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Sample records for deuterium demonstrator cwdd

  1. Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium tritium implosions on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. N. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Boehly, T. R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Bonino, M. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Collins, T. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Craxton, R. S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Delettrez, J. A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Edgell, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Epstein, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Follett, R. K. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Forrest, C. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Froula, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yu. Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Harding, D. R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Henchen, R. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Hu, S. X. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Janezic, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kelly, J. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kessler, T. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kosc, T. Z. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Loucks, S. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Marozas, J. A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Marshall, F. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Maximov, A. V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McCrory, R. L. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Michel, D. T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Myatt, J. F. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nora, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Radha, P. B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Regan, S. P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Seka, W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Shmayda, W. T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Short, R.W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Shvydky, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Skupsky, S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yaakobi, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of α ≅ 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8 × 10⁷ cm/s, and a laser intensity of ~10¹⁵ W/cm². These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

  2. Demonstration of Fuel Hot-Spot Pressure in Excess of 50 Gbar for Direct-Drive, Layered Deuterium-Tritium Implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Cao, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Davis, A. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Janezic, R.; Karasik, M.; Keck, R. L.; Kelly, J. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Kosc, T. Z.; Loucks, S. J.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Obenschain, S. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Rice, B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Seka, W.; Shmayda, W. T.; Shoup, M. J.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Ulreich, J.; Wittman, M. D.; Woo, K. M.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    A record fuel hot-spot pressure Phs=56 ±7 Gbar was inferred from x-ray and nuclear diagnostics for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion cryogenic, layered deuterium-tritium implosions on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA Laser System. When hydrodynamically scaled to the energy of the National Ignition Facility, these implosions achieved a Lawson parameter ˜60 % of the value required for ignition [A. Bose et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, LM15119ER (2016)], similar to indirect-drive implosions [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 255003 (2015)], and nearly half of the direct-drive ignition-threshold pressure. Relative to symmetric, one-dimensional simulations, the inferred hot-spot pressure is approximately 40% lower. Three-dimensional simulations suggest that low-mode distortion of the hot spot seeded by laser-drive nonuniformity and target-positioning error reduces target performance.

  3. Demonstration of Fuel Hot-Spot Pressure in Excess of 50 Gbar for Direct-Drive, Layered Deuterium-Tritium Implosions on OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S P; Goncharov, V N; Igumenshchev, I V; Sangster, T C; Betti, R; Bose, A; Boehly, T R; Bonino, M J; Campbell, E M; Cao, D; Collins, T J B; Craxton, R S; Davis, A K; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Forrest, C J; Frenje, J A; Froula, D H; Gatu Johnson, M; Glebov, V Yu; Harding, D R; Hohenberger, M; Hu, S X; Jacobs-Perkins, D; Janezic, R; Karasik, M; Keck, R L; Kelly, J H; Kessler, T J; Knauer, J P; Kosc, T Z; Loucks, S J; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; McKenty, P W; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, D T; Myatt, J F; Obenschain, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Rice, B; Rosenberg, M J; Schmitt, A J; Schmitt, M J; Seka, W; Shmayda, W T; Shoup, M J; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Ulreich, J; Wittman, M D; Woo, K M; Yaakobi, B; Zuegel, J D

    2016-07-08

    A record fuel hot-spot pressure P_{hs}=56±7  Gbar was inferred from x-ray and nuclear diagnostics for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion cryogenic, layered deuterium-tritium implosions on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA Laser System. When hydrodynamically scaled to the energy of the National Ignition Facility, these implosions achieved a Lawson parameter ∼60% of the value required for ignition [A. Bose et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 011201(R) (2016)], similar to indirect-drive implosions [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 255003 (2015)], and nearly half of the direct-drive ignition-threshold pressure. Relative to symmetric, one-dimensional simulations, the inferred hot-spot pressure is approximately 40% lower. Three-dimensional simulations suggest that low-mode distortion of the hot spot seeded by laser-drive nonuniformity and target-positioning error reduces target performance.

  4. Deuterium abundance and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal-Madjar, A; Lemoine, M

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the measurements of the deuterium abundance from the local interstellar medium to the solar system and high redshifts absorbers toward quasars. We present preliminary results toward a white dwarf and a QSO. We conclude that the deuterium evolution from the Big-Bang to now is still not properly understood.

  5. Deuterium cluster jet produced at moderate backing pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Wang; Tianshu Wen; Yingling He; Chunye Jiao; Shuanggen Zhang; Xiangxian Wang; Fangfang Ge; Hongjie Liu; Guoquan Ni; Xiangdong Yang; Yuqiu Gu; Xianlun Wen; Weimin Zhou; Guangchang Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A deuterium cluster jet produced in the supersonic expansion into vacuum of deuterium gas at liquid nitrogen temperature and moderate backing pressures are studied by Rayleigh scattering techniques. The experimental results show that deuterium clusters can be created at moderate gas backing pressures ranging from 8 to 23 bar, and a maximum average cluster size of 350 atoms per cluster is estimated. The temporal evolution of the cluster jet generated at the backing pressure of 20 bar demonstrates a two-plateau structure. The possible mechanism responsible for this structure is discussed. The former plateau with higher average atom and cluster densities is more suitable for the general laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  6. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  7. Selective Deuterium Ion Acceleration Using the Vulcan PW Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Krygier, AG; Kar, S; Ahmed, H; Alejo, A; Clarke, R; Fuchs, J; Green, A; Jung, D; Kleinschmidt, A; Najmudin, Z; Nakamura, H; Norreys, P; Notley, M; Oliver, M; Roth, M; Vassura, L; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Freeman, RR

    2015-01-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison, et al., \\cite{Morrison:POP2012} an ion beam with $>$99$\\%$ deuterium ions and peak energy 28 MeV is produced with a 200 J, 700fs, $>10^{20} W/cm^{2}$ laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D$_{2}$O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. The estimated total yield of deuterium ions in an assumed 10$^{\\circ}$ half-angle cone was 3.0 $\\mu$C (1.9 $\\times 10^{13}$ ions) with 6.6$\\%$ laser-to-deuterium ion energy conversion efficiency.

