Sample records for deux populations normales

  1. Résistances contre deux géants industriels en forêt tropicale: Populations locales versus plantations commerciales d’hévéas et de palmiers à huile dans le Sud-Cameroun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gerber (Julien-François)


    markdownabstractIntroduction Ce rapport1 examine les résistances des populations riveraines à deux des plus grandes plantations industrielles du Cameroun, la monoculture d’hévéas Hévéa-Cameroun (HEVECAM) et celle de palmiers à huile de la Société Camerounaise de Palmeraies (SOCAPALM). Son but

  2. Folie à deux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, Ida; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Hageman, Ida


    Folie à deux or induced psychotic disorder is a rare psychiatric illness. The essential feature is a psychotic disorder shared by two emotionally close persons, usually close relatives. The disorder is characterized by a primary psychotic person who gradually imposes her delusional beliefs...

  3. Folie à deux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, Ida; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Hageman, Ida


    Folie à deux or induced psychotic disorder is a rare psychiatric illness. The essential feature is a psychotic disorder shared by two emotionally close persons, usually close relatives. The disorder is characterized by a primary psychotic person who gradually imposes her delusional beliefs...... on the other person. The disorder usually resolves in the more passive person when the two are separated (e.g. by admittance of the primary psychotic person). This case report describes a shared delusional belief between two friends. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Dec...

  4. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

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    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.


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    Full Text Available The literature related to skew-symmetric distribution have grown rapidly in recent years but at the moment no publication on its applications concerning the description of economically active data with this type of probability models. In this paper, we provided an extension to this skew-normal distribution, which is also part of the family of skewed class of normal but with additional shape parameters δ. Some properties of this distribution are presented and finally, we considered fitting it to economically active population data. The model exhibited a better behaviour when compared to normal and skew normal distributions.

  6. Deux voyages d’hiver

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    Etienne Barilier


    Full Text Available La relation entre la vie et l’œuvre, chez un artiste, n’est jamais une simple relation de cause à effet. L’on peut trouver, à l’origine du Voyage d’hiver de Schubert, comme à celle de la Rhapsodie pour alto de Brahms (dont les paroles, tirées d’un poème de Goethe, racontent elles aussi un voyage hivernal, des douleurs amoureuses. Mais ces deux œuvres transcendent les événements biographiques dont elles sont issues. échappant au narcissisme du moi romantique, elles traduisent deux expériences du temps, cyclique ou progressif, racontent deux voyages spirituels. La douleur d’exister y devient pure présence de la vie, et récit purifié.For an artist, the link between life and work is never a simple cause-effect relationship. The loving pain can be considered as the source of Schubert's Winterreise and of the Brahms Alto Rhapsody as well (the latter being based also upon a poem by Goethe, which tells also a winter journey. But these works transcend the life events from which they arise. Beyond the narcissism of the romantic self, they reflect two experiences of time, cyclical or progressive, and they tell two spiritual journeys. The pain of existence becomes a pure presence of life, and a purified story.

  7. On the asymptotic normality of finite population L-statistics


    Čiginas, Andrius


    We give sufficient conditions for the asymptotic normality of linear combinations of order statistics (L-statistics) in the case of simple random samples without replacement. In the first case, restrictions are imposed on the weights of L-statistics. The second case is on trimmed means, where we introduce a new finite population smoothness condition.

  8. Phenotype of normal spirometry in an aging population. (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; McAvay, Gail; Van Ness, Peter H; Casaburi, Richard; Jensen, Robert L; MacIntyre, Neil; Gill, Thomas M; Yaggi, H Klar; Concato, John


    In aging populations, the commonly used Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may misclassify normal spirometry as respiratory impairment (airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern), including the presumption of respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). To evaluate the phenotype of normal spirometry as defined by a new approach from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI), overall and across GOLD spirometric categories. Using data from COPDGene (n = 10,131; ages 45-81; smoking history, ≥10 pack-years), we evaluated spirometry and multiple phenotypes, including dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council grade 0-4), health-related quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score), 6-minute-walk distance, bronchodilator reversibility (FEV1 % change), computed tomography-measured percentage of lung with emphysema (% emphysema) and gas trapping (% gas trapping), and small airway dimensions (square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm). Among 5,100 participants with GLI-defined normal spirometry, GOLD identified respiratory impairment in 1,146 (22.5%), including a restrictive pattern in 464 (9.1%), mild COPD in 380 (7.5%), moderate COPD in 302 (5.9%), and severe COPD in none. Overall, the phenotype of GLI-defined normal spirometry included normal adjusted mean values for dyspnea grade (0.8), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (15.9), 6-minute-walk distance (1,424 ft [434 m]), bronchodilator reversibility (2.7%), % emphysema (0.9%), % gas trapping (10.7%), and square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (3.65 mm); corresponding 95% confidence intervals were similarly normal. These phenotypes remained normal for GLI-defined normal spirometry across GOLD spirometric categories. GLI-defined normal spirometry, even when classified as respiratory impairment by GOLD, included adjusted mean values in the

  9. Normal values of echocardiographic measurements. A population-based study

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    Paulo Roberto Schvartzman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe echocardiographic measurements and left ventricular mass in a population sample of healthy adults inhabitants of the urban region of Porto Alegre. METHODS: An analytical, observational, population-based, cross-sectional study was done. Through a multi-stage probability sample, 114 individuals were selected to be submitted to a M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiogram with color Doppler. The analyses were restricted to healthy participants. Echocardiographic measurements were described by mean, standard deviation, 95 percentile and 95% confidence limits. RESULTS: A total of 100 healthy participants, with several characteristics similar to those from the original population, had a complete and reliable echocardiographic examination. The measurements of aorta, left atrium, interventricular septum, left ventricle in systole and diastole, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for body surface area or height, were significantly higher in males. The right ventricle size was similar among the genders. Several echocardiographic measurements were within standard normal limits. Interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for anthropometric measurements, and aortic dimensions had lower mean and range than the reference limits. CONCLUSION: The means and estimates of distribution for the measurements of interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass found in this survey were lower than those indicated by the international literature and accepted as normal limits.

  10. Normal values of echocardiographic measurements. A population-based study. (United States)

    Schvartzman, P R; Fuchs, F D; Mello, A G; Coli, M; Schvartzman, M; Moreira, L B


    To describe echocardiographic measurements and left ventricular mass in a population sample of healthy adults inhabitants of the urban region of Porto Alegre. An analytical, observational, population-based, cross-sectional study was done. Through a multi-stage probability sample, 114 individuals were selected to be submitted to a M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiogram with color Doppler. The analyses were restricted to healthy participants. Echocardiographic measurements were described by mean, standard deviation, 95 percentile and 95% confidence limits. A total of 100 healthy participants, with several characteristics similar to those from the original population, had a complete and reliable echocardiographic examination. The measurements of aorta, left atrium, interventricular septum, left ventricle in systole and diastole, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for body surface area or height, were significantly higher in males. The right ventricle size was similar among the genders. Several echocardiographic measurements were within standard normal limits. Interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for anthropometric measurements, and aortic dimensions had lower mean and range than the reference limits. The means and estimates of distribution for the measurements of interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass found in this survey were lower than those indicated by the international literature and accepted as normal limits.

  11. Reference man models based on normal data from human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro; Kawamura, Hisao


    Quantitative description of the physical, and metabolic parameters of the human body is the very basic for internal dosimetry. Compilation of anatomical and other types of data Asian populations for internal (and external) dosimetry is of grate significance because of the potential spread of nuclear energy use in the Asian region and the major contribution of the region to the world population (about 58%). It has been observed that some differences exist for habitat, race, body sizes and pattern of food consumption. In the early stage of revision of ICRP Reference man by the Task Group, Characteristics of the human body of non-European populations received considerable attention as well as those of the European populations of different sexes and ages. In this context, an IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man endorsed. In later stages of reference Man revision, anatomical data for Asians was discusses together with those of European populations, presumably due to ICRP's decision of unanimous use of the Reference Man for radiation protection. Reference man models for adults and 15, 10, 5, 1, 0 year-old males and females of Asian populations were developed for use in internal and external dosimetry. Based on the concept of ICRP Reference Man (Publication 23), the reference values were derived from the normal organ mass data for Japanese and statistical data on the physique and nutrition of Japanese and Chinese. Also incorporated were variations in physical measurements, as observed in the above mentioned IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program. The work was partly carried out within the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. The weight of the skeleton was adjusted following the revised values in Publication 70. This paper will report basic shared and non-shared characteristics of Reference Man' for Asians and ICRP Reference Man. (author)

  12. Implications of sampling from a log-normal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.


    The environmental radioactivity surrounding the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is typically log-normally distributed. The geometric standard deviation of radioactivity in all types of samples (air, water, soil, sewage, and vegetation) is about two. Hypothesis testing was done using the mean geometric standard deviation of these samples. Parametric studies demonstrated the effect of the number of background samples, the magnitude of tolerable errors, the variability of the sample population, and the precision of the analysis on the detectability of differences from natural and global fallout radioactivity. It was decided to accept an error probability of 50 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be different from background when, in fact, it was not, and an error probability of 5 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be background, when in fact, it was not. For these assumptions, an analysis must differ from background by a factor of 1.6 to indicate a statistical difference, and a sample must contain radioactivity a factor of 8.6 different from background to be 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence. The difference in the mean of two such populations which is 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence is 2.8 if six samples are taken from each population. Applications in monitoring 239 Pu diffusion are described. (CH)

  13. Implications of sampling from a log-normal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.


    The environmental radioactivity surrounding the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is typically log-normally distributed. The geometric standard deviation of radioactivity in all types of samples--air, water, soil, sewage, and vegetation--is about two. Hypothesis testing was done using the mean geometric standard deviation of these samples. Parametric studies demonstrated the effect of the number of background samples, the magnitude of tolerable errors, the variability of the sample population, and the precision of the analysis on the detectability of differences from natural and global fallout radioactivity. It was decided to accept an error probability of 50 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be different from background when, in fact, it was not, and an error probability of 5 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be background, when in fact, it was not. For these assumptions, an analysis must differ from background by a factor of 1.6 to indicate a statistical difference, and a sample must contain radioactivity a factor of 8.6 different from background to be 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence. The difference in the mean of two such populations which is 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence is 2.8 if six samples are taken from each population

  14. Population Synthesis Models for Normal Galaxies with Dusty Disks

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    Kyung-Won Suh


    Full Text Available To investigate the SEDs of galaxies considering the dust extinction processes in the galactic disks, we present the population synthesis models for normal galaxies with dusty disks. We use PEGASE (Fioc & Rocca-Volmerange 1997 to model them with standard input parameters for stars and new dust parameters. We find that the model results are strongly dependent on the dust parameters as well as other parameters (e.g. star formation history. We compare the model results with the observations and discuss about the possible explanations. We find that the dust opacity functions derived from studies of asymptotic giant branch stars are useful for modeling a galaxy with a dusty disk.

  15. Dream-Enacting Behaviors in a Normal Population (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Svob, Connie; Kuiken, Don


    Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence and gender distributions of behaviors enacted during dreaming (“dream-enacting [DE] behaviors”) in a normal population; the independence of such behaviors from other parasomnias; and the influence of different question wordings, socially desirable responding and personality on prevalence. Design: 3-group questionnaire study Setting: University classrooms Participants: Three undergraduate samples (Ns = 443, 201, 496; mean ages = 19.9 ± 3.2 y; 20.1 ± 3.4 y; 19.1 ± 1.6 y) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Subjects completed questionnaires about DE behaviors and Social Desirability. Study 1 employed a nonspecific question about the behaviors, Study 2 employed the same question with examples, and Study 3 employed 7 questions describing specific behavior subtypes (speaking, crying, smiling/laughing, fear, anger, movement, sexual arousal). Somnambulism, somniloquy, nightmares, dream recall, alexithymia, and absorption were also assessed. Factor analyses were conducted to determine relationships among DE behaviors and their independence from other parasomnias. Prevalence increased with increasing question specificity (35.9%, 76.7%, and 98.2% for the 3 samples). No gender difference obtained for the nonspecific question, but robust differences occurred for more specific questions. Females reported more speaking, crying, fear and smiling/laughing than did males; males reported more sexual arousal. When controlling other parasomnias and dream recall frequency, these differences persisted. Factor solutions revealed that DE behaviors were independent of other parasomnias and of dream recall frequency, except for an association between dream-talking and somniloquy. Sexual arousal was related only to age. Behaviors were independent of alexithymia but moderately related to absorption. Conclusions: Dream-enacting behaviors are prevalent in healthy subjects and sensitive to question wording but not social desirability

  16. Bone Mass Density in Normal Iranian Population - Shariati Hospital (1996

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    M Pajoohi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The bone mass density (BMD may vary in different countries due to different genetic and environmental factors. This study was performed to determine the BMD of the normal population in Iran. Methods and Materials: Subjects were selected randomly from different works and social classes in Tehran (from the lowest to the highest. For each decade and sexes, 20 normal subjects were selected (140 men and 140 women. BMD was measured with a Hologic 1000 plus machine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method for the lumber spine (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4 and the femoral neck (neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, ward, total. Data were treated by polynomial approximation (3 rd degree. The obtained curves were compared with the standard Hologic curves for Caucasians. Results: In female the peak bone mass (PBM was 1.019 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.832 for the femoral neck. In male the peak bone mass (PBM was 0.987 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.907 for the femoral neck. The BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck were lower than the Hologic standards. For the lumbar spine the mean difference was 6.5 percent (2 to 21 percent, CI=1 for women and 13.8 percent (2 to 36 percent, CI=1.45 for men. In femoral neck the mean difference was 5.4 percent (2 to 16 percent, CI=0.96 for women and 4.6 percent (1 to 14 percent, CI=0.96 for men. Conclusion: The BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck was lower in Iranian compared to the Hologic standards for Caucasians. This was seen in all age groups and in both sexes. It was less pronounced for the PBM in spine was lower in men than woman. The lower BMD of the spine in men was also seen in a cohort of patients with different diseases (inflammatory and non-inflammatory.

  17. Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the ultrasonic gallbladder wall thickness in normal adult Nigerians so as to create standards for defining gallbladder abnormalities in Nigerians. Method. Four hundred adults comprising 228 (57%) women and 172 (43%) men aged 16 - 78 years, who had normal clinical history ...

  18. Normalization. (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.


    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  19. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.


    The metabolism of 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed

  20. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.


    The metabolism of /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (/sup 18/FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed.

  1. proprietes hydriques des sols dans deux zones a ecosystemes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les sécheresses répétées du Sahel et la pression de la population ont eu un impact négatif sur l'environnement ont conduit à la dégradation des ressources naturelles. Mais depuis ces deux dernières décennies, l'état des ressources au Sahel est mitigé. C'est ainsi que, dans certaines zones, on parle de la perte de ...

  2. Prostate disorders in an apparently normal Nigerian population 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) index was used to establish the presence of BPH, respondents' choice of most troublesome symptom and respondents' perception of their quality of life. The results show that 25.35% of the studied population had symptoms suggestive of BPH. The severity of symptoms was ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    cristallinité, son complexe avec la lignine et les autres composés qui lui sont associés. (Arunik et al., 1988). Pour pouvoir hydrolyser les polymères naturels, nous avons entrepris l'extraction, la purification, l'homogénéisation et la déter- mination des propriétés physico-chimiques de deux cellulases des ouvriers du termite ...

  4. Population of superdeformed bands, the competition with fission, and the barrier between normal and superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chasman, R.R.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Beard, K.B.; Garg, U.; Ye, D.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W.; Drigert, M.W.


    In this paper we report on the entry points leading to superdeformed (SD) as well as normal bands. We find that, compared to normal bands, the entry spins for the SD bands are about 9 ℎ higher, and the entry excitation energy 1--3 MeV colder. We also conclude that population of the SD bands represents successful competition against fission. SD bands in both the Dy and Hg regions are considered

  5. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡

  6. Flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies identify normal liver cell populations antigenically related to oval cells. (United States)

    Agelli, M; Halay, E D


    Oval cells, a non-parenchymal cell population induced to rapidly proliferate in animals treated with carcinogens, are thought to be related to the hypothesized liver stem cells. In normal liver there are poorly defined cells antigenically related to oval cells. These oval cell antigen positive (OCAP) cells present in normal animals are thought to include hepatocyte and bile duct cell precursors. To isolate them, we modified the existing protocols designed for oval cells and used it on normal neonatal rat livers. Using flow cytometry, the percentage of normal liver OCAP-cells varied with the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to the different oval cell membrane markers used: 12% (MoAb 18.2), 23% (MoAb 270.38), 27% (MoAb 18.11), 31% (MoAb 18.13), and 37% (MoAb 374.3). Macrophages consisted 10% of the cells (MoAb MCA 275); hepatocytes were essentially absent ( < 1%, MoAb 236.4). Our results demonstrate that is possible to obtain significant numbers of normal cells antigenically related to oval cells and that using different MoAbs, different cell populations can be sorted for use in experimental studies testing liver progenitor cell hypothesis.

  7. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

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    Knapp Bettina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  8. High-normal albuminuria and incident chronic kidney disease in a male nondiabetic population. (United States)

    Ashitani, Aki; Ueno, Toshinori; Nakashima, Ayumu; Doi, Shigehiro; Yamane, Kiminori; Masaki, Takao


    High-normal albuminuria is an important risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease in diabetic populations, in contrast to an uncertain association in nondiabetic populations. This study aimed to reveal the relationship between high-normal albuminuria and incident chronic kidney disease in a Japanese nondiabetic population. A 10-year follow-up retrospective cohort study was performed involving 1378 Japanese men (mean age 44 ± 5.3 years) without chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as either estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease over the 10-year follow-up period. Median annual estimated glomerular filtration rate decline showed a deterioration with increasing quartiles of baseline albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P = 0.004). Participants who had a baseline albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the highest quartile (5.9-28.9 mg/g) were more likely to develop micro- or macroalbuminuria (odds ratio: 16.23, 95% confidence interval 6.56-54.03), chronic kidney disease (odds ratio: 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.64-3.82), and hypertension (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.30-3.31), but not diabetes mellitus compared with those who had an albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the lowest quartile (1.3-3.6 mg/g) after adjustment for potential confounders. High-normal albuminuria was associated with incident chronic kidney disease in this Japanese nondiabetic male population.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others


    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  10. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in normal population of northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madood-ul-mannan; Anwar, M.; Saleem, M.; Waqar, A.; Ahmad, M.


    Diagnosis of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency can not be made unless reference ranges of these vitamins in a given population are known. These serum levels depend upon the dietary intake of these vitamins which in turn depends upon the availability of foods containing these vitamins and the methods of cooking/processing. The latter vary in different populations. Therefore serum level of these vitamins would vary in different populations. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate were estimated by radioimmunoassay technique in 30 normal subjects of different age groups. The levels of vitamin B12 were found to be 215.2 pg/ml and that of folate 3.9 ng/ml. These values are much lower than those described for European population. It is therefore concluded that the cut off point of the levels of these vitamins should be different than the European figures. (author)

  11. Study of the normal heart size in Northwest part of Iranian population: a cadaveric study

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    Shabnam Mohammadi


    Conclusion: Mean values of the heart’s length and width was similar to previous reports from western population. The circumference of the tricuspid valve was less than the textbook’s data, while circumference of the mitral valves was more than it. The study findings provide valuable information about standard data of the heart in the Iranian population, which is useful for surgeons as well as anthropologists. However, multi-center studies with a larger sample size are required to complete data about anatomical characteristics of normal hearts.

  12. Ecriture traumatique de la problematique de la jeunesse chez deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecriture traumatique de la problematique de la jeunesse chez deux romanciers africains froncophones: Ahmadou kourouma et boubacar boris diop, ou l'Afrique au pied du mur de la crise de la conscience Africaine.

  13. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements in normal Indian population by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan R


    Full Text Available Purpose: To obtain retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT in normal Indian population. Materials and Methods: Total of 118 randomly selected eyes of 118 normal Indian subjects of both sex and various age groups underwent retinal nerve fiber layer thickness analysis by Stratus OCT 3000 V 4.0.1. The results were evaluated and compared to determine the normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and its variations with sex and age. Results: Mean + standard deviation retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for various quadrants of superior, inferior, nasal, temporal, and along the entire circumference around the optic nerve head were 138.2 + 21.74, 129.1 + 25.67, 85.71 + 21, 66.38 + 17.37, and 104.8 + 38.81 µm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the measurements between males and females, and no significant correlation with respect to age. Conclusion: Our results provide the normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and its variations with age and sex in Indian population.

  14. Deux maisons, égales en dignité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Kohler


    Full Text Available Les populations traditionnelles de l’Amazonie brésilienne sont soumises, de la part des organes institutionnels et de l’opinion publique, à une double injonction : préserver la forêt tout en se pliant à des expériences de développement durable destinées à améliorer leurs conditions d’existence et leur formation. Deux études concomitantes menées en Amapá, l’une à Vila Velha do Cassiporé, l’autre à Vila de São Francisco do Iratapuru, nous permettent de dégager quelques principes conditionnant le succès ou l’échec des projets implantés. Ces principes concernent essentiellement la cohésion communautaire, et la disponibilité d’une main d’œuvre faiblement qualifiée, permettant ainsi le maintien d’activités qui pour être traditionnelles n’en sont pas moins pénibles.The traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon are subject to a double bind by institutional bodies and public opinion: these populations must preserve the forest while they act as subjects for sustainable development experiments intended to improve their living conditions and formal educational level. Two studies conducted in the State of Amapá, one in Vila Velha do Cassiporé, the other in Vila de São Francisco do Iratapuru; provide us with a few principles influencing the success or failure of these projects. These principles mainly concern community cohesion and the availability of an under-skilled workforce, which thus enable these populations to maintain activities that albeit traditional are nonetheless unpleasant.

  15. Quantifying Normal Craniofacial Form and Baseline Craniofacial Asymmetry in the Pediatric Population. (United States)

    Cho, Min-Jeong; Hallac, Rami R; Ramesh, Jananie; Seaward, James R; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A; Lipira, Angelo; Kane, Alex A


    Restoring craniofacial symmetry is an important objective in the treatment of many craniofacial conditions. Normal form has been measured using anthropometry, cephalometry, and photography, yet all of these modalities have drawbacks. In this study, the authors define normal pediatric craniofacial form and craniofacial asymmetry using stereophotogrammetric images, which capture a densely sampled set of points on the form. After institutional review board approval, normal, healthy children (n = 533) with no known craniofacial abnormalities were recruited at well-child visits to undergo full head stereophotogrammetric imaging. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 18 years. A symmetric three-dimensional template was registered and scaled to each individual scan using 25 manually placed landmarks. The template was deformed to each subject's three-dimensional scan using a thin-plate spline algorithm and closest point matching. Age-based normal facial models were derived. Mean facial asymmetry and statistical characteristics of the population were calculated. The mean head asymmetry across all pediatric subjects was 1.5 ± 0.5 mm (range, 0.46 to 4.78 mm), and the mean facial asymmetry was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm (range, 0.4 to 5.4 mm). There were no significant differences in the mean head or facial asymmetry with age, sex, or race. Understanding the "normal" form and baseline distribution of asymmetry is an important anthropomorphic foundation. The authors present a method to quantify normal craniofacial form and baseline asymmetry in a large pediatric sample. The authors found that the normal pediatric craniofacial form is asymmetric, and does not change in magnitude with age, sex, or race.

  16. Relation between Protein Intrinsic Normal Mode Weights and Pre-Existing Conformer Populations. (United States)

    Ozgur, Beytullah; Ozdemir, E Sila; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem


    Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium toward the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed. The correlation between the normalized mode weight ratios and the kinetic rate ratios is around 83% on a set of 11 non-enzyme proteins and around 59% on a set of 17 enzymes. The results are suggestive that mode motions carry intrinsic relations with thermodynamics and kinetics of the proteins.

  17. Age and gender effects on normal regional cerebral blood flow studied using two different voxel-based statistical analyses; Effets de l'age et du genre sur la perfusion cerebrale regionale etudiee par deux methodes d'analyse statistique voxel-par-voxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirson, A.S.; George, J.; Krug, B.; Vander Borght, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Van Laere, K. [Leuven Univ. Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Div. (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. de Biostatistiques, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); D' Asseler, Y. [Ghent Univ., Medical Signal and Image Processing Dept. (MEDISIP), Faculty of applied sciences (Belgium); Minoshima, S. [Washington Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Seattle (United States)


    Fully automated analysis programs have been applied more and more to aid for the reading of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT study. They are increasingly based on the comparison of the patient study with a normal database. In this study, we evaluate the ability of Three-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection (3 D-S.S.P.) to isolate effects of age and gender in a previously studied normal population. The results were also compared with those obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping (S.P.M.99). Methods Eighty-nine {sup 99m}Tc-E.C.D.-SPECT studies performed in carefully screened healthy volunteers (46 females, 43 males; age 20 - 81 years) were analysed using 3 D-S.S.P.. A multivariate analysis based on the general linear model was performed with regions as intra-subject factor, gender as inter-subject factor and age as co-variate. Results Both age and gender had a significant interaction effect with regional tracer uptake. An age-related decline (p < 0.001) was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal association cortex and left insula. Bilateral occipital association and left primary visual cortical uptake showed a significant relative increase with age (p < 0.001). Concerning the gender effect, women showed higher uptake (p < 0.01) in the parietal and right sensorimotor cortices. An age by gender interaction (p < 0.01) was only found in the left medial frontal cortex. The results were consistent with those obtained with S.P.M.99. Conclusion 3 D-S.S.P. analysis of normal r.C.B.F. variability is consistent with the literature and other automated voxel-based techniques, which highlight the effects of both age and gender. (authors)

  18. Polymorphic haplotypes on R408BW PKU and normal PAH chromosomes in Quebec and European populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byck, S.; Morgan, K.; Scriver, C.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others


    The R408W mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) is associated with haplotype 2.3 (RFLP haplotype 2, VNTR 3 of the HindIII system) in most European populations. Another chromosome, first observed in Quebec and then in northwest Europe, carries R408W on haplotype 1.8. The occurrence of the R408W mutation on two different PKU chromosomes could be the result of intragenic recombination, recurrent mutation or gene conversion. In this study, we analyzed both normal and R408W chromosomes carrying 1.8 and 2.3 haplotypes in Quebec and European populations; we used the TCTA{sub (n)} short tandem repeat sequence (STR) at the 5{prime} end of the PAH gene and the HindIII VNTR system at the 3{prime} end of the PAH gene to characterize chromosomes. Fourteen of sixteen R408W chromosomes from {open_quotes}Celtic{close_quotes} families in Quebec and the United Kingdom (UK) harbor a 244 bp STR allele; the remaining two chromosomes, carry a 240 bp or 248bp STR allele. Normal chromosomes (n=18) carry the 240 bp STR allele. R408W chromosomes are different from mutant H1.8 chromosomes; mutant H2.3 carries the 240 bp STR allele (14 of 16 chromosomes) or the 236 allele (2 of 16 chromosomes). The HindIII VNTR comprises variable numbers of 30 bp repeats (cassettes); the repeats also vary in nucleotide sequence. Variation clusters toward the 3{prime} end of cassettes and VNTRs. VNTR 3 alleles on normal H2 (n=9) and mutant R408W H2 (n=19) chromosomes were identical. VNTR 8 alleles on normal H1 chromosomes (n=9) and on R408W H1 chromosomes (n=15) differ by 1 bp substitution near the 3{prime} end of the 6th cassette. In summary, the mutant H1.8 chromosome harboring the R408W mutation has unique features at both the 5{prime} and 3{prime} end of the gene that distinguish it from the mutant H2.3 and normal H1.8 and H2.3 counterparts. The explanation for the occurrence of R408W on two different PAH haplotypes is recurrent mutation affecting the CpG dinucleotide in PAH codon 408.

  19. Prevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of subclinical hypothyroidism in normal population in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Deshmukh


    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical Hypothyroidism (ScHt affects 3-15% of the adult population. It′s clinical and biochemical profile is not well defined, especially in Indian scenario. Our study aimed at screening normal population to define normative ranges of thyroid hormones and Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S.TSH and prevalence of ScHt and thyroid autoimmunity. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred thirty-seven normal subjects without family history of thyroid disease were evaluated for symptoms and laboratory tests for thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity. Results: The thyroid function tests were as follows: Euthyroid Group: Mean values were: T3: 1.79 ± 0.42 ng/ mL, T4: 10.23 ± 2.25 μg/dL, FT3: 1.88 ± 0.19 pg/mL, FT4: 1.12 ± 0.21 ng/dL, S.TSH: 2.22 ± 1.06 μlu/mL. 10.2% of euthyroid subjects had antimicrosomal antibodies (AMA +ve (mean titer 1:918 and 23.6% were anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (anti-TPO +ve (mean titer 15.06 Au/mL. The euthyroid outlier range for S.TSH was 0.3-4.6 μlu/mL. The values were comparable in both the sexes. Those with S.TSH ≥ 5 μlu/mL were defined to have ScHt. ScHt Group : Prevalence of ScHt was 11.3% (M:F ratio 1:3.7. 74% belonged to 35-54 years age group and prevalence increased with age (post-menopausal females: prevalence 20%. S.TSH was 9.8 ± 7.22 μlu/mL, mean S.AMA was 1:5079 (40.7% positivity and mean S.anti-TPO was 260 Au/mL (47.6% positivity. Majority were agoitrous (74%, and stage I goiter was seen in 26% of this population. Symptom score of 5-8 was seen in 55% ScHt subjects versus 35% normal subjects. Conclusion: Mean S.TSH in our population was 2.22 μlu/mL (euthyroid outliers: 0.3-4.6 μlu/mL; hence, S.TSH above 4.6 μlu/mL should be considered as abnormal. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity increases after age of 35 years. ScHt presents mainly in agoitrous form and with positive antibodies, suggesting autoimmunity as the cause.

  20. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Cinemre


    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  1. Factors predicting reversion from mild cognitive impairment to normal cognitive functioning: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition.Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male aged 71-89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded. Associations with reversion were investigated for (1 baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2 longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors.There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI. Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p = 0.011, a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, or an informant-based memory complaint (p = 0.031. Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p = 0.037, but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p = 0.003, greater openness to experience (p = 0.041, better vision (p = 0.014, better smelling ability (p = 0.040, or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040. Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p = 0.026.Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in

  2. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  3. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos


    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  4. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing. (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G


    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  5. Syndrome de Rhupus: à propos de deux observations | Hachicha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    est une condition clinique rare. A travers le monde 50 cas de Rhupus ont été décrits. Nous en rapportons deux nouvelles observations de patientes Tunisiennes qui présentaient une polyarthrite érosive à prédominance distale avec des ...

  6. Distribution spatiale de deux monogènes du genre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    postérieur, c'est-à-dire de l'arc I vers l'arc IV. Les deux vers fréquentent prioritairement le secteur médian, quoique leurs charges soient similaires sur les trois secteurs. Conclusion et application des résultats : Ce travail suggère une fois de plus que ...

  7. Deux cartes de synthèse du Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques CHAMPAUD


    Full Text Available À partir des données utilisées pour la réalisation d'un atlas statistique du Cameroun, deux approches synthétiques sont proposées: une typologie des arrondissements croisant la scolarisation et le salariat; une classification des villes au moyen d'un ensemble de variables socio-économiques.

  8. Study of the normal heart size in Northwest part of Iranian population: a cadaveric study. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Hedjazi, Arya; Sajjadian, Maryam; Ghoroubi, Naser; Mohammadi, Maryam; Erfani, Saeed


    Introduction: The heart is in a muscular organ in the middle mediastinum. According to our knowledge, there is no standard data about the anthropologic parameters of normal Iranian hearts. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the normal heart size in Iranian cadavers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 550 cadavers (104 female/446 male) from June 2014 to July 2015 in the Razavi Khorasan province of Iran were included in the study. After approval of the Ethical Committee, cadavers were divided into 10 groups based on age groups. Length, width, weight, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and heart valves were measured using vernier caliper. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean values of the demographic data were as follows: age= 42.12 ± 21.34 years; weight = 60.38 ± 15.32 kg; height = 158.14 ± 23.77 cm; and BMI = 24.66 ± 17.60 kg/m 2 . The mean values of the heart length, width, chordae tendineae, pupillary muscles, weight, and index of the heart were 11.41 ± 2.15 cm, 8.21 ± 4.38 cm, 19.41 ± 6.70, 5.74 ± 1.96, 247.78 ± 62.27 grams, and 5.74 ± 1.96, respectively. In addition, the circumference of the tricuspid valve, circumference of the mitral valves, and tricuspid and mitral areas were 8.80 ± 1.11 cm, 9.43 ± 1.44 cm, 4.11 ± 0.71 cm 2 , and 4.50 ± 0.90 cm 2 , respectively. Conclusion: Mean values of the heart's length and width was similar to previous reports from western population. The circumference of the tricuspid valve was less than the textbook's data, while circumference of the mitral valves was more than it. The study findings provide valuable information about standard data of the heart in the Iranian population, which is useful for surgeons as well as anthropologists. However, multi-center studies with a larger sample size are required to complete data about anatomical characteristics of normal hearts.

  9. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaretti-Castro M.


    Full Text Available Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years, with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX at the lumbar site (L2-L4 and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6% were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry, 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52 were classified as bb, 48.8% (62 as Bb and 10.2% (13 as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 ± 0.16 g/cm² than in the BB group (1.08 ± 0.14; P<0.05, and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 ± 0.15. Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 ± 0.11 g/cm² compared to Bb (0.93 ± 0.12 and BB (0.90 ± 0.09 (P<0.05. These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females.

  10. Les deux paramètres de base de la transmission



    La dynamique de la transmission de personne à personne qui inclut donc la transmission vectorielle peut être résumée par deux principaux paramètres : le taux de reproduction et l’intervalle sériel ou intergénérationnel (Anderson, May, 1991). 1. Le taux de reproduction Le taux de reproduction de base (R0 : nombre moyen de cas secondaires résultant, au sein d’une population susceptible et au niveau de laquelle aucune mesure de lutte n’est appliquée, du contact avec un sujet infectieux). Pour de...

  11. Mathematical beta function formulation for maxillary arch form prediction in normal occlusion population. (United States)

    Mina, Morteza; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Tehranchi, Azita; Nouri, Mahtab; Younessian, Farnaz


    The aim of this study was to assess the dental arch curvature in subjects with normal occlusion in an Iranian population and propose a beta function formula to predict maxillary arch form using the mandibular intermolar widths (IMW) and intermolar depths (IMD). The materials used were study casts of 54 adolescents with normal occlusion and mean age of 14.1 years (25 males, 29 females, age range 12-16 years). Curve-fitting analyses were carried out and the curves passing through the facial-axis point of the canines, premolars, first molars, and the incisal edges of the anterior teeth were studied using a 3D laser scanner. Using the measured IMW and IMD of the dental arches at the maxillary and mandibular first molar region, a beta function formula proposed for predicting maxillary arch form. The accuracy of the proposed formula was assessed on 10 randomly selected dental casts. The mean (SD) of the maxillary and mandibular IMW and IMD were 57.92 (4.75), 54.19 (5.31), and 31.59 (2.90) and 28.10 (2.59) mm, respectively. There was no gender dimorphism (P > 0.05) for both variables (IMW, IMD). There was a strong positive association (n = 10, Pearson r = 0.98, P < 0.05) between the measured (actual) maxillary arch length and proposed arch length derived from generated formula. The goodness of fit (whole arch) for the proposed beta function formula, using adjusted r square measure and root mean square in 10 patients averaged 0.97 and 1.49 mm, respectively. The corresponding figures for the maxillary anterior arch (canine to canine) were 0.90 and 0.92 mm, respectively. The proposed beta function formula used for predicting maxillary arch form based on two mandibular measures (IMW, IMD) was found to have a high accuracy for maxillary arch prediction in the Iranian population and may be used as a guide to fabricate customized arch wires or as an aid in maxillary reconstructive surgery.

  12. Normal mutation rate variants arise in a Mutator (Mut S Escherichia coli population.

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    María-Carmen Turrientes

    Full Text Available The rate at which mutations are generated is central to the pace of evolution. Although this rate is remarkably similar amongst all cellular organisms, bacterial strains with mutation rates 100 fold greater than the modal rates of their species are commonly isolated from natural sources and emerge in experimental populations. Theoretical studies postulate and empirical studies teort the hypotheses that these "mutator" strains evolved in response to selection for elevated rates of generation of inherited variation that enable bacteria to adapt to novel and/or rapidly changing environments. Less clear are the conditions under which selection will favor reductions in mutation rates. Declines in rates of mutation for established populations of mutator bacteria are not anticipated if such changes are attributed to the costs of augmented rates of generation of deleterious mutations. Here we report experimental evidence of evolution towards reduced mutation rates in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli with an hyper-mutable phenotype due a deletion in a mismatch repair gene, (ΔmutS. The emergence in a ΔmutS background of variants with mutation rates approaching those of the normal rates of strains carrying wild-type MutS was associated with increase in fitness with respect to ancestral strain. We postulate that such an increase in fitness could be attributed to the emergence of mechanisms driving a permanent "aerobic style of life", the negative consequence of this behavior being regulated by the evolution of mechanisms protecting the cell against increased endogenous oxidative radicals involved in DNA damage, and thus reducing mutation rate. Gene expression assays and full sequencing of evolved mutator and normo-mutable variants supports the hypothesis. In conclusion, we postulate that the observed reductions in mutation rate are coincidental to, rather than, the selective force responsible for this evolution.

  13. Results of the Gravity Stress Examination in the Normal Patient Population. (United States)

    Jastifer, James R; Jaykel, Matthew


    In ankle fractures, the result of a gravity stress radiographic examination is clinically used to determine if a patient may need surgical intervention. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a gravity stress examination in the normal patient population. Fifty study participants were prospectively enrolled and complete ankle radiographs were obtained, including a nonweightbearing gravity stress examination. The mean medial clear space in the gravity stress view was 3.6 mm. This compared to a mean medial clear space of 3.3 mm, and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior and mortise views. These values were statistically significantly different from the gravity stress view (  P = .006 and P stress radiographs (  P = .22). No participant had medial clear space widening with gravity stress to more than 5.2 mm or an increase in their widening by more than 0.2 mm. In conclusion, this study helps guide surgeons by providing normative radiographic data for a gravity stress examination and supports the notion that measureable medial clear space widening or talar tilt on gravity stress examination represents an unstable injury. Level II: Prospective.

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno


    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Deux journalistes afghanes effectuent une tournée pancanadienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2011 ... À l'occasion de l a 17e Journée de soutien aux journalistes emprisonnés, le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) et Reporters sans frontières Canada ont invité deux journalistes afg hanes à faire une tournée dans cinq villes canadiennes pour y parler de la liberté de presse et ...

  16. Etude de la qualité physico-chimique de l'eau de boisson dans deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'eau, source potentielle de vie, doit subir diverses analyses physico-chimiques qui définiront sa qualité pour la consommation humaine afin d'éviter les risques de maladies hydriques pour les consommateurs. La présente étude vise à déterminer la qualité physico-chimique de l'eau de boisson des populations de deux ...

  17. Exploratory factor analysis of the reintegration to normal living index in a stroke population. (United States)

    Merz, Zachary C; Van Patten, Ryan; Mulhauser, Kyler; Fucetola, Robert


    The reintegration to normal living index (RNLI) is a global assessment of patient quality of life often utilized in stroke populations. Previous studies in various general disability samples have consistently reported a two-factor solution for the RNLI. Despite its common use with stroke patients, the RNLI has not been psychometrically evaluated in an exclusively stroke sample. This study is believed to represent the first factor analysis of the RNLI using a sample comprised exclusively of individuals who have survived cerebral infarct. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the RNLI in assessing quality of life of stroke survivors. We retrospectively examined RNLI scores of 928 adults with strokes of varying severities as part of a multidisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration across an academic medical center, acute care hospital, and rehabilitation center. We utilized a principal component factor analysis to evaluate the factor structure of the RNLI. Mean RNLI scores ±SD for the sample were 75.26 ± 19.85, ranging between 20 and 100. The Cronbach α was .94. A scree test for factor retention strongly suggested a single factor solution, explaining 64.50% of the total variance. Previous factor analyses on the RNLI utilizing general disability samples commonly report a two-factor solution. Our data support the presence of a single factor solution across the RNLI within a large sample comprised exclusively of stroke survivors. This suggests that the RNLI acts as more of a unitary measure of quality of life within a stroke sample relative to other disabled samples.

  18. Angle Kappa Measurements: Normal Values in Healthy Iranian Population Obtained With the Orbscan II. (United States)

    Gharaee, Hamid; Shafiee, Masoud; Hoseini, Rafie; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Abrishami, Yalda; Abrishami, Mostafa


    The angle kappa is important in proper centration of corneal ablation in keratorefractive surgery. Orbscan II device is widely used preoperatively in photoablation surgeries and can be used to measure the angle kappa. This study aimed to determine the mean angle kappa and its intercepts in healthy young Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, orthotropic patients (age range, 18-35 years) who were referred to the Khatam Eye Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) were included. Exclusion criteria were as follows: history of any eye deviation or strabismus with or without orthoptic or surgical treatment; any intraocular, corneal, or keratorefractive surgery; contact lens use; any corneal anomaly; any ophthalmic or systemic drug consumption; and hyperopic spherical refraction > + 3.00 diopters (D), spherical refraction > -5.00 D, or cylindrical refraction > 2.00 D. All of the parameters were measured by the same operator through an Orbscan II device. A total of 977 healthy participants who aged 18 to 45 years were included consecutively. The study population consisted of 614 females and 363 males. The average angle kappa was 5.00º ± 1.36º at 240.21º ± 97.17º in males and 4.97º ± 1.30º at 244.22º ± 94.39º in females (P = 0.63). The average horizontal (x-axis) angle kappa was -0.02º ± 0.49º, with a mean of -0.02º ± 0.50º in males and -0.02º ± 0.49º in females (P = 0.93). The average vertical (y-axis) angle kappa was -0.09º ± 0.32º, with a mean of -0.09º ± 0.33º in males and -0.09º ± 0.32º in females (P = 0.74). By using the normal angle kappa determined in this study, pseudodeviations can be identified more precisely in those who might undergo keratorefractive surgery.

