cardiologists, paediatricians and paediatric surgeons. It includes an update on clinical management and appraises the advantages of the various techniques available to image the newborn chest. There is particular emphasis on the impact of recent therapeutic advances on imaging findings. Extensive consideration is given to both antenatal and postnatal imaging of congenital chest malformations, as well as to controversies regarding the postnatal management of asymptomatic infants with these anomalies. There are dedicated chapters on upper airway problems, infection and congenital heart disease, with special emphasis on the current role of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and interventional therapy. There is also a chapter devoted to computed radiography and digital radiography. This book contains important information for all those involved in caring for the neonate. (orig.)

  3. Effect of intravenous paracetamol on postoperative morphine requirements in neonates and infants undergoing major noncardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelie, Ilse; de Wildt, Saskia N.; van Dijk, Monique; van den Berg, Margreeth M. J.; van den Bosch, Gerbrich E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Leeuw, Tom G.; Mathôt, Ron; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; Tibboel, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Continuous morphine infusion as standard postoperative analgesic therapy in young infants is associated with unwanted adverse effects such as respiratory depression. To determine whether intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) would significantly (>30%) reduce morphine requirements in neonates and

  4. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

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    Rathmony Hong

    Full Text Available Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities.Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014. Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital, mother's age at birth (<20, 20-35, 35+, birth interval (long, short and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+. Socio-economic variables included: mother

  5. NEONATAL CONJUNCTIVITIS AND ITS DRUG SENSITIVITY PATTERN

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