  8. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.N. Taylor; J. P. Allain; P. S. Krstic; J. Dadras; C. H. Skinner; K. E. Luitjohan

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to approximately 16% and then bombarded with deuterium. XPS showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  9. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  10. Deuterium Retention and Physical Sputtering of Low Activation Ferritic Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Hino; K. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamauchi; Y. Hirohata; K. Tsuzuki; Y.Kusama

    2005-01-01

    Low activation materials have to be developed toward fusion demonstration reactors. Ferritic steel, vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are candidate materials of the first wall,vacuum vessel and blanket components, respectively. Although changes of mechanical-thermal properties owing to neutron irradiation have been investigated so far, there is little data for the plasma material interactions, such as fuel hydrogen retention and erosion. In the present study,deuterium retention and physical sputtering of low activation ferritic steel, F82H, were investigated by using deuterium ion irradiation apparatus.After a ferritic steel sample was irradiated by 1.7 kev D+ ions, the weight loss was measured to obtain the physical sputtering yield. The sputtering yield was 0.04, comparable to that of stainless steel. In order to obtain the retained amount of deuterium, technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was employed to the irradiated sample. The retained deuterium desorbed at temperature ranging from 450 K to 700 K, in the forms of DHO, D2, D2O and hydrocarbons. Hence, the deuterium retained can be reduced by baking with a relatively low temperature. The fluence dependence of retained amount of deuterium was measured by changing the ion fluence. In the ferritic steel without mechanical polish, the retained amount was large even when the fluence was low. In such a case, a large amount of deuterium was trapped in the surface oxide layer containing O and C. When the fluence was large, the thickness of surface oxide layer was reduced by the ion sputtering, and then the retained amount in the oxide layer decreased. In the case of a high fluence, the retained amount of deuterium became comparable to that of ferritic steel with mechanical polish or SS 316 L, and one order of magnitude smaller than that of graphite. When the ferritic steel is used, it is required to remove the surface oxide layer for reduction of fuel hydrogen retention.Ferritic steel sample was

  11. Physicochemical Processes on Ice Dust Towards Deuterium Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-06-01

    Water and some organic molecules were found to be deuterium enriched toward various astronomical targets. Understanding the deuterium-fractionation process pertains directly to know how and when molecules are created. Although gas phase chemistry is certainly important for deuterium enrichment, the role of physicochemical processes on the dust surfaces should be also considered. In fact, the extreme deuterium enrichment of formaldehyde and methanol requires the dust grain-surface process. In this context, we have performed a series of experiments on the formation of deuterated species of water and simple organic molecules. From the results of these experiments and related works, I will discuss the key processes for the deuterium enrichment on dust. For deuterium chemistry, another important issue is the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H_{2}, which is closely related to the formation of H_{2}D^{+} and thus the deuterium fractionation of molecules in the gas phase. Because the radiative nuclear spin conversion of H_{2} is forbidden, the ortho-para conversion is very slow in the gas phase. In contrast, it was not obvious how the nuclear spins behave on cosmic dust. Therefore, it is desirable to understand how the OPR of H_{2} is determined on the dust surfaces. We have tackled this issue experimentally. Using experimental techniques of molecular beam, photostimulated-desorption, and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, we measured the OPRs of H_{2} photodesorbed from amorphous solid water at around 10 K, which is an ice dust analogue. It was first demonstrated that the rate of spin conversion from ortho to para drastically increases from 2.4 × 10^{-4} to 1.7 × 10^{-3} s^{-1} within the very narrow temperature window of 9.2 to16 K. The observed strong temperature cannot be explained by solely state-mixing models ever proposed but by the energy dissipation model via two phonon process. I will present our recent experiments regarding this.

  12. Highly spin-polarized deuterium atoms from the UV dissociation of Deuterium Iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Sofikitis, D; Koumarianou, G; Jiang, H; Bougas, L; Samartzis, P C; Andreev, A; Rakitzis, T P

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarisation of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) nuclear spins increases the D-T fusion reaction rate by ~50%, thus lowering the breakeven limit for the achievement of self-sustained fusion, and controls the emission direction of the reaction products for improved reactor efficiency. However, the important D-D polarization-dependent fusion reaction has not yet been measured, due to the low density of conventional polarized deuterium beams of ~10$^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$, limited by collisions on the ms-timescale of production. Here we demonstrate that hyperpolarised D atoms are produced by the 270 nm photodissociation of deuterium iodide (DI), yielding ~60% nuclear D polarization after ~1.6 ns, ~10$^6$ times faster than conventional methods, allowing collision-limited densities of ~10$^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$. Such ultrahigh densities of polarized D atoms open the way for the study of high-signal polarized D-D reactions. We discuss the possibility of the production of high-density pulsed polarized beams, and of polarized D...