  19. A study of chromium in human cataractous lenses and whole blood of diabetics, senile, and normal population. (United States)

    Pineau, A; Guillard, O; Risse, J F


    Chromium (Cr) is of known biological importance, necessary for the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism. There is a lower level of blood Cr concentrations in cases of diabetes. Diabetes carries a risk of cataract development, so the potential effects of Cr on the eye may need to be studied in more depth. The presence of this trace element in both normal and cataractous human lenses has to our knowledge not been investigated so far. The concentration of total Cr in 61 human lenses and 38 blood samples was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (EAASZ). Analysis of the levels of Cr in human lenses shows a significant difference between normal and diabetic populations, and an absence of difference between senile and diabetic populations.

  20. Determination of serum nickel by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction: values in a normal population and a population undergoing dialysis. (United States)

    Nixon, D E; Moyer, T P; Squillace, D P; McCarthy, J T


    An atomic absorption spectrometric method with Zeeman-effect background correction for the determination of nickel, which requires only serum dilution with an aqueous surfactant, is described. The average nickel concentration in sera collected from 38 healthy adult volunteers was 0.14 +/- 0.09 micrograms l-1 of Ni, which is approximately four times lower than normals reported previously (0.65 +/- 0.35 or 0.46 +/- 0.26 microgram l-1 of Ni). The procedure yielded accurate results for the analysis of three different reference serum pools. A comparison of the average nickel concentrations from a patient population undergoing regular haemodialysis with our normal population showed that the average concentration of serum nickel in the dialysis patient group (n = 27 patients) was 46 times higher than normal (6.38 +/- 3.36 micrograms l-1 of Ni; n = 40 specimens).

  1. Perceived discrimination among men and women with normal weight and obesity. A population-based study from Sweden. (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn


    We examined whether men and women with obesity reported different types of discrimination to a greater extent than those with normal weight, and explored whether these associations were modified by socioeconomic position. National representative sample of men and women, with normal weight (n = 2,000), moderate obesity (n = 2,461) and severe obesity (n = 557). Participants were identified in a yearly population-based survey (1996-2006) and data on perceived discrimination and potential confounding factors were measured in 2008. Logistic regression models tested whether obesity was associated with perceived lifetime, workplace, healthcare and interpersonal discrimination. The overall response rate was 56%. For men, moderate obesity was associated with workplace discrimination, while severely obese women were more likely to report this sort of discrimination than normal weight women. Severely obese individuals were twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination than normal weight individuals. Women, regardless of weight status group, were in turn twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination as men. Women with severe obesity were significantly more likely to report interpersonal discrimination compared with normal weight women. Socioeconomic position modified the association between weight status and healthcare discrimination. Highly educated individuals with moderate and severe obesity were more likely to report healthcare discrimination than their normal weight counterparts, whereas low educated individuals with normal weight, moderate and severe obesity were equally likely to report discrimination. In this large, population-based study, discrimination was more likely to be reported by obese individuals compared with those of normal weight. The associations, however, varied according to gender and socioeconomic position.

  2. Distribution Du Zooplancton Le Long De Deux Petits Bassins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des peuplements zooplanctoniques ont été étudiés le long de deux petits bassins côtiers ivoiriens. Ce sont la rivière Bia, sur laquelle ont été construits les barrages hydroélectriques d\\'Ayamé I et II, et la rivière Agnébi dépourvue de barrage sur son cours principal. Le long de la rivière Bia, d\\'importantes variations de la ...

  3. Statut Hydrique Et Capacites Photosynthetiques De Deux Varietes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le statut hydrique et les variations des échanges de CO2 photosynthétique ont été étudiées chez deux variétés de niébé (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Les processus biochimiques susceptibles d\\'être à l\\'origine de ces variations ont été interprétés en relation avec les conditions hydriques de ces plantes. Les paramètres ...

  4. Deux approches du risque d'inondation en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno LEDOUX


    Full Text Available En France, les sources d’informations centralisées sur les risques naturels sont rares. Pourtant, une politique de prévention engagée par l’État nécessite de disposer d’une information à l’échelle nationale, d’évaluer les enjeux et de mobiliser les acteurs. Deux sources d’informations sont décrites et exploitées, qui permettent, par une représentation cartographique nationale, d’amorcer analyses et débats.

  5. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies. (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile


    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Ecstasy and new patterns of drug use: a normal population study. (United States)

    Pedersen, W; Skrondal, A


    (i) To describe illegal drug use patterns in an adolescent normal population sample with special emphasis on MDMA, ecstasy; (ii) to investigate where ecstasy is introduced in a hypothesized drug use sequence, and (iii) to contrast the predictors of ecstasy use with those of other illegal substances. Special attention was given to the relationship to subcultural music preferences and house-party-going. A school-based survey of the total cohort of adolescents enrolled in the school system in a city. 10,812 adolescents, age 14-17 years, response rate 94.3%. Oslo, the capital and only metropolitan town in Norway. Social class was measured by the occupation standard ISCO 88, questions were posed as regards frequency of alcohol use and alcohol intoxication, cigarette smoking and use of cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy and heroin. Alcohol problems were measured by a shortened version of Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), conduct problems were measured according to the four categories of acts forming the basis of the diagnosis conduct disorder in DSM-IV, internalizing mental health problems were measured using items from Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HCL). A number of questions were asked as regards subcultural music preferences and house-party-going. STATISTICAL MODELS: A hypothesized cumulative sequence in drug use was investigated by means of latent class analysis, and the predictors of the various patterns of drug use were estimated and compared by means of multinominal logistic regression analysis. The use of ecstasy was often intermingled with the use of cannabis, amphetamines and heroin, in a pattern of polydrug use. The latent class analysis revealed the following drug use sequence: (1) alcohol, (2) cigarettes, (3) cannabis, (4) amphetamines, (5) ecstasy and (6) heroin. There was no significant association between ecstasy use and parental social class or residential area of the town. All patterns of illegal drug use were highly associated with cigarette smoking

  7. The growth hormone system and cardiac function in patients with growth hormone disturbances and in the normal population. (United States)

    Andreassen, Mikkel


    Pathological high and low levels of Insulin-like Growth factor I (IGF-I) might exert harmful influences on cardiovascular structures. In the normal population low IGF-I levels might be harmful. In a retrospective investigation in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), normal levels of NT-proBNP at baseline and no changes during two years of GH treatment could be detected. A subsequent prospective study confirmed normal levels of NT-proBNP and also of BNP. Furthermore cardiac systolic function and left ventricle (LV) mass assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) were unchanged compared to control subjects. One year of GH replacement therapy did not change levels of NT-proBNP, BNP or any of the variables obtained by CMRI. In a retrospective study of acromegalic patients we found reduced serum NT-proBNP in the untreated stage and a 4-fold increase after 3 months of treatment. A subsequent prospective CMRI investigation confirmed an initial increase in natriuretic peptides after 3 months treatment, and showed that the increase in natriuretic peptides was accompanied by an increase in end diastolic volume. In a normal population followed prospectively for 5 years, high plasma IGF-I was accompanied by increased incidence of chronic heart failure, whereas IGF-I levels did not seem to influence the overall development of cardiovascular diseases. assessed by sensitive methods patients with GHD had normal systolic function, and one year of GH replacement therapy did not change LV function or size. In acromegalic patients short-term treatment was associated with a minor decrease in cardiac function. In the normal population high levels of IGF-I was a risk factor for development of heart failure. The results illustrates that the interaction between the GH/IGF-I system and cardiovascular disease is very complex.

  8. Normal values of key pinch strength in a healthy Nigerian population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the severity of machine hand injuries in our environment, the need to determine the normal values for key pinch strength with which to compare restorative surgeries was justified. Methods: A cross sectional survey of participants who had no previous hand injuries limiting hand function. Data obtained ...

  9. Frequency of afterload homocysteinemia in normal population of Southern Iran: a pilot study. (United States)

    Akbari, A; Dehbozorgian, J; Afrasibi, A R; Gafari, H; Gerdabi, J; Karimi, M


    The objectives of the present pilot study were to investigate the effect of an oral methionine load on plasma homocysteine in healthy subjects southern Iran. We studied 50 peoples (10 men, 40 women, median age 27.5, range 20-37) referred to screening center for marriage since different part of southern Iran. Methionine (0.1 g kg(-1) b.wt.) was immediately administrated orally in 200 mL of orange juice and a second blood was obtained 4 h later. Plasma level of homocysteine was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography and flumetric detection. A homocysteine level above 15 mmol L(-1) was considered high. The mean fasting and afterload homocysteine were 15.28 and 31.29 micromol L(-1), respectively. Fasting hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol L(-1)) was detected in 12% of male and 8% in female which significantly higher in men than women (p homocysteine levels (> 31 micromol L(-1)) was detected in 16% of male and 14%in female which higher in men than women. Notably 80% of participants had normal total homocystein concentration (homocystein levels (p = 0.000), in 8% of those normal homocystein level, methionine afterload homocystein levels became abnormal. In conclusion, based on results, we recommend the methionine afterload homocystein levels in high risk cases with normal fasting level in order to unmissed some cases with normal basal homocystein level.

  10. Comparison of radiosensitivity between tumor and normal tissue in terms of cell population kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, Tsutomu; Utsumi, Hiroshi


    Puck and Marcus in 1956 established the in vitro colony formation of mammalian cells and demonstrated a dose-survival curve of mammalian cells well fitted to the target theory. Since then almost all of the work on the radiosensitivity of malignant and normal cells has been based on the reproductive integrity of cells. However, in the author's laboratory, a recent work was done on the effect of ionizing radiation on the differentiative trait, using clonal cell cultures developed by Coon (1966) in chick embryonic cartilage cells. This work demonstrated clearly that the differentiative trait is more radiosensitive than is reproduction. Based on this finding a new compartment model is proposed for a cell renewal system which demonstrates the difference between normal and malignant tissue. (author)

  11. The Effects of Increasing the Stimulus Rate on Auditory Brainstem Response Waves Latency in Old Population with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Roozbahani


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The auditory system changes by increasing age in both central and peripheral parts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the increasing the stimulus rate on auditory brainstem response (ABR waves latency in old population with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study click ABR test performed on 20 young normal-hearing subjects with mean age of 20.8 years old and 10 old normal-hearing subjects with mean age of 66.4 years old. ABR results with different stimulus rates were compared between two groups. Results: ABR peak latencies and interpeak intervals were prolonged with increasing the click repetition rate. Peak latencies were slightly prolonged in older adults and the I-V interval did not differ with age but prolongation of III-V interval were significantly differs in older population compared to young adults. Conclusion: Using high click rates may sensitize the ABR to the identification of lesions of auditory nerve or brainstem, but before that, we need to know the normal range of different age groups, so that we can decide about probability of a retrocochlear lesion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Rusakov


    Full Text Available We construct a stochastic model of real estate pricing. The method of the pricing construction is based on a sequential comparison of the supply prices. We proof that under standard assumptions imposed upon the comparison coefficients there exists an unique non-degenerated limit in distribution and this limit has the lognormal law of distribution. The accordance of empirical distributions of prices to thetheoretically obtained log-normal distribution we verify by numerous statistical data of real estate prices from Saint-Petersburg (Russia. For establishing this accordance we essentially apply the efficient and sensitive test of fit of Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Basing on “The Russian Federal Estimation Standard N2”, we conclude that the most probable price, i.e. mode of distribution, is correctly and uniquely defined under the log-normal approximation. Since the mean value of log-normal distribution exceeds the mode - most probable value, it follows that the prices valued by the mathematical expectation are systematically overstated.

  13. New limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.


    We model the potentially observable populations of normal and millisecond radio pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) where the known population currently stands at 19 normal radio pulsars. Taking into account the detection thresholds of previous surveys, and assuming optimal period and luminosity distributions based on studies of Galactic pulsars, we estimate that there are (1.79 +/- 0.20) × 104 and (1.09 +/- 0.16) × 104 normal pulsars in the LMC and SMC, respectively. When we attempt to correct for beaming effects, and the fraction of high-velocity pulsars which escape the clouds, we estimate birth rates in both the LMC and SMC to be comparable and in the range of 0.5-1 pulsars per century. Although higher than estimates for the rate of core-collapse supernovae in the clouds, these pulsar birth rates are consistent with historical supernova observations in the past 300 yr. A substantial population of active radio pulsars (of the order of a few hundred thousand) has escaped the LMC and SMC and populates the local intergalactic medium. For the millisecond pulsar (MSP) population, the lack of any detections from current surveys leads to respective upper limits (at the 95 per cent confidence level) of 15000 for the LMC and 23000 for the SMC. Several MSPs could be detected by a currently ongoing survey of the SMC with improved time and frequency resolution using the Parkes multibeam system. Giant-pulse emitting neutron stars could also be seen by this survey.

  14. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  15. Normal values and determinants of circadian urine production in older men : A population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanker, M. H.; Bernsen, R. M.; Bosch, J. L. Ruud; Thomas, S.; Groeneveld, F. P.; Prins, A.; Bohnen, A. M.


    PURPOSE: We evaluated circadian urine production and its determinants in a large population based sample of older men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data on 1,688 men 50 to 78 years old, without radical prostatectomy, prostate or bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder disease or negative advice

  16. Prévalence de la population de poids normal, métaboliquement obèse, chez l'adolescent [Prevalence of metabolically obese normal weight population in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina GHEDADA


    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown that a subgroup of individuals with normal weight have metabolic characteristics usually associated with obesity and would be also at increased risk of cardiovascular complications, as well as the obese individual. This syndrome is described as metabolically normal-weight obese (MONW syndrome. Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of MONW topics in a young population aged 16- 19 years. Population and Methods. Nine hundred adolescents (565 girls/335 boys, aged 16-19 years without history of diabetes or high blood pressure, enrolled in two schools of Bir Khadem city, were detected after informed parental consent. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels were determined. Criteria and Ruderman score were used to define MONW topics. Results. 37 patients (30 girls and 7 boys were MONW with a score ≥ 7. In these subjects, diabetes history seemed to be the predominant criteria for boys, and high waistline predominated in girls. Conclusion. MONW syndrome differs from the metabolic syndrome by the BMI criteria which is normal here. Concerning the pathophysiology and associated complications, they remain the same in the both cases.

  17. An estimation of population doses from a nuclear power plant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, K.


    A model is presented for estimation of the potential submersion and inhalation radiation doses to people located within a distance of 1000 km from a nuclear power plant during normal operation. The model was used to calculate doses for people living 200-1000 km from hypothetical nuclear power facility sited near the geographical centre of Denmark. Two kinds of sources are considered for this situation: - unit release of 15 isotopes of noble gases and iodines, - effluent releases from two types of 1000 MWe Light Water Power Reactors: PWR and BWR. Parameter variations were made and analyzed in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the model. (author)

  18. Comparison of Endolymphatic Duct Dimensions and Jugular Bulb Abnormalities Between Meniere Disease and a Normal Population. (United States)

    Karatas, Abdullah; Kocak, Ayhan; Cebi, Isil Taylan; Salviz, Mehdi


    The pathogenesis of Meniere disease (MD) has not been fully understood. According to the widely accepted theory, imbalances due to overproduction and/or impaired absorption of endolymph may cause endolymphatic hydrops, which is the hallmark pathological finding in MD. Some developmental temporal bone abnormalities may impair endolymph circulation and absorption, and these abnormalities could be a part of MD pathophysiology. However, structural features of the temporal bone cannot explain MD pathophysiology definitively. The authors aimed to determine the length and width of the endolymphatic duct (ED) along with jugular bulb (JB) abnormalities in MD patients and normal controls using high-resolution computed tomography, and to discuss the results supporting and opposing endolymphatic hydrops based on the data obtained. Thirty-six ears of 18 patients with unilateral MD and 34 ears of 17 normal subjects were enrolled. Jugular bulb abnormalities and ED dimensions were evaluated in 3 groups: affected and unaffected ears of MD patients, and healthy controls. The ED dimensions and JB abnormalities were evaluated with high-resolution computed tomography. The ED was found to be significantly shorter and narrower in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. In addition, more JB abnormalities were detected in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was no difference between the affected and unaffected ears of the MD patients. Structural ED abnormalities and JB abnormalities may be predisposing factors for the development of Meniere disease, but cannot fully explain MD pathophysiology.

  19. Die dramatiese discours in Pas de deux van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaughan


    Full Text Available Drama is action, verbal drama is speech action, and the dramatic text is subject to a similar set of rules as that governing the extra-literary communication situation. Dramatic irony, the very essence of drama itself, is generated by a dual, mutually interactive process of communication, whereby the audience is “written into” the text in a way distinguishing it from other literary genres, and by a systematic flouting of the rules governing communication. Pas de deux demonstrates the peculiar duality of dramatic discourse by its complex exploitation of the breakdown/non-breakdown of Grice’s Co-operative Principle-. communication/non-communication becomes reversible and, therefore, mutually constitutive concepts “releasing meaning” and conveying the “ideology” of this play.

  20. Between Two Empires. Histoire des deux Indes And Modern Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pandolfi


    Full Text Available The article critically analyses the late eighteenth century process of crisis and transformation of the concept of empire. By considering Raynal’s Histoire des deux Indes and the Enlightenment’s critique of the different imperial models, Pandolfi reconstructs the transit from classic colonialism – built around the relations between settlers, savages and slaves – to another phase characterized by the indirect exploitation of the labour force. The text underlines the ambivalence of Enlightenment towards the question of the empire by demonstrating how Raynal’s work reflects the constitutive tension of the second half of the 1700s. Therefore, through Diderot’s analysis, the author demonstrates how the moral advancement of humanity is the product of a constant interaction between the colonial rhetoric of commerce and those revolutions, which, – in different moments and places – have crossed the colonial space.

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in the normal population and high risk groups in north Kerala. (United States)

    Sandesh, K; Varghese, Thomas; Harikumar, R; Beena, Philomina; Sasidharan, V P; Bindu, C S; Tony, Jose; Harish, K; Sunilkumar, K; Ramachandran, T M


    Our aim is to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infections among normal healthy persons and high risk groups in the northern part of Kerala state in South India as there is insufficient published literature related to this subject. HBsAg and AntiHCV screening were done in normal persons and in high risk groups. Normal persons screened included voluntary blood donors, those attending mandatory medical check up for jobs in middle east Asia and pregnant women. High risk groups were health care workers, intravenous drug abusers, commercial sex workers and male homosexuals. HBsAg and anti HCV antibody test results in the various groups were as follows. Voluntary blood donors--HBsAg was positive in 0.71 % and anti HCV was positive in 0.33%; job seekers to middle east Asia had 0.89% and 0.12% prevalence of HBV and HCV respectively. Among the pregnant women, 0.21% were HBsAg positive. Among the high risk groups, none of the health care workers were HbsAg positive and 0.79% were antiHCV positive. Among the IV drug abusers 2.7% were HBsAg positive and 51.89% were positive for antiHCV. In commercial sex workers, 3.47 % were HBsAg positive and 2.6 % were antiHCV positive. In male homosexuals, 4.49% were HBsAg positive and 3.37% were antiHCV positive. The prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in the normal population of Calicut in the northern part of Kerela is 0.52% and 0.24%. Compared to other areas of India, the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C are low in the normal population of Calicut. Among the high-risk groups, IV drug users have a high prevalence of AntiHCV.

  2. Vitamin D serum levels in allergic rhinitis: any difference from normal population?


    Arshi, Saba; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Kamrava, Seyyed-Kamran; Aminlou, Mina


    Background Recently it has been suggested that, the worldwide increase in allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy is associated with low vitamin D intake. Objective This study measured the vitamin D levels in patients with allergic rhinitis and compared the results with the general population. Methods Vitamin D levels were assessed in 50 patients with allergic rhinitis diagnosed clinically by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma 2008 criteria and the result ...

  3. Measurement precision and normal range of endometrial thickness in a postmenopausal population by transvaginal ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, L; Ravn, Pernille; Skouby, Sven O.


    of the ET. Measurements were performed by transvaginal ultrasound. A subset of the women (n = 178) was examined twice 3 months to 2 years apart to assess the long-term variability. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, ET varied with length of menopause. During the first 5 years after menopause (YSM) the mean ET...... was 2.3 mm but it decreased by 0.03 mm/year (P changes (P = 0.13). Thereafter there was a minimal increase of 0.01 mm/year (P changes on ET, only women who had...... reached the menopause more than 5 years earlier were entered into the subsequent long-term study. The mean ET was 2.0 mm +/- 1.0 mm with no significant differences within or between the observers' measurements. The precision errors were less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The normal range of the thickness...

  4. A bipolar population counter using wave pipelining to achieve 2.5 x normal clock frequency (United States)

    Wong, Derek C.; De Micheli, Giovanni; Flynn, Michael J.; Huston, Robert E.


    Wave pipelining is a technique for pipelining digital systems that can increase clock frequency in practical circuits without increasing the number of storage elements. In wave pipelining, multiple coherent waves of data are sent through a block of combinational logic by applying new inputs faster than the delay through the logic. The throughput of a 63-b CML population counter was increased from 97 to 250 MHz using wave pipelining. The internal circuit is flowthrough combinational logic. Novel CAD methods have balanced all input-to-output paths to about the same delay. This allows multiple data waves to propagate in sequence when the circuit is clocked faster than its propagation delay.

  5. Hippocampal shape is predictive for the development of dementia in a normal, elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom


    assessed whether hippocampal shape provides additional predictive value independent of hippocampal volume. Five hundred eleven brain MRI scans from elderly nondemented participants of a prospective population-based imaging study were used. During the 10-year follow-up period, 52 of these subjects developed...... dementia. For training and evaluation independent of age and gender, a subset of 50 cases and 150 matched controls was selected. The hippocampus was segmented using an automated method. From the segmentation, the volume was determined and a statistical shape model was constructed. We trained a classifier...

  6. Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly population of a Japanese rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Meguro, Kenichi; Mori, Etsuro


    The prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in a community was investigated by retrospective analysis of data from a previous community-based study of 170 randomly selected elderly residents aged 65 years or older. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the subjects were reviewed for the specific structural features of idiopathic NPH, i.e. ventricular enlargement and narrow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at high convexity and high midline areas. The clinical features of idiopathic NPH, gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and cognitive impairment, were evaluated on the basis of records of the subjects' neurological examinations, a health questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating. Thirteen of the 170 subjects showed lateral ventricular enlargement greater than 0.3 on Evans' index. Five subjects (2.9%) demonstrated both ventricular enlargement and narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline. All five subjects with these MR imaging signs had cognitive impairment, one had gait disturbance, and one had urinary incontinence. The present study found 2.9% of community-dwelling elderly subjects showed radiological and clinical features consistent with idiopathic NPH. (author)

  7. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

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    Nihat Sayın


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  8. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles - A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway.

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    Jerilynn C Prior

    Full Text Available Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women's fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory.This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study-a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20-49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL.Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5, cycle length 28 days (d (IQR 28 to 28 and body mass index (BMI 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4. Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978 and 37% (n = 567 were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04 and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001.Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles.

  9. Comparison of Serum Vit D Level Between Psoriasis Patients and Normal Population

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    A. Darjani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder with humeral and cellular immune system involvement. On the other hands، Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects and its relations with many autoimmune diseases were shown. The relation between Serum Vit D Level and Psoriasis disease remained controversial issue that this study was done to show this relationship. Methods and Materials: In this comparative cross sectional study، 30 psoriatic patients who attended to Razi dermatology clinic in Rasht، by sequential sampling underwent study as case group. 30 healthy people from hospital at the same age، gender and skin-colored also were selected as control group. Inclusion criteria were patients and people without Ca or Vit D supplements usage or underground diseases in relation to hypovitaminosis D. Demographical data were gathered by interviewing and then blood samples from all participants were sent for analysis of serum Ca، P، Vit D and parathormone level. Data analysis was done by SPSS ver. 18 using T-test and Chi 2 test. Result: Mean and SD serum level of Vit D in case and control groups were 25.8± 12.6 ng/ mL and  23.7± 8.9 ng/ mL، respectively (ρ>0.05. Out of all، 24 participants (40% suffered from Vit D Deficiency and 20 people (33.3% from Vit D insufficiency ، only 26.7% study subjects had acceptable serum Vit D level. There were not any significant difference between Vit D deficiency rates and other measured biochemical indices in two groups (36.7% vs. 43.3%. Conclusion: This study showed high level of Vit D deficiency in both psoriatic and normal people that must be notice.

  10. Evaluation of the shape symmetry of bilateral normal corneas in a Chinese population. (United States)

    Bao, Fangjun; Chen, Hao; Yu, Ye; Yu, Jiguo; Zhou, Shi; Wang, Jing; Wang, QinMei; Elsheikh, Ahmed


    To investigate the bilateral symmetry of the global corneal topography in normal corneas with a wide range of curvature, astigmatism and thickness values. Cross-Sectional Study. Topography images were recorded for the anterior and posterior surfaces of 342 participants using a Pentacam. Elevation data were fitted to a general quadratic model that considered both translational and rotational displacements. Comparisons between fellow corneas of estimates of corneal shape parameters (elevation, radius in two main directions, Rx and Ry, and corresponding shape factors, Qx and Qy) and corneal position parameters (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) were statistically analyzed. The general quadratic model provided average RMS of fit errors with the topography data of 1.7±0.6 µm and 5.7±1.3 µm in anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The comparisons showed highly significant bilateral correlations with the differences between fellow corneas in Rx, Ry, Qx and Qy of anterior and posterior surfaces remaining insignificantly different from zero. Bilateral differences in elevation measurements at randomly-selected points in both corneal central and peripheral areas indicated strong mirror symmetry between fellow corneas. The mean geometric center (x0, y0, z0) of both right and left corneas was located on the temporal side and inferior-temporal side of the apex in anterior and posterior topography map, respectively. Rotational displacement angle α along X axis had similar distributions in bilateral corneas, while rotation angle β along Y axis showed both eyes tilting towards the nasal side. Further, rotation angle γ along Z axis, which is related to corneal astigmatism, showed clear mirror symmetry. Analysis of corneal topography demonstrated strong and statistically-significant mirror symmetry between bilateral corneas. This characteristic could help in detection of pathological abnormalities, disease diagnosis

  11. Evaluation of antioxidants and argpyrimidine in normal and cataractous lenses in north Indian population

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    Bharani K Mynampati


    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: The protein concentration was found to be present at higher levels in the control lenses compared to cataract lenses. A significant decrease in the glutathione level was observed in the nuclear cataractous lenses compared to cortical cataractous (P=0.004 and clear lenses (P≤0.005, but no significant change in the level of antioxidant enzyme thioltransferase was observed. Further, argpyrimidine a blue fluorophore (AGE was found to be significantly higher in the nuclear cataract (P=0.013 compared to cortical cataract lenses. CONCLUSION: Antioxidants such as glutathione significantly decrease in age-related nuclear and cortical cataract and an AGE, argpyrimidine are present at significantly higher levels in nuclear cataract.

  12. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population. (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q


    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Temperament clusters in a normal population: implications for health and disease.

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    Jaana Wessman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to identify temperament patterns in the Finnish population, and to determine the relationship between these profiles and life habits, socioeconomic status, and health. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cluster analysis of the Temperament and Character Inventory subscales was performed on 3,761 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 and replicated on 2,097 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Clusters were formed using the k-means method and their relationship with 115 variables from the areas of life habits, socioeconomic status and health was examined. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified for both genders. Individuals from Cluster I are characterized by high persistence, low extravagance and disorderliness. They have healthy life habits, and lowest scores in most of the measures for psychiatric disorders. Cluster II individuals are characterized by low harm avoidance and high novelty seeking. They report the best physical capacity and highest level of income, but also high rate of divorce, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Individuals from Cluster III are not characterized by any extreme characteristic. Individuals from Cluster IV are characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, low levels of exploratory excitability and attachment, and score the lowest in most measures of health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the temperament subscales do not distribute randomly but have an endogenous structure, and that these patterns have strong associations to health, life events, and well-being.

  14. [Normal macular thickness and volume using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a reference population]. (United States)

    Solé González, L; Abreu González, R; Alonso Plasencia, M; Abreu Reyes, P


    To establish normal values of macular thickness and volume obtained by the Cirrus SD-OCT (Carl ZeissMeditec, Dublin, CA, U.S.A.). Secondly, to assess the association between macular thickness and volume, sex and age. A prospective study was conducted on patients who were seen in a hospital Retina Unit, and who only had retinal disease in one eye. All the Macular Cube 512 × 128 scan protocols were performed by the same operator. Only the healthy eye was scanned in each patient. A total of 100 eyes of 100 patients were analysed. The mean central foveal thickness was 261.31 ± 17.67 microns, and was significantly (P<.05) higher in males (267.74 ± 16.98 microns) than in females (255.60 ± 16.40 microns). The mean obtained for the volume of the cube was 10.09 ± 0.37mm 3, and the mean thickness of 280.33 ± 10.34 cube um, with no statistically significant differences between gender being found (P<.05). The mean macular thickness is less at central level, increases in the inner perifoveal ring, and then decreases in the outer perifoveal ring. Furthermore, of all quadrants the greatest thickness was the nasal (328.27 ± 12.96 microns), followed by the upper (326.27 ± 11.89 microns), lower (322.53 ± 12.37mm) sectors, with the temporal sector being the thinnest (313.35 ± 14.20 microns). The mean age of the patients was 60.86 ± 14 years. The mean central foveal thickness and the thickness of the inner perifoveal ring are significantly higher in men than in women. Both the mean volume and thickness of the cube, as well as nasal and inner superior sectors decrease with age, being significantly only in women. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of normal and tumor factors on different phases of cell populations cycle. (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F


    In the present experiments we studied the effect of extracts from intact liver (LE), ES2 tumor extract (TE), plasmas from intact mice (PI), and from tumor bearing animals (PT) on different phases of hepatocytes and renocytes cell cycles. C3HS 28-day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis, were injected at 16:00 hours and killed every 4 hours during a circadian cycle at 20:00/04; 00:00/08; 04:00/12; 08:00/16; 12:00/20 and 16:00/24 (time of day/hours post treatment). Colchicine (2 microg/g) was injected 4 hours before killing them. Samples of livers and kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. The results were expressed as colchicine arrested metaphases per 1000 nuclei. The TE, LE and PI had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first 12 hours post treatment. During the subsequent 12 hours, not only these treatments but also the PI had an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of the same cell population. Also the TE and the PT had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of the renocytes during the first 12 hours while the effect of all treatments showed a clear inhibition of the mitotic activity studied during the last 12 hours. Taking into account the time elapsed between the injections and the measurements made in these light-dark synchronized animals, we conclude that the increase in mitotic index observed in those tissues stemmed from a reinitiation of cell-cycle traverse in a subpopulation of G2-arrested, noncycling cells.

  16. An investigation on mandibular radiometric indices in normal female population referred to maxillofacial radiology centers in Rasht.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalili Z. Assistant Professor. Moghadam Qujeq A. Dentist.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bone material density (BMD is significantly decreased among postmenopausal women leading to the most common metabolic disease, osteoporosis."nMultiple bone fractures are of the most important consequences of this disease, which cost too much for the"nsociety. One of the cheapest and most available methods for the diagnosis of bone density changes is bone"nradiomorphometric evaluation by conventional methods. Studies have also revealed that mandibular"nradiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiographs yield invaluable information, which can be used as a"nscreening method to diagnose patients with decreasing bone density, and to determine normal values of"nmandibular radiomorphometric indices among normal subjects in different populations."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the mandibular radiomorphometric indices in"npanoramic radiographs among normal female population referring to maxillofacial radiology centers to"ndetermine their relationship with age and the total teeth number of the subjects under study."nMaterial and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, two mandibular radiomorphometric indices namely"nthe Antegonial quantitative index (AI and the Cortical qualitative index (MCI were evaluated on 417"npanoramic radiographs of a female normal population, aged more than 20 years which divided into five age"ngroup, by one maxillofacial radiologist as an observer. The relationship between these indices, and also with"nthe number of teeth and age were investigated by variance and Pearson's analysis."nResults: Mean quantitative index (AI was 3.54±54%mm. The prevalence of MCI index was C2: 71.5%,"nCI: 20.9%and C3: 7.7%. There was significant correlation between AI/MCI indices with age, dentition and"nalso with each other.(P<0.0001."nConclusion: Based on the present study, with increasing age the mean AI and the number of teeth decrease"nsignificantly. MCI index also shows higher porosity

  17. Oral submucosal dendrocytes: factor XIIIa+ and CD34+ dendritic cell populations in normal tissue and fibrovascular lesions. (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Nickoloff, B J; Headington, J T


    Factor XIIIa+ and CD34+ dendritic cells, believed to be subsets of monocyte/macrophages, have been identified in dermis and in dermal tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of analogous cell types in oral submucosa and oral fibro-vascular lesions. Antibodies to XIIIa, CD34, S-100 protein, and macrophage antigen (MAC 387) were tested on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from normal mucosa, peripheral fibroma (PF), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), pyogenic granuloma (PG), lymphangioma (La), benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), idiopathic histiocytosis (IH), angiofibroma (Af) using an ABC immunoperoxidase technique. Numbers of positively stained cells were compared to unstained cells in the tumors. XIIIa positive submucosal dendrocytes (CD34-, S-100-, MAC 387-) were found in abundance in normal tissue in characteristic distributions: collagen-associated, vessel-associated, and lymphoid-associated. The percentage of XIIIa+ cells in the oral tumors was as follows: PF: 10-30%, POF: 5-10%, PGCG: 0-5%, PG: 5-20%, La: 0%, BFH: 5-25%, IH: 0%, and Af: 10-20%. CD34+ dendrocytes (XIIIa-, S-100-, MAC 387-) were few in number and were found in deeper submucosa, especially around skeletal muscle. Other than blood vascular endothelium, CD34+ cells were not generally seen in the oral tumors studied. It is concluded that two previously unrecognized dendrocyte populations reside in normal submucosa. XIIIa+ cells participate in the formation of some oral reactive and neoplastic lesions.

  18. Development and validation of an adjective check list to assess the Millon personality types in a normal population. (United States)

    Strack, S


    A 405-item experimental Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) was refined into a 153-item form to assess the personality types outlined by Millon (1969, 1981) in a normal population. Scale construction and validation followed a method outlined by Loevinger (1957, 1972). Nine scales were developed based on the responses of 459 men and women, one for each of Millon's eight basic personalities plus an Experimental scale measuring aspects of his three more severe types. Extensive reliability and validity analyses were conducted involving over 2,200 men and women from across the United States, including a factor analysis of scales. These revealed good internal consistency for each scale, good test-retest reliability over a 3-month period, adequate factor structure, and good convergent and discriminant validity based on self-report data. Results indicated that Millon's basic types exist in normal form much as they are postulated to exist as disorders. Research efforts focusing on Millon's theory as it applies to normals may bring a more complete understanding of the entire spectrum of personality.

  19. Le facteur temps ne sonne jamais deux fois

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne


    Chose déroutante, décidément, que le temps. Nous en parlons comme d'une notion familière, évidente, voire domestique, "gérable". Nous parlons même d'un "temps réel" pour évoquer l'instantanéité, c'est-à-dire le temps sur lequel nous n'avons aucune prise. Les physiciens, eux, l'ont couplé à l'espace, en ont fait une variable mathématique, abstraite, qu'ils intègrent dans des théories audacieuses, spectaculaires, si complexes qu'elles sont difficiles à traduire en langage courant. Certains disent même avoir identifié le moteur du temps. Quant aux philosophes, ils ne cessent depuis plus de deux millénaires de soumettre le temps au questionnement : est-il une sorte d'entité primitive, originaire, qui ne dériverait que d'elle-même? Ou procéderait-il au contraire d'une ou plusieurs autres entités, plus fondamentales: la relation de cause à effet, par exemple? Le temps s'écoule-t-il de lui-même ou a-t-il besoin des événements qui s'y déroulent pour passer? S'apparente-t-il au devenir,...

  20. Using reference values to define disease based on the lower limit of normal biased the population attributable fraction, but not the population excess risk: the example of chronic airflow obstruction. (United States)

    Burney, Peter; Minelli, Cosetta


    The impact of disease on population health is most commonly estimated by the population attributable fraction (PAF), or less commonly by the excess risk, an alternative measure that estimates the absolute risk of disease in the population that can be ascribed to the exposure. Using chronic airflow obstruction as an example, we examined the impact on these estimates of defining disease based on different "normal" values. We estimated PAF and the excess risk in scenarios in which the true rate of disease was 10% in the exposed and 5% in the unexposed, and where either 50% or 20% of the population was exposed. Disease definition was based on a "lower limit of normal", using the 5th, 1st and 0.2nd centile of values in a "normal" population as thresholds to define normality. Where normality is defined by centiles of values in a "normal" population, PAF is strongly influenced by which centile is selected to define normality. This is not true for the population excess risk. Care should be taken when interpreting estimates of PAF when disease is defined from a centile of a normal population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, T.; Gonzalez, P.; Coll, C.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Solis, I.; Oviedo, S.


    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm 2 ) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m 2 and 148 2 . A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  2. Genetic diversity in normal cell populations is the earliest stage of oncogenesis leading to intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L Howk


    Full Text Available Random mutations and epigenetic alterations provide a rich substrate for microevolutionary phenomena to occur in proliferating epithelial tissues. Genetic diversity resulting from random mutations in normal cells is critically important for understanding the genetic basis of oncogenesis. However, evaluation of the cell-specific role of individual (epi-genetic alterations in living tissues is extremely difficult from a direct experimental perspective. We have developed a theoretical model for uterine epithelial cell proliferation. Computational simulations have shown that a base-line mutation rate of two mutations per cell division is sufficient to explain sporadic endometrial cancer as a rare evolutionary consequence with an incidence similar to that reported in SEER data. Simulation of the entire oncogenic process has allowed us to analyze the features of the tumor initiating cells and their clonal expansion. Analysis of the malignant features of individual cancer cells, such as de-differentiation status, proliferation potential, and immortalization status, permits a mathematical characterization of malignancy and a comparison of intra-tumor heterogeneity between individual tumors. We found, under the conditions specified, that cancer stem cells account for approximately 7% of the total cancer cell population. Taken together, our mathematical modeling describes the genetic diversity and evolution in a normal cell population at the early stages of oncogenesis and characterizes intra-tumor heterogeneity. This model has explored the role of accumulation of a large number of genetic alterations in oncogenesis as an alternative to traditional biological approaches emphasizing the driving role of a small number of genetic mutations, and this accumulation, along with environmental factors, has a significant impact on the growth advantage of and selection pressure on individual cancer cells and the resulting tumor composition and progression.

  3. Two-dimensional echocardiographic right ventricle measurements adjusted to body mass index and surface area in a normal population. (United States)

    Eslami, Masood; Larti, Farnoush; Larry, Mehrdad; Molaee, Parisa; Badkoobeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Tavoosi, Anahita; Safari, Saeed; Parsa, Amir Farhang Zand


    To determine reference echocardiographic values in a normal population and assess their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and body surface area. An expert cardiologist performed two-dimensional echocardiography with triplicate right ventricle (RV) size measurements in 80 subjects with normal heart condition. Results were correlated with anthropometric data. Base-to-apex length in four-chamber view (RVD3) and above-pulmonic valve in short-axis view in males, as well as mid-RV diameter in standard four-chamber view (RVD), basal RV diameter, and mid RV diameter in RV-focused four-chamber view in females, were significantly correlated with BMI. All RV variables were significantly correlated with BMI in 20-30-year-old subjects. All RV variables except RVD3 and above-aortic valve in short-axis view (proximal) were significantly correlated with BMI in 35-55-year-old subjects. All RV parameters were significantly correlated with body surface area, except for RVD and in 20-35-year-old subjects. RV echocardiographic values must be adjusted to anthropometric characteristics for proper diagnosis and management of cardiac disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:204-210, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Investigation of p53 codon72 polymorphism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC specimens and normal population by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyhimi P.


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: A single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 gene alters the p53 protein structure and affects its activity. This polymorphism depends on geographic regions and race. Also its association with some cancers has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate this polymorphism in well differentiated oral SCC and normal population in the city of Isfahan. "nMaterials and Methods: In this case-control study, 20 paraffin blocks of non metastatic and well differentiated oral SCC were selected from the archive of oral pathology department of dental school between 2001 and 2005. 20 whole blood samples from normal people were considered as control group. After DNA extraction, p53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique using specific primers of Arg and Pro and agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: The prevalence of Arg/Arg , Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes in case group were 45%,45% and 10% respectively compared to 45%,50% and 5% in controls. There was no statistical significant difference in p53 codon 72 genotypes distribution between case and control groups. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, p53 polymorphism could not be considered as a genetic predisposing factor for oral SCC development in Isfahan.

  5. Normal values for solid-state esophageal high-resolution manometry in a European population; an overview of all current metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Kessing, B. F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.


    Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) allows accurate evaluation of esophageal motility. Normal values for HRM were established in the United States and several new parameters were introduced since. We aimed to provide a complete set of normal values for HRM obtained in a European population,

  6. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance. (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua


    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  7. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopic characterization of stem-like cell populations in human esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma cell lines. (United States)

    Zhao, R; Quaroni, L; Casson, A G


    We have tested an approach to identify putative cancer stem cells that involves measurement of the infrared absorption spectrum of individual cells in an aqueous environment, and their subsequent classification using multivariate data analysis techniques. Two primary esophageal cell lines were characterized: the immortalized normal esophageal epithelial cell line, Het-1A, and the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line, OE33. In addition, we also evaluated spheroids, reflecting stem-like cell populations, which were derived from each parent cell line when grown in serum-free media. As differences in cell size appeared to be a strong discriminating factor, a correction needs to be performed to allow a reliable classification based on infrared absorption spectra. We demonstrated that stem-like cells derived from Het-1A could easily be discriminated on the basis of absorbance differences in the 1000-1200 cm(-1) spectral interval, whereas this was not possible for OE33. Furthermore, we found that changes due to aging of OE33 cells in culture dominated the infrared absorption spectra and somewhat limited the potential of this approach to identify stem-like cell populations using this in vitro model system.

  8. Femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in the normal Indian adult population: A computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Aditya


    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal femoral neck anteversion (FNA and/or acetabulum anteversion (AA have long been implicated in the etiogenesis of hip osteoarthritis (OA, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and impingement, instability and wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA. Since studies on the Indian population are sparse on this topic, the purpose of this study was to report the normal values of FNA, AA and the combined anteversion (CA= FNA+ AA in Indian adults. Materials and Methods: FNA, AA and CA were prospectively measured in 172 normal hips in 86 Indian adults using standardized computed tomographic (CT methods and this data was compared with the established Western values. Results: The median values and interquartile ranges were 8 o (6.5-10.0 o for FNA, 19 o (16.0-22.0 o for AA and 27 o (23.5-30.0 o for CA. AA and CA values were significantly (P< 0.05 lower in males, and there was also a trend towards lower FNA in males. Although a negative correlation was observed between the FNA and AA, this was not strong and may not be clinically relevant. Conclusion: When compared with the Western data, the FNA values were 3-12 o lower and the CA values were 3-5 o lower in Indian adults. The AA values were comparable, but were skewed towards the higher side. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of our basic science data in pathogenesis of OA, and to validate it in relation to hip surgeries like corrective osteotomies and THA.

  9. Analysis of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of a normal cervical spinal cord in a healthy population. (United States)

    Wei, Liang-Feng; Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, Zhao-Cong; Tian, Jun; Xue, Liang


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows great advantage in the diagnosis of brain diseases, including cervical spinal cord (CSC) disease. This study aims to obtain the normal values of the DTI parameters for a healthy population and to establish a baseline for CSC disease diagnosis using DTI. A total of 36 healthy adults were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the entire CSC using the Siemens 3.0 T MR System. Sagittal DTI acquisition was carried out with a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence along 12 non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined at different cervical levels using a region of interest (ROI) method, following which they were correlated with parameters, like age and sex. Further, diffusion tensor tracking (DTT) was carried out to reconstruct the white matter fiber bundles of the CSC. The full and complete fiber bundle structure of a normal CSC was confirmed in both the T2-weighted and DTI images. The FA and ADC values were significantly negatively correlated with each other and showed strongly negative and positive correlations with age, respectively, but not with sex. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the FA and the ADC values at different cervical levels. The DTI technique can act as an important supplement to the conventional MRI technique for CSC observation. Moreover, the FA and ADC values can be used as sensitive parameters in the DTI study on the CSC by taking the effects of age into consideration.

  10. Quality of life in rehabilitation outpatients : normal values and a comparison with the general Dutch population and psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, Ernst; Schrier, Irene; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    To provide Dutch normal values for rehabilitation outpatients with chronic pain or musculoskeletal diseases utilizing the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) and analyse influence of diagnosis and patient characteristics on normal values and

  11. Incidence of Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava in the Normal Population and in Patients with Congenital Heart Diseases Detected Using Echocardiography. (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Naoki; Goto, Hiroko; Omoya, Kentarou; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Terazawa, Atsushi; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kuwahara, Takashi


    Reports on the incidence of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in the normal population are limited to studies involving pacemaker implantation candidates and cadavers. The incidence in patients with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) is estimated to be higher than that in the normal population; however, the details are unclear. To investigate the incidence of PLSVC in the normal population and in patients with CHDs, subjects were examined prospectively using echocardiography. Normal subjects consisted of 2841 successive neonates without intra-cardiac or congenital anomalies born in Gifu Prefectural General Medical Center. Additionally, 1920 patients with CHDs were evaluated. The incidence of PLSVC in normal neonates was 0.21% (95% confidence interval 0.042-0.38%). A high incidence (more than 7.0 times the incidence in normal subjects) was observed in all CHD patients. The high incidence group included coarctation of the aorta (CoA) (23.7%) and double outlet right ventricle (DORV) patients (24.6%). The second group consisted of CHD patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), with an incidence ranging from 5.1 to 6.1%. The low incidence group comprised patients with other CHDs, with an incidence between 1.5 and 3.1%. The incidence of PLSVC in trisomy 21 and atrial septal defect patients was significantly higher than that in normal neonates. The incidence of PLSVC in the normal population and in patients with CHDs was systematically evaluated for the first time. The incidence in CHD patients appeared to be positively influenced by the type of CHD, particularly by DORV, CoA, and VSD.

  12. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

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    Bo Chen


    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  13. The study of Prosopic index of 17-26 year old normal population in Eastern Nepal: Ethnic and gender variation

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    Sandip Shah


    Full Text Available Modern man is inclined to making comparison of various body parts in living or in cadaver for research and knowledge purpose. Political scientists, Joshi and Rose, broadly classify the Nepalese population into three major ethnic groups in terms of their origin: Indo-Nepalese (IND, Tibeto-Nepalese (TN and Indigenous (IN. This study will provide a data base of facial measurements that will help maxillo-facial surgeons with wide range of facial dimensions which would be helpful in facial reconstruction surgery. The main objectives of this study were to find effect of ethnicity on prosopic index and to compare among both sexes of all ethnic races. The experimental protocol for the cross sectional study was approved by Institutional Ethical Review Board. This study was conducted in normal healthy pure ethnic racial population of sample size of 600 (300 male and 300 female belonging to17-26 age group in Sunsari and Morang districts of Eastern Nepal. The data was collected among each ethnic race, i.e. Indgenous, Indo-Nepalese and Tibeto-Nepalese each consisting of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females. Random sampling technique was done for data collection for the respective ethnic races during community visits. The participants were initially oriented to the purpose of the study and assured that anonymity would be maintained. The results showed highly significant difference in face length (FL, face width (FW and prosopic index (PI among both sexes of all 3 ethnic races (p<0.001. The mean PI of people of Eastern Nepal was 88.80; for males 88.47 and for females 89.12 respectively categorised as Mesoprosopic. The PI among Tibeto-Nepalese, Indigenous and Indo-Nepalese were 86.91±0.93 (Mesoprosopic, 88.40±1.18 (Mesoprosopic and 91.09±0.69 (Leptoprosopic respectively. Indo-Nepalese presents with long face (Leptoprosopic while Indigenous and Tibeto-Nepalese have and round face (Mesoprosopic.

  14. Development of normal gestational ranges for the right myocardial performance index in the Australian population with three alternative caliper placements. (United States)

    Meriki, Neama; Henry, Amanda; Sanderson, Jennifer; Majajan, Aditi; Wu, Linda; Welsh, Alec W


    To construct gestational age-adjusted reference ranges for the right fetal modified myocardial performance index (RMPI) in an Australian population and to assess the influence of valve click caliper position on constituent time intervals and the RMPI. A prospective cross-sectional study of RMPI from 235 normal fetuses at 17-38 weeks of gestation was performed. Two Doppler waveforms were obtained: tricuspid and pulmonary valves for 'a' and 'b' readings, respectively. The ultrasound machine settings were: Doppler sweep velocity 15 cm/s, angle of insonation caliper positions in each fetus: at the beginning of the original valve clicks ('original'), at the beginning of the reflected tricuspid and pulmonary closure clicks ('reflected') and at the peak of valve clicks ('peak'). RMPI was calculated as (a - b)/b. The three readings were obtained and averaged per examination, with intraobserver repeatability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% CI. For 'original', 'reflected' and 'peak' RMPI, mean ± SD, ICC (95% CI) were: 0.53 ± 0.10, 0.86 (0.83-0.89); 0.48 ± 0.10, 0.84 (0.81-0.87) and 0.48 ± 0.10, 0.89 (0.87-0.91), respectively. The RMPI increased by approximately 15% as gestation increased and decreased slightly with increasing heart rate. This is the first publication of reference ranges for RMPI based on caliper position. All methods showed good ICC, including the 'peak' method which we have previously proposed for routine use based on its repeatability and ease of identification when measuring the myocardial performance index.

  15. The nosological significance of Folie à Deux: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Anish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folie à Deux is a rare syndrome that has attracted much clinical attention. There is increasing doubt over the essence of the condition and the validity of the original description, such that it remains an elusive entity difficult to define. Method We conducted a systematic review of the literature of all cases reporting the phenomenon of Folie à Deux, from the years 1993–2005. Results 64 cases were identified of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. The diagnoses in the primary and secondary were more heterogeneous than current diagnostic criteria suggest. There exists a high degree of similarity between the primary and secondary in terms of susceptibility to psychiatric illness, family and past psychiatric history, than previously thought. Conclusion Folie à Deux can occur in many situations outside the confines of the current classification systems and is not as rare as believed, and should alert the clinician to unrecognized psychiatric problems in the secondary.

  16. Du Lac de Geneve au Lac Baikal: deux metropoles en construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Mettan


    Full Text Available En apparence, Geneve et Irkutsk n'ont rien en commun. A part une amitie reciproque et la proximite d'un lac, il est difficile de trouver des points communs entre la Suisse francophone, dont Geneve est la ville le plus importante, et la Siberie centrale, dont Irkutsk, est la capitale. Et pourtant les deux regions, malgre les differences de taille, de densite de la population, de climat, d'economie et de traditions culturelles, sont confrontees au meme probleme: elles sont trop petites et trop limitees pour assurer, avec leurs seuls moyens, leur avenir et elles doivent imperativement s'unir a des villes voisines pour renforcer leur statut de metropole regionale et s'imposer face aux regions et aux pays concurrents.C'est ainsi qu'Irkutsk projette de s'unir aux villes voisines d'Angarsk et de Chelekhov pour constituer une megapole au c?ur de la Siberie, tandis qu'a Geneve le debat fait rage pour trouver des solutions a l'exiguite geographique et a l'insuffisance des moyens face aux grandes regions metropolitaines de France, d'Italie et d'Allemagne.Ce debat est propre a toute la Suisse. Malgre sa petitesse, la Suisse est divisee en 26 cantons. Ces unites administratives sont jugees trop couteuses, trop petites, trop lourdes et trop compliquees pour assurer l'avenir economique et meme politique du pays. De nombreux groupes de reflexion proposent donc de reduire ce nombre a 3, 5 ou 10 grandes provinces selon les cas. En Suisse, romande, il y a dix ans, des mouvements politiques ont meme lance l'idee de fusionner les cantons de Vaud (dont Lausanne est la capitale et de Geneve. Mais l'echec a ete fracassant : le peuple des deux cantons a refuse cette option a 80% des voix. On cherche donc d'autres solutions.Les discussions s'orientent desormais autour de la constitution d'une grande metropole lemanique qui regrouperait les deux grandes villes de Geneve et Lausanne et les villes plus petites de Montreux, Vevey, Nyon ainsi que la ville francaise d

  17. Le test binomial exact de la différence entre deux proportions et ses approximations [The exact binomial test between two proportions and its approximations

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    Laurencelle, Louis


    Full Text Available Though it is a commonplace and quite frequent operation, the comparison of two independent proportions remains a problematic and ill understood issue in textbooks on applied statistics and for researchers. On the one hand, the comparison may be arrayed as a $2 \\times 2$ contingency table and be referred to chi-square type calculations; on the other hand, it can be viewed as the difference between means based on 0 / 1 data, this perspective leading to alternative normal-type treatments. The main known solutions for deciding upon the difference between two proportions are reviewed and briefly discussed. An original, theoretically deduced solution that we deem `exact' is then proposed. We conclude with a short numerical study that endorses two well-known approximate solutions. Résumé: Situation statistique banale, voire quotidiennement rencontrée, la comparaison de deux proportions indépendantes demeure une opération problématique dans les ouvrages de statistique appliquée comme dans la pratique. D'un côté, cette comparaison peut être présentée dans le format d'un tableau de contingence $2\\times 2$, ce qui l'associe aux statistiques habituelles d'un tel tableau; d'un autre côté, la différence entre deux proportions équivaut à la différence entre deux moyennes indépendantes, en considérant que les valeurs moyennées sont des "0" et des "1", ce cas admettant un autre type de traitement. Nous revoyons ici les principales solutions proposées pour l'étude de la différence entre deux proportions, et nous élaborons par déduction notre propre solution, que nous croyons exacte. Dans une courte étude numérique, nous établissons enfin les vertus de deux approximations déjà connues.

  18. Smart Aging Platform for Evaluating Cognitive Functions in Aging: A Comparison with the MoCA in a Normal Population

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    Sara Bottiroli


    Full Text Available Background: Smart Aging is a Serious games (SGs platform in a 3D virtual environment in which users perform a set of screening tests that address various cognitive skills. The tests are structured as 5 tasks of activities of daily life in a familiar environment. The main goal of the present study is to compare a cognitive evaluation made with Smart Aging with those of a classic standardized screening test, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA.Methods: One thousand one-hundred thirty-one healthy adults aged between 50 and 80 (M = 64.3 ± 8.3 were enrolled in the study. They received a cognitive evaluation with the MoCA and the Smart Aging platform. Participants were grouped according to their MoCA global and specific cognitive domain (i.e., memory, executive functions, working memory, visual spatial elaboration, language, and orientation scores and we explored differences among these groups in the Smart Aging indices.Results: One thousand eighty-six older adults (M = 64.0 ± 8.0 successfully completed the study and were stratified according to their MoCA score: Group 1 with MoCA < 27 (n = 360; Group 2 with 27 ≥ MoCA < 29 (n = 453; and Group 3 with MoCA ≥ 29 (n = 273. MoCA groups significantly differed in most of the Smart Aging indices considered, in particular as concerns accuracy (ps < 0.001 and time (ps < 0.001 for completing most of the platform tasks. Group 1 was outperformed by the other two Groups and was slower than them in these tasks, which were those supposed to assess memory and executive functions. In addition, significant differences across groups also emerged when considering the single cognitive domains of the MoCA and the corresponding performances in each Smart Aging task. In particular, this platform seems to be a good proxy for assessing memory, executive functions, working memory, and visual spatial processes.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the validity of Smart Aging for assessing cognitive functions in normal

  19. Determinants of clearance of human papillomavirus infections in Colombian women with normal cytology: a population-based, 5-year follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Brule, den A Van; Plummer, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Arslan, A; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Franceschi, S


    Little is known about the factors that influence clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV), the primary cause of cervical carcinoma. A total of 227 women cytologically normal and HPV positive at baseline were identified from a population-based cohort of 1,995 Bogota, Colombia, women aged 13-85 years

  20. Influence of multimorbidity on cognition in a normal aging population: a 12-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Verhey; M.P. van Boxtel; F.E. Tan; J.F. Metsemakers; M. van den Akker; Dr. Sil Aarts


    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of multimorbidity has risen considerably because of the increase in longevity and the rapidly growing number of older individuals. Today, only little is known about the influence of multimorbidity on cognition in a normal healthy aging population. The primary aim of the

  1. Development of allometric equations to establish normal limits for M-mode echocardiographic measurements in the Italian population. Gruppo Ligure Della Società Italiana di Ecografia Cardiovascolare. (United States)


    Despite general acceptance of the normal limits for M-mode echocardiographic measurements established in the U.S.A. in the late seventies, several studies have shown that those limits of normality have some limitations which restrict their use in clinical practice, and that these limits should be specific for the population that should be studied. To date, however, there is no reference method to calculate normal limits of M-mode echocardiographic measurements in the Italian population. 627 healthy volunteers (382 males, 245 females) ranging in age from 4 to 89 years, were prospectively examined, using two-dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiography, in 13 echocardiographic laboratories. End-diastolic and-systolic left ventricular diameters, interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness, end-diastolic aortic dimension and end-systolic left atrial diameter were measured following the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography. Age, gender, weight, height, heart rate and blood pressure were used as determinants of the echocardiographic measurements. The specificity of the resulting normal limits of echocardiographic measurements was then tested on an independent population of 145 normal subjects (92 males, 53 females) who were prospectively examined after the development of the model. Gender, age and weight were significant and independent determinants in nearly all the echocardiographic measurements performed. After logarithmic transformation of all the variables, we developed sex specific regression models which allow calculation of 95% prediction intervals for the cardiac chamber size and wall thickness, using an exponential multivariate regression model. Ninety-one percent of the echocardiographic measurements performed on the control population (range 84.6-94.1%) were correctly identified as normal using our model. Conversely, the specificity of the existing reference models developed in the U.S.A. or in the Netherlands identified

  2. Effets d'un acide fort sur la réaction de la DPPH avec deux huiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets d'un acide fort sur la réaction de la DPPH avec deux huiles essentielles de deux plantes aromatiques acclimatées au Togo. Kokou Agbékonyi Agbodan, Kokouvi Dotse, Kossi Honoré Koumaglo, K. Issa Saloufou ...

  3. Micropropagation de deux variétés de papayer ( Carica papaya L.) à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation de deux variétés de papayer (Carica papaya L.) à l'IPR/ IFRA de Katibougou, Mali. Abdoulaye Sidibé, Maman Sani Ladan Harouna, Bakary Mamourou Traoré, Moussa Abdoulaye, Ousmane Niangaly ...

  4. De Staline à Hitler (Souvenirs de deux Ambassades, 1936-1939

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    J. Cruz Costa


    Full Text Available COULONDRE (Robert. - De Staline à Hitler (Souvenirs de deux Ambassades, 1936-1939 (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo O livro do Embaixador Robert Coulondre, como ele diz, não é um compêndio de de história, nem um diário. É uma peregrinação diplomática.

  5. Folie à Deux and its interaction with early life stress: a case report

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    Alessandra Vargas Alves Nunes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folie à deux is a very rare psychiatric syndrome in which a psychotic symptom is transmitted from one individual to another. We present a case of folie à deux occurring during childhood, which is not an usual presentation of this syndrome. In this case, the disorder is correlated with child abuse and neglect, which possibly had a role in the development of the symptoms in our case. Case presentation We present a case of folie à deux between an “induced” 9-year-old black Brazilian boy and the “inducer”, his grandmother. They were found to be sharing similar auditory and visual hallucinations and delusional beliefs. The boy was neglected by his parents and was being cared for by his grandmother, who had a history of mental disorder. Conclusions The close relationship between the boy and his grandmother, the family history of first-degree psychosis, and the child abuse and neglect suffered by the boy may have altered his vulnerability to early-onset psychosis and, in this case, folie à deux.

  6. Etude comparative de deux produits de neem (huile et poudre) sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude comparative de deux produits de neem (huile et poudre) sur les stades préimaginaux du moustique Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera : Culicidae) ... for nymphs only contact effects are showed. Neem oil formulated 1 % appears more effective than neem powder 0.3 % for mosquitoes control in aquatic environment.

  7. Evaluation de l\\'activité insecticide de deux plantes Hyptis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de l\\'activité insecticide de deux plantes Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) et Khaya senegalensis (A. Juss) sur les insectes ravageurs du niébé ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)/Use of two insecticidial plants for sustainable cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) protection.

  8. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua


    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  9. Differing effects of attention in single-units and populations are well predicted by heterogeneous tuning and the normalization model of attention. (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Pestilli, Franco; Gardner, Justin L


    Single-unit measurements have reported many different effects of attention on contrast-response (e.g., contrast-gain, response-gain, additive-offset dependent on visibility), while functional imaging measurements have more uniformly reported increases in response across all contrasts (additive-offset). The normalization model of attention elegantly predicts the diversity of effects of attention reported in single-units well-tuned to the stimulus, but what predictions does it make for more realistic populations of neurons with heterogeneous tuning? Are predictions in accordance with population-scale measurements? We used functional imaging data from humans to determine a realistic ratio of attention-field to stimulus-drive size (a key parameter for the model) and predicted effects of attention in a population of model neurons with heterogeneous tuning. We found that within the population, neurons well-tuned to the stimulus showed a response-gain effect, while less-well-tuned neurons showed a contrast-gain effect. Averaged across the population, these disparate effects of attention gave rise to additive-offsets in contrast-response, similar to reports in human functional imaging as well as population averages of single-units. Differences in predictions for single-units and populations were observed across a wide range of model parameters (ratios of attention-field to stimulus-drive size and the amount of baseline response modifiable by attention), offering an explanation for disparity in physiological reports. Thus, by accounting for heterogeneity in tuning of realistic neuronal populations, the normalization model of attention can not only predict responses of well-tuned neurons, but also the activity of large populations of neurons. More generally, computational models can unify physiological findings across different scales of measurement, and make links to behavior, but only if factors such as heterogeneous tuning within a population are properly accounted for.

  10. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region]. (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wu, X J; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M


    Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56 % were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50 % (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39 % . Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95 % CI : 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95 % CI : 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95 % CI : 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95 % CI : 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia ( OR =0.507, 95 %CI : 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13 % . Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ (2)=18.049, P dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.

  11. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l. seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

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    Shipp Matthew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological transfer of conjugated fatty acid production to existing oilseed crops. It is expected that these studies will also provide basic information regarding the metabolism of other high-value novel fatty acids. Results Deep sequencing using 454 technology with non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries prepared from bitter melon seeds at 18 DAP resulted in the identification of transcripts for the vast majority of known genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. The non-normalized library provided a transcriptome profile of the early stage in seed development that highlighted the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding seed storage proteins as well as for a number of genes for lipid metabolism-associated polypeptides, including Δ12 oleic acid desaturases and fatty acid conjugases, class 3 lipases, acyl-carrier protein, and acyl-CoA binding protein. Normalization of cDNA by use of a duplex-specific nuclease method not only increased the overall discovery of genes from developing bitter melon seeds, but also resulted in the identification of 345 contigs with homology to 189 known lipid genes in Arabidopsis. These included candidate genes for eleostearic acid metabolism such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2, and a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1-related enzyme. Transcripts were also identified for a novel FAD2 gene encoding a functional Δ12 oleic acid desaturase with potential implications for eleostearic acid biosynthesis. Conclusions 454 deep sequencing, particularly with normalized cDNA populations, was an effective method for mining of genes associated with eleostearic acid metabolism in

  12. Regulation of collagen production in freshly isolated cell populations from normal and cirrhotic rat liver: Effect of lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerbon-Ambriz, J.; Cerbon-Solorzano, J.; Rojkind, M.


    Previous work has shown that lactic acid, and to a lesser extent pyruvic acid, is able to increase collagen synthesis significantly in liver slices of CCl4-treated rats but not normal rats. The purpose of this report is to document which cells in the cirrhotic liver are responsible for the lactate-stimulated increase in collagen synthesis. It was found that (a) incorporation of 3H-proline into protein-bound 3H-hydroxyproline is increased threefold to fourfold in hepatocytes from CCl4-treated rats as compared with normal rat hepatocytes; (b) neither the hepatocytes from normal nor those from CCl4-treated rats modify their collagen synthesizing capacity when 30 mmol/L lactic acid was added to the incubation medium; (c) nonparenchymal cells obtained from livers of CCl4-treated rats synthesize much less collagen than hepatocytes, but their synthesis is stimulated twofold by lactic acid; (d) from the different nonparenchymal cells, only fat-storing (Ito) cells increase collagen synthesis when lactic acid is present in the incubation medium. These results suggest that the increased lactic acid levels observed in patients with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis may play an important role in the development of fibrosis by stimulating collagen production by fat-storing (Ito) cells

  13. Etude de la diversité morphométrique de deux populations d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une étude biométrique a été réalisée sur des abeilles ouvrières domestiques prélevées dans 07 sites et sur 11 ruchers du Sud algérien situés dans les étages bioclimatiques aride (wilaya Laghouat) et saharien (wilaya Béchar). Sur chaque site, entre 45 et 60 abeilles ont été prélevées aléatoirement, soit un total de 567 ...

  14. Uretere Retrocave: Deux Nouvelles Observations à L’hopital Du Point G A Bamako

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tembely


    Full Text Available Nous rapportons deux cas d’uretère rétrocave droit de type I et II chez deux patients de sexe masculin et féminin, âgés de 23 et 27 ans. La symptomatologie d’appel a été une douleur lombaire droite fébrile. Les examens d’imagerie ont permis de poser le diagnostic d’uretère rétrocave dans un cas et de syndrome de jonction pyélo-uretérale dans l’autre dans lequel le diagnostic fut per opératoire. Une montée de sonde JJ chez un patient et une lombotomie droite avec décroisement de l’uretère chez l’autre, ont permis d’avoir un résultat satisfaisant.

  15. Multidimensional Voice Data on Participants With Perceptually Normal Voices From Ages 60 to 80: A Preliminary Acoustic Reference for the Elderly Population. (United States)

    Schaeffer, Natalie; Knudsen, Melissa; Small, Ashley


    The purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary acoustic reference for an elderly population (aged 60-80) with perceptually normal voices to determine the degree of noise in the vocal signal of this population; a younger population (aged 20-30) with perceptually normal voices participated for comparison. The participants were tested on the MultidimensionalVoice Program (model 5105, KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ), and the following acoustic parameters were evaluated: relative average perturbation (cycle-to-cycle frequency perturbations), shimmer (cycle-to-cycle amplitude perturbations), and noise-to-harmonic ratio (degree of noise in the vocal signal). Fifty participants between the ages of 60 and 80 (mean age, 69.5) and 50 participants between the ages of 20 and 30 (mean age, 23.23) were tested by sustaining the vowel /a/ on the Multidimensional Voice Program. Voice and/or speech samples were also recorded for each participant to reveal perceptually normal voices. The older group had significantly higher levels of relative average perturbation, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio than the younger group, and males had significantly higher levels of shimmer than females. The acoustic values obtained for the older group with perceptually normal voices resembled data in the literature, particularly when the ages of the participants in the studies were similar. The present findings may possibly be used as a preliminary reference against which to compare clinical acoustic data to older clients with dysphonic voices. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Folie à deux dissociative in prepubertal children: report of two cases with EEGs




    A case of folie à deux dissociative (dissociative hysteria) disorder in an 8 and 12 year-old sister and brother is presented. Illnesses of this type are very rare and there is little medical literature on this subject. Our patients, almost simultaneously, abruptly had complete loss of memory, disorientation, loss of awareness about who they were, and much anxiety, which lasted about 15 hours. Both patients were physically well and no abnormalities were found on physical examination, routines ...

  17. Fracture luxation centrale bilatérale des deux hanches | Karabila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La fracture luxation centrale du cotyle est une lésion rare et nécessite un traumatisme violent, l'association de deux lésions similaires est encore plus rare, au mécanisme souvent imprécis et le choc doit être très violent, et donc elles se présentent dans le cadre de polytraumatisme, d'où l'intérêt de les rechercher ...

  18. La tuberculose iléo-caecale : à propos de deux cas au CHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le traitement antituberculeux instauré était conforme au protocole du programme national burkinabè de lutte contre la tuberculose. L'évolution a été favorable dans les deux cas. Mots clés: tuberculose - jonction iléocaécale - traitement antituberculeux - chirurgie. English Abstract. The ileo-caecal tuberculosis is rare and ...

  19. Epiglottite infectieuse aigue de l'adulte - A propos de deux cas | M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Un traitement systémique associant antibiotique et corticoïde a été instauré dans les deux cas. Le stridor aigue doit être considéré comme un signe de détresse respiratoire et doit conduire au diagnostic d'épiglottite aïgue quelque soit l'âge du patient. Un diagnostic et un traitement précoce aboutissent dans la majorité des ...

  20. Note sur deux espèces de Lepidocyclina des Indes Néerlandaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlumberger, C.


    Je dois à l’obligeance de Monsieur K. MARTIN professeur de Géologie à l’Université de Leiden l’envoi pour ma collection de foraminifères de quelques doubles des roches rapportées de Java par Monsieur VERBEEK et j’ai eu la bonne fortune d’y rencontrer deux espèces d’Orbitoïdes du sous-genre

  1. Modern Literature and Christianity: The Religious Issue in Lucien Rebatet's Les Deux étendards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal A. Ifri


    Full Text Available Although Lucien Rebatet's Les Deux étendards (The Two Standards has been hailed by a number of critics as one of the best novels written in France since World War II, it is surrounded by a wall of silence because its author actively supported the Nazi movement before and during the war. Yet the novel does not deal with politics but with love, art, and religion. Based on real events, it is the story of a love triangle involving Michel, who has lost his Catholic faith, Régis, who studies to become a Jesuit priest, and Anne-Marie, a young student who shares a mystical love with Régis and also intends to join a religious order. When Michel meets Anne-Marie, he falls desperately in love with her, but hopelessly since she belongs to God and to Régis. Yet, fascinated by his friends' adventure, he tries to recover the faith he has lost in order to join them on their mystical plane, but eventually fails. The theme of religion and more specifically Catholicism dominates Les Deux étendards which treats the most complex religious issues with passion and intensity and tackles the history of the Church and religious exegesis with a thoroughness and a minuteness worthy of Proust. Over one thousand pages, Les Deux étendards , mainly through Régis and Michel's animated discussions, reenacts the quarrel that has been raging for two thousand years between believers and nonbelievers. If, in the end, Les Deux étendards condemns religion, it is in order to better affirm what can be called the sacred or the spiritual which stands in opposition to the religious. In any case, this passionate handling of religion, its place at the heart of the story and its intimate association with the other main themes, love and art, largely account for the originality of the novel.

  2. Identification de deux phytostérols biologiquement actifs de l'extrait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leurs propriétés antipaludique, antibactérienne et antiulcéreuse (Atindehou et ... travaux sur Laetia procera ont montré que les extraits apolaires de plantes pouvaient contenir des composés ayant de très bonnes activités biologiques. Le présent travail a pour ... suivant le protocole décrit par Kodjo et al. (2015). Deux cents ...

  3. Le syndrome de Pepper: à propos de deux cas observés au Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Pepper est une forme métastatique hépatique du neuroblastome. C'est une entité spécifique du nourrisson de moins de six mois qui a la particularité de pouvoir régresser de façon spontanée avec un pronostic favorable dans 80% des cas. A cause de sa rareté, nous rapportons deux cas du syndrome de ...

  4. Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résilience de l'approvisionnement en eau de deux villes de l'arche sèche du Panama. Ce projet augmentera la résilience au stress hydrique des villes de Chitré et de La Villa de los Santos, au Panama, face aux effets négatifs de la variabilité du climat et des changements climatiques. Risques liés au climat au Panama

  5. Etude du comportement de deux variétés de manioc en culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les techniques de multiplication peu améliorées du manioc associées aux problèmes de maladies bactériennes et virales participent à la régression de son rendement. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser le comportement de deux variétés de manioc en culture in vitro puis l'impact de cette technique sur la qualité de l'ADN ...

  6. Tumeurs des deux surrénales. A propos d'un cas | El Baghouli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surrénaliennes bilatérales de structure tissulaire. Les deux masses sont discrètement rehaussées après injection du produit de contraste. Devant ce tableau clinique, biologique et morphologique, le diagnostic de phéochromocytome surrénalien bilatéral est retenu. Par conséquent une surrénalectomie bilatérale par voie ...

  7. Myasthénie juvénile oculaire en Afrique Subsaharienne: cas de deux sœurs germaines issues d’un mariage consanguin au Togo (United States)

    Maneh, Nidain; Apetse, Kossivi; Diatewa, Bénédicte Marèbe; Domingo, Sidik Abou-Bakr; Agba, Aidé Isabelle; Ayena, Koffi Didier; Balogou, Koffi Agnon; Balo, Komi Patrice


    La myasthénie est une pathologie auto-immune acquise rare à l'origine de la déficience de la transmission neuro-musculaire dont la forme juvénile se manifeste souvent par une atteinte oculaire exclusive. Nous rapportons deux cas de myasthénie juvénile oculaire (MJO) au sein d'une même fratrie. il s'agit de deux fillettes XA et XB respectivement âgées de 11 et 9 ans d'origine malienne résidant au Togo, issues d'un mariage consanguin de 1er degré, amenées en consultation d'ophtalmologie, pour une baisse progressive de l'acuité visuelle (AV). XA avait aux deux yeux, une AV à 8/10 et XB, une AV de 3/10 améliorée au trou sténopéïque à 7/10 en faveur d'une amétropie. XA présentait un ptosis bilatéral qui remontait à l'âge de 2 ans avec une action du releveur de la paupière supérieure (RPS) à 7 mm et XB, un ptosis bilatéral remontant à l'âge de 3 ans avec une action du RPS nulle. Pour les deux, le test au glaçon était franchement positif, le signe de Cogan présent avec une parésie oculo motrice sans diplopie. Le dosage des auto-anticorps anti récepteurs de l'acéthylcholine était normal. Le diagnostic de MJO associée à une amétropie a été évoqué. Une correction optique de l'amétropie par des lunettes et un traitement spécifique par la pyridostigmine avait été instaurée mais les patientes ont été perdues de vue. la myasthénie auto-immune avec des manifestations ophtalmologiques inaugurales est rare mais possible chez l'enfant en Afrique subsaharienne où des études sont nécessaires pour y déterminer les éventuelles particularités de la maladie. PMID:29230265

  8. Comparing characteristics and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in low-flow vs normal-flow severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction in an Asian population. (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Tan, Benjamin Yong-Qiang; Sia, Ching-Hui; Lee, Glenn K M; Kong, William K F; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Poh, Kian-Keong


    In severe aortic stenosis (AS), deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to normal-flow, and no study has examined LVEF deterioration. We compared factors associated with LVEF deterioration (to normal-flow (n=72) severe AS (aortic valve area 50%) and with paired echocardiography were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified factors associated with LVEF deterioration. Clinical outcomes were determined on follow-up for more than 5 years. Significant LVEF deterioration (to normal-flow AS (61±7% to 31±12%). Independent factors in low-flow AS were hypertension (OR: 30.7, 95% CI: 2.0-467.6, P=.014) and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.086, 95% CI: 1.022-1.153, P=.008), compared to normal-flow, which were hypertension (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 3.1-81.9, P=.001), higher septal E/E' ratio (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P=.043), lower septal S' velocity (OR: 0.204, 95% CI: 0.061-0.682, P=.010), and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.051, 95% CI: 1.001-1.104, P=.047). Overall, a third of the cohort experienced MACE, regardless of flow (log-rank 0.048, P=.827). However, aortic valve replacement (AVR) rates were lower in low-flow AS (20% vs 43%, P=.005). Low-flow AS despite normal LVEF appears similar to normal-flow in terms of LVEF deterioration and clinical outcomes in our Asian population. AVR rate was lower even though low-flow may not reflect less severe disease. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Measurement of Levels of Ebstein-Barr Virus Antibodies in Patients with Hodgkins Lymphoma and Comparison with Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mortazavi-zadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hodgkins lymphoma is a unique malignancy with unknown etiology .Curability and prognosis of Hodgkin,s disease (HD depends on quickly early diagnosis .One of hypothesis proposed for the cause of this disease is Epstein- Barr virus infection and its activity in HD patients . Material and Methods:This case- control study was performed to determine the type and titers of antibodies against EBV capsid Antigens (Anti VCA IgM & IgG in HD patients as compared to the general population and its relation to age , sex , and subtype of Hodgkin. Thus, a fifty- person group of Hodgkin disease patients as the case group and a fifty – person group from the general population with the same age and sex characteristics as the control group were studied. Result: There was no significant difference for mean titer of IgM between two age ranges in each group of case and control. Also, there was statistically no significant difference between case and control groups ( P.Value=0.558 .Most of the patients as well as non affected persons had negative IgM titers. Regarding IgG, there was statistically no significant difference between case and control groups for being either negative or positive, and most persons (92% of each group and were positive for IgG, but mean titer of IgG was 2.87 mmol/lit in case group and 1.50 mmol/lit in control group , and this difference between two groups was statistically significant (Pvalue = 0.0001 . Conclusion: High titer of Anti-VCA IgG in Hodgkin disease patients compared to general population as seen in this study can explain over activity of EBV in Hodgkin's disease patients and the probable role of EBV in establishment and/or activity of the disease.

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a normal population and some selected groups of patients in Norway. (United States)

    Siebke, J C; Degré, M; Ritland, S; Enger, S C


    The prevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies was tested by radioimmunoassay in Norway in healthy blood donors, in patients without clinical signs of liver diseases and in two selected groups of patients. The presence of hepatitis A antibodies was highly age-dependent in 625 normal persons. A major reduction occurred from 50 per cent or more in those born before 1938 to 10 per cent or less among those born after 1943. The decline of hepatitis A antibody prevalence was correlated to the history of infectious hepatitis epidemics in the entire country during World War II. The prevalence was not different from controls in a group of patients with various liver disorders. Hepatitis A antibodies were more prevalent in males than in females in blood donors, patients with chronic liver disorders and their controls. Hepatitis A antibodies were frequently present in prison inmates; their presence was associated with the presence of antibodies against hepatitis B virus and with anamnestic data on drug addiction.

  11. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India (United States)

    Malik, G. M.; Bhat, M. Youssuf; rather, Ab. Rashid; Basu, Javaid Ahmad; Qureshi, Khursheed Ahmad


    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric ulcer an additional biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to exclude its malignant nature. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) organism was diagnosed using three different test methods, viz. Histology (using Giemsa Stain), Microbiology (Gram Stain) and Biochemistry (using one minute Endoscopy Room Test). Histological diagnosis of H. pylori was taken as the “gold standard” for the presence of H. pylori organism. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made using Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain and the gastritis was classified as active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis. Results: Out of 30 peptic ulcer disease patients with associated antral gastritis, 27 (90%) were positive for H. pylori on histological examination (13 superficial chronic gastritis and 14 active chronic gastritis) whereas out of 8 healthy volunteers with histological evidence of chronic antral gastritis, H. pylori was observed in 7 individuals (87.50%) (4 active chronic gastritis and 3 superficial chronic gastritis). Conclusion: A highly significant association between H. pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis both in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy volunteers of Kashmir was found in this study. Association between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis was 90% in peptic ulcer group and 87.50% in healthy population (P<0.005). PMID:18493464

  12. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Naess, Marit; Langhammer, Arnulf; Forsmo, Siri


    Background Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. Methods This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). Results Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Conclusion Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles. PMID:26291617

  13. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population. (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi


    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research. (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael


    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  15. The prevalence of moderate and severe FXII (Hageman factor) deficiency among the normal population: evaluation of the incidence of FXII deficiency among 300 healthy blood donors. (United States)

    Halbmayer, W M; Haushofer, A; Schön, R; Mannhalter, C; Strohmer, E; Baumgarten, K; Fischer, M


    Factor XII (FXII) deficiency has been reported to be a risk factor for the development of arterial and venous thromboembolism. However, no data are available on the prevalence of FXII deficiency within the normal population. Measuring APTT and FXII activity, seven FXII deficiencies could be detected among 300 healthy blood donors. This corresponds to an incidence of FXII deficiency of 2.3%. On the basis of these data the prevalence of severe and mild FXII deficiency in the normal population can be estimated to be 1.5-3.0%. Assessment of FXII antigen levels revealed, that all seven FXII deficient individuals had FXII antigen levels matching the activity. One presented a severe FXII deficiency (1/300, 0.3%) without detectable FXII activity and an APTT prolongation of more than 120 s. The remaining six FXII deficiencies (6/300, 2.0%) were moderate variations with FXII activities ranging from 20-45% and less prolonged APTTs. Among the 300 healthy donors 16 (5.3%) subjects with prolonged APTTs were identified. Causes for APTT-prolongation were FXII deficiency (7/16), lupus anticoagulant (6/16), mild FVIII deficiency (1/16) and hepatic disorder (1/16). In the remaining sample (1/16) the cause for the prolongation of the APTT remained unexplained. Although 8.7% (26/300) of the donors had a positive family-history of thromboembolism (TE-FHx), none of the FXII deficient subjects were among those with positive TE-FHx.