  13. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G

    1973-01-01

    The author has calculated the various contributions to 2s-2p splitting for muonic deuterium. An instantaneous potential is constructed between the muon and the nucleus. Except for the Coulomb potential, all the remaining terms are treated as a perturbation. The effects taken into account are fine structure, magnetic and electric hyperfine structure, muonic Lamb shift, vacuum polarisation, nuclear polarisation and nuclear size. (11 refs).

  14. Deuterium implantation into tungsten at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Balden, Martin; Schmid, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To study the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with tungsten many experiments are conducted in linear plasma devices, which provide high enough hydrogen fluxes to supersaturate the tungsten sample and create defects such as blister. Here an alternative approach is presented. Instead of achieving a high deuterium concentration via high flux exposure, the sample temperature is reduced and the implantation energy of deuterium into tungsten is increased. The lower temperature associated with a reduction in diffusivity as well as the deeper implantation of deuterium lead to an increase of deuterium concentration within the implantation zone. Deuterium is stepwise implanted into polycrystalline tungsten up to a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 22} D/m{sup 2} with an energy of 3.0 keV/D at a sample temperature of 134 K. The retained deuterium is measured in-situ by nuclear reaction analysis. For low fluence approximately 100 % of the implanted deuterium is retained, while for higher fluence the retention saturates. Close to the surface deuterium concentrations up to 64 % are reached. This leads to massive grain orientation dependent blistering with blister sizes between 100-1000 nm at depths between 30-150 nm. Besides the characterization of the blisters their influence on deuterium transport is studied.

  15. Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

  16. Deuterium retention after deuterium plasma implantation in tungsten pre-damaged by fast C+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, V. S.; Gasparyan, Yu M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Khripunov, B. I.; Koidan, V. S.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal desorption of deuterium from W was investigated. Virgin samples and samples damaged by 10 MeV C 3+ ions were implanted from plasma in the LENTA facility at 370 K and 773 K. In comparison with the undamaged sample, deuterium retention in the damaged sample slightly increased in the case of deuterium implantation at RT, but decreased in the case of deuterium implantation at 773 K. At 773 K, deuterium was concluded to diffuse far behind the D ion range in the virgin sample, while C implantation region was concluded to be a barrier for D diffusion in the damaged sample.

  17. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  18. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Carlson, Carl E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We consider the two-photon exchange contribution to the 2P-2S Lamb shift in muonic deuterium in the framework of forward dispersion relations. The dispersion integrals are evaluated with minimal model dependence using experimental data on elastic deuteron form factors and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering, both in the quasielastic and hadronic range. The subtraction constant that is required to ensure convergence of the dispersion relation for the forward Compton amplitude T{sub 1} (ν,Q{sup 2}) is related to the deuteron magnetic polarizability β(Q{sup 2}) and represents the main source of uncertainty in our analysis. We obtain for the Lamb shift ΔE{sub 2P-2S} = 1.620±0.190 meV and discuss ways to further reduce this uncertainty.

  19. Thermal desorption from self-damaged tungsten exposed to deuterium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu.M., E-mail: gasparyan.yury@plasma.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe sh.31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe sh.31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Efimov, V.S.; Mednikov, A.; Marenkov, E.D.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe sh.31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markelj, S.; Čadež, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute and Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-08-15

    Deuterium retention in tungsten damaged by 2–20 MeV W ions and then exposed to D atoms was investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. Experimental data demonstrate a significant increase of deuterium retention in the presence of radiation defects. A remarkable amount of deuterium is trapped even at the temperature of 800 K. TDS spectra were simulated using the computer code DIFTRAP based on kinetic rate equations to derive parameters of deuterium interaction with radiation defects. It was shown that irradiation by MeV W ions forms in W a high concentration of strong traps with the detrapping energy of 1.7–2 eV. These traps play major role in the D retention at elevated temperatures. The experimental spectra have peculiarities that are not described by the standard modeling; and the reasons for that are discussed.

  20. HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM NMR OF SOLIDS BY MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckman, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large spectral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. For example, the homonuclear dipolar broadening, HD, for hydrogen is usually several tens of kilohertz. For deuterium, HD is relatively small; however, the quadrupole interaction causes a broadening which can be hundreds of kilohertz in polycrystalline or amorphous solids. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, {beta}{sub m} = Arccos(3{sup -1/2}), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Two approaches have been developed for each nucleus. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of {beta}. A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H{sub D} was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal

  1. Effect of deposited tungsten on deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V.M.; Gavrilov, L.E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Usually ion or plasma beam is used for the experiment with beryllium which simulates the interaction of plasma with first wall in fusion devices. However, the use of thermal or subthermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes seems to be useful for that purpose. Recently, the authors have studied the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium. The experimental setup is shown, and is explained. By means of elastic recoil detection (ERD) technique, it was shown that in the exposure to D atoms at 740 K, deuterium is distributed deeply into the bulk, and is accumulated up to higher concentration than the case of the exposure to molecular deuterium. The depth and concentration of deuterium distribution depend on the exposure time, and those data are shown. During the exposure to atomic deuterium, oxide film grew on the side of a sample facing plasma. In order to understand the mechanism of deuterium trapping, the experiment was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). The influence that the tungsten deposit from the heated cathode exerted to the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium was investigated. These results are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  3. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygier, A. G. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Propulsion Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Jung, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.; Notley, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [The John Adams Institute, Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Norreys, P. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Oliver, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Helmholtz Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Freeman, R. R. [Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10{sup 20}W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D{sub 2}O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°–8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.