  16. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for Greek population The impact on diagnosis of using various normal ranges for comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and the individual classification of a patient is based on a normal reference range. Unfortunately, not all the manufacturers include in their analysis-software reference values specific for each population. Methods and patients: In our study, using Lunar's DPX-L densitometer, we measured BMD of the lumbar spine and the femur of 4400 healthy women aged (25-80) years and we calculated the corresponding T- and Z-scores. Multiple regression analysis was applied to examine the dependence of BMD on age and weight. Greek data was compared with American and Italian. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between Greek and American mean values of all age groups. The Italian normal range is closer to our data and can be reliably used at least as T-scores are concerned. Still, there is a small discrepancy in Z-scores, which might influence patient management. Conclusion: We conclude that Greek reference range should be used for the assessment of osteoporosis of Greek population for better evaluation of bone status and appropriate treatment

  17. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying


    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Paging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  18. "Normal" liver stiffness measure (LSM) values are higher in both lean and obese individuals: a population-based study from a developing country. (United States)

    Das, Kausik; Sarkar, Rajib; Ahmed, Sk Mahiuddin; Mridha, Asit R; Mukherjee, Partha S; Das, Kshaunish; Dhali, Gopal K; Santra, Amal; Chowdhury, Abhijit


    The liver stiffness measure (LSM) needs to be explored in ethnically and anthropometrically diverse healthy subjects (to derive an acceptable normal range) and also in patients with liver disease. In view of this objective, LSM was performed by transient elastography (TE) using FibroScan in 437 healthy subjects with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, recruited from a free-living population of the Birbhum Population Project (BIRPOP;, a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), and from 274 patients with liver disease attending the Hepatology Clinic of the School of Digestive and Liver Diseases (SDLD; Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research [IPGME&R], Kolkata, India) including 188 with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 86 with chronic hepatitis of viral and other etiologies. Liver biopsy was performed in 125 patients. The range of normal values for LSM, defined by 5th and 95th percentile values in healthy subjects, was 3.2 and 8.5 kPa, respectively. Healthy subjects with a lower body mass index (BMI; < <18.5 kg/m(2)) had a higher LSM compared with subjects who had a normal BMI; this LSM value was comparable to that of obese subjects (6.05 ± 1.78 versus 5.51 ± 1.59 and 6.60 ± 1.21, P = 0.016 and 0.349, respectively). Liver disease patients without histologic fibrosis had significantly higher LSM values compared with healthy subjects (7.52 ± 5.49 versus 5.63 ± 1.64, P < 0.001). Among the histologic variables, stage of fibrosis was the only predictor for LSM. LSM did not correlate with inflammatory activity and ALT in both NAFLD and chronic hepatitis groups. LSM varies between 3.2 and 8.5 kPa in healthy subjects of South Asian origin. Both lean and obese healthy subjects have higher LSM values compared with subjects with normal BMI. Liver stiffness begins to increase even before fibrosis appears in patients with liver disease. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona. (United States)

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A


    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich


    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  1. The ISNT Rule: How Often Does It Apply to Disc Photographs and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in the Normal Population? (United States)

    Poon, Linda Yi-Chieh; Solá-Del Valle, David; Turalba, Angela V; Falkenstein, Iryna A; Horsley, Michael; Kim, Julie H; Song, Brian J; Takusagawa, Hana L; Wang, Kaidi; Chen, Teresa C


    To determine what percentage of normal eyes follow the ISNT rule, and whether ISNT rule variants may be more generalizable to the normal population. Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional setting. Total of 110 normal subjects. Neuroretinal rim assessments from disc photographs and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The percentages of subjects that obeyed the ISNT rule and its variants. The ISNT rule is only valid for 37.0% of disc photograph rim assessments and 43.8% of RNFL measurements. Deviation of the nasal sector from the expected ISNT pattern was a major cause for the ISNT rule not being obeyed for both rim and RNFL assessments. Specifically, 10.9% of subjects had wider nasal rims than the inferior rims, 29.4% had wider nasal rims than the superior rims, 14.7% had narrower nasal rims than the temporal rims, and 42.9% had thinner nasal RNFLs compared to the temporal quadrant. Exclusion of the nasal quadrant from the ISNT rule significantly increased the validity of ISNT variant rules, with 70.9% and 76.4% of disc photographs following the IST rule and the IS rule, respectively. Similarly, for RNFL thickness, 70.9% and 71.8% of patients followed the IST and IS rule, respectively. The ISNT rule is only valid for about a third of disc photographs and less than half of RNFL measurements in normal patients. ISNT rule variants, such as the IST and IS rule, may be considered, as they are valid in more than 70% of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deux notices du Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier-Algérie


    Gallissot, René


    Il s’agit de deux notices du Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier ALGERIE.La première est une mise au point sur le Parti National Révolutionnaire, à travers la notice de Sid,Ahmed Belarbi/ Boualem, ouvrier cordonnier à Alger, puis conducteur de tramway, militant de la CGTU et des Jeunesses communistes depuis la campagne contre la guerre du Rif…Après le Congrès des ouvriers arabes à Alger (1930), il lance la tentative d’un parti National révolutionnaire. Son tabac du quartier Belcour...

  3. Effet du stockage sur la vigueur et la viabilité des semences de deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet du stockage sur la vigueur et la viabilité des semences de deux variétés de blé dur (Triticum durum, Desf). Asma Nour, Louhichi Brinis. Abstract. Les effets du stockage ont été étudiés sur des semences de blé dur (Triticum durum). L'objectif repose sur l'évaluation de différentes altérations observées au cours du ...

  4. Le traitement chirurgical des cals vicieux des deux os de l'avant-bras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de cette étude est de présenter l'expérience du service de chirurgie ostéoarticulaire B4, de CHU Hassan II de Fès Maroc, dans la prise en charge chirurgicale des cals vicieux des deux os de l'avant-bras. C'est une étude rétrospective étalée entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2011 incluant onze cas de cal vicieux de ...

  5. Shared psychotic disorder ("folie a deux") between mother and 15 years old son. (United States)

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Degmecić, Dunja; Delalle, Mirela; Mihanović, Mate; Filaković, Pavo


    We presented a rare case in clinical practice: fifteen (15) years old male adolescent with shared psychotic disorder with his thirty seven (37) years old mother. In this case of "folie d deux" child was the passive psychotic partner and his mother who was the dominant psychotic partner. Both patients shared the same paranoid and imperative delusions. With complete psychiatric anamnesis, clinical interview, psychological testing, EEG (examination-electroencephalography) examination and control examinations we came to the diagnosis and efficacious pharmacological intervention for son.

  6. Identification de deux phytostérols biologiquement actifs de l'extrait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour A5.2 dérivatisée, un composé présente un spectre de masse de pic moléculaire à m/z 486 et des pics fragments [M-90]+, [M-129]+ et [M-357]+ propres au β-sitostérol triméthylsilyl éther dérivé du β- sitostérol. La présence de ces deux phytostérols bioactifs serait un atout majeur dans l'usage thérapeutique de cette ...

  7. Granulomatose avec polyangéite du sujet âgé: à propos de deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La granulomatose avec polyangéite (GPA) est une vascularite nécrosante des vaisseaux de petit calibre. L'âge moyen d'entrée dans la GPA est entre 35 et 55 ans, les formes gériatriques sont cependant rares, Nous rapportons deux cas de GPA révélés après 60 ans, le mode de révélation était inhabituel, ophtalmologique ...

  8. Free prostate-specific antigen improves prostate cancer detection in a high-risk population of men with a normal total PSA and digitalrectal examination. (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Pinover, Wayne H; Horwitz, Eric M; Parlanti, Alicia; Mazzoni, Susan; Raysor, Susan; Mirchandani, Ila; Greenberg, Richard E; Pollack, Alan; Hanks, Gerald E; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah


    Uncertainty exists regarding optimal prostate cancer screening parameters for high-risk populations. The purpose of this study is to report the use of percent free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as an indication for biopsy in men at increased risk for developing prostate cancer who have a normal digital rectal examination (DRE) and total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL. African-American men and men with at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer are eligible for enrollment into the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) at our institution. Between October 1996 and April 2002, 310 asymptomatic high-risk men with no history of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were screened in the PRAP with DRE and total PSA. Percent free PSA was obtained in men with a total PSA between 2 and 10 ng/mL. Men with a normal DRE and total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL were advised to undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsies of the prostate if the percent free PSA was less than 27%. Other indications for biopsy included an abnormal DRE or a total PSA greater than 4 ng/mL. The primary endpoint evaluated was prostate cancer detection in high-risk men with a benign prostate examination, a normal total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL, and percent free PSA less than 27%. Of the 310 men, 174 (56%) were African American and 202 (65%) had at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer. Sixty-two of the 310 men were referred for prostate biopsy, and 40 of 62 had biopsy performed. Twenty-one of 40 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer for a cancer detection rate of 53% in all men undergoing biopsy and an overall cancer detection rate of 6.8% in this high-risk population. Thirty-seven high-risk men (median age 54 years) with a total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL (median 2.7 ng/mL) and a normal DRE were found to have a percent free PSA level of less than 27% (median 16%, range 8% to 25%). Twenty

  9. De Clérambault Syndrome, Othello Syndrome, Folie à Deux and Variants. (United States)

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Bogousslavsky, Julien


    Non-bizarre delusion, defined as a false belief possible although highly unlikely, is the main manifestation of delusional disorders, previously known as paranoia. Based on the predominant delusional themes, 5 main subtypes may be described - erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, and somatic. We present here 2 main delusional disorders, the De Clérambault syndrome and the Othello syndrome, and another closely related to the previous ones - Folie à deux. In the De Clérambault syndrome, the main delusional theme is erotomanic type, related to passional delirium where the patient has strong sexual feelings towards another person and has the belief that this other person is deeply in love with him or her. Patients with the Othello syndrome present a delusional disorder of jealous type, a pathological delusion that the partner is unfaithful. In Folie à deux, 2 individuals shared the same psychiatric symptom. However it may be variable, describing variants such as folie imposée or folie simultenée. The risk of aggressive behavior exists in these patients. Knowledge of these syndromes is essential to allow an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Deux Stivalius (Siphonaptera - Pygiopsyllidae - Pygiopsyllinae nouveaux d'Indonésie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaucournu J.C.


    Full Text Available Les puces, S. meridionalis n. sp. de Timor et S. franciscae n. sp. du Sulawesi, Indonésie, sont décrites. S. meridionalis fut collecté dans le Timor Central (Timor Tengah à des altitudes comprises entre 930 et 1 520 m, principalement sur le rongeur muriné Rattus tanezumi, bien que un spécimen fut trouvé sur la musaraigne commensale, Suncus murinus. S. franciscae provient du Sulawesi Central (Sulawesi Tengah] à des altitudes situées entre 950 et 2255 m à partir de six espèces de rongeurs murinés endémiques, spécialement Rattus hoffmanni et de deux espèces commensales de rongeurs murines. Un spécimen de S. franciscae fut également collecté sur le muriné endémique Paruromys dominator dans le Nord Sulawesi (Sulawesi litara à 1 780 m. Ces deux nouvelles espèces de puces sont comparées aux taxa précédemment décrits dans le genre Stivalius sensu stricto.

  11. Concentração de proteínas na urina de indivíduos normais Urine protein concentration in normal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Mãrcílio de Sousa


    Full Text Available A fim de determinar os valores normais de concentração proteica na urina, em amostra de população sadia, foi usada uma reação de biureto, em 62 amostras de urina coletadas ao acaso. A concentração proteica média em todo o grupo foi de 6,0mg% (± 3,2 com a amplitude de 2,0 - 14,5mg%. Tais resultados concordam com aqueles previamente relatados na literatura.In order to determinate the normal values for urine protein concentration in one sample of healthy population it was used a biuret reaction in 62 urine samples collected at random. The mean protein concentration in the whole group was 6.0mg% (SD ±3.2 with a range of 2.0 - 14.5mg%. Those results agreed with the previously reported, in the literature.

  12. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population. (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa


    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  13. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  14. Retours d'expérience sur deux années de Mooc Inria.


    Mariais, Christelle; Comte, Marie-Hélène; Rey, Isabelle; Bayle, Aurélie; Hasenfratz, Jean-Marc


    Entre novembre 2014 et juin 2015, six Mooc (Massive Open Online Courses) Inria ont été diffusés sur la plateforme France UniversitéNumérique représentant deux années d’activité du Mooc Lab Inria. Cette activité découle d’une volonté politique d’Inria de comprendrece nouvel outil numérique de formation et a été soutenue dans le cadre du projet uTop. Ce document se veut être un recueil de données quantitatives, qualitatives et de réflexions. Il est construit sous la forme d’une série de questio...





    cette étude a pour objectif de vérifier l’efficacité de la photocatalyse hétérogène dans le traitement des eaux contenant soit un colorant ou un mélange de colorants. L’orange de méthyle et l’indigo carmine, colorants anioniques, sont pris comme molécules modèles dans ce travail. Une étude systématique a permis de montrer que ces molécules à l’obscurité sont adsorbées à la surface du catalyseur selon le modèle de Freundlich. La phodégradation de ces deux colorants pris séparément semble suivr...

  16. Elections présidentielles 2007, typologie des candidats. Les deux France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bussi


    Full Text Available Depuis près de 25 ans, la géographie électorale de la France a été en grande partie marquée par la forte spatialisation du vote Front national, qui coupait en deux, d’Est en Ouest, le territoire national. Cependant, si cette  « lune brune »  s’est avérée durable de 1988 à 2007, les autres candidats apparaissaient jusqu’à présent indifférents à ce clivage géographique.   L’un des enseignements de ce scrutin semble l’élargissement de ce clivage Est/Ouest à d’autres courants, en particulier à l’...

  17. Gouvernance et planification de deux périphéries multifonctionnelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Faliès


    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est d’établir une mise en perspective entre deux terrains périurbains : Quilpué (au Chili et Lurín (au Pérou. Au-delà de l’analyse de leur composition et de leur fonctionnement, l’intérêt est de souligner l’enjeu existant autour de leur planification. Mais dans un contexte de faible régulation par l’Etat et avec un manque d’outils de planification applicables à ces espaces hybrides, ni vraiment urbains, ni vraiment ruraux, leur gouvernance est délicate. Ainsi, la multifonctionnalité de ces deux territoires, qui présuppose des conflits d’intérêt entre les différents acteurs, engendre la participation de la société civile ainsi que des projets visant des recompositions territoriales.Este articulo tiene como objetivo establecer una mirada cruzada entre dos terrenos periurbanos : Quilpué (en Chile y Lurín (en Perú. Mas allá de analizar su composición y su funcionamiento, el interés de este articulo reside en señalar las problemáticas principales en lo referente a la planificación territorial de espacios periurbanos. Pero, la débil regulación por parte del Estado y una falta de instrumentos de planificación adaptados a estos espacios híbridos, ni totalmente urbanos, ni totalmente rurales, hacen que su gobernanza sea una cuestión delicada. Es así que la multifuncionalidad de estos territorios, presupone conflictos de interés entre los distintos actores presentes. Esto esta engendrando la participación de la sociedad civil y proyectos que conducen a recomposiciones territoriales.

  18. Torsion d'annexe au second trimestre de la grossesse, à propos de deux cas (United States)

    Ayachi, Amira; Blel, Zeineb; Khelifa, Nahed; Mkaouer, Lassaad; Bouchahda, Rim; Mourali, Mechaal


    Les douleurs pelviennes aigues pendant la grossesse peuvent poser un problème de diagnostic différentiel.Nous rapportons deux cas de torsion d'annexes au deuxième trimestre de la grossesse afin d'attirer l'attention sur ce diagnostic, dont seule une prise en charge précoce permet d'éviter des lésions irréversibles dues à l'ischémie, pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic ultérieur de fertilité. La première patiente, G1P0, enceinte à 20 SA, s'est présenté initialement pour un syndrome appendiculaire. Une incision de Mac Burney, au cours de l'exploration, a montré un ovaire droit nécrosé et une ovariectomie a été faite. Les suites post opératoires étaient simples. La seconde patiente, G2P2, s'est présenté aux urgences avec des douleurs aigues de la fosse iliaque gauche à 26 SA. La laparotomie a mis en évidence une torsion d'une hydatide de Morgani, dont l'aspect nécrosé dû à une torsion, a orienté vers une ablation de l'hydatide. Pour les deux patientes, aucune complication postopératoire n'a été relevée. La torsion d'annexe est une urgence à ne pas méconnaître devant toute douleur pelvienne aigue chez la femme enceinte. Le traitement conservateur est actuellement le gold standard et une prise en charge appropriée est nécessaire pour éviter d'éventuelles complications maternelles et fœtales. PMID:28292076

  19. Population. (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  20. Perceived discrimination and favourable regard toward underweight, normal weight and obese eating disorder sufferers: implications for obesity and eating disorder population health campaigns. (United States)

    Star, Anita; Hay, Phillipa; Quirk, Frances; Mond, Jonathan


    Obesity stigma has been shown to increase binge eating, whilst positive regard for eating disorders (EDs) may increase dietary restriction which can also lead to binge eating and weight gain. In the context of increasing prevalence of both obesity and EDs exploring community attitudes towards these illnesses may uncover new variables worthy of consideration in population health campaigns. The aim of the study was to explore community perceived stigma and conversely favourable regard toward eating disorder (ED) sufferers of varying weight status, and understand how the attitudes of obese individuals may differ from those of non-obese individuals. Data for this purpose were derived from interviews with individuals participating in a general population health survey. Vignettes of an underweight female with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), a normal weight male with an atypical eating disorder (NWED) and an obese female with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were presented to three randomly selected sub-samples of n = 983, 1033 and 1030 respectively. Questions followed that assessed participants' attitudes towards and beliefs about the person described in the vignette and their eating behaviours. Sixty-six per cent of participants who responded to the obese BED vignette believed that there would be discrimination against the person described (primarily because of her weight). Corresponding figures were for the AN and NWED vignettes were 48% and 35%, respectively. A positive regard for weight-loss or body-image-enhancing ED behaviours was reported 'occasionally' or more often by 8.8% of respondents to the AN vignette and by 27.5% of respondents to the NWED vignette. Positive regard for ED behaviours was significantly more likely in obese participants (AN: 15%; NWED: 43%). The findings support integrated ED and obesity prevention programs that address weight stigma and the social desirability of ED behaviours in vulnerable individuals.

  1. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas (United States)

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux


    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  2. Contenu pollinique de l'atmosphère de deux régions de Nord -Est ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le présent travail consiste à étudier l'atmosphère pollinique de deux sites du Nord-Est algérien ; El-Hadjar (W. Annaba) et Dréan (W. El-Tarf). ... its wealth and its diversity and permitted to count several allergenic families as: Poaceae, Asteraceae, Plantaginaceae, Oleaceae, Polygonaceae, Cupressaceae, Chenopodiaceae ...

  3. Effet comparé de l'enfouissement de deux légumineuses fertilisées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet comparé de l'enfouissement de deux légumineuses fertilisées au molybdène sur la croissance et le rendement de Brachiaria ruziziensis à différentes périodes de fauche dans l'Ouest Cameroun.

  4. Dyslexia and DCDC2: normal variation in reading and spelling is associated with DCDC2 polymorphisms in an Australian population sample. (United States)

    Lind, Penelope A; Luciano, Michelle; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Bates, Timothy C


    The 6p21-p22 chromosomal region has been identified as a developmental dyslexia locus both in linkage and association studies, the latter generating evidence for the doublecortin domain containing 2 (DCDC2) as a candidate gene at this locus (and also for KIAA0319). Here, we report an association between DCDC2 and reading and spelling ability in 522 families of adolescent twins unselected for reading impairment. Family-based association was conducted on 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCDC2 using quantitative measures of lexical processing (irregular-word reading), phonological decoding (non-word reading) and spelling-based measures of dyslexia derived from the Components of Reading Examination test. Significant support for association was found for rs1419228 with regular-word reading and spelling (P=0.002) as well as irregular-word reading (P=0.004), whereas rs1091047 was significantly associated (P=0.003) with irregular-word reading (a measure of lexical storage). Four additional SNPs (rs9467075, rs9467076, rs7765678 and rs6922023) were nominally associated with reading and spelling. This study provides support for DCDC2 as a risk gene for reading disorder, and suggests that this risk factor acts on normally varying reading skill in the general population.

  5. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24- hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring. (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho


    Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22-72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population.

  6. Les Andes Centrales Tropicales vues par deux géographes: Isaiah Bowman et Carl Troll

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    Full Text Available Deux visions des Andes vues par deux géographes, Isaiah BOWMAN et Carl TROLL, au caractère et au milieu intellectuel différents. L'auteur étudie dans l'un et l'autre cas la méthode d'analyse de l'espace géographique et les conclusions tirées par chacun d'eux. I. BOWMAN, Américain, convaincu qu'une économie mercantiliste fondée sur l'exportation permettra aux Etats andins d'accéder à un modèle de développement, décrit les vastes contrées amazoniennes comme un futur El Dorado entre les mains de colons. L'aménagement des basses plaines selon des schémas nord-américains est le pilier de l'économie alors que les Andes abritant les communautés indigènes constituent un frein au développement. De ce fait il laisse de côté l'étude des paysanneries andines. Toute différente est la démarche de Carl TROLL dont la formation à la fois en sciences humaines et naturelles, lui permet de cerner l'espace géographique comme cadre de vie des sociétés. L'utilisation des étages écologiques, le développement de l'Empire Inca fondé sur l'étage des 'punas', la démarche historique des analyses minutieuses de Carl TROLL donne un éclairage nouveau aux relations des sociétés andines et des milieux naturels avec lesquels elles composent. Dos puntos de vista de los Andes por dos geógrafos, Isaiah BOWMAN y Carl TROLL con carácter y medio intelectual distintos. El autor estudia en ambos casos el método de análisis del espacio geográfico y las conclusiones sacadas por cada uno de ellos. I. BOWMAN, americano, convencido que una economía mercantil fundada sobre la exportación permitirá a los estados andinos acceder a un modelo de desarrollo, describe las extensas llanuras amazónicas como un El Dorado futuro entre las manos de los colonos. El desarrollo de las llanuras bajas según esquemas norteamericanos constituye el pilar de la economía mientras los Andes abrigando las comunidades indígenas se comportan como un freno al

  7. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

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    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  8. The international normalized ratio (INR as seen in a population of patients with atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction undergoing long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists

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    Szczepańska-Szerej Anna


    Full Text Available It is estimated that nearly 20% of all cerebral infarctions in the total population are the result of a complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. While oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (AVKs substantially reduces this risk, this requires regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR in order to achieve therapeutic levels (2,0-3,0. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group at high risk of cerebral infarction, among patients with AF undergoing long-term treatment with VKAs, taking into account the significance of therapeutic INR values. The analysed group consisted of 90 acute ischaemic stroke patients with paroxysmal or chronic “non-valvular” AF, receiving treatment with VKAs. As a result of the study, therapeutic INR values (≥ 2 were seen in thirty-five of these individuals (38,8%, while 55 (61,2% showed non-therapeutic INR values. Moreover, there were no differences in demographics, vascular risk factors, biochemical and morphological blood parameters, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score and TOAST classification between either of the two groups. Furthermore, no additional factor that would increase their risk of cerebral infarction during the adequate treatment with VKAs was found. However, patients with non-therapeutic INR values had a statistically significantly higher frequency of concomitant moderate pathology of the bicuspid valve, p<0.05. Hence, a lack of proper control of INR can proved to be particularly dangerous for this subgroup of patients. Hence, this is a group with an elevated risk of cerebral infarction and therefore requires special oversight of VKA treatment or NOA treatment.

  9. Construct Validity of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) in Patients with Drug Addiction and Diabetes, and Normal Population. (United States)

    Ardakani, Abolfazl; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Jameei, Fahimeh; Rashid, Rusdi; Zahirodin, Alireza; Motlaq, Farid; Masjidi Arani, Abbas


    Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding.

  10. Validation of Right Atrial Area as a Measure of Right Atrial Size and Normal Values of in Healthy Pediatric Population by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography. (United States)

    Rajagopal, Hari; Uppu, Santosh C; Weigand, Justin; Lee, Simon; Karnik, Ruchika; Ko, Helen; Bhatla, Puneet; Nielsen, James; Doucette, John; Parness, Ira; Srivastava, Shubhika


    Right atrial (RA) size is a prognostic indicator for heart failure and cardiovascular death in adults. Data regarding use of RA area (RAA) by two-dimensional echocardiography as a surrogate for RA size and allometric modeling to define appropriate indexing of the RAA are lacking. Our objective was to validate RAA as a reliable measure of RA size and to define normal reference values by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a large population of healthy children and develop Z-scores using a validated allometric model for indexing RAA independent of age, sex, and body size. Agreement between RAA and volume by 2D, 3D TTE, and MRI was assessed. RAA not volume by 2D TTE is an excellent surrogate for RA size. RAA/BSA 1 has an inverse correlation with BSA with a residual relationship to BSA (r = - 0.54, p  1 m 2 , respectively, and was validated against an independent sample. The mean indexed RAA ± SD for BSA ≤ 1 m 2 and > 1 m 2 is 9.7 ± 1.3 cm 2 and 8.7 ± 1.3 cm 2 , respectively, and was used to derive Z-scores. RAA by 2D TTE is superior to 2D or 3D echocardiography-derived RA volume as a measure of RA size using CMR as the reference standard. RAA when indexed to BSA 1 , decreases as body size increases. The best-fit allometric modeling is used to create Z scores. RAA/BSA 0.95 for BSA  1 m 2 can be used to derive Z scores.

  11. Hernie obturatrice étranglée: à propos de deux cas (United States)

    Younes, Aggouri; Hossam, Benhammane; Issam, Yazough; Imane, Toughrai; Said, Ait Laalim; Karim, Ibn Majdoub; Khalid, Mazaz


    La hernie obturatrice (HO) est rare. Elle est à l'origine de 0,2 à 1,6% des occlusions mécaniques de l'intestin grêle avec un taux de mortalité et morbidité après chirurgie est respectivement de 35 et 18%. Nous rapportons le cas de deux patientes chez qui le diagnostic de HO étranglée est établie dans le cadre du bilan d'une occlusion. La HO est une entité dont le diagnostic préopératoire est difficile en raison de la faible spécificité clinique. L'examen tomodensitométrique semble être une aide majeure au diagnostic étiologique. Mais une fois le diagnostic d'occlusion posé, une intervention en urgence permettra d'en préciser l’étiologie et d'en réaliser le traitement. Tout retard thérapeutique majore la mortalité et la morbidité. PMID:26113912

  12. Passeport pour les deux infinis vers l'infiniment grand, vers l'infiniment petit

    CERN Document Server

    Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Kerhoas-Cavata, Sophie; Paul, Jacques; Robert, Jean-Luc; Royole-Degieux, Perrine


    Où commence l'infiniment grand ? Où finit l'infiniment petit ? Les chercheurs ont identifié le rayonnement fossile émis il y a 13,8 milliards d'année et qui permet de remonter aux origines de l'Univers. A l'opposé, le modèle standard a identifié 12 particules élémentaires et trois forces fondamentales qui permettent de décrire la constitution ultime de la matière. Est-ce à dire que tout est terminé, que plus rien n'est à découvrir ? Certainement pas ! Tandis que les outils d'observation deviennent plus précis, la nécessité d'établir des passerelles entre l'infiniment grand et l'infini petit devient pressante. Dans cette nouvelle édition actualisée, les plus grands spécialistes présentent un panorama des connaissances actuelles des deux infinis.

  13. Étude et restauration de deux sculptures de jardin en terre cuite

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    Sabrina Vétillard


    Full Text Available L’étude et la restauration de deux sphynges en terre cuite, particulièrement dégradées par leur installation en extérieur, ont permis d’approfondir la connaissance des techniques d’estampage, de caractériser les propriétés des terres cuites et les mécanismes de dégradation liés au gel. Les différentes techniques mises en oeuvre ont été l’occasion de réfléchir aux limites d’intervention pour des sculptures de jardin.The study and the restoration of two sphynges in terra-cotta, particularly degraded by their outdoor installation, allowed to deepen the knowledge of stamping techniques, to characterize the properties of terra-cottas and mechanisms of degradation bound to the frost. The different techniques used were the opportunity to think about limits of intervention for garden installed sculptures.


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    Full Text Available cette étude a pour objectif de vérifier l’efficacité de la photocatalyse hétérogène dans le traitement des eaux contenant soit un colorant ou un mélange de colorants. L’orange de méthyle et l’indigo carmine, colorants anioniques, sont pris comme molécules modèles dans ce travail. Une étude systématique a permis de montrer que ces molécules à l’obscurité sont adsorbées à la surface du catalyseur selon le modèle de Freundlich. La phodégradation de ces deux colorants pris séparément semble suivre une cinétique d’ordre 1. On observe en revanche un changement lorsque ces colorants sont irradiés simultanément dans un mélange. La cinétique de photodisparition de l’orange de méthyle devient d’ordre 0, alors que celle de l’indigo carmine reste inchangée. L’étude de l’effet de l’influence de la concentration de l’orange de méthyle sur la photodisparition de l’indigo carmine semble indiquer que ces molécules s’adsorberaient sur les mêmes sites.

  15. Les collections deux ans après le déménagement

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    Jacqueline Sanson


    Full Text Available Toutes les bibliothèques – et particulièrement les bibliothèques nationales dont la mission essentielle est de conserver le patrimoine – sont confrontées à des problèmes de place. Le bâtiment de Tolbiac a été en grande partie créé pour répondre aux besoins croissants de stockage de la Bibliothèque nationale et par conséquent assurer une meilleure conservation à ses collections. Mon exposé s’articulera en trois parties: en premier lieu, il me paraît nécessaire de donner un bref rappel de la situation antérieure; ensuite, seront abordées la logique d’implantation, les spécifications techniques de magasinage et de conservation dans les nouveaux bâtiments; enfin, le point sera fait sur les améliorations et les difficultés rencontrées à peine deux ans après le déménagement des collections.

  16. Congo belge et littérature de jeunesse dans l'entre-deux-guerres

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    Laurence Boudart


    Full Text Available Méconnue de la critique, la littérature coloniale belge pour la jeunesse de langue française ouvre néanmoins des perspectives intéressantes quant à l'histoire du fait colonial mais aussi, plus largement, à tout le questionnement identitaire induit par le rapport à l'autre et à l'ailleurs. C'est dans ce contexte que nous étudions trois ouvrages majeurs de la période de l'entre-deux-guerres : Tante Julia découvre le Congo (Roger Ransy, 1932, Jeannot gosse d’Afrique (Jeanne Maquet-Tombu, 1935 et Bamboula le petit homme noir (Franz Hellens, 1942, adapté de Bass-Bassina-Boulou, 1922. Nous veillons à montrer par quels moyens ces récits coloniaux pour l'enfance constituent un lieu privilégié où l'on peut, soit rallier, soit questionner l'idéologie.

  17. Normal values of left ventricularmass and cardiac chamber volumes assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Kühl, J Tobias


    Aims Normal values of left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac chamber sizes are prerequisites for the diagnosis of individuals with heart disease. LVM and cardiac chamber sizes may be recorded during cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and thus modality specific normal values are need...

  18. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a prospective, population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Ollila, M-M E; West, S; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Jokelainen, J; Auvinen, J; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Franks, S; Piltonen, T T; Morin-Papunen, L C


    What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years was significantly greater in women with PCOS developing T2DM than in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, with the most significant increase occurring

  19. Heinrich Heine et Annette von Droste-Hülshoff Deux poètes d ‘Allemagne


    Kortländer, Bernd


    L’article tente un rapprochement entre deux poètes que l’on a peu l’habitude de nommer à la suite l’un de l’autre, Heinrich Heine et Annette von Droste-Hülshoff. Cette comparaison de deux figures majeures de la poésie allemande du Vormärz permet de faire ressortir, à travers leur dissemblance radicale, les spécificités de chacune. Du point de vue de l’œuvre même les différences sautent d’emblée aux yeux. A la musicalité et à l’élégance de Heine s’oppose du côté de Droste une langue qui renonc...

  20. Etude comparative de la rentabilité de deux types d'apiculture au nord ouest du Cameroun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafack Matsop, A.S.; Muluh Achu, G.; Kamajou, F.; Ingram, V.; Vabi Boboh, M.


    La présente étude examine la rentabilité financière de l’apiculture au Cameroun. Son objectif global est de comparer la rentabilité des deux types d’apiculture pratiqués au Nord Ouest Cameroun. L’hypothèse globale est qu’il existerait une différence significative en rendement de miel et en bénéfice

  1. Il faut être au moins deux pour faire bouger les lignes de l’inacceptable

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    Jean-Michel Gros


    Full Text Available Il s’agit de vérifier une hypothèse de Jean-Pierre Cavaillé : « Pour « faire » le libertin, il faut au moins être deux »1. à travers l’exemple de deux « couples » comprenant chacun un esprit libertin et un apologiste – Cyrano et Pascal ; Bayle et Leibniz –, on a voulu montrer que c’est le plus souvent à travers les contaminations réciproques des positions antagonistes que celles-ci s’exacerbent et que les limites de l’inacceptable sont franchies de part et d’autre.Cyrano et Pascal, sans s’être lus, utilisent les mêmes thématiques : le divertissement, la cironalité universelle, l’immortalité de l’âme et surtout le pari et le « dieu caché ». Chacun tire évidemment ces thèmes vers des conclusions diamétralement opposées : ainsi le sarcasme libertin oblige Pascal à dramatiser le vieux topos apologétique du pari tout en cherchant à le « rationaliser » pendant que la dérision libertine semble  miner par avance cette tentative « désespérée » de convertir l’athée dans un monde où un dieu « sot ou malicieux » joue à « cligne musette ».Bayle et Leibniz, eux, entretiennent un dialogue dans leurs œuvres respectives. Leibniz tente par un discours métaphysique – La Théodicée – de faire barrage aux terribles questions des grands articles sur le mal du Dictionnaire historique et critique de Bayle. Mais il ne comprend pas, quelle que soit la rigueur de son argumentation, que ces articles n’attendent aucune « réponse » : ils mettent seulement en scène l’inanité de toute tentative de mettre la raison au service d’un discours, celui de la théologie ou de la métaphysique apologétique, qui lui impose comme point de départ un dogme qu’elle ne peut interroger, ce qui va à l’encontre du principe même de tout usage de la rationalité philosophique. L’intérêt de l’analyse de telles confrontations serait de montrer que chacun des arguments

  2. Le journal de José Santos Vargas (1814-1825. 2: deux manuscrits

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    Full Text Available L’existence de deux manuscrits différents du Journal de José Santos Vargas conduit à s’interroger sur la véracité de l’auteur. La comparaison entre les deux textes incite à attribuer le premier à une rédaction très proche de la fin de la guerre, et le second à un travail de collecte et de réécriture qui s’est étalé sur près de 30 ans. Entre le premier et le second manuscrit, se manifeste le changement du projet d’écriture de l’auteur qui évolue d’une conception individuelle de l’œuvre à l’idée de faire du Journal le recueil de toutes les traces de la guerre conservées dans les Vallées, et de le transformer en mémoire patriotique d’un microcosme provincial. EL DIARIO DE JOSÉ SANTOS VARGAS (1814-1825 - 2: DOS MANUSCRITOS. La existencia de dos manuscritos distintos del Diario del guerrillero José Santos Vargas incita a dudar de la veracidad del autor. La comparación entre los dos textos permite atribuir al primero una redacción próxima al fin de la guerra, mientras el segundo resulta de un trabajo de recolección y de reescritura que duró cerca de treinta años. Entre el primer y el segundo manuscrito, se manifiesta un cambio de proyecto de escritura por parte del autor que evoluciona de una concepción individualista de la obra hacia la idea de transformar el Diario en el compendio de todas las huellas de la guerra que se habían conservado en los Valles, transformándole en memoria patriótica de un microcosmos provincial. THE DIARY OF JOSÉ SANTOS VARGAS (1814-1825 - 2: TWO MANUSCRIPTS. The existence of two different manuscripts of the guerilla leader José Santos Vargas's Diary raises doubts about the truthfulness of the author. After comparing the two texts, it is possible to situate the writing of the first version in the time just after the war and the second version during a thirty year period in which testimonies and information were collected, and then rewritten. A change in the writing project of

  3. Surveiller et classer : deux chantiers pour une recherche urbaine critique

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    Fabrice Bardet


    Full Text Available Après avoir navigué entre deux continents, Bernard Jouve s’était donné pour ambition de développer, au sein du monde académique français, une pensée critique sur la ville inspirée de la recherche urbaine nord-américaine et de diffuser ces réflexions au sein du monde social. Ce goût pour les analyses critiques sur le « fait urbain » a constitué, sous son impulsion, un élément fédérateur pour l’équipe de recherche lyonnaise qu’il a dirigée au cours des dernières années. A travers des exemples tirés de nos travaux sur les classements de ville et la surveillance, on montre qu’il en demeure aujourd’hui encore un important fil conducteur.Bernard Jouve lived a rich experience between two different academic worlds. That is the principle reason why he aimed to develop a critical thought on urban changes and cities in the midst of French academic world. Further, he wanted to spread these analysis inspired by North-American urban research among actors playing a role in urban policies. For the research team that he managed in Lyon for these last years, this interest became, and remains, a unifier element.

  4. Deux modèles de fondation dans les Recherches logiques

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    Thomas Nenon


    Full Text Available Cette étude essaye d’établir qu’il y a deux notions très différentes de « fondation » à l’œuvre dans les Recherches logiques de Husserl. Dans la IIIème Recherche, où le terme est formellement introduit, lorsqu’il se demande quels sont les contenus qui peuvent exister d’une manière autonome (indépendants et lesquels peuvent exister uniquement en tant que moments d’autre chose (dépendants, Husserl suit ce que j’appelle un « modèle ontologique ». Selon ce modèle, le concret possède une priorité sur à l’abstrait qui est fondé en lui. Dans la VIème Recherche, en revanche, Husserl s’oriente principalement sur un « modèle gnoséologique » qui voit le complexe comme fondé sur ce qui est relativement simple, étant donné que les expériences d’ordre supérieur (telles les perceptions de types d’objets plus complexes sont « fondées sur » des expériences plus simples, bien qu’elles ne puissent pas y être réduites. L’exemple principal ici est celui des intuitions catégoriales : fondées sur les intuitions sensibles, elles n’y sont pas réductibles. Mais cette distinction entre deux sens différents du terme de « fondation » peut également nous aider à mieux comprendre de nombreuses thèses husserliennes plutôt controversées. Par exemple, elle peut nous permettre de mieux comprendre dans quelle mesure faire l’expérience d’un être humain comme un tout se fonde sur l’expérience d’un corps physique, et cela même si l’étant que nous rencontrons inclut à la fois des aspects corporels et des aspects spirituels – les deux étant vus, d’une manière essentielle, comme des moments de cette unique personne qui fait l’objet de notre expérience.This essay attempts to establish that there are two very different notions of “foundation” at work in Husserl’s Logical Investigation. In the Third Investigation where the term is formally introduced, Husserl is using what

  5. Folie a deux: a case report [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Sobia Haqqi


    Full Text Available Folie a deux, to date, remains a rare, yet a challenging psychiatric diagnosis. We discuss two cases that were identified in our out-patient clinics. One case was lost to follow up, while the other one showed improvement over time with appropriate management. Conclusion: As with any rare disorder, recognition and correct referral for rare diagnosis like folie a deux is of paramount importance.

  6. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus—a prospective, population-based cohort study (United States)

    Ollila, M.-M.E.; West, S.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Jokelainen, J.; Auvinen, J.; Puukka, K.; Ruokonen, A.; Järvelin, M.-R.; Tapanainen, J.S.; Franks, S.; Piltonen, T.T.; Morin-Papunen, L.C.


    STUDY QUESTION What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? SUMMARY ANSWER The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28–4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years

  7. Rappels vaccinaux hors programme élargi de vaccination dans deux écoles de l’éducation de base de Yaoundé, Cameroun (United States)

    Vougmo Meguejio Njua, Clémence; Nguefack, Félicitée; Chelo, David; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Kago, Innocent; Kobela, Marie


    Introduction L'absence des rappels vaccinaux est problématique dans les pays en développement où certaines maladies évitables par la vaccination font encore des victimes chez les enfants en raison d'une immunisation incomplète. L'identification des raisons de non rappel vaccinaux permettrait de proposer des solutions adaptées afin d'améliorer le statut vaccinal des enfants au-delà de 12 mois. Méthodes Cette étude descriptive transversale avait pour objectif d’évaluer le taux de rappels vaccinaux des enfants au-delà de la cible du programme élargi de vaccination (PEV). Elle s'est déroulée de Septembre à Novembre 2009 dans deux écoles d’éducation de base de Yaoundé. L’échantillonnage était consécutif et limité aux élèves âgés de deux à sept ans possédant des carnets de vaccination. Par souci d'uniformité, nous n'avons pas analysé les rappels des vaccins contre l'hépatite B et l'haemophilus introduits tardivement au Cameroun. Résultats L’étude a porté sur 310 élèves. La tranche d’âge de 2 à 4 ans représentait 69%. Seul 223 enfants (71,9%) étaient correctement vaccinés. Quant aux rappels vaccinaux diphtérie-tétanos-coqueluche et poliomyélite, les couvertures étaient insignifiantes (2,7% et 0% respectivement pour la première et la deuxième dose). Les raisons évoquées étaient l'absence de sensibilisation des parents (50%), le prix élevé des vaccins (48,69%) et la désinformation (1,31%). Conclusion Le recyclage du personnel de santé sur la vaccination est une nécessité. Les parents doivent être informés sur le déroulement, les prix et les lieux des rappels vaccinaux. La réduction des prix de vaccins faciliterait l'accès à une large tranche de la population. PMID:22187602

  8. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias


    ) and thinnest in the mid-ventricular anterior wall (segment 7; men = 5.6 mm; women = 4.5 mm) for both men and women. However, the regional LVMD differed between men and women, with the LV being most heterogenic in women. The normal human LV is morphologically heterogenic, and showed same overall pattern...

  9. Science, Linguistique, Littérature : trois disciplines, deux discours, une culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine SORLIN


    Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion sur les frontières épistémologiques et méthodologiques qui séparent trois disciplines universitaires. Portées par un discours propre à l’économie de leur discipline, la littérature et la science se pensent l’une l’autre comme « deux cultures » antinomiques. Or chaque discipline aborde son objet d’étude à partir d’un paradigme qui est culturellement déterminé. La concomitance de l’apparition des « théories du chaos » en science et du mouvement postmoderne en littérature dans les années 70 par exemple s’explique par leur appartenance à une même culture qui, à un moment donné, a opéré un changement de paradigme informant toutes les disciplines. La linguistique n’y a pas échappé ; pourtant le problème de ses frontières demeure. Nous mettrons en avant la transversalité de cette discipline, laquelle permet - entre autres - de rendre compte non seulement d’un style littéraire mais aussi de ce qu’on peut appeler la « rhétorique » ou la textualité de la science.This paper aims at considering the methodological and epistemological boundaries separating three academic disciplines. Underlain by a discourse that is proper to the economy of their discipline, literature and science regard each other as two opposite cultures. Yet each tackles its object of study through a culturally-determined paradigm. The simultaneous birth of chaos theory in science and postmodern aestheticism in literature in the 70s for instance can only be accounted for if we think of them as belonging to the same culture, which, at some point, brought about a change in paradigm that informed all disciplines. Linguistics underwent the same process. Yet the question of its boundaries remains. We will see to what extent linguistics can be seen as cross-disciplinary, in its study of the rhetoric of both literary and scientific textuality.  

  10. Neutron scattering by normal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennes, P.G. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Neutron data on motions in normal liquids well below critical point are reviewed and classified according to the order of magnitude of momentum transfers {Dirac_h}q and energy transfers {Dirac_h}w. For large momentum transfers a perfect gas model is valid. For smaller q and incoherent scattering, the major effects are related to the existence of two characteristic times: the period of oscillation of an atom in its cell, and the average lifetime of the atom in a definite cell. Various interpolation schemes covering both time scales are discussed. For coherent scattering and intermediate q, the energy spread is expected to show a minimum whenever q corresponds to a diffraction peak. For very small q the standard macroscopic description of density fluctuations is applicable. The limits of the various (q) and (w) domains and the validity of various approximations are discussed by a method of moments. The possibility of observing discrete transitions due to internal degrees of freedom in polyatomic molecules, in spite of the 'Doppler width' caused by translational motions, is also examined. (author) [French] L'auteur examine les donnees neutroniques sur les mouvements dans les liquides normaux, bien au-dessous du point critique, et les classe d'apres l'ordre de grandeur des transferts de quantite de mouvement {Dirac_h}q et des transferts d'energie {Dirac_h}w. Pour les grands transferts de, quantite de mouvement, un modele de gaz parfait est valable. En ce qui concerne les faibles valeurs de q et la diffussion incoherente, les principaux effets sont lies a l'existence de deux temps caracteristiques: la periode d'oscillation d'un atome dans sa cellule et la duree moyenne de vie de l'atome dans une cellule determinee. L'auteur etudie divers systemes d'interpolation se rapportant aux deux echelles de temps. Pour la diffusion coherente et les valeurs intermediaires de q, on presume que le spectre d

  11. Blood pressure normalization in a large population of hypertensive patients treated with perindopril/indapamide combination: results of the OPTIMAX trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad


    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques Mourad1, Viet Nguyen1, Marilucy Lopez-Sublet1, Bernard Waeber21Dept Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Avicenne hospital-APHP and Paris 13 University, Bobigny, France; 2Bernard Waeber, Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Lausanne, SwitzerlandObjective: To determine if the fixed-dose perindopril/indapamide combination (Per/Ind normalizes blood pressure (BP in the same fraction of hypertensive patients when treated in everyday practice or in controlled trials.Methods: In this prospective trial, 17 938 hypertensive patients were treated with Per 2 mg/Ind 0.625 mg for 3–6 months. In Group 1 Per/Ind was initiated in newly diagnosed patients (n = 7032; in Group 2 Per/Ind replaced previous therapy in patients already treated but having either their BP still uncontrolled or experiencing side-effects (n = 7423; in Group 3 Per/Ind was added to previous treatment in patients with persistently high BP (n = 3483. BP was considered normalized when ≤ 140/90 mm Hg. A multivariate analysis for predictors of BP normalization was performed.Results: Subjects were on average 62 years old and had a baseline BP of 162.3/93.6 mm Hg. After treatment with Per/Ind, BP normalization was reached in 69.6% of patients in the Initiation group, 67.5% in the Replacement Group, and 67.4% in the Add-on Group (where patients were more frequently at risk, diabetic, or with target organ damage. Mean decreases in systolic BP of 22.8 mm Hg and in diastolic BP of 12.4 mm Hg were recorded. Conclusions: This trial was established to reflect everyday clinical practice, and a treatment strategy based on the Per/Ind combination, administered as initial, replacement, or add-on therapy, led to normalization rates that were superior to those observed in Europe in routine practice. These results support recent hypertension guidelines which encourage the use of combination therapy in the management of arterial hypertension.Keywords: perindopril, indapamide, blood

  12. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders


    .025) and decreased 30-min serum insulin levels (p = 0.047) after an oral glucose load. In glucose-tolerant individuals the same allele was associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentration (p = 0.019) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; p = 0.026). To study the complex...... interaction of WFS1 rs734312 on insulin release and insulin resistance we introduced Hotelling's T (2) test. Assuming bivariate normal distribution, we constructed standard error ellipses of the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR when stratified according to glucose tolerance status around the means of each WFS1...... rs734312 genotype level. The interaction term between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and abnormal glucose regulation on the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with the traits (p = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes-associated risk alleles of WFS1...

  13. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid levels in a general Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance: A U-shaped curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyang Wang

    Full Text Available Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and serum uric acid (SUA levels, the results were inconsistent. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate this relationship in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance.A total of 5,726 women and 5,457 men with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Generalized additive models and two-piecewise linear regression models were applied to assess the relationship.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA was observed. After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflection points of FPG levels in the curves were 4.6 mmol/L in women and 4.7 mmol/L in men respectively. SUA levels decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose concentrations before the inflection points (regression coefficient [β] = -36.4, P < 0.001 for women; β = -33.5, P < 0.001 for men, then SUA levels increased (β = 17.8, P < 0.001 for women; β = 13.9, P < 0.001 for men. Additionally, serum insulin levels were positively associated with FPG and SUA (P < 0.05.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA levels existed in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The association is partly mediated through serum insulin levels.

  14. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte


    BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease...

  15. Effet de la salinité sur la croissance des deux variétés de bananier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs : Le travail présenté ici a pour objectif de décrire l'effet de la salinité sur la croissance et la distribution des principaux éléments minéraux chez le bananier. Méthodologie et résultats : L'étude de l'effet de la salinité a été réalisée sur deux variétés du bananier (Musa acuminata L), la grande naine et la petite naine ...

  16. Relations entre associations féminines palestiniennes des deux côtés de la Ligne verte

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    Elisabeth Marteu


    Full Text Available Les associations féminines arabes en Israël entretiennent des relations diverses avec leurs homologues des Territoires palestiniens. Basés sur des solidarités nationales, des coopérations professionnelles et/ou une assistance humanitaire croissante, les contacts entre Palestiniens des deux côtés de la Ligne verte sont en constante reconfiguration. Cet article se propose d’étudier les rapports transfrontaliers entre populations palestiniennes d’Israël et des Territoires occupés à l’aune de leur mobilisation féminine. En étudiant les liens qui se sont tissés entre associations de femmes dans les espaces israélo-palestiniens, cette recherche permet de comprendre les réajustements de la solidarité interpalestinienne. Si le déclenchement en 2000 de la seconde Intifada a renforcé les citoyens arabes dans leur affirmation d’une identité palestinienne, les enjeux immédiats de leur mobilisation sociale et politique restent ancrés dans les frontières de l’Etat israélien. De la même manière, la détérioration de la situation humanitaire dans les Territoires palestiniens conditionne la localisation des répertoires d’action des organisations civiles. Ainsi, quand bien même certains mouvements nationalistes et islamiques arabes défendraient l’idée d’une mobilisation palestinienne transfrontalière, les réalités et les priorités locales limitent, pour l’heure, toute concrétisation d’envergure.Arab women’s organizations in Israel maintain various relations with their Palestinian counterparts. Based on national solidarities, professional cooperations and/or increasing humanitarian assistance, contacts between Palestinians through the Green Line are in constant reconfiguration. This paper focuses on women’s mobilization in order to highlight transborder relations between Palestinian people from Israel and the Palestinian Territories. By studying links that developped between women’s organizations in the

  17. Jane Eyre between the Wars Jane Eyre entre les deux guerres

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    Patsy Stoneman


    Full Text Available L’un des héritages que Charlotte Brontë laissa derrière elle avec son roman Jane Eyre, c’est une trame qui fut indéfiniment recyclée dans le roman féminin. Une femme jeune, isolée et désargentée rencontre un homme plus riche et plus âgé qu’elle, au tempérament morose et au passé mystérieux dans lequel se trouve une épouse démente et mauvaise. Dans le monde de Charlotte Brontë, la société offre peu d’alternatives au mariage pour une femme qui ne peut compter que sur elle-même pour subvenir à ses besoins, et même le dénouement tranché de Jane Eyre n’est qu’une version plus égalitaire du mariage traditionnel. Sa structure triangulaire, toutefois, s’est avérée fertile pour les écrivains qui examinèrent les relations hommes/femmes dans des époques sociales ultérieures. Dans l’Angleterre d’entre-deux-guerres, les femmes de la classe moyenne étaient, comme le formule Virginia Woolf, « on the bridge » entre la maison privée et le monde professionnel. La plupart des obstacles légaux qui leur barraient l’accès à l’instruction et à l’emploi disparaissaient, mais l’éthos de la domesticité imprimait encore sa marque sur les attentes émotionnelles des femmes. Dans cet article, j’examine quatre romans qui utilisent l’intrigue de Jane Eyre afin de tracer les contours des possibilités qui s’offraient aux femmes à cette époque. Il s’agit de Vera d’Elizabeth von Arnim (1921, The Weather in the Streets de Rosamond Lehmann (1936, South Riding de Winifred Holtby (1936 et Rebecca de Daphne du Maurier (1938. La distinction que Tania Modleski dresse entre la romance (‘romance’ – dans laquelle la peur ou le dégoût initial de l’héroïne pour le héros se transforme en amour – et le gothique (‘gothic’ – où le processus est inverse – souligne que ces romans modernes ne peuvent envisager autre chose qu’un dénouement gothique à une situation à l’origine romantique

  18. Dental arch width, overbite, and overjet in a Finnish population with normal occlusion between the ages of 7 and 32 years. (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Nyström, Marjatta; Heikinheimo, Tuomas; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Pirinen, Sinikka


    The aims of the present study were to provide data on growth changes in the dental arches from age 7 to 32 in Finns with untreated normal Angle Class I occlusions. The material consisted of 33 series of dental casts of 18 women and 15 men. The subjects had been examined and study models taken at the ages of 7, 10, 12, 15, and 32. Dental arch width, overbite, and overjet were measured. Our longitudinal findings show that both the dental arches of young adults are slightly narrowed from adolescence to 32 years of age. All increases in width dimensions took place before 15 years of age. The means of the changes were mostly small, in the order of 0.5 to a few millimetres. Variability in age changes was considerable. In both genders, each variable increased in some subjects and decreased in others during every age interval. Differences between growth changes in the mesial, distal, and gingival intermolar widths indicate that both the maxillary and the mandibular first molars rotate mesiolingually and that the maxillary first molars also become more upright during late occlusal development. We expect the present findings of the changes occurring in the arch dimensions of subjects with untreated normal occlusions to help clinicians in following up occlusal development, choosing an optimal treatment time, and making orthodontic treatment and retention plans. However, because of the wide variability, accurate prediction of future development cannot be made on the individual level.

  19. Less than half of citizens, aged 55-64 years, had a normal blood pressure in a Danish population. prevalence of hypertension using telemedically transmitted home blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N


    to determine the prevalence of hypertension, well treated, untreated and insufficiently treated, white coat and masked hypertension using HBP with telemedical data transmission in the municipality of Holstebro, Denmark (57.000 citizens). DESIGN AND METHOD: Using the Civil Registration System, we invited all...... occasion. HBP was the mean of all measurements on day to and three, and hypertension was defines as 135/85 mmHg or more. Awareness of hypertension was registered using a questionnaire. RESULTS: We invited 6405 citizens and 3102 were included with twelve or more home BP measurements during day two and three...... hypertension. Thus, 1078, (35%, groups 2 and 4) were untreated or insufficiently treated and 800 (26%, groups 3 and 4) had wrong diagnosis. Awareness of hypertension were registered in 950 patients (31%) and of those only 467 (49%) had a normal HBP. CONCLUSIONS: One third of the age group 55-64 years had...

  20. 'Aussie Normals': an a priori study to develop reference intervals in a healthy Australian population using the Beckman Coulter LH 750 Haematology Analyser as candidates for harmonised values. (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Potter, J M; Andriolo, K; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Cavanaugh, J A; Hickman, P E


    Reference limits or intervals are important benchmarks or tools that help the clinician to distinguish between a result that is most likely to lie within a 'healthy' or diseased category. It has been suggested that a review of haematology reference intervals is long overdue. In this study we report on our findings for analytes routinely measured in a complete blood count (CBC) performed on the Beckman Coulter LH 750 analyser and an additional comparative study using the Beckman Coulter LH 750, the Sysmex XN and Abbott Sapphire. The results from the comparative study indicate that bias would not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals for these common haematology parameters. The results offered by the Aussie Normals study represent good candidates as the basis for harmonisation reference intervals. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. All rights reserved.

  1. Health status of adults with Short Stature: A comparison with the normal population and one well-known chronic disease (Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Naess Eva E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the subjective health status of adults with short stature (ShSt and compare with the general population (GP and one well-known chronic disease, rheumatoid artritis (RA. In addition, to explore the association between age, gender, height, educational level and different aspects of health status of adults with short stature. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 72 subjects with short stature registered in the database of a Norwegian resource centre for rare disorders, response rate 61% (n = 44, age 16–61. Health status was assessed with SF-36 version 2. Comparison was done with age and gender matched samples from the general population in Norway (n = 264 and from subjects with RA (n = 88. Results The ShSt sample reported statistically significant impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales compared with the GP sample, most in the physical functioning, Mean Difference (MD 34 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 25–44. The ShSt reported poorer health status in mental health, MD 11 (95% CI 4–18 and social functioning, MD 11 (95% CI 2–20 but better in role physical MD 13 (95% CI 1–25 than the RA sample. On the other subscales there were minor difference between the ShSt and the RA sample. Within the short stature group there was a significant association between age and all SF-36 physical subcales, height was significantly associated with physical functioning while level of education was significantly associated with mental health. Conclusion People with short stature reported impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales indicating that they have health problems that influence their daily living. Health status seems to decline with increasing age, and earlier than in the general population.

  2. Validation and Normalization of the Tower of London-Drexel University Test 2nd Edition in an Adult Population with Intellectual Disability. (United States)

    García-Alba, Javier; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Castellanos López, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez Hidalgo, Emili; Ribas Vidal, Nuria; Moldenhauer Díaz, Fernando; Novell-Alsina, Ramón


    Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study's primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer's disease. Assessment protocol: TOLDXtm for ID, Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test Second Edition (K-BIT II), Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS), Weigl's Color-Form Sorting Test (WCFST), Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (BT-ID), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P). The internal consistency (IDMi and IDMo), factor structure of the different subscales, and relationship between TOLDXtm subscales and other cognitive measures (BT-ID, WCFST, and BRIEF-P) were analyzed. A normative data table with ID population quartiles is provided. TOLDXtm for ID showed a robust one factor structure and coherentassociations with other, related neuropsychological instruments. Significant differences between IDMi and IDMo on movement-related variables like Correct (Corr; p = .002) and Moves (Mov; p = .042) were observed, along with good internal consistency values, Corr (α = .75), Mov (α = .52). Regarding internal consistency, no between-groups differences were observed (all p-value > 0.05). The TOLDXtm for ID is thus an instrument, supported by good validity evidence, to evaluate problem-solving and planning in ID. It distinguishes between individuals with mild and moderate ID, and is highly associated with other measures of executive functioning.

  3. Enhanced Contraction of a Normal Breast-Derived Fibroblast-Populated Three-Dimensional Collagen Lattice via Contracted Capsule Fibroblast-Derived Paracrine Factors: Functional Significance in Capsular Contracture Formation. (United States)

    Kyle, Daniel J T; Bayat, Ardeshir


    The authors' aim was to identify morphological, genotypic, and cytokine profiles of normal breast-derived fibroblasts, noncontracted breast implant capsule (Baker grades 1 and 2) fibroblasts, and contracted breast implant capsule (Baker grades 3 and 4) fibroblasts, and to investigate the paracrine effects of contracted breast capsule fibroblast--conditioned media on a breast-derived fibroblast-populated three-dimensional collagen lattice. Primary breast-derived fibroblasts (n = 5), noncontracted breast capsule fibroblasts (n = 5), and contracted breast capsule fibroblasts (n = 5) were cultured, and conditioned media were obtained from passage 1 cells. Cells were immunostained for alpha smooth muscle actin to identify myofibroblasts. A panel of 16 inflammatory, fibrosis, extracellular matrix, and tissue remodeling-related genes were investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and cytokine arrays. Fibroblast-populated collagen lattices were fabricated and treated with conditioned media, and lattice contracture was measured over 5 days. Several inflammatory and fibrotic genes were significantly dysregulated in contracted breast capsule fibroblasts compared with noncontracted breast capsule fibroblasts and breast-derived fibroblasts (p fibroblast-populated collagen lattices treated with contracted breast capsule fibroblast-conditioned media demonstrated increased lattice contraction compared with treatment with normal 10% serum media (control), breast-derived fibroblasts, or noncontracted breast capsule fibroblast-conditioned media (p fibroblasts supplemented with contracted breast capsule fibroblast-conditioned media transformed into a contracted breast capsule fibroblast-like cell (p fibroblasts induce normal breast fibroblast transformation and contraction via paracrine signaling, which may contribute to capsular contracture formation.

  4. Situation of the development of renewable energies in the Deux-Sevres district - Year 2013, Year 2015. Renewable energies in Deux-Sevres - Assessment and perspective May 20, 2015, February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    While providing tables of data regarding energy sources, existing installations, energy production and its evolution, a set of annual publications proposes a synthetic analysis of the situation of the Deux-Sevres district regarding renewable energy production origin and level, energy consumption by the different sectors, and avoided emissions. It also indicates and comments the share of the different energy sources in comparison with that noticed in the other districts of the region, indicates and comments the evolution of renewable energy production per source since 1990. It also proposes data and comments on specific sources, a topic which may change from one year to the other among wood-energy, methanization, wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy

  5. Folie à deux dissociative in prepubertal children: report of two cases with EEGs Folie à deux desordem dissociativa em crianças antes da puberdade: relato de dois casos com EEGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A case of folie à deux dissociative (dissociative hysteria disorder in an 8 and 12 year-old sister and brother is presented. Illnesses of this type are very rare and there is little medical literature on this subject. Our patients, almost simultaneously, abruptly had complete loss of memory, disorientation, loss of awareness about who they were, and much anxiety, which lasted about 15 hours. Both patients were physically well and no abnormalities were found on physical examination, routines laboratory tests and EEG studies. Speculations about the emotional and interpersonal causes of this illness in these two patients are given.É apresentado um caso da desordem dissociativa folie à deux (histeria dissociativa em um casal de irmãos, sendo que o menino tem 12 anos e a menina 8. Doenças desse tipo são raras e existem poucas referências sobre o assunto na literatura médica. Os pacientes por nós atendidos, de repente e quase simultaneamente, apresentaram distúrbios acentuados da memória, desorientação, perda de auto-identidade e muita ansiedade; esse estado confusional durou aproximadamente 15 horas. Os dois tinham boa saúde física e não apresentavam anormalidades no exame clínico. Os exames laboratoriais de rotina estavam normais. Foram avaliados por meio de EEGs que estavam dentro dos limites da normalidade. Na discussão, são apresentadas considerações especulativas sobre as causas emocionais e interpessoais que possam ter propiciado o aparecimento dessa desordem nos dois pacientes.

  6. Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Festin

    Full Text Available Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007 of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust and education with two (social integration and self-esteem. Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the

  7. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire parent version (DEBQ-P) in the Italian population: a screening tool to detect differences in eating behaviour among obese, overweight and normal-weight preadolescents. (United States)

    Caccialanza, R; Nicholls, D; Cena, H; Maccarini, L; Rezzani, C; Antonioli, L; Dieli, S; Roggi, C


    To validate the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire Parent version (DEBQ-P) in the Italian population and investigate the differences in eating behaviour among Italian normal-weight, overweight and obese preadolescents. A cross-sectional validation study. Participants were measured and the approved translation of the questionnaire was administered to their parents. : Three school communities in the province of Bergamo, Northern Italy. A total of 312 preadolescents (mean age 12.9 y; s.d. 0.8, both sexes) from three secondary schools of the province of Bergamo, Northern Italy, and their parents were invited to participate to the study. Informed written consent was obtained from each subject and their parents. Students were measured and their parents filled in the approved translation of the DEBQ-P. Recruitment was opportunistic and school based. Factor and internal consistency analysis confirmed the factor structure of the DEBQ-P and the high internal consistency of its three scales. Variance analysis showed that eating behaviour of Italian normal-weight, overweight and obese preadolescents differs significantly only in regards to the 'restrained eating' scale (F 19.29, P obese scoring higher. The DEBQ-P can be used for screening projects regarding eating behaviour in the Italian population. The association between restrained eating and weight status was confirmed for both sexes, but the relationship between external eating and emotional overeating and overweight requires further exploration. Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  8. Deux sociologues et deux cents romans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Turin


    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage interdisciplinaire, utilisant le roman français des trente dernières années dans une perspective de compréhension sociologique du contemporain, s’adresse à la fois aux littéraires et aux sociologues. Il fournira aux premiers de nombreuses pistes de lecture d’un roman contemporain qui, du fait de sa jeunesse, peine encore à trouver sa place au sein de l’institution universitaire. Aux seconds, il ouvrira un champ entier de recherches potentielles, grâce à une approche ...

  9. An assessment of the interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population from early neonatal period upto over 70 years of age: a study of 3500 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah K.


    Full Text Available Background and aim:\tThe normal range for anthropometric assessment of intercanthal, interpupillary and outer orbital dimensions is important and changes with age. This study was undertaken for setting a reference range for interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population, to observe the variation of these parameters with age, any differences in these parameters observed in male & female population and to find correlation with the refractive errors if any. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 3500 subjects of both sexes from birth till over 70 years of age, which presented to us in the outpatient department of M & J institute of Ophthalmology and Dr. Thakorbhai V Patel Eye Institute in the period ranging from August 2008 to January 2010. Results: A correlation with refractive errors has not been studied in previous literature. In our study, the range of IPDD in males was found to be 51.87-64.23mm & in females it was 51.16-62.23 mm, range of IPDN was 51.22 – 61.75 mm in males & 47.73-59.93 mm in females. The range of IICD was 18-36.09 mm in males & in females it was 19.38-34.89 mm. The range of OICD in males was 58- 92.8 mm & in females it was 56.63-88.56mm. Conclusion: We present the data for the neonatal children to the older age groups from the same population group. The standards based on local data reflect the potentially different patterns of craniofacial growth resulting from racial, ethnic & sexual differences. These could be relied upon in diagnosis of craniofacial syndromes and orbito-facial trauma or for planning reconstructive surgeries for the same.

  10. Deux nouvelles espèces de Caryedon consommatrices des graines de Terminalia macroptera (Combretaceae) au Sénégal (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)


    Delobel, Alex


    Deux espèces de #Brucidae Pachymerinae$ appartenant au genre #Caryedon$ Schönherr et dont les larves se nourissent des graines de #Terminalia macroptera$ (Combrétacées), sont décrites du Sénégal. (Résumé d'auteur)

  11. Pas de Deux: Active Ulcerative Colitis in an HIV-Positive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pearson


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male who was found to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive when he presented with bloody diarrhea in 1986 is described. Clinical, laboratory, endoscopic and histological findings were all compatible with ulcerative colitis, and stool cultures were repeatedly negative for pathogens. Colitis was initially mild and controlled with intermittent oral aminosalicylic acid products. Since 1993 he has had more significant symptoms requiring prednisone up to 40 mg/day. Repeat colonoscopy disclosed pancolitis and biopsies did not show evidence of cytomegalovirus infection. He has not had an acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illness. CD4 cells fell below normal as his colitis worsened. This case raises questions about immune regulation in ulcerative colitis because the patient has active disease in addition to a reduced number of T helper cells. It also presents a difficult management problem because the patient has a limited life expectancy and is reluctant to accept colectomy, and further immunosuppressive therapy may be dangerous.

  12. Weight reduction in a normal population. (United States)

    Tofler, O B; Musk, A A; Woodings, T; Atkin, K; Meecham, C; Bruce, S; Mina, L


    Weight loss of more than 2 kg under the guidance of a trained nurse was achieved over a 12-month period in 38% of overweight hospital and transport workers. Males over 50 were the subgroup most successful in losing weight. Weight loss achieved by older males with an "off-hand" as compared with an "energetic" approach was similar up until nine months, after which the "energetic" approach was more effective. Females on an "energetic" diet were successful up until nine months only. The "off-hand" approach is acceptable to more people and is less time-consuming. It should therefore be seriously considered by a public health authority which seeks to promote weight reduction in the general community.

  13. Les battles de Street Dance : un entre-deux culturel


    Collinet, Cécile; Lessard, Coralie


    La Street Dance, forme dansée issue de la culture hip-hop, se développe depuis les années 1990 en intégrant de plus en plus des modes d’affrontement compétitifs nommées battles. Ces derniers représentent une pratique « sportivisée » de « danse-combat » caractéristique de la population jeune, populaire et urbaine qui la pratique. Nous montrons que la forme sportivisée des battles contribue premièrement à transformer la pratique de cette activité en rationalisant les techniques du corps qui lui...

  14. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  15. Folie à Deux – A Clinical Case of Folie Imposée in a Mother/Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento


    Full Text Available Background: Even though the origin of the concept of shared delusion is not consensual, the term folie a deux was introduced in 1877 by two french researchers – Lasègue and Falret. According to the original concept, a person (inductor, cognitively dominant, develops a delusional idea that progressively imposes to a second person (induced, with whom he keeps a close relationship. The four psychopathologic subtypes known – folie imposée, folie simultanée, folie communiquée and folie induite, were described in the final of the XIX century, but its classification and conceptualization was assigned to the american researcher Gralnick (1942. Aim, materials and methods: It is intended to highlight some clinical aspects of the shared delusion disorder, its epidemiological and psycopathogenic characterization and therapeutical approach. In order to achieve it, the authors presented a clinical case report and respective non systematic literature review. Results: It is a case of shared delusion of the type folie imposée in a pair mother/son. The inductor (son suffers from bipolar disorder and asperger syndrome and shared with his mother (induced and carer a persecutory delusion. Conclusions: It is highlighted the importance of a social isolation context and close contact between both members in the genesis of the disease; it is discussed the subject of the cognitive dominance between the inductor and the induced and the implications of the separation of the pair mother/son, as primary therapeutic action.

  16. Folie à Deux – A Clinical Case of Folie Imposée in a Mother/Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento


    Full Text Available Background: Even though the origin of the concept of shared delusion is not consensual, the term folie a deux was introduced in 1877 by two french researchers – Lasègue and Falret. According to the original concept, a person (inductor, cognitively dominant, develops a delusional idea that progressively imposes to a second person (induced, with whom he keeps a close relationship. The four psychopathologic subtypes known – folie imposée, folie simultanée, folie communiquée and folie induite, were described in the final of the XIX century, but its classification and conceptualization was assigned to the american researcher Gralnick (1942. Aim, materials and methods: It is intended to highlight some clinical aspects of the shared delusion disorder, its epidemiological and psycopathogenic characterization and therapeutical approach. In order to achieve it, the authors presented a clinical case report and respective non systematic literature review. Results: It is a case of shared delusion of the type folie imposée in a pair mother/son. The inductor (son suffers from bipolar disorder and asperger syndrome and shared with his mother (induced and carer a persecutory delusion. Conclusions: It is highlighted the importance of a social isolation context and close contact between both members in the genesis of the disease; it is discussed the subject of the cognitive dominance between the inductor and the induced and the implications of the separation of the pair mother/son, as primary therapeutic action.

  17. Rupture bilatérale simultanée des deux ligaments croisés du genou: à propos d’un cas (United States)

    Yahyaoui, Mounir; Derfoufi, Abdelhafid; Abbassi, Najib; Daoudi, Abdelkarim; Agoumi, Omar; Yacoubi, Hicham; Najib, Abdeljaouad


    La rupture bicroisée est rare, des deux LCA simultanément est exceptionnelle, alors que la rupture bicroisée bilatérale simultanée et post-traumatique n’a été jamais décrite dans la littérature, ce qui rend notre cas très intéressant pour étude, suivi et discussion thérapeutique puisqu’on a privilégié la prise en charge thérapeutique en deux temps opératoires espacés dans le temps et nos résultats étaient très satisfaisantes aussi bien pour nous que pour le malade. PMID:28533837

  18. Les deux Amantes (1705: a précieuse translation of Las dos doncellas, one of Miguel de Cervantes’ Novelas Ejemplares

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    Ignacio Iñarrea Las Heras


    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the main similarities and differences between Las dos doncellas, an exemplary novel by Miguel de Cervantes, and Les deux Amantes, a French version of this narrative published in 1705. Our aim is, firstly, to show that the translator added to the original story some literary influences whose origins are to be found in the 17th-century precious movement in France. Secondly, it is our aim to show that, eventually and taking the contributions of Preciosity as a starting point, the author of Les deux Amantes uses Cervantes’s work to put forward more personal ideas on the defence of women’s freedom.

  19. Rapport sur les deux premières années d'activités de l'Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 mars 2011 ... Au cours de ses deux premières années d'activités, l'Initiative Think tank a soutenu 52 institutions établies dans quatre régions. Lisez le rapport​ pour en savoir plus sur les progrès réalisés, les bénéficiaires des subventions et les plans pour la suite.

  20. Etude de l'effet du stress salin (NaCl) chez deux variétés de tomate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La germination, les paramètres de croissance ainsi que les paramètres biochimiques, sont comparés chez deux variétés de tomate (Campbell 33 et Mongal) soumises à des concentrations croissantes de NaCl. (0,17, 50, 85 et 130 mM). Le pourcentage de germination des graines diminue avec l'augmentation de la salinité ...

  1. Ostéome ostéoïde intra-articulaire de la hanche: deux observations et revue de la littérature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellouz Zoubir


    Full Text Available L’ostéome ostéoïde est une tumeur osseuse bénigne qui affecte les adultes jeunes et se localise préférentiellement au niveau des os longs. La localisation intra-articulaire est rare et atteint le plus souvent la hanche. La symptomatologie clinique est alors atypique et peut faire errer le diagnostic constituant un défi diagnostique pour les cliniciens. Nous rapportons deux observations d’ostéome ostéoïde intra-articulaires de la hanche chez deux hommes âgés 24 et 45 ans, révélés par des douleurs de la hanche gauche de type inflammatoire évoluant depuis un an et un an et demi respectivement. Chez les deux patients, le tableau atypique de l’ostéome ostéoïde a été à l’origine d’un retard diagnostic. La tomodensitométrie est dans cette indication l’examen le plus spécifique qui a permis d’évoquer le diagnostic d’ostéome ostéoïde. Une fois le diagnostic est posé, l’exérèse chirurgicale à ciel ouvert a permis la guérison avec disparition totale des douleurs. L’examen histologique a confirmé le diagnostic final d’ostéome ostéoïde intra-articulaire dans les deux cas.

  2. Corps d’adeptes, paroles de Dieu et visions de Saints. Pratiques rituelles masculines et féminines dans deux sanctuaires de Tunis

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    Katia Boissevain


    Full Text Available Cet article examine les pratiques rituelles contemporaines d’hommes et de femmes qui se rendent à deux sanctuaires tunisois dédiés à Sayyida Mannûbiyya, sainte du xiiie siècle. Cette sainte ambivalente s’inscrit dans deux registres de légitimité religieuse, le soufisme lettré, à travers son affiliation à la confrérie Shâdhiliyya, et une dimension plus locale. L’une et l’autre de ces voies donnent lieu à deux types de cérémonies religieuses, la ḥaḍra des femmes avec ses danses de possession et les séances de dhikr des hommes, disciples shâdhilî-s. Pourtant, on ne peut séparer un rapport au sacré féminin qui serait particulièrement corporel d’un rapport au sacré masculin plus intellectuel. La ḥaḍra comme le dhikr engagent pleinement le corps des participants dans un dialogue avec le sacré tout en puisant leur légitimité dans des sources distinctes, la confrérie Shâdhîliyya pour le dhikr et la dimension miraculeuse de Khiḍr pour la ḥaḍra

  3. Activite locomotrice de souris isolees, de deux lignees consanguines, dans un environnement semi-naturel ou en cages d'elevage. (United States)

    Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M


    Des enregistrements continus d'activité locomotrice ont été effectués sur des souris mâles isolées des lignées Balb/c et C57bl/6, vivant en cages d'élevage ou en milieu semi- naturel. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre ces deux situations ne sont pas perçues de la même façon par les animaux des deux lign'ees: alors qu'en cages d'élevage les souris des deux lignées experiment la même quantité totale d'activaté, en milieu semi-naturel les souris Balb/c sont plus actives que les C57bl/6. En outre, l≐s différences observées entre les lignées pour la repartition de l'activité au cours du nycthèmere s'inversent lorsque l'on passe d'une situation à l'autre. L'étude de la variabilité fait aparaître une dispersion plus grande des performances dans la lignée C57bl/6 en cages d'élevage, alors qu'en milieu semi-naturel la dispersion est plus chez Bal/c. Copyright © 1979. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  5. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C


    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  6. Imaginary populations


    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro


    A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002) wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002), that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologis...

  7. Deux regards, un monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moorhead


    Full Text Available L’Américaine Andrea Moorhead explique comment elle en est venue à écrire en français alors qu’elle est native de Buffalo, près des chutes du Niagara. Elle interroge les différentes dispositions et dispositifs poétiques en français et en anglais, et souligne en particulier le rôle de l’inconscient et de l’enfance. Écrire en français, selon l’auteur, n’est pas la traduction d’un état anglais : c’est un mouvement intérieur qui répond aux exigences de l’esprit, car le regard, le lien avec soi et avec les autres, l’énoncé lui-même sont différents. Écrire en anglais porte la franchise des Saxons et la mélancolie des Celtes, alors qu’écrire en français laisse entrer le murmure du subconscient et la douleur du monde. L’auteur montre que l’anglais est une langue à la fois poétique et pragmatique et qu’en français, la tension vient plutôt de l’abstraction et de la finesse du regard. Le bilinguisme poétique représente à ses yeux la foi dans une humanité planétaire.

  8. ...Beyond folie à deux...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović-Bojanić Sanja


    Full Text Available In this text I attempt to recognize and identify two conditions that make engagement possible. One certainly refers to the word, while the other is inscribed onto the body - every or any body - and it regards affect. I illustrate the first condition by a brief reading of a poem by Samuel Beckett, whose English translation the author dedicated to his friend and long-term collaborator, Joseph Chaikin. The second condition I place into Spinoza’s, that is, Deleuze’s understanding of affect.

  9. Pas de deux (United States)

    San Toh, Su; Chen, Zehua; Rouchka, Eric C; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A; Perlin, Michael H


    The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host Silene latifolia serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores. In the current study, transcriptome analyses of the fungus and its host were conducted during discrete stages of bud development so as to identify changes in fungal gene expression that lead to spore development and to identify changes associated with infection in the host plant. In contrast to early biotrophic phase stages of infection for the fungus, the latter stages involve tissue necrosis and in the case of infected female flowers, further changes in the developmental program in which the ovary aborts and a pseudoanther is produced. Transcriptome analysis via Illumina RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of fungal genes encoding small secreted proteins, with hallmarks of effectors and genes found to be relatively unique to the Microbotryum species complex. Host gene expression analyses also identified interesting sets of genes up-regulated, including those involving stress response, host defense response, and several agamous-like MADS-box genes (AGL61 and AGL80), predicted to interact and be involved in male gametophyte development. Copyright © 2018 Toh et al.

  10. Empyema a deux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe


    This is a case of a married couple with a cluster of empyema. Clusters are rarely seen, but have previously been described in children. Reasons for clustering of empyemas include close relationship between patients, increased susceptibility in patients, increased virulence of the bacteria, co...

  11. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal. S Ramasubramanian. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 15-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  12. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.


    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  13. Normal probability plots with confidence. (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang


    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Le vent des deux mondes. Enquête sur les princes iraniens de la Gaule romaine The Wind from Two Worlds. Research Note on Iranian Princes in Roman Gaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Poly


    Full Text Available En 1754, Anquetil-Duperron partit pour les Indes avec l’appui de l’abbé Barthélémy, l’auteur du Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce. Il se lia avec des Zoroastriens qui lui firent connaître le Zend Avesta, publiant par la suite l’étude de ces textes qui lui valut de devenir membre de l’Institut. L’Occident était allé chercher au loin les paroles de Zarathoustra. Nul ne s’avisa que la prédication des deux mondes avait pu parvenir d’Iran jusqu’en Occident longtemps auparavant, quand finissait l’Empire de Rome. Témoins deux tombes du Ve siècle dont le matériel est de provenance orientale, l’une en Rhénanie, l’autre en Champagne, celles de deux officiers commandant des unités de cavalerie d’origine iranienne. Ces princes iraniens de Gaule n’étaient pas des émigrés sans attaches. Ils étaient établis à demeure dans le pays, vivant avec leurs hommes dans des cantons qui prirent parfois leurs noms, diffusant autour d’eux des éléments spécifiques de leur ancienne Weltanschauung. Ainsi se formait lentement, en mêlant divers apports, la culture des nations d’Europe occidentale.In 1754, Anquetil-Duperron sailed for India with the support of the Abbé Barthélémy, author of Young Anacharsis’ travel to Greece. He developed friendly relations with the Zoroastrians acquainted him with the Zend Avesta. On his return, he published a study of these texts which earned him membership in the French Academy.The West traveled far to learn the words of Zarathustra. Nobody had imagined that the predicationfrom the two worlds had come from Iran to Occident, much earlier, at the time of the declining Roman Empire. We take as testimonies of this fact two tombs dating back to the Vth century whose contents come from Orient, one in Rhineland and the second one in France’s Champagne region. These tombs belong to two officers who had been commanding cavalry units of Iranian origin. These Iranian princes from Gaul were

  15. Comparaison de la variabilité génétique de deux espèces de poissons, l'ombre commun et le gardon, dans un fleuve aménagé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Les deux espèces habitent le bassin du Haut-Rhône français, en amont de Lyon. Mais leur variabilité génétique est très différente. La variabilité intra-populations de l'ombre ne représente qu'un tiers de la variation totale, mais celle du gardon en représente 86 %, avec une plus grande diversité dans les annexes du fleuve (Lac du Bourget, bras mort que dans le chenal. Ces différences sont discutées dans le cadre de l'étendue et de la structure de l'habitat de chaque espèce, ainsi que de l'impact de la gestion piscicole et des aménagements récents. L'ombre constitue de petites communautés autonomes accrochées au terrain et dont la diversité optimale se situe vers le milieu du gradient amont-aval du bassin. Les annexes semblent constituer, pour le gardon, des réservoirs de diversité génétique à partir desquels un flux génique important mais sélectionné dévale le fleuve.

  16. Entre Deux Drapeaux: Les ouvriers capverdiens au Portugal pendant la période revolutionnaire (1974-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Acker


    Full Text Available Marqués par un climat de décolonisation, les mois qui suivirent la Révolution des Oeillets (25 avril 1974 constituèrent une période d’incertitude pour les Capverdiens vivant et travaillant en tant qu’ouvriers au Portugal. Axé sur cet interstice historique de création d’identités post-coloniales (1974-1976, cet article s’interroge sur la marge d’action des ouvriers capverdiens vivant entre deux nations (le Portugal et le Cap Vert encore à (réinventer. Ainsi, l’article s’intéresse aux politiques et aux comportements adoptés par les acteurs sociaux portugais et capverdiens à l’encontre des migrants, mais aussi aux stratégies des migrants eux-mêmes face à l’incertitude, aux crises, et aux phénomènes d’exclusion qui eurent lieu durant la période révolutionnaire.Marcados por um contexto de descolonização, os meses que se seguiram à Revolução dos Cravos (25 de Abril de 1974 constituíram um período de incerteza para os cabo-verdianos que viviam e trabalhavam em Portugal como operários. Centrado nesse interstício histórico de construção de identidades pós-coloniais (1974-1976, este artigo interroga-se sobre a margem de manobra dos trabalhadores cabo-verdianos a viver entre duas nações (Portugal e Cabo Verde ainda por (reinventar. O artigo toma em consideração as políticas e os comportamentos adoptados pelos actores sociais portugueses e cabo-verdianos em relação aos imigrantes, mas também as estratégias dos próprios imigrantes face à incerteza, às crises e aos fenómenos de exclusão que tiveram lugar durante o período revolucionário.

  17. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.


    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  18. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo


    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  19. Gazettes sous influence : le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, la Gazette des Deux-Ponts et les sujets touchant la Russie vers 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dulac


    Full Text Available Vers 1770, la campagne anti-russe du gouvernement français tend à dégrader l’image de la Russie, ce qui lèse gravement ses intérêts, notamment quand elle doit emprunter pour financer la guerre avec la Turquie. Aussi le prince Dmitri Alexeevitch Golitsyn, ministre plénipotentiaire à La Haye, se montre-t-il alors très actif sur ce terrain. Sa correspondance avec Pétersbourg témoigne de ses efforts, aux effets inégaux, pour influer sur les informations diffusées par quelques journaux : principalement le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, publié par Jean Manzon à Trèves, sous contrôle prussien, et dans une moindre mesure les deux Gazettes des Deux-Ponts, l’une politique, l’autre littéraire. Le journaliste de Trèves, qui trouve son intérêt à prendre le parti de la Russie, met en œuvre en sa faveur un discours journalistique abondant et parfois très élaboré. Cependant, la ligne du journal subit des fluctuations sensibles, selon l’évolution de la situation et à la suite de diverses interventions, dont celles du roi de Prusse et d’autre part de Stanislas-Auguste, qui pensionne un temps le journaliste. La Gazette des deux Ponts pratique l’information orientée avec plus de finesse, et, comme la gazette littéraire, accorde une large place à la matière russe : mais sur le plan politique, son traitement reste le plus souvent sous influence française et répond rarement aux vœux de D. A. Golitsyn.

  20. Sur deux mémoires de d'Alembert l'un concernant le calcul des probabilités, l'autre l'inoculation

    CERN Document Server

    Diderot, Denis


    Extrait : ""M. d'Alembert vient de publier ses Opuscules mathématiques. Il y a dans ce recueil deux mémoires qu'il n'est pas impossible de réduire à la langue ordinaire de la raison. L'un a pour objet le calcul des probabilités ; calcul dont l'application a tant d'importance et d'étendu. C'est proprement la science physico-mathématique de la vie. L'autre traite des avantages ou désavantages de l'inoculation.""