  4. Surface morphology and deuterium retention of tungsten after low- and high-flux deuterium plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, M. H. J. 't; Balden, M.; Manhard, A.; Mayer, M.; Elgeti, S.; Kleyn, A. W.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma

    2014-01-01

    The surface morphology and deuterium retention were investigated of polycrystalline tungsten targets that were exposed to deuterium plasmas at widely varying conditions. By changing only one parameter at a time, the isolated effects of flux, time and pre-damaging on surface modifications and deuteri

  5. Argonne CW Linac (ACWL) -- Legacy from SDI and opportunities for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, G.E.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-08-01

    The former Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) invested significant resources over a 6-year period to develop and build an accelerator to demonstrate the launching of a cw beam with characteristics suitable for a space-based Neutral Particle Beam (NPD) system. This accelerator, the CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator, was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D{sup {minus}} to 7.5 MeV. A considerable amount of hardware was constructed and installed in the Argonne-based facility, and major performance milestones were achieved before program funding from the Department of Defense ended in October 1993. Existing assets have been turned over to Argonne. Assets include a fully functional 200 kV cw D{sup {minus}} injector, a cw RFQ that has been tuned, leak checked and aligned, beam lines and a high-power beam stop, all installed in a shielded vault with appropriate safety and interlock systems. In addition, there are two high power (1 MW) cw rf amplifiers and all the ancillary power, cooling and control systems required for a high-power accelerator system. The SDI mission required that the CWDD accelerator structures operate at cryogenic temperatures (26 K), a requirement that placed severe limitations on operating period (CWDD would have provided 20 seconds of cw beam every 90 minutes). However, the accelerator structures were designed for full-power rf operation with water cooling and ACWL (Argonne Continuous Wave Linac), the new name for CWDD in its water-cooled, positive-ion configuration, will be able to operate continuously. Project status and achievements will be reviewed. Preliminary design of a proton conversion for the RFQ, and other proposals for turning ACWL into a testbed for cw-linac engineering, will be discussed.

  6. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  7. Deuterium Fractionation just after the Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, D.; Sakai, N.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have recently conducted a five-point strip observation of the DCO+, H13CO+, DNC, HN13C, and N2H+ lines toward low mass Class I protostar L1551 IRS5, and have evaluated the deuterium fractionation ratios DCO+/HCO+ and DNC/HNC. The DCO+/HCO+ ratio is found to be lower toward the protostar position than those toward the adjacent positions. On the other hand, the DNC/HNC ratio does not show such a decrease toward the protostar position. This suggests that the deuterium fractionation ratio of the neutral species is conserved after the star formation. If so, the deuterium fractionation of the neutral species can be used as a novel tracer to investigate the initial condition of the star formation process.

  8. Sound velocities in shocked liquid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, N.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Recent measurements of shock temperatures and laser-driven Hugoniot measurements of shocked liquid deuterium strongly indicate that molecular dissociation is important above 20 GPa. Since the effect of dissociation is small on the Hugoniot pressure up to the 30 GPa limit of conventional impact experiments, other methods must be used to test our understanding of the physics of highly compressed deuterium in this regime. We have recently performed experiments to measure the sound velocity of deuterium which test the isentropic compressibility, a derivative quantity. We used the shock overtake method to measure the shock velocity at 28 GPa. These preliminary data provide support for a recently developed molecular dissociation model. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Neutrino and Antineutrino Interactions in Deuterium

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses BEBC filled with deuterium and exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The use of deuterium as the target material allows to study interactions on both neutrons and protons. The charge of the target nucleon can be inferred from the number of positive and negative particles in the final state. \\\\ \\\\ Some of the physics aims of this experiment are to measure separately the cross sections @s^n and @s^p on neutrons and protons to determine the structure functions F|n(x,Q|2) and F|p(x,Q|2), the fragmentation functions D(z,Q|2) and the ratio of neutral to charged current interactions. \\\\ \\\\ Additional problems under investigation are the production of nucleon isobars, and of resonances in general, the production of strange and of charmed particles, and the problems of deuterium structure.

  10. Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron–deuteron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichart, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.reichart@unibw.de; Moser, Marcus; Greubel, Christoph; Peeper, Katrin; Dollinger, Günther, E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de

    2016-03-15

    Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron–deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering (~100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron–proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel. A deuterium detection limit due to accidental coincidences of 3 at-ppm down to less than 1 at-ppm is demonstrated on deuterated polypropylen sheets as well as thick polycarbonate sheets after various stages of coincidence filtering that is possible with our granular detector.

  11. Deuteron D-state probability from finite size effects in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses of the Lamb shift data in muonic deuterium ($\\mu^- d$) have shown that precision atomic spectroscopy determines a more accurate radius of the deuteron than scattering experiments do. This precision can be used to determine the D-state probability, $P_D$, in deuteron accurately. To demonstrate the method, we evaluate the nuclear structure corrections of order $\\alpha^4$ within a few body formalism for the $\\mu^- p n$ system in muonic deuterium using different values of $P_D$ and find $P_D$ close to 2\\% to be most favoured by the $\\mu^-d$ data.

  12. Revealing deuterium Balmer lines in HII regions with VLT-UVES

    CERN Document Server

    Hébrard, G; Walsh, J R; Vidal-Madjar, A; Ferlet, R

    2000-01-01

    The search for deuterium Balmer lines with VLT-UVES is reported in HII regions of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The DI lines appear as faint, narrow emission features in the blue wings of the HI Balmer lines and can be distinguished from high-velocity HI emission. The previous identification to deuterium is re-inforced beyond doubt. The detection of D-alpha and D-beta in Orion (Hebrard et al. 2000) is confirmed and deuterium lines are now detected up to at least D-eta. The UVES observations provide the first detection of Balmer DI lines in four new HII regions (M 8, M 16, M 20, and DEM S 103 in SMC), demonstrating that these lines are of common occurence.