  1. Identification de composés phénoliques extraits de deux plantes de la pharmacopée ivoirienne


    Kabran, Gui Roger; Mamyrbékova-Békro, J A; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Bekro, Yves-Alain; Sommerer, Nicolas; Verbaere, Arnaud; Meudec, Emmanuelle


    Combretum paniculatum Vent. et Nymphaea lotus Linn. sont deux plantes de la pharmacopée ivoirienne, employées en thérapie traditionnelle pour traiter plusieurs pathologies. Les analyses au moyen de la GC-MS et LC-MS desdites plantes, ont permis de mettre en évidence leurs constituants phénoliques. 10 composés phénoliques ont été identifiés dans C. paniculatum au nombre desquels 1 acide-phénol (acide gallique); 4 ellagitanins (casuarictine, HHDPglucose, trigalloylHHDP-glucose, acide chébuliniq...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L'action d'une onde électromagnétique polarisée circulairement sur un atome à deux niveaux est étudiée par le formalisme des intégrales de chemins. L'utilisation de l'espace des phases et de certaines rotations dans l'espace des états cohérents ont permis de simplifier énormément les calculs. Les fonctions d'onde correspondantes ont été retrouvées exactement.

  3. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.


    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  4. Enormes incidentalomes surrénaliens: rôle de l'imagerie médicale à propos de deux cas (United States)

    Nikièma, Zakari; Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; N'Goran, Kouamé; Cissé, Rabiou


    Les auteurs rapportent une série de deux cas d’énormes incidentalomes surrénaliens rarement observés dans la littérature. Ils étaient de siège bilatéral dans le premier cas et unilatéral droit dans le second. Si le diagnostic étiologique est parfois aisé dans les pays à haute technologie médicale, il pose un problème majeur dans certaines structures sanitaires des pays à ressources limitées. Le rôle essentiel de l'imagerie est d’établir de manière précise, peu invasive et peu coûteuse que possible, la nature bénigne ou maligne de l'incidentalome surrénalien. L’échographie et la tomodensitométrie ont permis de faire le diagnostic positif chez nos patients. La sémiologie tomodensitométrique est caractéristique quand elle associe la morpho-structure de la masse et deux critères majeurs basés d'une part sur l'histologie et la physiologie et d'autre part la cinétique de rehaussement de la masse après injection de produit de contraste. Toutefois, la biologie et surtout la biopsie assurent le diagnostic étiologique. PMID:23396505

  5. Étude expérimentale de la transition métal-isolant en dimension deux (United States)

    Leturcq, R.

    la compétition entre les interactions et le désordre en dimension deux. Ce travail présente des mesures de transport en fonction du champ électrique, et des mesures de fluctuations de résistance, à très basse température dans des gaz bidimensionnels de trous formés dans des puits quantiques SiGe et GaAs. Dans ces systèmes, la masse effective élevée des porteurs et la faible densité permettent d'atteindre un régime pour lequel les interactions ne sont plus négligeables. Dans les échantillons désordonnés (SiGe), pour lesquels les lois de transport peuvent être expliquées dans le cadre de particules indépendantes, les effets de champ électrique sont dus au chauffage des porteurs. Par contre, dans les échantillons moins désordonnés (GaAs), les lois de transport en température et en champ électrique à très faible densité sont en accord avec l'existence d'une phase collective. Dans les échantillons GaAs, les mesures de fluctuations de résistance, ou bruit en 1/f, montrent l'existence d'une transition de phase à basse densité. Ces résultats sont compatibles avec les scénarios de formation d'une phase collective en présence de désordre par l'intermédiaire d'une transition de percolation.

  6. Une étude des principes gouvernant la coordination par « et » de deux prénoms en français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couasnon Graziella


    Full Text Available Pourquoi entend-on plus souvent "Tom et Léa" que "Léa" ? L'objectif premier de ce travail est de tenter d'apporter une réponse à cette question naïve en rendant compte des principes actifs qui gouvernent la coordination par "et" de deux prénoms en français. Ce travail s'inscrit dans un arrière plan théorique qui voit la sélection d'un ordre préférentiel de coordination d'un binôme comme le résultat de conflits entre des principes ou des contraintes de différentes natures qu'ils soient phonologiques ou extraphonologiques. Il s'agit d'un travail original sur le français étudiant les phénomènes les plus prégnants dans le processus de coordination de deux prénoms, et visant à révéler l’existence de contraintes phonologiques actives dans la sélection d'une forme binomiale coordonnée plutôt qu'une autre. Étant donné le matériau sur lequel nous travaillons, le sujet que nous nous proposons d'aborder, bien qu'excluant de fait toute considération sémantique ou syntaxique, n'en demeure pas moins un sujet mixte se situant entre autres à l'interface entre phonologie et sociologie. Il relève de deux aspects distincts : un aspect linguistique de corpus basé sur la modélisation d'un corpus informatisé et le recueil de données réelles, et un aspect expérimental permettant une mise à l'épreuve de nos hypothèses théoriques aux productions réelles du français et aux mécanismes cognitifs liés au traitement phonologique de la création binomiale en français.

  7. Les deux journaux de José Santos Vargas (1814-1825. 1: Problèmes d'édition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available La découverte du journal de guerre tenu par le guérillero José Santos Vargas a renouvelé nos connaissances sur l’histoire de la guerre d’indépendance dans le Haut Pérou. Cependant, le fait qu’il existe deux manuscrits différents de ce document, publiés tous deux par les soins de don Gunnar Mendoza, l’un en 1952 en Bolivie, l’autre en 1982 au Mexique, pose aux historiens des problèmes que les choix effectués par l’éditeur ont obscurcis. Cette première livraison d’un article qui devrait en comprendre deux remet en question la valeur scientifique de l’édition de 1982. LOS DOS DIARIOS DE JOSÉ SANTOS VARGAS. 1: PROBLEMAS EDITORIALES. El descubrimiento del diario de guerra redactado por el guerrillero José Santos Vargas ha renovado el conocimiento de la guerra de independencia en el Alto Perú. Pero el hecho de que existen dos manuscritos distintos de este documento, ambos publicados por don Gunnar Mendoza, uno en Bolivia en 1952 y otro en México en 1982, plantea a los historiadores problemas que las decisiones del editor han obscurecido. Esta primera entrega de un artículo que constará de dos, pone en tela de juicio el valor científico de la edición de 1982. THE TWO DIARIES OF JOSÉ SANTOS VARGAS. 1: PROBLEMS OF EDITION. The discovery of the diary of the guerillero leader José Santos Vargas add to our knowledge of the history of the independence war in the Alto Peru. However, the existence of two different manuscripts, both published by don Gunnar Mendoza, the first in Bolivia, 1952, the second in Mexico, 1982, present historians with problems that have been obscured by the editor’s choices. In this first part of the two parts article, we question the scientific value of the edition of 1982.

  8. Anoplastie périnéale simple pour le traitement des malformations anorectales basses chez l'adulte, à propos de deux cas (United States)

    Echchaoui, Abdelmoughit; Benyachou, Malika; Hafidi, Jawad; Fathi, Nahed; Mohammadine, Elhamid; ELmazouz, Samir; Gharib, Nour-eddine; Abbassi, Abdellah


    Les malformations anorectales chez l'adulte sont des anomalies congénitales rares du tube digestif qui prédominent chez le sexe féminin. Notre étude porte sur deux observations de malformation anorectale basses vues et traitées au stade adulte par les 2 équipes (plasticiens et viscéralistes) à l'Hôpital Avicenne à Rabat. Il s'agit d'un homme de 24 ans avec une dyschésie anale l'autre cas est une femme de 18 ans avec une malformation anovulvaire Les caractéristiques cliniques combinées avec les imageries radiologiques (lavement baryté, et la manométrie anorectale) ont confirmé qu'il s'agit d'une malfomation anorectale basse. Les deux cas sont corrigés par une reconstruction sphinctérienne, réimplantation anale avec anoplastie périnéale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples, pas de souffrance cutanée ou nécrose, avec changement de pansement gras chaque jour. Le résultat fonctionnel (la continence) était favorable pour les 2 patients. La présentation des MAR à l’âge adulte est rare, d’étiologie mal connu, elles apparaissent selon le mode sporadique. Les caractéristiques cliniques, couplées à l'imagerie (lavement baryté, IRM pelvienne), l'endoscopie et la manométrie anorectale, permettent de confirmer le diagnostic et classer ces anomalies en 3 types: basses, intermédiaires, et hautes. Les formes basses sont traités d'emblée par une réimplantation anale et anoplastie périnéale simple tels nos deux cas, elles peuvent être traités dans certains cas par un abaissement anorectale associé à une plastie V-Y permettant ainsi un emplacement anatomique correct de l'anus; alors que les formes hautes ou intermédiaires relèvent d'une chirurgie complexe avec souvent une dérivation digestive transitoire. Contrairement aux autres formes, Les formes basses ont un pronostic fonctionnel favorable. PMID:25667689

  9. Corners of normal matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of general normal matrices is far more complicated than that of two special kinds — hermitian and unitary. There are many interesting theorems for hermitian and unitary matrices whose extensions to arbitrary normal matrices have proved to be extremely recalcitrant (see e.g., [1]). The problem whose study we ...

  10. Normalized medical information visualization. (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H


    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  11. Baby Poop: What's Normal? (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  12. Variabilité chimique et intérêt économique des huiles essentielles de deux menthes sauvages : Mentha pulegium (Fliou) et Mentha rotundifolia (Domrane) de l’ouest algérien.


    TAALBI, Amina


    Notre travail s’est basé principalement sur une étude de la variabilité chimique et l’intérêt économique des huiles essentielles de deux menthes sauvages de l’ouest algérien: Mentha pulegium et Mentha rotundifolia. Ces deux menthes, largement répandue en Algérie, de la famille des Lamiaceae sont connus dans le monde pour leurs propriétés thérapeutiques (antiseptique, antinévralgique, analgésique…) et l’intérêt économique de leurs huiles essentielles....

  13. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno


    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  14. Etude de la toxicité de pesticides vis-à-vis de deux genres de levures : approche cinétique et moléculaire


    Jawich, Dalal


    L'effet de plusieurs pesticides envers Saccharomyces cerevisiae et Metschnikowia pulcherrima a été évalué. Une étude de la cytotoxicité et la génotoxicité du penconazole en fonction des conditions de culture et du stade métabolique a été effectuée. Le penconazole inhibe les cinétiques de croissance et de fermentation des deux levures en cas d'exposition dès l'inoculation aux concentrations résiduelles faibles (0,2-2 ppm), M. pulcherrima est plus sensible ; des adduits à l'ADN ont été détectés...

  15. Convection naturelle dans une cavité horizontale occupée par deux fluides non miscibles : solution analytique et numérique


    Oueslati, Fakhreddine; Bennacer, Rachid; Sammouda, Habib; Belghith, Ali


    International audience; La convection naturelle, dans le cas de deux fluides non miscibles superposés dans une cavité horizontalement allongée, est étudiée numériquement et analytiquement. Les frontières horizontales sont soumises à des flux thermiques croisés. La solution analytique, basée sur l'approximation d'écoulements parallèles, s'avère en bon accord avec la solution numérique. L'existence d'écoulements naturels et antinaturels est démontrée. Les solutions multiples d'état d'équilibre ...

  16. La mobilisation contre Le Pen entre les deux tours de l’élection présidentielle de 2002 : le sursaut et les fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bussi


    Full Text Available Les deux cartes proposées, l’une par commune, l’autre par canton, comparent l’écart entre le nombre de voix obtenues par Le Pen et Mégret au premier tour, et le nombre de voix obtenues par Le Pen au second tour. Le changement d’échelle d’analyse permet de tester visuellement la " stabilité " des regroupements spatiaux, dans l’attente d’analyses spatiales plus sophistiquées. Travailler en données brutes présente l’avantage d’éviter le biais de la participation différentielle entre les tours, c...

  17. Fayol, les fayoliens et l’impossible réforme de l’administration durant l’entre-deux-guerres


    Chatriot, Alain


    Si l’œuvre de Fayol sur la gestion des entreprises est bien connue, on oublie souvent qu’il a aussi beaucoup réfléchi aux fonctionnements des monopoles d’Etat et des administrations publiques. Il a mené deux grandes enquêtes : la première sur les PTT en 1920-1921, la seconde en participant à une commission sur le monopole des tabacs et des allumettes. Très sévère, son diagnostic n’est pas vraiment entendu. Ses thèses sont parfois discutées, mais le plus souvent ignorées. Les disciples de Fayo...

  18. Comparaison des performances de deux souches de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. (domestique et hybride sauvage x domestique introduites au stade alevin dans un ruisseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La production d'un hybride mâle sauvage x femelle domestique, chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta a parfois été proposée pour le repeuplement (CUINAT, 1971. Nos précédents travaux (MAISSE et al., 1983 ont montré que ces sujets sont plus difficiles à élever que ceux dont les deux parents sont domestiques. La présente étude a porté sur la comparaison des performances des hybrides et des domestiques déversés simultanément dans un ruisseau où la reproduction de la truite est compromise par le colmatage du fond. Les déversements ont été effectués sur la totalité du ruisseau, en mai, deux années de suite. Des inventaires ont été réalisés sur des secteurs représentatifs en mai, avant les déversements, et en octobre. Les résultats ont montré que les taux d'implantation, tant en 0+ qu'en 1+, ne différaient pas suivant l'origine des poissons. De plus, sur chacun des secteurs inventoriés, les individus d'origine domestique ont gardé l'avantage de taille qu'ils avaient au moment du déversement. L'intérêt d'un tel croisement est discuté en fonction des diverses stratégies de repeuplement à mettre en œuvre.

  19. Normality in Analytical Psychology (United States)

    Myers, Steve


    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  20. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  1. Normal growth and development (United States)

    A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after birth, an infant normally loses about 5% to 10% of their birth weight. By about age ...

  2. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  3. Normal Functioning Family (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  5. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  6. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Le Pont


    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  7. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.; St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein; Laarman, G.J.; Lelbach, S.; Cramer, M.J.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Wall, E.E. van der; Zwinderman, A.H.; Pauwels, E.K.J.


    Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy was tested in two patient populations representing alternative standards for cardiac normality: group I comprised 18 male uncatherized patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 41 patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Group I patients were younger, they achieved a higher rate-pressure product than group II patients; all had normal findings by phisical examination and electrocardiography at rest and exercise. Group II patients comprised 21 females, 11 patients showed abnormal electrocardiography at rest, and five patients showed ischemic ST depression during exercise. Twelve patients had sign of minimal CAD. Twelve patients revealed abnormal visual and quantitative thallium findings, three of these patients had minimal CAD. Profiles of uptake and washout of thallium-201 were derived from both patient groups, and compared with normal limits developed by Maddahi et al. Furthermore, low likelihood and angiographically normal patients may differ substantially, and both sets of normal patients should be considered when establishing criteria of abnormality in exercise thallium imaging. When commercial software containing normal limits for quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging is used in clinical practice, it is mandatory to compare these with normal limits of uptake and washout of thallium-201, derived from the less heterogeneous group of low-likelihood subjects, which should be used in selecting a normal population to define normality. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs; 1 tab

  8. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte


    provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  9. Rappels vaccinaux hors programme elargi de vaccination dans deux ecoles de l�education de base de Yaounde, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemence Vougmo Meguejio Njua


    Full Text Available ntait 69%. Seul 223 enfants (71,9 % etaient correctement vaccines. Quant aux rappels vaccinaux diphterie-tetanos-coqueluche et poliomyelite, les couvertures etaient insignifiantes (2,7% et 0% respectivement pour la premiere et la deuxieme dose. Les raisons evoquees etaient l�absence de sensibilisation des parents (50%, le prix eleve des vaccins (48,69% et la desinformation (1,31%. CONCLUSION: Le recyclage du personnel de sante sur la vaccination est une necessite. Les parents doivent etre informes sur le deroulement, les prix et les lieux des rappels vaccinaux. La reduction des prix de vaccins faciliterait l�acces a une large tranche de la population.

  10. Efecto Zeeman Normal


    Calderón Chamochumbi, Carlos


    Se describe el Efecto Zeeman Normal y se presenta una derivación general del torque experimentado por un dipolo magnético debido a su interacción con un campo magnético externo. Los cálculos correspondientes al elemento diferencial de energía potencial magnética y de la energía potencial magnética convencional son estándares. ABSTRACT: The Normal Zeeman Effect is described and a general derivation of the torque undergone by a magnetic dipole due to its interactio...

  11. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.


    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.


    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  13. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus......, to optimise economic, working and family conditions. The term "doping" does not cover or explain the use of medicines as enhancement among healthy non-athletes. Conclusion: We recommend wider use of the term medically-enhanced normality as a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing perceptions...... of what is considered rational medicine use in contemporary society....

  14. Corners of normal matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∗Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 2E4, Canada. E-mail:; To Kalyan Sinha on his sixtieth birthday. Abstract. We study various conditions on matrices B and C under which they can be the off-diagonal blocks of a partitioned normal matrix. Keywords.

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers


    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  16. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.


    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  17. Intra-session test-retest reliability of magnitude and structure of center of pressure from the Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ for a visually impaired and normally sighted population. (United States)

    Jeter, Pamela E; Wang, Jiangxia; Gu, Jialiang; Barry, Michael P; Roach, Crystal; Corson, Marilyn; Yang, Lindsay; Dagnelie, Gislin


    Individuals with visual impairment (VI) have irreparable damage to one of the input streams contributing to postural stability. Here, we evaluated the intra-session test-retest reliability of the Wii Balance Board (WBB) for measuring Center of Pressure (COP) magnitude and structure, i.e. approximate entropy (ApEn) in fourteen legally blind participants and 21 participants with corrected-to-normal vision. Participants completed a validated balance protocol which included four sensory conditions: double-leg standing on a firm surface with eyes open (EO-firm); a firm surface with eyes closed (EC-firm); a foam surface with EO (EO-foam); and a foam surface with EC (EC-foam). Participants performed the full balance protocol twice during the session, separated by a period of 15min, to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Absolute reliability was determined by the standard error of measurement (SEM). The minimal difference (MD) was estimated to determine clinical significance for future studies. COP measures were derived from data sent by the WBB to a laptop via Bluetooth. COP scores increased with the difficulty of sensory condition indicating WBB sensitivity (all p<0.01). ICCs in the VI group ranged from 0.73 to 0.95, indicating high to very high correlations, and the normal group showed moderate to very high ICCs (0.62-0.94). The SEM was comparable between groups regardless of between-subject variability. The reliability of the WBB makes it practical to screen for balance impairment among VI persons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tourette-like behaviors in the normal population are associated with hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors but do not relate to deficits in conditioned inhibition or response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eHeym


    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (TS present as distinct conditions clinically; however, comorbidity and inhibitory control deficits have been proposed for both. Whilst such deficits have been studied widely within clinical populations, findings are mixed – partly due to comorbidity and/or medication effects - and studies have rarely distinguished between subtypes of the disorders. Studies in the general population are sparse. Using a continuity approach, the present study examined (i the relationships between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD and TS-like behaviors in the general population, and (ii their unique associations with automatic and executive inhibitory control, as well as (iii yawning (a proposed behavioral model of TS. One hundred and thirty-eight participants completed self-report measures for ADHD and TS-like behaviors as well as yawning, and a conditioned inhibition task to assess automatic inhibition. A sub-sample of fifty-four participants completed three executive inhibition tasks. An exploratory factor analysis of the TS behavior checklist supported a distinction between phonic and motor like pure TS behaviors. Whilst hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD were associated with increased pure and compulsive TS-like behaviors, inattention in isolation was related to reduced obsessive-compulsive TS-like behaviors. TS-like behaviors were associated with yawning during situations of inactivity, and specifically motor TS was related to yawning during stress. Phonic TS and inattention aspects of ADHD were associated with yawning during concentration/activity. Whilst executive interference control deficits were linked to hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors, this was not the case for inattentive ADHD or TS-like behaviors, which instead related to increased performance on some measures. No associations were observed for automatic conditioned inhibition.

  19. Caractéristiques biologiques de la truite de mer (Salmo trutta L. au Nord de l'Espagne, dans deux rivières des Asturies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOLEDO Ma Del Mar


    Full Text Available Une première caractérisation des truites de mer des rivières du Nord de l'Espagne (Asturies est réalisée à partir de l'analyse de la structure de taille et d'âge, ainsi que celle de l'alimentation et des paramètres reproducteurs des poissons adultes. Les truites proviennent des captures réalisées à la ligne (de juin à août sur les rivières Cares et Narcea et par pêche électrique sur les zones de frayères du Narcea durant la saison de reproduction (novembre à janvier. Les truites de mer échantillonnées durant la saison de pêche ont une structure d'âge semblable sur les deux cours d'eau. Environ 85% des individus sont restés deux ans en eau douce avant de descendre en mer, et plus de 95% d'entre eux appartiennent aux classes d'âge de mer 0 + et 1 + . L'importance relative des poissons de 0 + de mer (finnock est légèrement plus élevée dans le Cares (68% que dans le Narcea (51 %. Le rapport des sexes est en faveur des femelles, quelle que soit la classe d'âge de mer. La structure d'âge marin des truites capturées en période de reproduction ne diffère pas de celle observée durant la saison de pêche, bien que montrant une haute proportion de 0 + de mer (32% de l'ensemble des poissons matures. Le taux de maturation chez les truites de 0 + de mer est particulièrement élevé ( 81% parmi les femelles et 100% chez les mâles et tous les individus des autres classes d'âge de mer sont matures. Le nombre d'oeufs (de 571 à 2086 oeufs par femelle et l'index gonadosomatique sont positivement corrélés à la taille et à l'âge de mer des femelles. La truite de mer se nourrit activement en eau douce durant la remontée estivale, puisque 81 % des estomacs examinés étaient pleins. Elle consomme principalement des Epheméroptères, des Diptères et des Trichoptères, mais son alimentation inclut également des proies d'origine terrestre, essentiellement des Arthropodes.

  20. La Voie royale et Voyage au bout de la nuit : deux réécritures françaises de Heart of darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Guillaume


    Full Text Available Il s’agit de lire La Voie royale publiée par Malraux en 1930 et Voyage au bout de la nuit que Céline fait paraître deux ans plus tard comme deux hypertextes du roman de Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1901. Un tel projet semble pouvoir être justifié par une étude comparée du traitement du thème de l’altérité dans les trois fictions. Les trois récits disent à leur manière que le temps des découvertes et échu et qu’au motif de la découverte de territoires vierges, ce topos de la littérature d’aventure, se substitue celui de l’exploration d’autrui. Dès lors, la traversée de territoires, jungle africaine ou cambodgienne adopte pour les héros des fictions la forme de la télémachie. A l’horizon du déplace­ment se dessine une possible communion d’expérience et les trois textes soulignent, selon des modalités qui leur sont propres, l’identité des parcours et des destins. Pourtant, dans le même temps, les narrations se montrent tout aussi attachées à signifier l’opacité d’autrui et les scènes de rencontre qui devraient offrir un point d’orgue aux parcours s’organisent autour du motif de la lacune. Dès lors, l’enseignement de ces romans qui empruntent volontiers un tour aphoristique est similaire : la fraternité est dénoncée comme une illusion qui dissimule l’expérience authentique de la « séparation », pour reprendre un des leitmotive orchestrés par La Voie royale.

  1. Tâches et coopération dans deux dispositifs universitaires de formation à distance Tasks and cooperation within two university level open and distance learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mangenot


    Full Text Available Cette étude sur les apprentissages à distance via Internet au niveau universitaire se focalise sur deux aspects : les tâches d'apprentissage et les formes d'apprentissage collectif. Elle s'appuie sur l'étude qualitative de deux formations ouvertes et à distance ayant fonctionné en grandeur réelle, l'une sur un mode entièrement à distance, l'autre sur un mode hybride. Après une discussion sur le terme très polysémique de "tâche", le corpus est présenté, puis une typologie des tâches est proposée ; une réflexion sur les notions d'apprentissage collectif, coopératif et collaboratif clôt le propos, tentant de caractériser les relations entre les étudiants lors de la réalisation des tâches. Bien que les interactions entre étudiants ne relèvent certainement pas de la collaboration, on avance néanmoins qu'elles peuvent être étudiées dans le cadre des apprentissages collaboratifs assistés par ordinateur.This study deals with distance learning through the Internet in university context. The focus lies on two topics: learning tasks and collective learning. It is based on the qualitative case study of two open and distance learning (ODL courses, one case of fully distance learning and one case of blended learning. After having discussed the concept of "task", the data are then presented and a task typology is proposed. The paper ends with a discussion about collective, cooperative and collaborative learning, trying to characterize the kind of relationship between the students during the fulfillment of the tasks. Although it seems impossible to consider the interactions between the students as collaboration, we suggest that studying them nevertheless belongs to the domain of computer supported collaborative learning.

  2. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  3. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS


    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  4. Neuroethics beyond Normal. (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James


    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  5. Ethics and "normal birth". (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin


    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Vitrocéramiques transparentes dans les deux fenêtres atmosphériques de 3-5 et 8-12 μm (United States)

    Ma, H.; Troles, J.; Lucas, J.; Guimont, Y.; Zhang, X.


    Il est bien connu que les propriétés thermo-mécaniques sont les points faibles de verres. Ceci est particulièrement vrai pour les verres transparents dans l'infrarouge moyen et lointain. Des vitrocéramiques, matériaux composites contenant du verre et des microcristaux-les matériaux composites (matrice verre + microcristaux) possèdent généralement des propriétés thermo-mécaniques remarquables : notamment un faible coefficient de dilatation thermique et une grande dureté. Ils ont en général une très grande résistance aux chocs thermiques. Nous avons développé des vitrocéramiques transparentes dans les deux fenêtres atmosphériques de 3 - 5 et 8- 12 μm, et démontré qu'il est possible d'obtenir des optiques moulées à partir de ces vitrocéramiques.

  7. Experience gained in two years operation of G1; Experience acquise au cours de deux ans de fonctionnement du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouville de; Pascal [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Scalliet [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    Technical specifications in respect of the first plutonium generating graphite reactor, the G1 at Marcoule, were stated in a paper read at the first Geneva Conference in 1955. We shall not therefore deal further with the technical characteristics of G1 in the present note, but rather propose to define - in the characteristic fields we think will be of major interest to foreign specialists - the results obtained in two and a half years operation since G1 first became critical on january 7, 1956. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteristiques techniques du premier reacteur plutonigene, au graphite, de Marcoule, G1, ont ete donnees dans une communication presentee a la premiere conference de Geneve, en 1955. Nous n'y reviendrons donc pas dans la presente note qui a pour objet de faire le point, dans quelques domaines caracteristiques, qui nous ont paru les plus susceptibles d'interesser les specialistes etrangers, des resultats obtenus et des experiences faites au cours des deux annees et demi de fonctionnement du reacteur qui ont suivi sa divergence, le 7 janvier 1956. (auteur)

  8. A pena e a espada: a Revue des Deux Mondes e a intervenção francesa no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Coelho Prado


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os textos publicados pela Revue des Deux Mondes a respeito do México, entre 1840 e 1870. A revista expressava a opinião de grupos de intelectuais próximos ao poder político, entendidos aqui como representantes dos interesses nacionais franceses. O México se distinguia, na América Latina, como centro principal de suas atenções. A revista elaborou imagens da França como o mais importante país latino que olhava para sua "irmã de sangue", a nação mexicana, com o desejo de dirigir seus passos. Os artigos lembravam o glorioso passado da França e insistiam na necessidade do país se interpor ao avanço, na região, de sua grande rival, a Grã-Bretanha, e da nova "ameaça", os Estados Unidos. Os articulistas estimularam seus leitores a pensarem a França como grande potência colocada em lugar de preeminência internacional legitimado por sua história, cultura e civilização.

  9. La dive bouteille: voyages, alcools et remèdes dans les deux hémisphères XVIe-XXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goubert Jean-Pierre


    Full Text Available Grâce à l'analyse de la pratique médicale en France (Bretagne, au Canada et au Brésil, on s'aperçoit que l'antique tradition de consommer du vin en tant que remède est présente dans le cadre de paradigmes scientifiques distincts et d'aires culturelles différentes entre XVIe et XXe siècle. L'effet réputé protecteur de l'alcool, à condition que son usage soit modéré, avant qu'il soit prouvé scientifiquement par Louis Pasteur et par Serge Renaud, a figuré parmi les dogmes de la Médecine humorale, qui associait les quatre principes fondateurs (le chaud et le froid, le sec et l'humide avec diverses configurations environnementales et climatiques et avec l'âge, le sexe, les m?urs et le physique. Voyages et échanges entre métropoles et colonies contribuèrent à diffuser, pour ainsi dire, un discours médical à l'origine méditerranéenne dans les deux hémisphères.

  10. Coping in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Robles de Medina, P.G.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.


    Background: In high-risk populations (e.g., adolescents, substance abusers), coping strategies in pregnancy have been :studied. Avoidance of the stressful situation and aggressive coping are frequently used and related to postnatal depression and other negative outcomes. Little is known about coping

  11. A series of pharmacokinetic studies of ceftaroline fosamil in select populations: normal subjects, healthy elderly subjects, and subjects with renal impairment or end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd; Jakate, Abhijeet; Rank, Doug


    Ceftaroline fosamil is a parenteral cephalosporin indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Ceftaroline, the active component of ceftaroline fosamil, exhibits broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common gram-negative pathogens. The objective of the studies presented herein was to establish the pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline in healthy subjects and special populations of interest, such as elderly subjects, subjects with renal impairment, or subjects with end-stage renal disease on intermittent hemodialysis. The mean half-life of ceftaroline in healthy subjects was approximately 2.6 hours, and urinary excretion was the primary route of elimination. Ceftaroline Cmax and AUC values increased in proportion to dose increases within the range of 50-1000 mg, demonstrating an approximately linear pharmacokinetic profile following intravenous infusion. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftaroline were modestly altered in elderly subjects compared with younger adults, which was attributed to decreased renal function in elderly subjects. Ceftaroline pharmacokinetic parameters varied with different degrees of renal impairment, resulting in recommended dosage adjustments for patients with moderate to severe impairment. Ceftaroline fosamil was generally well tolerated regardless of age or severity of renal impairment. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Normal radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.


    This book is intended for learners in radiology, presenting a wealth of normal radiological findings together with a systematic guide for appraisal and interpretation, and for formulation of reports. The text examples and criteria given will help beginners in learning to 'read' a radiograph, and to verify their conclusions by means of checklists and standard reports. The case material covers numerous illustrations from the following sectors: Skeletal radiography, mammography, tomography, contrast radiography, organ examination by intravenous techniques, arthrography and angiography, and specialized radiography, (ECB) With 184 figs [de

  13. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín


    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  14. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells (United States)


    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  15. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, G.J.; Bloem, J.L.; Obermann, W.R.; Verbout, A.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Doornbos, J.


    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail.

  16. Présentations inhabituelles d'un syndrome de Plummer-Vinson chez l'africain de race noire: à propos de deux observations (United States)

    Berthé, Adama; Diop, Madoky Magatte; Toure, Papa Souleymane; Tall, Cheikh Tidiane; Fulgence Faye, Abdoul; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla


    Le syndrome de Plummer Vinson (SPV) est une affection rare caractérisée par une dysphagie cervicale associée à une anémie ferriprive et un anneau sur l’œsophage supérieur. Parfois, son mode de présentation inhabituelle peut faire errer le diagnostic. Le rétrécissement annulaire peut être de découverte fortuite lors d'une endoscopie digestive haute. Nous rapportons deux observations de syndrome de Plummer-Vinson chez des sujets de genre masculin et féminin. Celles-ci ont comme point commun une découverte fortuite lors d'une endoscopie digestive haute. La première observation concernait un garçon de 14 ans aux antécédents de brûlure caustique de l’œsophage dans l'enfance avec dysphagie haute passagère ne l'inquiétant pas depuis lors. Il était reçu en urgence pour une endoscopie digestive haute motivée par une dysphagie de survenue brutale secondaire à une prise d'aliment solide. L'examen clinique avait objectivé une chéilite angulaire. La biologie montrait un abaissement de la ferritinémie sans anémie. L'endoscopie avait mis en évidence un anneau circulaire franchi avec ressaut au niveau de la bouche de Killian. Elle avait également permis l'extraction d'un corps étranger à type de noyau de « pain de singe » mais la lumière de l’œsophage était infranchissable à partir du niveau d'arrêt. Le transit œsophagien montrait un ralentissement du produit de contraste au niveau de l'sophage cervical et thoracique sans lésions morphologiques. Dans la deuxième observation, il s'agissait d'une jeune femme de 35 ans adressée à l unité d'endoscopie digestive pour objectiver une gastrite atrophique sur une suspicion de la maladie de Biermer. La fibroscopie mettait alors en évidence, un rétrécissement annulaire infranchissable à 18 centimètres des arcades dentaires. La biologie montrait une anémie avec augmentation de la ferritinémie. Dans les deux cas, le traitement martial était systématique associé à des séances de

  17. Contribution to the phenomenological study of two-body reactions at high energy; Contribution a l'etude phenomenologique des reactions a deux corps a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A phenomenological model suited for the description of arbitrary two-body reactions at high energies is presented and applied to the analysis of {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon scattering.The idea is that the Regge-pole model does not take into account the whole content of the unitarity relation and has to be modified, as is currently done in one-particle exchange models, so that it may include absorptive corrections.In terms of a rather economical set of free parameters,we obtain a satisfactory agreement with all available data, including the recent evidence for a nonvanishing polarization in {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n reaction. We then reinterpret our parametrization of the amplitudes in terms of poles and branch points in the complex angular-momentum plane for the crossed channel. (author) [French] Un modele phenomenologique adapte a la description des reactions a deux corps a haute energie est presente et applique a l'analyse des diffusions {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon. L'idee essentielle est que le modele d'echange de poles de Regge ne tient pas compte du contenu total de la relation d'unitarite et doit etre modifie, comme cela a ete propose dans le cas de l'echange de particules, de facon a tenir compte de corrections de type absortif. Au moyen d'un ensemble relativement economique de parametres libres nous obtenons un accord satisfaisant avec tous les resultats disponibles, y compris l'existence recemment mise en evidence d'une polarisation non nulle dans la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n. Nous interpretons notre fa n d'ecrire les amplitudes au moyen de poles et de points de branchement dans le plan complexe du moment angulaire pour la voie croisee. (auteur)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L’ADN, support de l’information génétique de la cellule, est la cible la plus importante lors d’une exposition à un rayonnement ionisant (radiothérapie, scintigraphie…. Sa dégradation est à l’origine de désordres cellulaires dramatiques comme la cancérisation. Pour quantifier ces effets, nous avons considéré deux électrons d’énergie incidente 1 KeV qui traversent un milieu aqueux fournissant chacun une distribution de  radicaux libres (e-aq, H,OH, H+aq, H2, H2O2, OH-, O2, O-2, OH2, OH2- que nous avons fait évoluer selon un ensemble de codes informatiques élaborés sur un modèle déterministe jusqu’à leur collision et estimer ainsi la concentration et le rendement de chaque espèce. Dans cette étude, nous n’avons considéré queles espèces les plus agressives vis à vis des molécules biologiques e-aq, H et plus particulièrement l’hydroxyle OH. Nous avons ainsi estimé le nombre moyensde diverses lésions portées à l’ADN. L’intérêt essentiel de cette étude est lamise au point d’un modèle simple d’adaptation facile du point de vue applications qui peut renseignersur les dommages causés à une molécule aussi importante que l’ADN.

  19. Analyse des effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Depover


    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur les effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes (spontané versus contrasté dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance destiné à des étudiants universitaires. Les scénarios d’apprentissage mis en œuvre à l’occasion de cette expérience reposent sur l’utilisation des cartes conceptuelles comme support au travail collaboratif. Les résultats observés n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence de différence quant à la densité conceptuelle des cartes ou au nombre d’unités de sens produites. Par contre, il apparaît que les unités de sens qui concernent les activités de planification et les commentaires métacognitifs sont nettement plus nombreuses au sein des groupes constitués par pairage contrasté. Une corrélation positive entre l’intensité des interactions à l’intérieur du forum et la densité conceptuelle des cartes produites a également été mise en évidence pour les groupes constitués sur la base d’un pairage contrasté. En ce qui concerne le pairage spontané, nos résultats indiquent que les paires constituées témoignent d’un comportement plus homogène, se révèlent plus collaboratives et consacrent moins d’effort à la planification du travail de groupe.

  20. Militantisme féministe et pouvoir politique : parcours de deux parlementaires féministes belges (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Jacques


    Full Text Available Si les femmes belges obtiennent l’éligibilité à tous les niveaux de pouvoirs en 1920, elles doivent en revanche attendre 1948 pour obtenir un véritable droit de vote. Durant l’entre-deux-guerres, l’éligibilité des femmes demeure symbolique : seules six femmes siègeront au parlement. Après la Seconde guerre, ces scores décevants sont contrecarrés par l’entrée au parlement de deux féministes notoires où elles siègeront durant près de 15 ans. Usant pleinement de leur initiative parlementaire, elles obtiennent en moins de dix ans une série d’avancées significatives en matière de droit des femmes qui avant la guerre semblaient inespérées. A la lueur de ces deux parcours, l’article interroge la nature et le sens à donner à ce double engagement féministe et politique. Il pose également la question des réseaux, des liens et relais multiples nécessaires dans une société démocratique pour qu’un groupe de pression voit son programme revendicatif aboutir. L’analyse de ces stratégies politiques mises au service d’enjeux féministes est le fil rouge de l’article.Aunque las mujeres belgas obtienen la admisibilidad en todos los niveles de poder en 1920, deben sin embargo esperar 1948 para poder votar en todos los niveles de poder. Durante el período de entreguerras, la presencia de las mujeres en las esferas políticas de toma de decisión sigue siendo simbólica : sólo seis mujeres están presentes en el Parlamento. Después de la Segunda guerra, estos resultados decepcionantes son contrarestados por la entrada al Parlamento de dos feministas célebres que tuvieron un mandato de casi 15 años. Utilizando plenamente sus ventajas como parlamentarias, consiguen, en menos de diez años, toda una serie de avances en cuanto a los derechos de las mujeres, avances imposibles en los años treinta. A través de la vida de estas dos feministas, el artículo intenta descifrar el sentido que debe darse al compromiso

  1. Axisymmetric Drainage in Hydrophobic Porous Media Micromodels Drainage en géométrie axisymétrique dans des milieux poreux hydrophobes à deux dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuenca A.


    capillaires (Ca communément rencontrés lors des opérations d’extraction pétrolière. Nous utilisons deux types de micromodèles mouillables à l’huile : le premier est basé sur une méthode de déposition innovante permettant d’obtenir des monocouches de billes de verre de taille micronique, tandis que le second est microfabriqué dans du verre à partir de réseaux poreux aléatoires générés informatiquement. Chacun des modèles utilise un schéma d’injection central dans une géométrie radiale, ce qui engendre une variation continue du nombre capillaire pendant le drainage. Nous menons tout d’abord une analyse du drainage à l’échelle globale du micromodèle en couplant analyse d’image et mesures de pression et de débit. Les paramètres de base tels que perméabilité, porosité et saturation résiduelle en huile des modèles sont extraits dans cette première phase. Nous exploitons ensuite les possibilités de visualisation offertes par les micromodèles transparents pour mener une analyse locale du phénomène d’invasion. Les saturations locales et la largeur de front sont mesurées en fonction du nombre capillaire local. De façon intéressante, du fait de la géométrie radiale, nos expériences permettent de tracer continûment les courbes de désaturation capillaire sur plusieurs décades. Comme inféré, mais jamais observé précisément, les mesures de diverses expériences se regroupent sur une courbe maîtresse pour un micromodèle donné. Nous observons cependant des différences notables entre les deux types de micromodèle. Ces observations sont discutées à la lumière des différences géométriques existant entre les deux micromodèles à l’échelle du pore.

  2. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools (United States)

    Skinnell, Ryan


    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  3. On the Folded Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Tsagris


    Full Text Available The characteristic function of the folded normal distribution and its moment function are derived. The entropy of the folded normal distribution and the Kullback–Leibler from the normal and half normal distributions are approximated using Taylor series. The accuracy of the results are also assessed using different criteria. The maximum likelihood estimates and confidence intervals for the parameters are obtained using the asymptotic theory and bootstrap method. The coverage of the confidence intervals is also examined.

  4. Radiation effects in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Herrmann, T.; Doerr, W.


    Knowledge of radiation effects in normal tissues is fundamental for optimal planning of radiotherapy. Therefore, this book presents a review on the following aspects: General pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in normal tissues; general pathogenesis of chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; quantification of acute and chronic radiation effects in normal tissues; pathogenesis, pathology and radiation biology of various organs and organ systems. (MG) [de

  5. Concevoir des objets techniques pour une population normale, c’est-à-dire comprenant aussi des personnes handicapées ou très âgées Designing technological devices for a normal population, namely also including disabled people and the elderly. Contribution of ergonomics Contribution of ergonomics Diseñar objetos técnicos para una población normal, es decir incluyendo personas discapacitadas o adultos mayores. Contribución de la ergonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Sperandio


    Full Text Available Les technologies peuvent être des obstacles redoutables pour les personnes handicapées ou très âgées, ou au contraire apporter des solutions efficaces aux problèmes que rencontrent ces personnes. Ceci concerne les objets ordinaires de la vie courante, mais aussi les aides techniques spécialisées, le logement, le transport public, les postes de travail, etc. Beaucoup de réaménagements spéciaux ou d’aides techniques particulières ne seraient pas nécessaires si la conception initiale des objets ou services destinés au grand public tenait compte de l’existence de personnes handicapées ou très âgées dans la population générale. L’ergonomie peut contribuer à la conception d’objets techniques et de services plus facilement utilisables par des personnes handicapées.Technologies can be formidable obstacles for disabled people or the elderly, or inversely, can also provide effective solutions to the problems that these people encounter. This involves all the usual objects of daily life, but also assistive devices, lodging, public transportation, workstations, etc.Many special redesigns or particular assistive devices would be unnecessary if the initial design of objects or services intended for the general public had taken into account disabled people or the elderly in the general population. Ergonomics can contribute to the design of assistive devices and services more easily usable by handicapped peopleLas tecnologías pueden constituir obstáculos temibles para las personas discapacitadas o de edad muy avanzada, o al contrario, pueden solucionar de un modo eficaz los problemas que estas personas encuentran. Esta problemática concierne los objetos ordinarios de la vida diaria, pero también las ayudas técnicas especializadas, el espacio habitacional, el transporte público, los puestos de trabajo, etc. Muchas adaptaciones especiales o ayudas técnicas especializadas no serían necesarias si el diseño inicial de los

  6. Evaluation of the normal calcaneal angles in Egyptian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fahmy Anwar Shoukry


    Feb 1, 2012 ... ison of the angles according to the side), independent t-test was used to compare the angles according to the sex), distribution of the angles within different age groups was compared with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The level of sig- nificance was set at p < 0.05, and compared the results of.

  7. Prostate disorders in an apparently normal Nigerian population 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate disorders constitute a lot of health concern for men. Early identification of risk factors and groups at risk minimizes the adverse effects of these disorders. The possible relationship between prostate disorders and parameters like age, blood group, Rhesus factor, haemoglobin genotype, serum total ...

  8. Perception of Depression amoung Normal Adult Population: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(1) 2000: 47-57. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  9. Genes contributing to pain sensitivity in the normal population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M.K.; Scollen, Serena; Cao, Dandan


    Sensitivity to pain varies considerably between individuals and is known to be heritable. Increased sensitivity to experimental pain is a risk factor for developing chronic pain, a common and debilitating but poorly understood symptom. To understand mechanisms underlying pain sensitivity and to s...

  10. Relationship of Depression and Assertiveness in Normal Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings further reveal that men and women both can equally be the victim of depression in their life. Findings also suggest that married people are more assertive in comparison with unmarried people. Keywords: Depression, Assertiveness, Relationship, Gender Internet Journal of Medical Update Vol. 1 (2) 2006: pp. 9-16.

  11. Handedness and anxiety in normal and clinical populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H.; de Ruiter, C.; Olff, M.


    Previous research has yielded inconclusive evidence as to the relationship between handedness and anxiety. In order to further examine this relationship, two studies were carried out. In the first study, university students (N = 167) completed the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Fear

  12. Testing the Mean of a Normal Population Under Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim


    Modifications of the $t$-test are considered which are robust under certain violations of the independence assumption. The additional number of observations these modified tests require in order to obtain under independence the same power as the $t$-test, is obtained asymptotically.

  13. Prostate disorders in an apparently normal Nigerian population 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    using the IPSS questionnaire reported a prevalence of 24.94% in Spain. Verhamme et al.7, working on the. TRIUMPH project, however reported a prevalence of 10.3% for BPH. The sad implication of this is that we may have a. BPH crisis situation akin to that in the developed world. Regrettably, awareness of this situation is.

  14. Normal Renal Dimensions In An Adult Nigerian Population | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 310 subjects were randomly selected from Southeast Nigerian adults with abscence of any disease that could modify renal dimensions. Length, width and area of both kidneys were measured by Transabdominal ultrasound and correlated with gender , age, height, body weight, and body mass index (BMI).

  15. One Criteria of Consent of Normal Distribution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serezha N. Sandryan


    Full Text Available According to the Central limit theorem, normal probability distribution law is most often found in random phenomena. In this work the linear criteria of consent is developed for the verification of statistical hypotheses of the normal distribution law of the statistical population

  16. L’incertitude dans l’utilisation des médias géolocalisés : étude de deux applications reliées à la mobilité urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salles


    Full Text Available À partir de la différentiation entre les pratiques stratégiques et tactiques, développée par Michel de Certeau (1990, et du concept de l’espace hybride (De Souza et Silva, 2006 ; Nova, 2009, ce travail distinguera les différents rapports à l’incertitude lors du déplacement en milieu urbain par les utilisateurs des médias géolocalisés, notamment par l’étude de deux applications pour appareils mobiles, Foursquare/Swarm et Walking the Edit.

  17. A pilot study to determine the normal haematological indices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the Malawian population. This will lead to accurate interpretation of laboratory results. Introduction. In most African countries, including Malawi, normal reference ranges for laboratory variables used in clinical trial and clinical care are obtained from European and. North American populations.1 However, there are marked.

  18. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  19. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  20. « Douces choses férocement lointaines » : deux lectures de Proust dans les camps soviétiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Perrier


    Full Text Available Comment expliquer que l’œuvre de Marcel Proust ait suscité l’intérêt d’un peintre polonais et d’un écrivain russe qui luttaient pour leur survie dans les camps soviétiques ? Pour répondre à cette question, il faut comparer l’expérience de Joseph Czapski et celle de Varlam Chalamov : ces deux auteurs ne se connaissaient pas mais le livre de Proust a été pour eux, à un moment donné, un instrument de résistance contre un pouvoir qui visait leur annihilation morale. À la lecture de Proust contre la déchéance (Czapski et des Récits de la Kolyma (Chalamov, plusieurs points de comparaison apparaissent : un même refus de la littérature engagée, un rapport paradoxal entre l’univers du camp et le monde de Proust, une forme de lecture sans livre et enfin l’exploration de la conscience face à la mort.How is it possible to explain that Marcel Proust’s work raised the interest of a Polish painter and Russian writer, as they were struggling for life in soviet camps ? To answer this question, one should compare Joseph Czapski’s and Varlam Shalamov’s experiences : although these two authors didn’t know each other, Proust’s book represented for both of them, to some extent, a tool of resistance against the Soviet power, which was aiming their psychological and moral annihilation. Reading Proust against degradation (Czapski and Kolyma Tales (Shalamov, several points of comparison appear : a same refusal of “committed literature”, a paradoxical connection between the camp’s environment and the Proustian world, a certain way of reading without book and, eventually, an exploration of consciousness in front of death.¿Cómo explicar que la obra de Marcel Proust llamó la atención de un pintor polaco y de un escritor ruso que lucharon por la vida en los campos soviéticos ? Para dar una respuesta a esta pregunta, hace falta comparar la experiencia de Jósef Czapski con la de Varlam Shalámov : estos dos

  1. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  2. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.


    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  3. Caractérisation moléculaire et morphologique de deux espèces affines de Paraphlebotomus: Phlebotomus chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux, 1970 et P. riouxi Depaquit, Killick-Kendrick & Léger, 1998 (Diptera : Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounamous A.


    Full Text Available La description en 1998 de Phlebotomus riouxi a posé le problème de la diagnose différentielle délicate de la femelle avec celle d’une espèce affine : P. chabaudi. Le rôle suspecté de P. chabaudi dans la transmission de Leishmania killicki dans certains foyers tunisiens nous a amené, à partir de 37 spécimens algériens et tunisiens, à effectuer la caractérisation moléculaire de ces deux taxons. Les séquences du gène du cytochrome b (cyt b de l’ADN mitochondrial individualisent clairement ces taxons et mettent en évidence une variabilité intraspécifique. L’analyse morphologique ne permet pas de différencier les femelles des deux espèces sur la base des caractères génitaux. Un caractère céphalique nouveau tenant à la présence de dents latérales antérieures sur l’armature pharyngienne de P. chabaudi, absentes chez P. riouxi, est proposé, mais un recours au typage moléculaire semble nécessaire pour une identification fiable.

  4. Normalizing cDNA libraries. (United States)

    Bogdanov, Ekaterina A; Shagina, Irina; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Kelmanson, Ilya; Shagin, Dmitry A; Lukyanov, Sergey A


    The characterization of rare messages in cDNA libraries is complicated by the substantial variations that exist in the abundance levels of different transcripts in cells and tissues. The equalization (normalization) of cDNA is a helpful approach for decreasing the prevalence of abundant transcripts, thereby facilitating the assessment of rare transcripts. This unit provides a method for duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-based normalization, which allows for the fast and reliable equalization of cDNA, thereby facilitating the generation of normalized, full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, and enabling efficient RNA analyses. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge


    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented......, and the increased focus on body care and fitness. The contours of the emerging normal expectations are outlined and discussed in an environmental perspective....

  6. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.


    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  7. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.


    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  8. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson


    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  9. Dendritic spine changes associated with normal aging. (United States)

    Dickstein, D L; Weaver, C M; Luebke, J I; Hof, P R


    Given the rapid rate of population aging and the increased incidence of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases with advanced age, it is important to ascertain the determinants that result in cognitive impairment. It is also important to note that much of the aged population exhibit 'successful' cognitive aging, in which cognitive impairment is minimal. One main goal of normal aging studies is to distinguish the neural changes that occur in unsuccessful (functionally impaired) subjects from those of successful (functionally unimpaired) subjects. In this review, we present some of the structural adaptations that neurons and spines undergo throughout normal aging and discuss their likely contributions to electrophysiological properties and cognition. Structural changes of neurons and dendritic spines during aging, and the functional consequences of such changes, remain poorly understood. Elucidating the structural and functional synaptic age-related changes that lead to cognitive impairment may lead to the development of drug treatments that can restore or protect neural circuits and mediate cognition and successful aging. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mildly generalized closed sets, almost normal and mildly normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Keun; Park, Jin Han


    The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the class of mildly generalized closed sets, which is properly placed between the classes of strongly generalized closed sets due to Sundaram and Pushpalatha in 2001 and weakly generalized closed sets due to Sundaram and Nagaveni in 1998. The relations with other notions directly or indirectly connected with generalized closed are investigated. Moreover we use it to obtain new characterizations and preservation theorems of almost normal spaces due to Singal and Arya and mildly normal spaces due to Singal and Singal, respectively

  11. Myocardium scintigraphy and coronaries scanner: results and respective contribution of these two examinations; Scintigraphie myocardique et scanner coronaire: resultats et apport respectif des deux examens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B.; Balestrini, V.; Sablayrolles, J.L.; Vigoni, F.; Lussato, D. [Centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), Saint-Denis, (France); Faccio, F. [fondation San Geronimo, Santa Fe, (Argentina)


    The objective were to evaluate the results and the respective contribution of the myocardium scintigraphy and the coro-scanner. It exists an excellent correlation between a normal scanner and a normal scintigraphy (97%). 30% of patients having non tight stenosis at scanner and 60% of these ones having tight stenosis have a scintigraphy ischemia; An abnormal scanner, whatever be the the degree of stenosis must be completed by a test of myocardium ischemia. The actual limitations of the coro-scanner (64 gills) are in relation with its spatial resolution (quantification) and temporal resolution (right coronary). The choice of the diagnosis examination to realize in first intention must depend on the age and prevalence of the coronary disease. (N.C.)

  12. Normal weight obesity in Korean adults. (United States)

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon


    A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.


    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris


    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  15. Paralysie flasque en début de grossesse: penser à l'hypokaliémie due aux vomissements gravidiques, à propos de deux observations dans un pays en voie de développement (United States)

    Fall, Maouly


    Les vomissements gravidiques peuvent être responsables de rares complications neuromusculaires mais graves notamment la paralysie hypokaliémique. Nous rapportons des observations de deux jeunes femmes d'origine guinéenne, sans histoires familiales ni antécédents particuliers, admises pour paralysie flasque des quatre membres dans un contexte de vomissements incoercibles en début de grossesse. Le bilan retrouvait une hypokaliémie majeure associée à quelques troubles électro-cardiographiques. L'apport de potassium par voie parentérale avait permis une récupération motrice totale. La paralysie hypokaliémique est une complication rare des vomissements gravidiques. Une supplémentation potassique prudente avec une surveillance électro-cardiographique et biologique permet une disparition spectaculaire des troubles neuromusculaires. PMID:26327956

  16. Texte-dialogal, hasard et rature orale : analyse des processus d'écriture à deux par des élèves récemment alphabétisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calil Eduardo


    Full Text Available La dimension créative d’un texte subissant l’influence d’une multitude de facteurs doit se comprendre comme un système sémiotique multimodal complexe où le « dialogisme » et le « hasard » représentent des éléments-clés. Notre objectif est de discuter, en partant de ces phénomènes, de certaines formes de retour dans un processus de création mis en place par deux élèves écrivant ensemble un récit de fiction. Ces formes de retour, nommées « ratures orales », sont produites dans le flux de la co-énonciation pendant le moment où les élèves sont en train d’écrire le manuscrit. D’un point de vue théorique, le dialogisme est compris comme principe fondateur de tout discours et est donc relié. Nous considérons le point de tension du processus d’écriture à deux – et la rature qui lui donne une visibilité – comme une manifestation de l’absence de re-présentée où la dimension du « dialogisme interlocutif » et du « dialogisme interdiscursif » entretiennent des échanges sur deux plans, solidaires mais distincts, dans l’acte coénonciatif consistant à écrire un texte à deux. Cette manifestation de l’absence représentée à travers du double dialogisme se réfère à l’hétérogénéité constitutive du dire qui se constitue de manière « interdiscursive » à partir de sa relation avec l’extériorité, comme le déjà dit d’autres discours, et de manière « interlocutive » à partir du dire de l’interlocuteur dans le « texte dialogal » (Bres et Nowakowska, 2006. Nous analysons l’interaction entre une dyade qui doit se dérouler en contexte d’apprentissage in natura afin de garantir des conditions sociales réelles de production de texte en classe : 1 les sujets sont des élèves ayant entre 6 et 7 ans, qui, alphabétisés depuis peu de temps, écrivent leurs premiers textes ; 2 les informations impliquant l’ensemble du processus (de la présentation de la consigne par le

  17. Femmes aux petits soins : la fêlure d’un idéal dans deux nouvelles de F.S. Fitzgerald The Lees of Happiness et An Alcoholic Case




    Écrites à 17 ans d’intervalle, ces deux nouvelles de Fitzgerald mettent en scène des artistes dont la maladie pour l’un (« The Lees of Happiness ») et l’alcoolisme pour l’autre (« An Alcoholic Case ») ont eu raison des facultés créatrices. Pourtant, l’attention se porte moins sur les malades que sur celles qui les soignent, et embrassent ainsi un rôle traditionnellement dévolu aux femmes : l’épouse aimante sacrifiant tout pour son mari grabataire et l’infirmière dévouée investie d’une mission...

  18. Simulation numérique et modélisation de l'interaction fluide-structure et étude vibratoire de deux cylindres en tandem à nombre de Reynolds élevé


    Ferreira Perez, Saul


    Dans le contexte des interactions fluide-structure, ce stage a consisté en l'analyse physique d'un écoulement instationnaire autour d'une configuration de deux cylindres en tandem à nombre de Reynolds élevé, au moyen de simulations numériques. À l'aide des modèles de turbulence au premier ordre par approche statistique et du code de calcul NSMB, une première étude en 2D en statique a été menée. Ce cas test est assimilable de manière simplifiée à un train d'atterrissage. Une attention spéciale...

  19. Analyse d'une méthode D.L.T.S. utilisant une détection synchrone mesurant l'harmonique deux du signal de capacité


    Le Bloa, A.; Favennec, P.N.


    Nous décrivons une méthode D.L.T.S. utilisant une détection synchrone dont la mise en oeuvre est simple ; cette méthode réduit l'influence sur les mesures de la réponse transitoire du capacimètre et élimine la composante continue de la capacité. La détection de l'harmonique deux présente alors une meilleure sélectivité que la détection du fondamental. La limitation à une demi-période du signal de capacité à l'entrée de la détection synchrone réduit le bruit de fond pour les coefficients de Fo...

  20. L’orthographe telle qu’elle s’enseigne : analyse contrastée de deux séances en classe ordinaire sur l’enseignement de l’accord sujet-verbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnal Karine


    Full Text Available L’enseignement de l’orthographe est un sujet sensible, avec une baisse sans cesse soulignée du niveau des élèves français pour la notion d’accord. L’enseignant doit faire face à des difficultés linguistiques, liées au caractère systémique de l’orthographe française et à son opacité, et à des difficultés psycholinguistiques, l’accord en nombre étant un processus cognitif complexe, avec des difficultés accrues selon la position des mots dans la phrase. Notre choix de travailler sur «l’orthographe telle qu’elle s’enseigne » rejoint les recherches qui, depuis quelques années, se sont attachées à documenter les pratiques en situation effective de classe. Notre étude souhaite étudier d’une part comment l’orthographe s’enseigne en classe ordinaire, et d’autre part si les résultats de recherche quant aux dispositifs innovants ont un impact sur ces classes observées. Pour répondre à cela, notre recherche décrit et analyse la pratique de deux enseignants de cycle3 en classe ordinaire, à travers l’étude contrastée de deux séances filmées sur l’enseignement de l’accord sujet-verbe. Nous relevons les modes d’élaboration et de transposition didactique choisis par ces enseignants, grâce à l’analyse des choix effectués et des interactions en classe. Nous dégageons alors quelques caractéristiques saillantes de l’enseignement de l’accord sujet/verbe.

  1. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro


    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  2. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis


    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  3. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael


    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  4. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.


    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  5. Fluid involvement in normal faulting (United States)

    Sibson, Richard H.


    Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault shear resistance and the mechanics of normal fault reactivation. A general downwards progression in fault rock assemblages (high-level breccia-gouge (often clay-rich) → cataclasites → phyllonites → mylonite → mylonitic gneiss with the onset of greenschist phyllonites occurring near the base of the seismogenic crust) is inferred for normal fault zones developed in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust. Fluid inclusion studies in hydrothermal veining from some footwall assemblages suggest a transition from hydrostatic to suprahydrostatic fluid pressures over the depth range 3-5 km, with some evidence for near-lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure cycling towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the phyllonitic assemblages. Development of fault-fracture meshes through mixed-mode brittle failure in rock-masses with strong competence layering is promoted by low effective stress in the absence of thoroughgoing cohesionless faults that are favourably oriented for reactivation. Meshes may develop around normal faults in the near-surface under hydrostatic fluid pressures to depths determined by rock tensile strength, and at greater depths in overpressured portions of normal fault zones and at stress heterogeneities, especially dilational jogs. Overpressures localised within developing normal fault zones also determine the extent to which they may reutilise existing discontinuities (for example, low-angle thrust faults). Brittle failure mode plots demonstrate that reactivation of existing low-angle faults under vertical σ1 trajectories is only likely if

  6. What is normal vaginal flora? (United States)

    Priestley, C J; Jones, B M; Dhar, J; Goodwin, L


    To observe the composition of the vaginal flora of healthy women over time, and in relation to hormonal changes, sexual activity, and hygiene habits. A longitudinal surveillance of the vaginal flora over an eight week period. 26 female health care workers in local genitourinary medicine clinics. The participants were anonymised. They filled in diary cards daily. Blind vaginal swabs were self-taken two-seven times weekly. A smear was air-dried for later Gram staining. The swabs were also cultured for Candida spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Of 26 subjects, only four had normal vaginal microbiology throughout. One woman, who was not sexually active, had bacterial vaginosis (BV) throughout and nine (35%) had intermittent BV. Candidiasis was found intermittently in eight women (31%), and eight had normal microscopy. U urealyticum was isolated intermittently in 40% of women with BV, 25% with candida, and 50% with normal microscopy. Many women were symptomatic, but symptoms correlated poorly with microbiological findings. All but two women were sexually active; however, more women with BV were exposed to semen. BV seemed to be related to frequent use of scented soap, and there appeared to be an additive effect of clothing and hygiene factors. Our study raises doubts about what should be regarded as normal vaginal flora. It calls into question the significance of finding BV or U urealyticum on a single occasion in asymptomatic women, or of finding normal flora in symptomatic women. The effect of external factors on the vaginal flora deserve further study.

  7. Sequential normal compactness versur topological normal compactness in variational analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, B. S.


    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2003), s. 1057-1067 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : variational analysis * sequential and topological normal compactness * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003

  8. Normal erect swallowing. Normal function and incidence of variations. (United States)

    Curtis, D J; Cruess, D F; Dachman, A H


    Of 871 candidates presenting for upper gastrointestinal examinations, 16 met the rigorous criteria established for selecting asymptomatic normal volunteers. Frame-by-frame evaluation of their videorecorded pharyngeal swallow confirmed many observations made previously utilizing cine recording at much higher radiation dosages. In addition, new observations were made: the nasopharynx may not occlude until the bolus is entirely within the pharynx; air mixes with the bolus if the swallow is an "open" type; the epiglottis always inverts in normal individuals regardless of the type of swallow ("open," air filled oro-and hypopharynx into which the swallowed bolus is dropped; "closed," airless oropharynx into which the swallowed bolus is pushed by a continuous peristaltic drive of the tongue and palate, thus reconstituting the pharyngeal space); laryngeal descent may aid in stripping the bolus from the pharynx; the vestibule may not completely close during the swallow and the larynx can still be impervious to the bolus; the peristaltic wave does not begin until the bolus has breeched the cricopharyngeus; the cricopharyngeus may be seen frequently in normal individuals, but does not delay the passage of the bolus; asymmetric flow of the bolus around the larynx is common and may not be the result of epiglottic tilt or head positioning.

  9. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. (United States)

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J; Freeman, Kurt A


    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva


    Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

  11. Deux ouvrages sur le réchauffement climatique. : Emmanuel LE ROYLADURIE, Daniel ROUSSEAU et Anouchka VASAK (2011) : Les fluctuations du climat de l'an mil à aujourd'hui, Éditions FAYARD, Paris, 321 p. – Jean-Claude FLAGEOLLET (2010) : Le réchauffement climatique en Europe. Depuis quand ? Pourquoi ? Éditions DE BOECK, Bruxelles, 140 p.


    BALLAIS, Jean-Louis


    International audience; Compte rendu de deux ouvrages :E. Le Roy Ladurie, D. Rousseau, A. Vasak (2011) : Les fluctuations du climat de l'an mil à aujourd'hui,J.-C. Flageollet (2010) : Le réchauffement climatique en Europe. Depuis quand ? Pourquoi ?

  12. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process......-analysing situation trying to answer: What is ADHD and what is me and my personal features? When are the drugs having the right effect? And since I have never been normal then how would I know what behavioural ideal I am striving for? Moreover, the public questioning of the diagnosis calls the individual...

  13. MRI of normal achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollandi, G.A. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Perrone, R. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Garlaschi, G. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)


    To investigate the normal internal structure of tendons 11 volunteers without clinical evidence of tendinopathy were examined using conventional spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density weighted sequences. The Achilles tendon was chosen because of its high frequency of injury in athletic activity, large size, superficial position and because it is oriented nearly parallel to the static magnetic field, therefore minimizing the ``magic angle phenomenon``. The tendons exhibited areas of slighly increased signal in four T1-weighted and in all but one proton-density-weighted scans. No intratendinous signal was detected in T2-weighted images. The possible origin of these findings is discussed. We conclude that the knowledge of these normal signals may be useful to avoid incorrectly diagnosing as pathological. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  14. Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge


    Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen. Mikroskop......Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen......, bidrager til dannelse af en beskyttende og smørende overflade på tænder og mundslimhinde, har en betydelig antimikrobiel funktion, indeholder komponenter, der forebygger demineralisering af tandoverfladen, ligesom spyt medvirker til at vedligeholde et neutralt pH i mundhulen. Endelig har spyttet betydning...

  15. Immoral, deviant, or just normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars


    Contemporary research often relates driving under the influence (DUI) to alcohol addiction and young drunk drivers, in particular, to social deviance. Based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers, this article studies the relationship between drinking and DUI. The article focuses...... on three different categories of drunk drivers. In the first, drunk drivers consider addiction to be the main cause of DUI. In the second, they position themselves within subcultural groups often engaged in using illicit drugs, alcohol, and DUI. Both of these categories agree with conceptions of DUI...... themselves and their relationship between drinking and DUI as normal. The article thus concludes that while some drunk drivers view themselves in line with popular conceptions of DUI, others distance themselves from these associations so as to present themselves as normal....

  16. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne


    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study...... of home births in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). All midwives assisting at a home birth from 2008 to 2013 were asked to provide information about home births using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Birth data from 1,612 women, from Denmark (n = 1,170), Norway (n = 263), Sweden (n...... = 138), and Iceland (n = 41) were included. The total median duration from onset of labor until the birth of the baby was approximately 14 hours for primiparas and 7.25 hours for multiparas. The duration of the different phases varied between countries. Blood loss more than 1,000 mL and perineal...

  17. Ultrasound Assessment of Normal Portal Vein Diameter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if the additional use of color and spectral Doppler improves the assessment of patients suspected of having portal hypertension, gray scale assessment of portal vein diameter is corner stone in the initial evaluation. Knowing the normal portal venous dimension in a specified population is so crucial. Methods: This is a ...

  18. Normal values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A.D.J.; Takken, T.; van Osch-Gevers, M.; Helbing, W.A.

    BACKGROUND: A reference set of data of normal values of newly developed cardiopulmonary parameters of exercise testing in an 8-18-year-old population is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 175 healthy school children (8-18 years old). Continuous

  19. Normal Foetal Middle Cerebral Arteries Doppler Velocimetry; Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doppler assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one method of evaluating foetus before delivery and can determine foetuses at risk in high risk pregnancies. This study was done to determine the normal reference values of foetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in our population. One hundred and forty ...

  20. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyper.lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Subjects and Methods: LSA was measured by the Fergusonfs technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between ...

  1. The effect of normal saline instillation on cardiorespiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of normal saline instillation on cardiorespiratory parameters in intubated cardiothoracic patients. ... S Schmollgruber, JC Bruce, JC Rachidi, PJ Becker ... Even though the patient population was at high risk of haemodynamic disturbance and hypoxia during this manoeuvre, there was no meaningful clinical effect; ...

  2. Normal reference values for thyroid uptake of technetium-99m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Historically, changes in normal thyroid uptake values for iodine have been reported in different geographical areas. These changes have been linked to geographical and chronological fluctuations in dietary iodine intake in different populations. Namibia is a country with mixed ethnicity, with access to dietary ...

  3. Relationship between age, radiographic normal heart size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) is now on the increase. The precise diagnosis of CVD is of immense clinical importance to the cardiac surgeons, pathologist and also for cardiologists. However, information on normal values for various cardio-vascular structures in Nigeria, a country with the highest population ...

  4. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.


    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  5. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.


    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  6. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras


    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  7. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)


    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  8. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal? (United States)

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting


    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  9. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print Normal vaginal discharge ...

  10. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data. (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G


    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  11. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.


    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Evolution des caractéristiques physico-chimiques de deux zones de frayères à sédimentation contrastée et premiers résultats de survie embryo-larvaire de truite commune (Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSA F.


    Full Text Available L'impact chimique et physique de la sédimentation sur la survie d'oeufs de Salmonidés a été étudié dans la partie amont de deux ruisseaux d'un même bassin à production salmonicole contrastée : le Moulinet qui présente une faible population de truites et la Roche qui est un ruisseau très productif. Les matières en suspension et les sédiments déposés ont été collectés à un pas de temps de 8 ou 15 jours en 1996 et 1997 et les survies embryo-larvaires ont été estimées en parallèle, dans des incubateurs artificiels. Les taux de survie ont été déterminés à l'émergence en 1996 et de la fécondation à l'éclosion, puis de l'éclosion à l'émergence en 1997. Les paramètres chimiques de l'eau interstitielle (oxygène, pH, nitrates, nitrites et ammoniac ont été mesurés au pas de temps de la semaine pendant la période d'incubation 1997 sur des dispositifs enfouis dans le substrat du ruisseau et au moment de l'éclosion dans les incubateurs contenant les oeufs. Les premiers résultats montrent que les taux de survie embryo-larvaires sont nuls en 1996 et faibles en 1997 (0 à 11 %, moyenne : 3,3 % dans le ruisseau du Moulinet alors que parallèlement, la survie est de 20 % sur un incubateur en 1996 et varie de 0 à 23 % en 1997 (moyenne : 7,7 % dans le ruisseau de la Roche. De l'éclosion à l'émergence, les survies sont supérieures à 80 % dans les deux ruisseaux. La sédimentation est contrastée sur les deux sites, plus forte en masse dans le ruisseau de la Roche pendant la période d'incubation mais de granulométrie beaucoup plus grossière que dans le ruisseau du Moulinet (sableuse dominante contre argilolimoneuse. Les teneurs en oxygène dissous mesurées dans le substrat de la Roche restent élevées pendant toute la période d'incubation (teneur minimum de 5 mg/l et sont significativement supérieures à celles mesurées dans le ruisseau du Moulinet pendant la deuxième partie de l'incubation 1997. D'autre part

  13. Population Ethics


    BLACKORBY, Charles; BOSSERT, Walter; DONALDSON, David


    This paper reviews the welfarist approach to population ethics. We provide an overview of the critical-level utilitarian population principles and their generalized counterparts, examine important properties of these principles and discuss their relationships to other variable-population social-evaluation rules. We illustrate the difficulties arising in population ethics by means of an impossibility result and present characterizations of the critical-level generalized-utilitarian principles ...

  14. Normalization in human somatosensory cortex. (United States)

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Arnedo, Vanessa; Offen, Shani; Heeger, David J; Grant, Arthur C


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human somatosensory cortex and to test for cross-digit suppression. Subjects received stimulation (vibration of varying amplitudes) to the right thumb (target) with or without concurrent stimulation of the right middle finger (mask). Subjects were less sensitive to target stimulation (psychophysical detection thresholds were higher) when target and mask digits were stimulated concurrently compared with when the target was stimulated in isolation. fMRI voxels in a region of the left postcentral gyrus each responded when either digit was stimulated. A regression model (called a forward model) was used to separate the fMRI measurements from these voxels into two hypothetical channels, each of which responded selectively to only one of the two digits. For the channel tuned to the target digit, responses in the left postcentral gyrus increased with target stimulus amplitude but were suppressed by concurrent stimulation to the mask digit, evident as a shift in the gain of the response functions. For the channel tuned to the mask digit, a constant baseline response was evoked for all target amplitudes when the mask was absent and responses decreased with increasing target amplitude when the mask was concurrently presented. A computational model based on divisive normalization provided a good fit to the measurements for both mask-absent and target + mask stimulation. We conclude that the normalization model can explain cross-digit suppression in human somatosensory cortex, supporting the hypothesis that normalization is a canonical neural computation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  16. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.


    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  17. Normal indices in Nikishin systems


    Branquinho, A.; Bustamante, J.; Foulquié Moreno, A.; López Lagomasino, G.


    9 pages, no figures.-- MSC1991 code: Primary 42C05. MR#: MR2016675 (2004k:41025) Zbl#: Zbl 1035.41010 We improve the class of indices for which normality takes place in a Nikishin system and apply this in Hermite–Padé approximation of such systems of functions. A.B. thanks support from Grants PRAXIS XXI BCC-22201/99 and INTAS 00-272, J.B. from grant CONACYT 32181-E, A.F.M. from Grants PRAXIS XXI BPD-20396/99 and INTAS 00-272, G.L.L. from Grants PRAXIS XXI BCC-22201/99, BFM 2000-02...

  18. Population Research. (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  19. Population Education. (United States)

    Shashidhar, B.; And Others

    Population education has assumed enormous importance in the national and international arena, since population changes influence the quality of life of individuals, families, the nation and the world as a whole. Population education has, however, special significance to India since young persons below the age of 15 are reported to form about 42%…

  20. Propagation du bruit des erreurs expérimentales dans les modèles théoriques gérés par des systèmes linéaires. Deux applications en transfert thermique (United States)

    Depecker, P.; Draoui, A.; Beghein, Cl.


    This paper reports sensitivity analysis relative to the field of uncertainty of experimental measured parameters used as model imputs. After describing the experimental uncertainty and its consequences, we present the mathematical tool adapted to models based on linear system resolution. Using examples from heat transfer field, we report two of the most common situations arising to the physicist. The former situation comes up to the experimenter who cannot determine directly some characteristics of his physical system. As the direct measurement of these characteristics is impossible, they are calculated from a model representing the experimental set up. The latter occurs to the model builder, who developes a theoretical model. Building such a model requires knowledge of physical basic characteristics, supposed to be previously determined from experimental measurement. In both cases, measurement induces unertainties spreading into the models. The first application of these principles deals with the study of radiant emitters in real scale dwelling cells. The second one refers to the modeling of coupled heat transfer in a semi-transparent medium such as glass. From both examples, the author point out that the stability of model solutions should be checked, such a stability being not a priori detectable. Ce texte introduit la notion de sensibilité des modèles aux incertitudes avec lesquelles on connaît les paramètres mesurés expérimentalement (donc entachés d'erreurs) entrant dans le formalisme de ces modèles. Après avoir exposé une problématique générale de l'erreur expérimentale et de ses conséquences, on décrit l'outillage mathématique permettant de cerner la question dans le cas des modèles fondés sur des systèmes linéaires. On s'intéresse ensuite aux deux situations les plus classiques dans lesquelles peut se trouver le physicien, en s'appuyant sur des exemples empruntés au domaine des transferts thermiques. La première est celle de l

  1. Analysis of the leukemia cases occurrence at Vauhallan (Essonne); Analyse de la survenue de deux cas de leucemie a Vauhallan (Essonne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The researches and environmental measurements realised at Vauhallan did not allow to assume a link between an environmental exposure of the population and the occurrence of the two cases of leukemia. In the lack of new hypothesis, the technical group has decided to not pursue the local investigations but to keep, at systematic title, the sanitary surveillance of the commune by a regular questioning of the national register of children leukemia and lymphomas. it is to notice that only studies at a broader scale , as the three national studies of I.n.s.e.r.m., actually running, are in a position to bring new knowledge on the risk factors of children leukemia as well their spatial distribution. (N.C.)

  2. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick


    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  3. The KRAKEN normal mode program (United States)

    Porter, M. B.


    In the late 1970's, several normal-mode models existed which were widely used for predicting acoustic transmission-loss in the ocean; however, each had its own problems. Typical difficulties included numerical instabilities for certain types of sound-speed profiles and failures to compute a complete set of ocean modes. In short, there was a need for a model that was robust, accurate, and efficient. In order to resolve these problems, a new algorithm was developed forming the basis for the KRAKEN normal mode model. Over subsequent years, KRAKEN was greatly extended, with options for modeling ocean environments that are range-independent, range-dependent, or fully 3-dimensional. The current version offers the specialist a vast number of options for treating ocean-acoustics problems (or more generally acousto-elastic waveguides). On the other hand, it is easy for a less sophisticated user to learn the small subset of tools needed for the common problem of transmission-loss modeling in range-independent ocean environments. This report addresses the need for a more complete user's guide to supplement the on-line help files. The first chapters give a fairly technical description of the mathematical and numerical basis of the model. Additional chapters give a simpler description of its use and installation in a manner that is accessible to less scientifically-oriented readers.

  4. Etude théorique et expérimentale de la liaison de deux puits par fracturation hydraulique Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Linking of Two Wells by Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouteca M.


    Full Text Available La nécessité de réaliser, dans une couche mince et située à plus de 1000 m de profondeur, une communication hydraulique ou pneumatique entre deux sondages verticaux, a conduit à l'étude d'une méthode basée sur la fracturation hydraulique des puits à relier. Une telle approche suppose que l'on connaisse ou que l'on contrôle la direction des fractures développées. Les techniques actuelles ne permettant pas d'apprécier la direction de fracture avec une précision suffisante, la méthode proposée vise à influencer favorablement cette direction. Elle est basée sur une modification des contraintes effectives en place par une injection préalable de fluide dans les puits à relier. Les résultats obtenus au moyen de calculs analytiques et numériques à deux dimensions sont présentés, ainsi que les expériences réalisées sur un modèle physique en laboratoire. In a thin layer and at a depth of more than 1000 meters, the need to create a hydraulic or pneumatic communication between two vertical boreholes led to research on a method based on hydraulic fracturing in the wells to be linked. Such an approach supposes that the direction of the fractures thus created must be known or controlled. Current techniques cannot be used to assess fracture direction with sufficient accuracy. The method proposed here aims to have a favorable influence on this direction. It is based on making a change in the effective stresses in situ by the prior injection of fluid into the wells to be linked. The results obtained by two-dimensional analytical and digital computing are described together with the experiments performed on a physical model in the laboratory.

  5. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  6. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6 ... Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their three-point smoothing methods were studied using LIBS for ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Ivanchuk


    Full Text Available The main methods for assessing normality were described. As an example, multiple samples from clinical research were tested for normality using graphical (the histogram and t he normal probability plot, and statistical methods. The majority of clinical samples were not normally distributed (60 %. The practical recommendations were provided.

  8. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.


    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  9. CT in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Nogaki, Hidekazu; Noda, Masaya; Kusunoki, Tadaki; Tamaki, Norihiko


    CT scans were obtained on 33 patients (age 73y. to 31y.) with the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. In each case, the diagnosis was made on the basis of the symptoms, CT and cisternographic findings. Underlying diseases of normal pressure hydrocephalus are ruptured aneurysms (21 cases), arteriovenous malformations (2 cases), head trauma (1 case), cerebrovascular accidents (1 case) and idiopathie (8 cases). Sixteen of 33 patients showed marked improvement, five, moderate or minimal improvement, and twelve, no change. The results were compared with CT findings and clinical response to shunting. CT findings were classified into five types, bases on the degree of periventricular hypodensity (P.V.H.), the extent of brain damage by underlying diseases, and the degree of cortical atrophy. In 17 cases of type (I), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. with or without minimal frontal lobe damage and no cortical atrophy. The good surgical improvements were achieved in all cases of type (I) by shunting. In 4 cases of type (II), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. and severe brain damage without cortical atrophy. The fair clinical improvements were achieved in 2 cases (50%) by shunting. In one case of type (III), CT shows the absence of P.V.H. without brain damage nor cortical atrophy. No clinical improvement was obtained by shunting in this type. In 9 cases of type (IV) with mild cortical atrophy, the fair clinical improvement was achieved in two cases (22%) and no improvement in 7 cases. In 2 cases of type (V) with moderate or marked cortical atrophy, no clinical improvement was obtained by shunting. In conclusion, it appeared from the present study that there was a good correlation between the result of shunting and the type of CT, and clinical response to shunting operation might be predicted by classification of CT findings. (author)

  10. Evaluating somatic tumor mutation detection without matched normal samples. (United States)

    Teer, Jamie K; Zhang, Yonghong; Chen, Lu; Welsh, Eric A; Cress, W Douglas; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E


    Observations of recurrent somatic mutations in tumors have led to identification and definition of signaling and other pathways that are important for cancer progression and therapeutic targeting. As tumor cells contain both an individual's inherited genetic variants and somatic mutations, challenges arise in distinguishing these events in massively parallel sequencing datasets. Typically, both a tumor sample and a "normal" sample from the same individual are sequenced and compared; variants observed only in the tumor are considered to be somatic mutations. However, this approach requires two samples for each individual. We evaluate a method of detecting somatic mutations in tumor samples for which only a subset of normal samples are available. We describe tuning of the method for detection of mutations in tumors, filtering to remove inherited variants, and comparison of detected mutations to several matched tumor/normal analysis methods. Filtering steps include the use of population variation datasets to remove inherited variants as well a subset of normal samples to remove technical artifacts. We then directly compare mutation detection with tumor-only and tumor-normal approaches using the same sets of samples. Comparisons are performed using an internal targeted gene sequencing dataset (n = 3380) as well as whole exome sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project (n = 250). Tumor-only mutation detection shows similar recall (43-60%) but lesser precision (20-21%) to current matched tumor/normal approaches (recall 43-73%, precision 30-82%) when compared to a "gold-standard" tumor/normal approach. The inclusion of a small pool of normal samples improves precision, although many variants are still uniquely detected in the tumor-only analysis. A detailed method for somatic mutation detection without matched normal samples enables study of larger numbers of tumor samples, as well as tumor samples for which a matched normal is not available. As sensitivity

  11. [Population education]. (United States)


    Goal of population education is to raise knowledge and comprehension of causes and consequences, either personal or social, of excessive population growth. These days it is possible to plan the growth and evolution of the population to reach a level of balance and harmony between number of inhabitants of a country, and the country's natural resoruces. general objectives of population education are: 1) knowledge of basic demographic processes; 2) knowledge of effects of evolution and growth of population on social and economic life inside the family and inside society; 3) family size as related to nutrition, health, education, and job; and, 4) knowledge of population dynamics which the individual can influence through personal behavior, i.e. age at marriage, and spacing and number of children.

  12. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass? (United States)

    New, Susan A


    Public health strategies targeting the prevention of poor bone health on a population-wide basis are urgently required, with particular emphasis being placed on modifiable factors such as nutrition. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on indices of skeletal integrity to address specifically whether vegetarians have a normal bone mass. Analysis of existing literature, through a combination of observational, clinical and intervention studies were assessed in relation to bone health for the following: lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets versus omnivorous, predominantly meat diets, consumption of animal versus vegetable protein, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Mechanisms of action for a dietary "component" effect were examined and other potential dietary differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were also explored. Key findings included: (i) no differences in bone health indices between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores; (ii) conflicting data for protein effects on bone with high protein consumption (particularly without supporting calcium/alkali intakes) and low protein intake (particularly with respect to vegan diets) being detrimental to the skeleton; (iii) growing support for a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable intake on bone, with mechanisms of action currently remaining unclarified. The impact of a "vegetarian" diet on bone health is a hugely complex area since: 1) components of the diet (such as calcium, protein, alkali, vitamin K, phytoestrogens) may be varied; 2) key lifestyle factors which are important to bone (such as physical activity) may be different; 3) the tools available for assessing consumption of food are relatively weak. However, from data available and given the limitations stipulated above, "vegetarians" do certainly appear to have "normal" bone mass. What remains our challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under

  13. Trace Pair Filtering for Separation of Upgoing and Downgoing Waves in Vsp (Vertical Seismic Profile Filtrage à deux canaux pour la séparation des ondes montantes et descendantes en PSV (Profil Sismique Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.


    of upgoing waves and sensitivity to first arrival time estimates. La plupart des algorithmes utilisés pour la séparation des ondes montantes et descendantes en PSV font l'hypothèse que le signal est stationnaire en fonction de la profondeur sur toutes les traces utilisées dans le filtre de séparation. Cependant, le signal ne peut plus être supposé stationnaire lorsque les filtres sont appliqués sur une fenêtre en profondeur trop grande (100-200 m. Par contre, la stationnarité du signal peut être considérée comme une hypothèse physiquement raisonnable pour deux positions voisines de la sonde (5-20 m. Cet article présente trois algorithmes pour la séparation des ondes montantes et descendantes, qui ne nécessitent que deux traces adjacentes et les temps de première arrivée sur chacune des traces. Dans la mesure où il n'existe pas de discontinuités géologiques entre ces traces, les algorithmes sont indépendants de la distance en profondeur entre traces. Le premier algorithme (solution pseudo-théorique travaille dans le domaine fréquentiel. La séparation des ondes est obtenue par résolution d'un système de deux équations à deux inconnues pour chaque fréquence. Cette opération est effectuée dans la bande passante correspondant à la meilleure cohérence. Le second algorithme (solution simple réalise une addition et soustraction, basées sur la semblance des signaux, des traces décalées en temps. Le troisième algorithme (solution de Wiener utilise un filtre de Wiener pour prédire le champ d'ondes le plus énergique, qui correspond généralement aux ondes descendantes. Les ondes montantes sont ensuite obtenues par soustraction des ondes montantes estimées, au champ d'ondes total. Le filtre de Wiener peut être ensuite de nouveau appliqué aux ondes montantes de façon à les renforcer. La solution pseudo-théorique et la solution simple réalisent des filtres en vitesse apparente de bande passante étroite, et sont applicables aux PSV

  14. Two Oil Types on the North Slope of Alaska. Implications for Future Exploration Les deux types d'huile du versant septentrional de l'Alaska. Implications pour l'exploration future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoon L. B.