  13. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  14. Deuterium-deuterium nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Kravarik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2013-05-01

    A 1016 W/cm2 Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD2 targets placed into the high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deuterons and carbon ions emission with energy up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deuterium ions may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD2 targets can be availed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deuterons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  15. Emission of Secondary Electrons from Solid Deuterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental facility was built where films of solid deuterium of known thickness could be made and where they could be irradiated with pulsed beams of electrons (up to 3 keV) and light ions (up to 10 keV). Studies of secondary electron emission were made and the secondary electron emission...... coefficient ϵ was measured for deuterium for various angles of incidence at electron energies of 0.5–3.0 keV. For normal incidence ϵ is quite small; it is well below one for all particle energies. It is seen that the angular dependence of ϵ is given by , where θ is the angle of incidence....

  16. The primordial deuterium abundance problems and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    1997-01-01

    The current status of extragalactic deuterium abundance is discussed using two examples of `low' and `high' D/H measurements. We show that the discordance of these two types of D abundances may be a consequence of the spatial correlations in the stochastic velocity field. Within the framework of the generalized procedure (accounting for such effects) one finds good agreement between different observations and the theoretical predictions for standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN). In particular, we show that the deuterium absorption seen at z = 2.504 toward Q1009+2956 and the H+D Ly-alpha profile observed at z = 0.701 toward Q1718+4807 are compatible with D/H $\\sim 4.1 - 4.6\\times10^{-5}$. This result supports SBBN and, thus, no inhomogeneity is needed. The problem of precise D/H measurements is discussed.

  17. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention in tungsten deposits by deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, K., E-mail: kadzu@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Uehara, K.; Date, H.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Tungsten (W) deposits were formed by hydrogen plasma sputtering and blisters were observed on the surface. The W deposits and W foils were exposed to deuterium ions with 2 keV-D{sup 2+} to doses of 1.0 × 10{sup 21} D{sup 2+}/m{sup 2} at 294 and 773 K in addition to 573 K in the present authors’ previous work. Hydrogen isotopes release behaviors from the W deposits and W foils were observed by the thermal desorption spectroscopy method. The amount of deuterium released from the W deposit was considerably larger than that from W foil. The obtained deuterium retention in D/m{sup 2} was in the range of deuterium retention in polycrystalline tungsten. Not only implanted deuterium but also hydrogen, which was incorporated during the sputtering-deposition process, were released from the W deposits. A hydrogen release peak at around 1100 K was observed for the W deposits. This is considered to be due to the rupture of the blisters.

  18. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  19. Strangeness photoproduction on the deuterium target

    OpenAIRE

    Shende, Sugat Vyankatesh

    2007-01-01

    More information on the nucleon excitation function can be gained by studying the photoproduction experiments. In these experiments, the nucleon inside the nucleous is excited by shooting a high energy photon beam. The excited spectrum of the nucleon is then studied by measuring the energy and momentum of the decayed particles. The K0 photoproduction on the deuterium target (gamma d -> K0 Sigma+ n) has been studied first time from the experiment presented in this thesis. This experiment has b...

  20. Changes of oxidation during use the food diet with deuterium depleted water in laboratory animals with purulent inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Artsybasheva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective — To identify quantitative changes of the deuterium content, the intensity of free radical oxidation and antioxidant status of the blood system, as well as the effect of water with a modified isotope composition with low deuterium content on indicators of free radical oxidation of tissues in laboratory animals under physiological conditions and in inflammatory processes. Materials and methods — The object of the study was blood and homogenates of organs (liver, kidney of male rats. The basis of the model of oxidative stress was a well-known model of wound healing proposed by L.A. Mamedov based on the surgical treatment of abscess model, and we performed its modification in the course of experimental studies. Determination of deuterium concentration in the plasma was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance. The method of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence was used for the detection of relatively unstable chemically active radicals in the plasma. Stable radicals detect by the EPR spectrometry. Results and Conclusion — Thus, it should be noted that blood plasma demonstrates reliable reduction in deuterium concentration when using deuterium depleted water that continues until the values of 90-100 ppm thereafter remaining practically unchanged. At the same time, deuterium depleted water affects prooxidant-antioxidant system of the body reducing the intensity of free radical oxidation and restoring the capacity of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  1. Muon transfer from deuterium to helium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Breunlich, W H; Cargnelli, M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; Gartner, B; Hartmann, F J; Huot, O; Jacot-Guillarmod, R; Kammel, P; King, R; Knowles, P; Kosak, A; Lauss, B; Marton, J; Mühlbauer, M; Mulhauser, F; Petitjean, C; Prymas, W; Schaller, L A; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Tresch, S; Von Egidy, T; Zmeskal, J

    2003-01-01

    We report on an experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland measuring x rays from muon transfer from deuterium to helium. Both the ground state transfer via the exotic dmu3,4He* molecules and the excited state transfer from mud* were measured. The use of CCD detectors allowed x rays from 1.5 keV to 11 keV to be detected with sufficient energy resolution to separate the transitions to different final states in both deuterium and helium. The x-ray peaks of the dmu3He* and dmu4He* molecules were measured with good statistics. For the D2+3He mixture, the peak has its maximum at E_dmu3He = 6768 +- 12 eV with FWHM Gamma_dmu3He = 863 +- 10 eV. Furthermore the radiative branching ratio was found to be kappa_dmu3He = 0.301 +- 0.061. For the D_2+4He mixture, the maximum of the peak lies at E_dmu4He = 6831 +- 8 eV and the FWHM is Gamma_dmu4He = 856 +- 10 eV. The radiative branching ratio is kappa_dmu4He = 0.636 +- 0.097. The excited state transfer is limited by the probability to reach the deuterium...

  2. The Primordial Abundance of Deuterium: Ionization correction

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    We determine the relative ionization of deuterium and hydrogen in low metallicity damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA systems using a detailed suite of photoionization simulations. We model metal-poor DLAs as clouds of gas in pressure equilibrium with a host dark matter halo, exposed to the Haardt & Madau (2012) background radiation of galaxies and quasars at redshift z~3. Our results indicate that the deuterium ionization correction correlates with the H I column density and the ratio of successive ion stages of the most commonly observed metals. The N(N II) / N(N I) column density ratio provides the most reliable correction factor, being essentially independent of the gas geometry, H I column density, and the radiation field. We provide a series of convenient fitting formulae to calculate the deuterium ionization correction based on observable quantities. The ionization correction typically does not exceed 0.1 per cent for metal-poor DLAs, which is comfortably below the current measurement precision (2...

  3. Deuterium Fractionation in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Punanova, A; Pon, A; Belloche, A; André, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We measure the deuterium fraction, RD, and the CO-depletion factor, fd, toward a number of starless and protostellar cores in the L1688 region of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud complex and search for variations based upon environmental differences across L1688. The kinematic properties of the dense gas traced by the N2H+ and N2D+ (1-0) lines are also discussed. Methods. RD has been measured via observations of the J=1-0 transition of N2H+ and N2D+ toward 33 dense cores in different regions of L1688. fd estimates have been done using C17O(1-0) and 850 micron dust continuum emission from the SCUBA survey. All line observations were carried out with the IRAM 30 meter antenna. Results. The dense cores show large (2-40%) deuterium fractions, with significant variations between the sub-regions of L1688. The CO-depletion factor also varies from one region to another (1-7). Two different correlations are found between deuterium fraction and CO-depletion factor: cores in regions A, B2 and I show increasing RD wit...

  4. Evolution of dispersion in the cosmic deuterium abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joseph; Petitjean, Patrick; Olive, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Deuterium is created during Bing Bang Nucleosynthesis, and, in contrast to the other light stable nuclei, can only be destroyed thereafter by fusion in stellar interiors. In this paper we study the cosmic evolution of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium and its dispersion using realistic galaxy evolution models. We find that models that reproduce the observed metal abundance are compatible with observations of the deuterium abundance in the local ISM and z ~ 3 absorption line systems. In particular, we reproduce the low astration factor which we attribute to a low global star formation efficiency. We calculate the dispersion in deuterium abundance arising from different structure formation histories in different parts of the Universe. Our model also predicts an extremely tight correlation between deuterium and metal abundances which could be used to measure the primordial deuterium abundance.

  5. Fine target of deuterium; Blanco fino de deuterio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-07-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 {mu} gr/cm{sup 2} thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs.

  6. Note: Infrared laser diagnostics for deuterium gas puff Z pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; McKee, E. S.; Hammel, B. D.; Darling, T. W.; Swanson, K. J.; Covington, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    Deuterium gas puff Z pinches have been used for generation of strong neutron fluxes on the MA class pulse power machines. Due to the low electron density of deuterium Z-pinch plasma, regular laser diagnostics in the visible range cannot be used for observation and study of the pinch. Laser probing at the wavelength of 1064 nm was used for visualization of deuterium plasma. Infrared schlieren and interferometry diagnostics showed the deuterium gas puff plasma dynamics, instabilities, and allowed for the reconstruction of the profile of the plasma density.

  7. Spectral control of laser accelerated ions via deuterium vapour deposition onto cryogenically cooled targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graeme

    2016-10-01

    A widely perceived criticism of the best understood laser driven ion acceleration mechanism, TNSA, is that the energy spectra routinely obtained are Maxwellian in nature, and are non-ideal for some of the long term envisaged applications of a laser accelerated ion source such as ion driven fast ignition or hadrontherapy. We, however, demonstrate a novel method to accelerate a quasi-monoenergetic deuterium beam in the TNSA regime of ion acceleration. This is made possible by recent developments in cryogenic targetry at the Central Laser Facility, and is achieved by cooling a gold target to approximately 7-8 K and introducing overcoats of isotopic deuterium layers on top of the hydrogen contaminant layer present on the original target. The presence of a lower charge to mass ion on top of the high charge to mass hydrogen, alters the sheath dynamics during the acceleration such that the high energy portion of the deuterium beam exhibits a full width at half maximum energy spread of δɛ / ɛ 0.3-0.5. Experimental results and multidimensional numerical modelling will be presented describing this effect. Further than this, experimental results show that the accelerated deuterium beam is found to significantly enhance the number of neutrons produced when fielded in a pitcher/catcher configuration, and provides avenues for investigation on the production of a high brightness neutron source.