    Full Text Available Forty oil samples from across the North Slope of Alaska have been analyzed by the US Bureau of Mines and the Us Geological Survey. Results of these analyses suggest two separate genetic oil types. The first type, the Simpson-Umiat oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Cretaceous and Quaternary age and includes oils from seeps in the Skull Cliff, Cape Simpson, Manning Point, and Ungoon Point areas; the Wolf Creek test well 3, and the Umiat oil field. These are higher gravity, low-sulfur oils with no, or slight, odd-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios greater than 1. 5. The second type, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Carboniferous to Cretataceous age and includes ails from South Barrow gas field, Prudhoe Bay oil field, and the Fish Creek test well 1. Physical properties of Barrow-Prudhoe oils are variable, but in general the oils are medium-gravity, high-sulfur oils with a slight even-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratio of less thon 1. 5. The two types are believed to originated from different source rocks; the Barrow-Prudhoe type may have originated from a carbonate or other iron-deficient source rock, and the Simpson-Umiat type from asiliciclastic source rock. Occurrences of fine two oil types, when outlined on a map, indicate atleast two exploration fairways. The fairway for the Barrow-Prudhoe type is along the Barrow arch, and the fairway, for the Simpson-Umiat type is the area of the best reservoir development for the Nanushuk Group. Quarante échantillons d'huile prélevés à travers le versant septentrional de l'Alaska ont été analysés par l'US Bureau of Mines et l'US Geological Survey. Les résultats de ces analyses suggèrent deux types séparés d'huile. Le premier, le type d'huile Simpson-Umiat, se trouve dans des roches magasins du Crétacé au Quaternaire et comprend des huiles des suintements des régions de la falaise Skull, du cap Simpson, de Point

  15. Encyclopédies du voyage et Cartoville. Pourquoi deux guides Gallimard consacrés à Lausanne ? Encyclopédies du voyage and Cartoville. Why two Gallimard guides of Lausanne?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Devanthéry


    Full Text Available Sur la route des voyageurs depuis plus de trois siècles et jouissant d’une localisation remarquable, la ville de Lausanne est une entrée courante des guides de voyage. Récemment, on a même vu les guides qui lui sont dédiés se multiplier de manière étonnante. Si l’on comprend clairement l’intérêt que les différentes maisons d’édition y trouvent, ainsi que les particularités de chacune de leurs réalisations, on peut toutefois s’interroger sur l’avantage que peut avoir un même éditeur à faire paraître deux guides distincts sur le même lieu. Et si la différence tenait justement au paysage ?Lausanne, part of travellers’ repertoire for over three centuries, enjoys a unique location and is frequently mentioned in travel guides. Guides devoted to it have mushroomed in the past few years. It is easy to understand the interest of Publishing Houses, just as the particular topics explored in their individual guides. Yet one still wonders what benefit a publisher may draw by issuing two distinct guides of the very same place. What if the difference lay precisely in the landscape?

  16. Des hommes entre deux communautés Men between two communities. Exil of clergymen converted to Protestantism (1631-1760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Boisson


    Full Text Available Aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, malgré la constante diminution de la population réformée dans le royaume de France, le calvinisme est demeuré attractif, même après la Révocation de l’édit de Nantes. Parmi les catholiques qui se convertissent à la Réforme protestante, on trouve des ecclésiastiques, quelque 450 ont pu être recensés entre 1631 et 1760. Or, dès les années 1660, en raison de la législation royale qui leur interdit de se convertir, les membres du clergé doivent émigrer vers les pays du Refuge. Ce texte propose d’étudier l’accueil réservé à ces hommes d’Église de la part des États protestants et des communautés françaises du Refuge, en particulier à Genève, aux Provinces-Unies et en Angleterre. Il semble en effet que la méfiance est très grande à l’égard de ces ecclésiastiques et que les Églises du Refuge ne cherchent pas à faire du prosélytisme, recherchant avant tout des conversions sincères. Mais, même après avoir embrassé le calvinisme, un sentiment de suspicion existe toujours.

  17. Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: evidence from longitudinal child data. (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth; Farrington, Charlie


    Speaker vowel formant normalization, a technique that controls for variation introduced by physical differences between speakers, is necessary in variationist studies to compare speakers of different ages, genders, and physiological makeup in order to understand non-physiological variation patterns within populations. Many algorithms have been established to reduce variation introduced into vocalic data from physiological sources. The lack of real-time studies tracking the effectiveness of these normalization algorithms from childhood through adolescence inhibits exploration of child participation in vowel shifts. This analysis compares normalization techniques applied to data collected from ten African American children across five time points. Linear regressions compare the reduction in variation attributable to age and gender for each speaker for the vowels BEET, BAT, BOT, BUT, and BOAR. A normalization technique is successful if it maintains variation attributable to a reference sociolinguistic variable, while reducing variation attributable to age. Results indicate that normalization techniques which rely on both a measure of central tendency and range of the vowel space perform best at reducing variation attributable to age, although some variation attributable to age persists after normalization for some sections of the vowel space. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  18. Predictive Models for Normal Fetal Cardiac Structures. (United States)

    Krishnan, Anita; Pike, Jodi I; McCarter, Robert; Fulgium, Amanda L; Wilson, Emmanuel; Donofrio, Mary T; Sable, Craig A


    Clinicians rely on age- and size-specific measures of cardiac structures to diagnose cardiac disease. No universally accepted normative data exist for fetal cardiac structures, and most fetal cardiac centers do not use the same standards. The aim of this study was to derive predictive models for Z scores for 13 commonly evaluated fetal cardiac structures using a large heterogeneous population of fetuses without structural cardiac defects. The study used archived normal fetal echocardiograms in representative fetuses aged 12 to 39 weeks. Thirteen cardiac dimensions were remeasured by a blinded echocardiographer from digitally stored clips. Studies with inadequate imaging views were excluded. Regression models were developed to relate each dimension to estimated gestational age (EGA) by dates, biparietal diameter, femur length, and estimated fetal weight by the Hadlock formula. Dimension outcomes were transformed (e.g., using the logarithm or square root) as necessary to meet the normality assumption. Higher order terms, quadratic or cubic, were added as needed to improve model fit. Information criteria and adjusted R 2 values were used to guide final model selection. Each Z-score equation is based on measurements derived from 296 to 414 unique fetuses. EGA yielded the best predictive model for the majority of dimensions; adjusted R 2 values ranged from 0.72 to 0.893. However, each of the other highly correlated (r > 0.94) biometric parameters was an acceptable surrogate for EGA. In most cases, the best fitting model included squared and cubic terms to introduce curvilinearity. For each dimension, models based on EGA provided the best fit for determining normal measurements of fetal cardiac structures. Nevertheless, other biometric parameters, including femur length, biparietal diameter, and estimated fetal weight provided results that were nearly as good. Comprehensive Z-score results are available on the basis of highly predictive models derived from gestational

  19. Normal temperature nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroshige.


    In a normal temperature nuclear fusion device, electromagnetic waves such as laser beams are irradiated to nuclear fusion fuels made of specific material to which heavy water, etc. are impregnated or adsorbed. That is, nuclear fusion fuels in the form of high pressure gas are sealed in a high pressure vessel and the specific material such as of palladium is made into a small spherical shape. Further, a storage vessel capable of supplying the specific material is provided and cooled if required. Lasers at a wavelength longer than that of sub-millimeter waves are used for the irradiation of the electromagnetic waves. If lasers are irradiated to the deuterium-adsorbing specific material, deuterium is rapidly applied with a kinetic energy to increase the cross sectional area of the nuclear fusion reaction. The adsorbing efficiency of deuterism to the specific material is improved by placing the specific material in the atmosphere of the nuclear fusion fuels in the form of the high pressure gas and making it into the small spherical shape. Further, cooling also improves the adsorbing efficiency of deuterium. In view of the above, continuous combustion can be conducted. (I.S.)

  20. Analysis of normal discourse patterns. (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca; Heuerman, Maranda; Wilson, Brenda M; Proctor, Adele


    Twenty-five normal young adult college students provided speaking and writing samples using two elicitation procedures: picture description and personal narrative. Patterns of productivity, efficiency, and coherence were investigated while considering the demands imposed by mode of expression, task elicitation, cognitive distance, and verbal working memory. Samples were divided into top (S1) and bottom (S2) halves. Within group (S1/S2) and between group (pictured activity description/personal narrative) comparisons were made for oral vs. written samples, and performance measures were correlated with verbal working memory scores. Results indicated that the productivity measure was influenced by the type of elicitation task and was not related to verbal working memory scores. Efficiency was influenced by mode of expression and demonstrated a low correlation with verbal working memory scores. Coherence ratings were not influenced by type of elicitation task, mode of expression, or length of sample, and were not related to verbal working memory scores. Results are discussed in terms of the clinical utility of these discourse measures.

  1. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian


    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  2. Population Blocks. (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.


    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  3. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

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    Małgorzata Lipowska


    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  4. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar


    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  5. Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (United States)

    Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Skoog, Ingmar; Wikkelsø, Carsten


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in elderly persons in a large population-based sample using radiologic and clinical examinations. Methods: We examined representative elderly populations aged 70 years and older that had undergone neuropsychiatric evaluations and CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000 (n = 1,238). Gait was evaluated by clinical examination and history of walking difficulty. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination and urinary incontinence by self-report. iNPH was diagnosed in concordance with the American-European iNPH guidelines. Exclusion criteria were history of meningitis, severe head trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results: The prevalence of probable iNPH was 0.2% in those aged 70–79 years (n = 2) and 5.9% (n = 24) in those aged 80 years and older, with no difference between men and women. Only 2 of these persons had been treated for iNPH. Hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., a CT image consistent with NPH, was found in 56 persons (4.5%). An Evans Index >0.3 was found in 256 (20.7%) and occluded sulci at the high convexity in 67 persons (5.4%). All of these findings were more common in the older age groups. Conclusions: Many elderly possess clinical and imaging features of iNPH, especially those older than 80 years. The number of persons with iNPH is probably much higher than the number of persons currently treated. PMID:24682964

  6. Normal and Starburst Galaxies in Deep X-ray Surveys (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann


    This talk will cover progress of the last several years in unraveling the nature of normal and starburst galaxies in deep X-ray surveys. This includes discussion of the normal galaxy X-ray Luminosity Function in deep field and cluster surveys and what it tells us about the binary populations in galaxies. The utility of broad band X-ray emission, especially as compared to other multiwavelength measurements of current/recent star formation, will be reviewed. These broad band X-ray measurements of star formation are based upon X-ray/Star Formation Rate correlations that span the currently available redshift range (0 starburst galaxies in the more local Universe. Understanding the outflows in such starburst galaxies is of critical importance to constraining the "stellar" portion of cosmic feedback. The talk will close with a brief discussion of distant normal galaxy science with future X-ray observatories such as the upcoming Con-X/XEUS mission(s).

  7. Population crises and population cycles. (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M


    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  8. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov


    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  9. Normalizing fibromyalgia as a chronic illness. (United States)

    Clauw, Daniel J; D'Arcy, Yvonne; Gebke, Kevin; Semel, David; Pauer, Lynne; Jones, Kim D


    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic disease that affects 3-10% of the general adult population and is principally characterized by widespread pain, and is often associated with disrupted sleep, fatigue, and comorbidities, among other symptoms. There are many gaps in our knowledge of FM, such that, compared with other chronic illnesses including diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma, it is far behind in terms of provider understanding and therapeutic approaches. The experience that healthcare professionals (HCPs) historically gained in developing approaches to manage and treat patients with these chronic illnesses may help show how they can address similar problems in patients with FM. In this review, we examine some of the issues around the management and treatment of FM, and discuss how HCPs can implement appropriate strategies for the benefit of patients with FM. These issues include understanding that FM is a legitimate condition, the benefits of prompt diagnosis, use of non-drug and pharmacotherapies, patient and HCP education, watchful waiting, and assessing patients by FM domain so as not to focus exclusively on one symptom to the detriment of others. Developing successful approaches is of particular importance for HCPs in the primary care setting who are in the ideal position to provide long-term care for patients with FM. In this way, FM may be normalized as a chronic illness to the benefit of both patients and HCPs.

  10. Understanding the work of telehealth implementation using Normalization Process Theory


    Morrison, Janet Gwyneth


    This dissertation uses the theoretical constructs of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to examine the successful implementation of an innovative telehealth service that delivers occupational health nursing services to a large healthcare employee population over a wide geographic area. Telehealth services have come to be regarded as a possible means to improve access to health care services, clinical efficiency, and cost effectiveness in an era where there are shrinking resources and growing ...

  11. Population policy. (United States)


    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.


    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  13. Population adiposity and climate change. (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian


    The increasing global prevalence of overweight and obesity has serious implications for the environment, as well as for health. We estimate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of increases in the population distribution of body mass index (BMI). We estimated the food energy required to maintain basal metabolic rate in two hypothetical adult populations using the Schofield equations for males and females. Additional greenhouse gas emissions due to higher fuel energy use for transporting a heavier population were estimated. Compared with a normal population distribution of BMI, a population with 40% obese requires 19% more food energy for its total energy expenditure. Greenhouse gas emissions from food production and car travel due to increases in adiposity in a population of 1 billion are estimated to be between 0.4 Giga tonnes (GT) and 1.0 GT of carbon dioxide equivalents per year. The maintenance of a healthy BMI has important environmental benefits in terms of lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  15. The effect of normal personality, psychopathy and attachment on anti-and prosocial outcomes


    Baess, Kathleen


    Psychopathy is a dangerous form of antisocial personality that is associated with aggressive and delinquent behaviour. This thesis investigated psychopathic traits in the normal population to assess the relationship to antisocial and prosocial behaviour. This was examined both psychometrically and behaviourally. Furthermore, it was examined if emotion-processing deficits existed between individuals with high and low psychopathic traits in the normal population. \\ud Study 1 examined if standar...

  16. La précarité : une catégorie d’analyse pertinente des enjeux de la norme d’emploi et des situations sociales « d’entre-deux »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Bresson


    Full Text Available Le présent article propose de prolonger le débat sur « La précarité » commencé dans la livraison de SociologieS mise en ligne le 27 septembre 2010. Il met en perspective les analyses d’Henri Eckert et Mircea Vultur, et propose une grille d’analyse de la précarité ou plus exactement, ici, des emplois dits « atypiques ». L’auteure invite à distinguer d’une part, les représentations sociales et les ressentis « subjectifs » des individus ; d’autre part, les processus économiques et sociaux associés aux transformations du marché du travail, afin de mieux articuler ensuite ces deux dimensions, en insistant sur l’enjeu de la norme d’emploi, et sur l’idée « d’entre-deux » proposée comme clé de lecture de la précarité.Precariousness: a pertinent analysis of the standard of employment issues and of "in-between" social situationsThis paper proposes to extend the debate on "Precariousness" started in SociologieS online on September 27, 2010. It puts into perspective analyses of Henry Eckert and Mircea Vultur, and offers an analysis of precariousness, or more precisely, here, jobs as "atypical". The author invites to distinguish, on the one hand, social representations and how individualsfeel subjectively the precariousness; on the other hand, economic and social processes associated to changes in the labour market, in order to better articulate these two dimensions, with particular emphasis on the issue of the standard of employment, and on the idea of "in-between" proposed as a key to reading the precariousness.¿Es la precariedad un concepto pertinente en lo que concierne la problemática del empleo y des situaciones sociales ambiguas?Este artículo es la continuación del debate sobe la precariedad publicado en la red en Sociologies el 27 septiembre de 2010. Pone en perspectiva los análisis de Henri Eckert y de Mircea Vultur y presenta un panel de análisis de la precariedad en particular de los

  17. Comparaison de l'altérabilité au brouillard salin des deux pierres calcaires de construction au moyen des mesures pondérales acoustiques et par traitement d'images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birginie, J. M.


    Full Text Available Not available

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio comparativo de la resistencia a la alteración en atmósfera de niebla salina de dos rocas calizas utilizadas en la construcción de monumentos en Francia y en España. Las modificaciones experimentadas por las probetas durante este ensayo se han valorado utilizando tres métodos: la medida de la evolución del peso, la medida de la velocidad de propagación de ultrasonidos y el análisis visual de las modificaciones superficiales por un sistema de barrido mediante luz láser de las superficies (método de triangulación luz láser-cámara y posterior tratamiento de imágenes. La comparación de los resultados obtenidos muestra que los tres métodos ofrecen una información complementaria que permite caracterizar de manera precisa el proceso de alteración y su evolución durante el ensayo. Es, sin embargo, el método de análisis mediante el sistema láser-cámara el que ofrece más posibilidades para describir y comparar de manera objetiva la morfología y la evolución de la desagregación arenosa observada sobre las dos rocas calizas alteradas artificialmente. [fr] Nous présentons les résultats d'une étude comparative de la résistance à l'altération au brouillard salin de deux pierres utilisées dans la construction de monuments en France et en Espagne. Les transformations subies par les échantillons au cours de l'essai de vieillissement ont été évaluées eu utilisant trois méthodes: l'évolution de la masse, la mesure de la vitesse de propagation d'ultrasons et l'analyse visuelle automatisée des désagrégations superficielles au moyen d'un système de balayage par plan laser de la surface (triangulation laser-caméra. La comparaison de l'ensemble de ces résultats démontre que les trois méthodes non destructives fournissent des informations complémentaires qui permettent de caractériser les processus d'altération et leur évolution. C'est néanmoins l

  18. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d

  19. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques


    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  20. Rapport du groupe de travail. Statistiques et nouvelles tendances de localisation des populations et des activités sur le territoire



    Le groupe de travail « Statistiques et nouvelles tendances de localisation des populations et des activités sur le territoire » est issu d’une demande conjointe des formations « Urbanisme et logement » et « Statistiques régionales et locales » du Cnis. Toutes deux ont souhaité que les utilisateurs de la statistique publique, et notamment tous les acteurs des projets touchant au développement des territoires, puissent disposer à moyen terme des outils statistiques nécessaires pour caractériser...

  1. Dancing with the regulations - Part Deux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.


    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States has long been subjected to two very similar regulations depending upon the location. Disposal sites located on Department of Energy (DOE) Reservations are subject to DOE Order 5820.2A open-quotes Radioactive Waste Management,close quotes while disposal sites located elsewhere are subject to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation 10 CFR 61 open-quotes Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.close quotes While life was not necessarily good, there was only one sheet of music to dance to. Recently a new player, named CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act), has ridden into those DOE towns, and for those whose disposal facilities lie within or adjacent to Superfund sites, she has brought along a different drum to dance to. This paper discusses the differences and similarities between the different dance partners and their associated musical scores (i.e., the performance assessment (PA) required by the DOE order and the baseline risk assessment (BRA) required by CERCLA). The paper then provides a brief discussion on the latest dancer to cut in: the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). This discussion should help to alleviate the confusion while dancing on the LLW disposal regulatory ballroom floor

  2. Dancing with the regulations - Part Deux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States has long been subjected to two very similar regulations depending upon the location. Disposal sites located on Department of Energy (DOE) Reservations are subject to DOE Order 5820.2A {open_quotes}Radioactive Waste Management,{close_quotes} while disposal sites located elsewhere are subject to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation 10 CFR 61 {open_quotes}Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.{close_quotes} While life was not necessarily good, there was only one sheet of music to dance to. Recently a new player, named CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act), has ridden into those DOE towns, and for those whose disposal facilities lie within or adjacent to Superfund sites, she has brought along a different drum to dance to. This paper discusses the differences and similarities between the different dance partners and their associated musical scores (i.e., the performance assessment (PA) required by the DOE order and the baseline risk assessment (BRA) required by CERCLA). The paper then provides a brief discussion on the latest dancer to cut in: the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). This discussion should help to alleviate the confusion while dancing on the LLW disposal regulatory ballroom floor.

  3. Deux comparatismes pour une anthropologie historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Dittmar


    Full Text Available Malgré des appels répétés depuis plus d’un siècle de la part des historiens, le comparatisme, qui est un élément majeur de l’anthropologie, demeure très peu pratiqué. Ce rejet est ici analysé comme un refus d’une quête des invariants de l’homme qui aboutirait à des résultats an-historiques. Un autre comparatisme est cependant possible, qui instrumentalise la confrontation des univers pour mieux relever les différences. C’est les conditions et les avantages d’une telle pratique qui sont ici exposés, à partir de l’exemple des tabous alimentaires.Despite the repeated calls by some historians for more than a century, many seldom practice a major element of anthropology: comparativism. This paper will analyze this rejection as a refusal to investigate the constants of the human experience that lead to a-historical conclusions. However, another kind of comparativism is possible, one that examines the contrast between cultures in order to better understand their differences. Using the case of dietary taboos, this paper will look at the conditions and advantages of such a practice.Nonostante i molteplici appelli da più di un secolo da parte degli storici, il comparatismo, che costituisce un elemento fondamentale dell’antropologia, è ancora oggi troppo poco spesso praticato. Si proporrà di interpretare questo rifiuto come un rifiuto della ricerca di invarianti umane che condurrebbe a risultati a-storici. Un’altra forma di comparatismo è nondimeno possibile, una forma precisamente che ricorre al confronto di universi diversi per meglio comprenderne le difference reciproche. L’articolo espone le condizioni e i vantaggi di questa metodologia di ricerca, a partire dall’esempio degli interdetti alimentari.

  4. Deux entretiens avec Colum McCann


    Maudet, Cécile


    Introduction Il n'est que d'évoquer quelques-uns des nombreux prix que Colum McCann a reçus pour comprendre que la critique internationale s’accorde à reconnaître en lui un auteur talentueux. On peut citer le très prestigieux National Book Award (pour Let the Great World Spin), le Rooney Prize (pour Fishing the Sloe-Black River), le Pushcart Prize (pour sa nouvelle « As Kingfishers Catch Fire ») ou encore le American Academy of Arts and Letters Award, ainsi que le titre de « meilleur écrivain...

  5. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert


    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  6. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  7. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.


    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  8. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil


    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19 ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  9. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.


    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 17, 2003 ... This study compared two maize populations, ZM601 and. ZM607 for drought tolerance during flowering, the most drought-vulnerable period for the maize plant. Cultivar. ZM601 had been improved through ...... Banziger, M., Pixley, K.V. and Zambezi, B.T.. 1999. Drought andNstress tolerance of maize.

  11. Euler characteristic and quadrilaterals of normal surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, if F is an oriented, closed and connected normal surface of genus g, g ≤. 7. 2. Q. DEFINITION 1.2. Let F be a normal surface in M. Let t be a normal triangle of F that lies in a tetrahedron . The triangle t is said to link a vertex v of if t separates ∂ into two disks such that the disk containing v has no other vertices of .

  12. Normal spirometry values in healthy elderly: the Rotterdam Study. (United States)

    Loth, Daan Willem; Ittermann, Till; Lahousse, Lies; Hofman, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert Gerardus Maria; Brusselle, Guy Gaston; Stricker, Bruno Hugo


    Although many different reference values for spirometry are available from various studies, the elderly are usually underrepresented. Therefore, our objective was to assess reference values in a sample of healthy participants from a prospective population-based cohort study, including a large proportion of elderly. We included spirometry measurements of healthy, never smokers, from the Rotterdam Study and excluded participants with respiratory symptoms or prescriptions for respiratory medication. Age- and height-specific curves for the 5th (lower limit of normal) and the 50th (median) percentile of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and the ratio (FEV1/FVC) were calculated by quantile regression models. The group of healthy elderly study subjects consisted of 1,125 individuals, with a mean age of 68 years, ranging from 47 to 96 years of age. Sex stratified equations for the median and the lower limit of normal were calculated adjusted for age and height. In this study, we report age- and height-dependent reference limits for FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC in a large population, and prediction equations for the lower limit of normal and median values for a sample containing a large proportion of healthy elderly.

  13. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick


    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  14. Coupling Immunodeficiency factors to a normal cell system growing conjointly with tumor cells (United States)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Witten, Tarynn M.


    In this work, we modify Witten's conjoint normal-tumor cell model in order to incorporate the presence of a simple immune system. We first examine the behavior of normal and tumor cells when tumor cells interact with surrounding normal cells. We then extend our model and add the effects of a simple immune system, immune-suppression factors and immune-chemotherapeutics agents. The evolution of the system variables is investigated via computer simulation. We show that the evolution of normal and tumor cells population is significantly affected by the choice of drug or immunodeficiency.

  15. Extension of the Lifespan of Cultured Normal Human Diploid Cells by Vitamin E (United States)

    Packer, Lester; Smith, James R.


    Inclusion of vitamin E (DL-α-tocopherol) in the culture medium for human diploid cells greatly prolongs their in vitro lifespan. The addition of 100 μg of DL-α-tocopherol per ml of medium has allowed us to culture WI-38 cells for more than 100 population doublings to date. (These cells normally have an in vitro lifespan of 50 ± 10 population doublings.) Cells at the 100th population doubling have a normal diploid karyotype, appear to behave in all other respects like young WI-38 cells, and are still actively dividing. We interpret this result as support for the free radical theory of aging. Images PMID:4531015

  16. Population Aging


    David Weil


    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  17. Stickleback Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Candolin


    Full Text Available Human-induced eutrophication has increased offspring production in a population of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of an increased density of juveniles on behaviours that influence survival and dispersal, and, hence, population growth—habitat choice, risk taking, and foraging rate. Juveniles were allowed to choose between two habitats that differed in structural complexity, in the absence and presence of predators and conspecific juveniles. In the absence of predators or conspecifics, juveniles preferred the more complex habitat. The preference was further enhanced in the presence of a natural predator, a perch Perca fluviatilis (behind a transparent Plexiglas wall. However, an increased density of conspecifics relaxed the predator-enhanced preference for the complex habitat and increased the use of the open, more predator-exposed habitat. Foraging rate was reduced under increased perceived predation risk. These results suggest that density-dependent behaviours can cause individuals to choose suboptimal habitats where predation risk is high and foraging rate low. This could contribute to the regulation of population growth in eutrophicated areas where offspring production is high.

  18. Product of normal edge transitive Cayley graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Assari


    Full Text Available For two normal edge transitive Cayley graphs on two groups H and K whichhave no common direct factor and gcd(|H|/|H'|, |Z(K| = 1 = gcd(|K=K′|,|Z(H|,we consider four standard product of them and proved that only tensor product ofthem can be normal edge transitive.

  19. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass


    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the day...

  20. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I


    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  1. On normal modes in classical Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    Normal modes of Hamittonian systems that are even and of classical type are characterized as the critical points of a normalized kinetic energy functional on level sets of the potential energy functional. With the aid of this constrained variational formulation the existence of at least one family

  2. On the normality of secant varieties


    Ullery, Brooke


    In this paper, we show that the secant variety to a smooth projective variety embedded by a sufficiently positive line bundle is normal. As an application, we deduce that the secant variety to a general canonical curve of genus at least 7 is normal.

  3. Transient Evoked aotacoustic emissions otologically normal adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To examine the effects of aging on the existence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in normal adult. Material and methods 40 subjects ( 30 males, 10 females) aged between 20-60 years were divided into 4 groups by representing. All patients were screened to insure otologically normal subjects based on ...

  4. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in idiopathic normal pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricle in the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods: 16 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This study lasted three years. All patients were over 50 ...

  5. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schmidt, Michael


    The linear scale invariance of the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation is used to obtain invariant pixels for automatic relative radiometric normalization of time series of multispectral data. Normalization by means of ordinary least squares regression method is compared with n...

  6. Denotational Aspects of Untyped Normalization by Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Rohde, Henning Korsholm


    of soundness (the output term, if any, is in normal form and ß-equivalent to the input term); identification (ß-equivalent terms are mapped to the same result); and completeness (the function is defined for all terms that do have normal forms). We also show how the semantic construction enables a simple yet...

  7. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    The face normals of triangular meshes have long been used to determine whether a point is in- or outside of a given mesh. However, since normals are a differential entity they are not defined at the vertices and edges of a mesh. The latter causes problems in general algorithms for determining the...

  8. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity. (United States)

    Notowitz, L B


    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  9. Bacteriophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klieve, A.V.; Gilbert, R.A.


    Bacteriophages are ubiquitous to the rumen ecosystem; they have a role in nitrogen metabolism through bacterial lysis in the rumen, they may help to regulate bacterial population densities, be an agent for genetic exchange and be of use in biocontrol of bacterial populations through phage therapy. In Chapter 2.1, classical methodologies to enable the isolation, enumeration, storage and morphological characterization of phages were presented. In addition to these classic procedures, molecular biological techniques have resulted in a range of methodologies to investigate the type, topology and size of phage nucleic acids, to fingerprint individual phage strains and to create a profile of ruminal phage populations. Different phage families possess all the currently identified combinations of double-stranded or single-stranded RNA or DNA and may also possess unusual bases such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (found in T-even phage) or 5- hydroxymethyluracil and uracil in place of thymidine. In all morphological groups of phage except the filamentous phages, the nucleic acid is contained within a head or polyhedral structure, predominantly composed of protein. Filamentous phages have their nucleic acid contained inside the helical filament, occupying much of its length. Many of the procedures used with phage nucleic acids and double-stranded (ds) DNA, in particular, are not specific to ruminal phages but are the same as in other areas where nucleic acids are investigated and are covered elsewhere in the literature and this chapter. Most applications with rumen phages are similar to those reported for phages of non-ruminal bacteria and are covered in general texts such as Maniatis et al. In this chapter, we will concentrate on aspects of methodology as they relate to ruminal phages

  10. Indian populations

    CERN Document Server



    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  11. Explorations in statistics: the assumption of normality. (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas


    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This twelfth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the assumption of normality, an assumption essential to the meaningful interpretation of a t test. Although the data themselves can be consistent with a normal distribution, they need not be. Instead, it is the theoretical distribution of the sample mean or the theoretical distribution of the difference between sample means that must be roughly normal. The most versatile approach to assess normality is to bootstrap the sample mean, the difference between sample means, or t itself. We can then assess whether the distributions of these bootstrap statistics are consistent with a normal distribution by studying their normal quantile plots. If we suspect that an inference we make from a t test may not be justified-if we suspect that the theoretical distribution of the sample mean or the theoretical distribution of the difference between sample means is not normal-then we can use a permutation method to analyze our data. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences. (United States)

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H


    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of "certifiably random" infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of "biased" normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne's number, which is also normal, is biased-any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the "near-randomness" of sequences.

  13. Evaluating different methods of microarray data normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of DNA hybridization microarray technologies, nowadays it is possible to simultaneously assess the expression levels of thousands to tens of thousands of genes. Quantitative comparison of microarrays uncovers distinct patterns of gene expression, which define different cellular phenotypes or cellular responses to drugs. Due to technical biases, normalization of the intensity levels is a pre-requisite to performing further statistical analyses. Therefore, choosing a suitable approach for normalization can be critical, deserving judicious consideration. Results Here, we considered three commonly used normalization approaches, namely: Loess, Splines and Wavelets, and two non-parametric regression methods, which have yet to be used for normalization, namely, the Kernel smoothing and Support Vector Regression. The results obtained were compared using artificial microarray data and benchmark studies. The results indicate that the Support Vector Regression is the most robust to outliers and that Kernel is the worst normalization technique, while no practical differences were observed between Loess, Splines and Wavelets. Conclusion In face of our results, the Support Vector Regression is favored for microarray normalization due to its superiority when compared to the other methods for its robustness in estimating the normalization curve.

  14. Radiosensitivity of normal human epidermal cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, R.; Potten, C.S.


    Using an in vitro culture system the authors have derived #betta#-radiation survival curves over a dose range 0-8 Gy for the clonogenic cells of normal human epidermis. The culture system used allows the epidermal cells to stratify and form a multi-layered sheet of keratinizing cells. The cultures appear to be a very good model for epidermis in vivo. The survival curves show a population which is apparently more sensitive than murine epidermis in vivo. It remains unclear whether this is an intrinsic difference between the species or is a consequence of the in vitro cultivation of the human cells. (author)

  15. Alteration of Venous Drainage Route in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Normal Aging (United States)

    Satow, Takeshi; Aso, Toshihiko; Nishida, Sei; Komuro, Taro; Ueno, Tsukasa; Oishi, Naoya; Nakagami, Yukako; Odagiri, Masashi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Ueda, Keita; Kunieda, Takeharu; Murai, Toshiya; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao


    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly population; however, the underlying pathophysiology in relation to the aging process remains unclear. To investigate the effect of removal of cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar “tap test” on the cerebral circulation in patients with iNPH, 14 patients with “probable” iNPH were studied using a novel blood tracking technique based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance signal intensity. By tracking the propagation of the low-frequency component of the BOLD signal, extended venous drainage times were observed in the periventricular region of the patients, which was reversed by tap test. Interestingly, the venous drainage time in the periventricular region exhibited an age-related prolongation in the healthy control group. Additional regression analyses involving 81 control subjects revealed a dissociation of deep and superficial venous systems with increasing age, presumably reflecting focal inefficiency in the deep system. Our results not only provide insights into the etiology of iNPH, but also point to a potential non-invasive biomarker for screening iNPH. PMID:29218007

  16. De l’impact du TGV sur deux quartiers de gare : Nancy Grand Coeur et Metz Amphithéâtre The impact of the East European TGV on two station areas : Nancy Grand Coeur and Metz Amphithéâtre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecker


    Full Text Available L’arrivée du TGV Est-Européen au coeur de Metz et de Nancy a offert aux deux cités rivales lorraines l’opportunité de requalifier leurs entrées de ville et de réhabiliter des friches ferroviaires d’arrière-gare. En dépit de situations originelles très différentes, l’évolution des deux projets les amène à une forte convergence. Un point les distingue néanmoins : alors que l’une cherche à fondre ce nouveau quartier dans le centre-ville, l’autre tend à la réalisation d’un nouveau coeur d’agglomération, au risque de dévitaliser le centre traditionnel. A miser sur l’effet structurant du TGV, toutes deux risquent néanmoins que le surdimensionnement de leurs projets ne conduise à un semi-échec.The arrival of the East European TGV in the heart of Metz and Nancy provided the two rival cities of Lorraine with an opportunity to reshape their landscape and to requalify the railway station areas. In spite of very different situations, the evolution of both projects leads them to a strong convergence. Still, they differ on one point: while one of them tries to merge the new city quarter into the city centre, the other focuses on realizing a new heart for the agglomeration, and thus risks devitalizing the old centre. By betting on the structuring effect of the TGV, both could lead to a semi-failure due to overambitious developments.

  17. Quelques conséquences de l'introduction de deux espèces de macrophytes, Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux : exemple de la plaine d'Alsace et des Vosges du Nord (Nord-Est de la France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L'introduction au XIXème et XXème siècle, de deux espèces d'élodées Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les cours d'eau du nord-est de la France, a induit des modifications dans la composition floristique et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes aquatiques. L'analyse comparative de la distribution géographique de ces deux hydrophytes dans les eaux calcaires (plaine d'Alsace et acides (Vosges du Nord a permis de préciser leur écologie. Après des phases successives d'expansion des deux espèces, celles-ci se sont intégrées dans les phytocénoses aquatiques. L'introduction dans les écosystèmes aquatiques d'Elodea canadensis et d'E. nuttallii a induit des phénomènes de compétition interspécifique, en faveur essentiellement d'Elodea nuttallii. Cette dernière apparaît comme l'espèce la plus compétitive dans les cours d'eau eutrophes de la plaine d'Alsace (aptitude à accumuler le phosphore, sensibilité moindre à l'azote ammoniacal. Les élodées peuvent réaliser une épuration biologique, mais provoquent, lors de leur décomposition, une eutrophisation secondaire des eaux en absence de faucardage.

  18. Testing against "normal" with environmental data. (United States)

    Kilgour, Bruce W; Somers, Keith M; Barrett, Timothy J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Francis, Anthony P


    Normal ranges are some fraction of a reference distribution deemed to represent an expected condition, typically 95%. They are frequently used as the basis for generic criteria for monitoring programs designed to test whether a sample is outside of "normal," as in reference-condition approach studies. Normal ranges are also the basis for criteria for more classic environmental effects monitoring programs designed to detect differences in mean responses between reference and exposure areas. Limits on normal ranges are estimated with error that varies depending largely on sample size. Direct comparison of a sample or a mean to estimated limits of a normal range will, with some frequency, lead to incorrect conclusions about whether a sample or a mean is inside or outside the normal range when the sample or the mean is near the limit. Those errors can have significant costs and risk implications. This article describes tests based on noncentral distributions that are appropriate for quantifying the likelihood that samples or means are outside a normal range. These noncentral tests reverse the burden of evidence (assuming that the sample or mean is at or outside normal), and thereby encourage proponents to collect more robust sample sizes that will demonstrate that the sample or mean is not at the limits or beyond the normal range. These noncentral equivalence and interval tests can be applied to uni- and multivariate responses, and to simple (e.g., upstream vs downstream) or more complex (e.g., before vs after, or upstream vs downstream) study designs. Statistical procedures for the various tests are illustrated with benthic invertebrate community data collected as part of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) in the vicinity of oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada. An Excel workbook with functions and calculations to carry out the various tests is provided in the online Supplemental Data. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:188-197. © 2016 SETAC

  19. The kinetics of normal and prosthetic wrists. (United States)

    Tolbert, J R; Blair, W F; Andrews, J G; Crowninshield, R D


    The purposes of this study were (1) to describe normal wrist kinetics, and (2) to investigate the in-vitro kinetics of four currently available wrist prostheses (Swanson, Meuli, Volz, Hamas). The effective tendon moment arms of the six major wrist muscles were determined through the use of load cells and applied weights. Testing was conducted in a neutral wrist configuration with hand pronation-supination both constrained and unconstrained. The results indicate that each of the muscles studied has a unique set of effective tendon moment arms about the normal wrist as well as about wrists with the implanted prostheses, and that none of the prosthetic wrists studied duplicated normal wrist kinetics.

  20. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.; Roentgennormalbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen (Germany)


    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  1. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiaoxiao


    Full Text Available Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  2. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.


    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  3. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  4. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B


    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  5. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  6. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J.


    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs

  7. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  8. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); C Floor, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Reeves, Michael J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  9. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Reeves, Michael J.


    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  10. The Aging Prostate Is Never "Normal"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlomm, Thorsten; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan


    We argue against the recently published statement that tumor-specific molecular alterations found in "normal" prostate tissue from cancer patients challenge focal therapy approaches that only target a visible cancer lesion and not the adjacent molecular field....

  11. Menstrual Cycle: What's Normal, What's Not (United States)

    ... how to start tracking your menstrual cycle and what to do about irregularities. By Mayo Clinic Staff ... Tracking your menstrual cycles can help you understand what's normal for you, time ovulation and identify important ...

  12. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image) (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  13. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not? (United States)

    ... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...

  14. The method of minimal normal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.


    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions

  15. The total plasmatic estriol on normal gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, A.L.


    The total plasmatic estriol in normal pregnants was determinated by radioimmunological method using estriol labelled with sup(125)I. The obtained results presented similar results in comparison with methods using sup(19)C and sup(3)H. (author)

  16. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis. (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko


    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image) (United States)

    ... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord is ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in the ...

  18. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    . 1313–1327. Comparison of spectrum normalization ... environmental [17], nuclear [18–20], forensics [21] etc. Research is going on for improving the analytical capabilities for determining ele- mental composition by LIBS for ...

  19. Normalization based K means Clustering Algorithm


    Virmani, Deepali; Taneja, Shweta; Malhotra, Geetika


    K-means is an effective clustering technique used to separate similar data into groups based on initial centroids of clusters. In this paper, Normalization based K-means clustering algorithm(N-K means) is proposed. Proposed N-K means clustering algorithm applies normalization prior to clustering on the available data as well as the proposed approach calculates initial centroids based on weights. Experimental results prove the betterment of proposed N-K means clustering algorithm over existing...

  20. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with normal intravenous urogram.


    Creagh, F. M.; Stone, T.; Stephenson, T. P.; Lazarus, J. H.


    A 58 year old male presented with a two week history of low back pain and malaise. The intravenous urogram (IVU) at presentation was normal but within three months he had developed renal failure with bilateral ureteric obstruction on repeat IVU. Primary retroperitoneal fibrosis was confirmed at operation. This case demonstrates that retroperitoneal fibrosis may progress rapidly to renal failure within a few months of the first symptoms. In addition, the IVU may be normal in the early stages o...