  8. Deuterium implantation into Y2O3-doped and pure tungsten: Deuterium retention and blistering behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Jacob, W.; Manhard, A.; Gao, L.; Balden, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-04-01

    The blistering and near-surface deuterium retention of a Y2O3-doped tungsten (W) and two different pure W grades were studied after exposure to deuterium (D) plasma at elevated temperatures (370, 450 and 570 K). Samples were exposed to a deuterium fluence of 6 × 1024 D m-2 applying a moderate ion flux of about 9 × 1019 D m-2 s-1 at an ion energy of 38 eV/D. Morphological modifications at the surface were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The D depth profiles and the accumulated D inventories within the topmost 8 μm were determined by nuclear reaction analysis. Blistering and deuterium retention were strongly dependent on the implantation temperature. In addition, blistering was sensitively influenced by the used tungsten grade, although the total amount of retained D measured by nuclear reaction analysis was comparable. Among the three different investigated tungsten grades, Y2O3-doped W exhibited the lowest degree of surface modification despite a comparable total D retention.

  9. Lamb shift in the muonic deuterium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutov, A. A.; Martynenko, A. P. [Samara State University, Pavlov street 1, 443011, Samara (Russian Federation); Samara State University, Pavlov Street 1, 443011, Samara, Russia and Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolyov, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, 443086, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We present an investigation of the Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic deuterium ({mu}D) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear-structure, and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift at 202.4139 meV can be considered a reliable estimate for comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  10. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Krutov, A A

    2011-01-01

    We present new investigation of the Lamb shift (2P_{1/2}-2S_{1/2}) in the muonic deuterium (mu d) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear structure and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders alpha^3, alpha^4, alpha^5 and alpha^6. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift 202.3616 meV can be considered as a reliable estimate for the comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  11. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  12. Thermal desorption of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markin, A.V.; Chernikov, V.N.; Zakharov, A.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    By means of TDS measurements it is shown that the desorption of deuterium from Be implanted with 5 keV D ions to fluences, {Phi}, from 1x10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2} to 1x10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} proceeds in one high temperature stage B, while at {Phi} {ge} 1.2x10{sup 21}D/m{sup 2} one more stage A is added. The desorption maximum A is narrow and consists of two peaks A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} at about 460 K and 490 K, respectively. Peak A{sub 1} is attributed to the desorption of deuterium from the walls of opened channels formed under D ion implantation. Peak {sub A}2 is a consequence of the opening of a part of closed bubbles/channels to the outer surface. The position of maximum B shifts noticeably and nonsteadily on the fluence in a range from 850 to 1050 K. The origin of this maximum is the liberation of D atoms bound at vacancy complexes discussed previously by Wampler. The dependence of Tm(B) on the fluence is governed by the interaction of freely migrating D atoms with partly opened or fully closed gas cavity arrangements which are created under temperature ramping, but differently in specimens implanted with D ions to different fluences.

  13. Sputtering of solid deuterium by He-ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.; Pedrys, R.

    2001-01-01

    Sputtering of solid deuterium by bombardment of 3He+ and 4He+ ions was studied. Some features are similar to hydrogen ion bombardment of solid deuterium, but for the He-ions a significant contribution of elastic processes to the total yield can be identified. The thin-film enhancement is more...... pronounced than that for hydrogen projectiles in the same energy range....

  14. (Un)true deuterium abundance in the Galactic disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, Tijana; Steigman, Gary; Fields, Brian D.

    2010-04-01

    Deuterium has a special place in cosmology, nuclear astrophysics, and galactic chemical evolution, because of its unique property that it is only created in the big bang nucleosynthesis while all other processes result in its net destruction. For this reason, among other things, deuterium abundance measurements in the interstellar medium (ISM) allow us to determine the fraction of interstellar gas that has been cycled through stars, and set constraints and learn about different Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models. However, recent indications that deuterium might be preferentially depleted onto dust grains complicate our understanding about the meaning of measured ISM deuterium abundances. For this reason, recent estimates by Linsky et al. (2006) have yielded a lower bound to the “true”, undepleted, ISM deuterium abundance that is very close to the primordial abundance, indicating a small deuterium astration factor contrary to the demands of many GCE models. To avoid any prejudice about deuterium dust depletion along different lines of sight that are used to determine the “true” D abundance, we propose a model-independent, statistical Bayesian method to address this issue and determine in a model-independent manner the undepleted ISM D abundance. We find the best estimate for the gas-phase ISM deuterium abundance to be (D/H)ISM ≥ (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5. Presented are the results of Prodanović et al. (2009).

  15. Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic-angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckman, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large specral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, ..beta../sub m/ = Arccos (3/sup -1/2/), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of ..beta... A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H/sub D/ was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal motion. In the general case of large H/sub D/, isotropic spectra were obtained by dilution of /sup 1/H with /sup 2/H combined with magic angle rotation. The resolution obtained represents the practical limit for proton NMR of solids.

  16. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Linsmeier, C.; Breuer, U.; Kreter, A.; Van Oost, G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface temperature, particle flux density and material microstructure on the surface morphology and deuterium retention was studied by exposing tungsten targets (20 μm and 40 μm grain size) to deuterium plasma at the same particle fluence (1026 m−2) and i

  17. Deuterium retention in mixed C–W–D films co-deposited in magnetron discharge in deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com; Gasparyan, Yu; Efimov, V.; Mednikov, A.; Zibrov, M.; Pisarev, A.

    2013-07-15

    Deuterium retention in C–D and C–W–D mixed films deposited in a magnetron discharge in deuterium was studied. The deuterium content in the C–D films was in the range D/C = 0.65–0.75 for grounded substrates and 0.45–0.6 if a bias of −60 V was applied. The deuterium content in the C–W–D films was in the range of D/(C + W) = 0.2–0.4 without strong dependence on the C/W ratio (in the range of 0.7–10) and the substrate potential (in the range from 0 to −60 V). Deuterium release from the C–W–D films was observed at lower temperatures than that from the C–D films.

  18. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  19. Channeling Effect in Polycrystalline Deuterium-Saturated CVD Diamond Target Bombarded by Deuterium Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bagulya, A V; Negodaev, M A; Rusetskii, A S; Chubenko, A P; Ralchenko, V G; Bolshakov, A P

    2014-01-01

    At the ion accelerator HELIS at the LPI, the neutron yield is investigated in DD reactions within a polycrystalline deuterium-saturated CVD diamond, during an irradiation of its surface by a deuterium ion beam with the energy less than 30 keV. The measurements of the neutron flux in the beam direction are performed in dependence on the target angle, \\b{eta}, with respect to the beam axis. These measurements are performed using a multichannel detector based on He3 counters. A significant anisotropy in neutron yield is observed, it was higher by a factor of 3 at \\b{eta}=0 compared to that at \\b{eta} = +-45{\\deg}. The possible reasons for the anisotropy, including ion channeling, are discussed.

  20. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal time scales. There is no convincing evidence that RH might be less important for long-term palaeoclimatic d changes compared to moisture source temperature variations. Ice core d data may thus have to be reinterpreted, focusing on climatic influences on relative humidity during evaporation, in particular related to atmospheric circulation changes.

  1. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  2. Cytology is advanced by studying effects of deuterium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Crespi, H. L.; Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Research of deuterium effects on biological systems shows deuteriation is not incompatible with life. With the successful cultivation of deuteriated bacteria, work is now being done on extraction of deuterio-compounds from bacteria.

  3. Pion Induced Pion Production on Deuterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossi, Vesna

    This thesis describes measurements of the pion induced pion production reaction pi^+ d to pi^{+} pi^{-}p p performed with a 280 MeV incident pi^{+} beam at TRIUMF. The data are compared with an improved version of the Oset and Vicente-Vacas theoretical model (12). The goal of the experiment and of the analysis was to provide a larger body of data for the free reaction and to test the validity of theoretical models. In the process, the ability to determine the values of the coupling constants C, f_Delta, g _{N*Delta_tau} within such a model framework would be explored. The knowledge of the precise value of these coupling constants would constrain N^* decay branching ratios and other pion induced reaction mechanisms like Double Charge Exchange. A previous experiment (23) had indicated that the pion induced pion production on deuterium is essentially a quasifree process with the reaction occurring on the neutron leaving the proton merely a spectator. The main difference with respect to the free reaction is the effect of Fermi motion of the neutron. Although we were interested in studying the free reaction (pi^ {-}p to pi^ {+}pi^{-}n), we chose a deuterium target so that the experiment could be run with a pi^+beam, since the pi^- beam flux is about 6 times lower than the flux of the positive pion beam at 280 MeV, the energy at which our experiment was performed. Such a flux would have required a much longer running time for the experiment in order to achieve the same statistical accuracy. The quasifree nature of the process was also confirmed in our experiment. This experiment involved a coincidence measurement of the quasifree process and as such provided four-fold differential cross section spectra of the reaction thus allowing for a microscopic comparison between data and theoretical models. In the theoretical description we incorporated additional amplitudes for the N^* to N(pipi)_{p-wave} diagrams required to describe the reaction cross section at T_pi = 280 Me

  4. Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion For Manned Deep Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Dr Friedwardt

    2009-01-01

    Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite well possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion, can there be refueled. To obtain a high thrust with a high specific impulse, favors the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, rather than deuterium-tritium ...

  5. Comparative analysis of deuterium ions implanted and deuterium atoms saturated at high pressure in pure pd and Pd diluted alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska, T.; Kitowski, K.

    2012-01-01

    Pd and its diluted alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25 keV deuterium ions at a fluence interval of (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2. The same property alloys were saturated by deuterium atoms using high pressure chamber during long period with temperature stabilization and electrical resistance measurement of standard Pd wire. The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium and accompanied hydrogen atoms were measured immediately after implantation (ten days) and after definite time period (three months) after saturation with the usage of elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). After two months, the measurements were repeated. The comparison of obtained results in both series of studies allowed one to make an important observation of a relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen atoms in pure Pd and its diluted alloys.

  6. Optimization of the depth resolution for deuterium depth profiling up to large depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielunska, B.; Mayer, M.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2016-11-01

    The depth resolution of deuterium depth profiling by the nuclear reaction D(3He,p)α is studied theoretically and experimentally. General kinematic considerations are presented which show that the depth resolution for deuterium depth profiling using the nuclear reaction D(3He,p)α is best at reaction angles of 0° and 180° at all incident energies below 9 MeV and for all depths and materials. In order to confirm this theoretical prediction the depth resolution was determined experimentally with a conventional detector at 135° and an annular detector at 175.9°. Deuterium containing thin films buried under different metal cover layers of aluminum, molybdenum and tungsten with thicknesses in the range of 0.5-11 μm served as samples. For all materials and depths an improvement of the depth resolution with the detector at 175.9° is achieved. For tungsten as cover layer a better depth resolution up to a factor of 18 was determined. Good agreement between the experimental results and the simulations for the depth resolution is demonstrated.

  7. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  8. Deuterium accumulation in tungsten at high fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibrov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Balden, Martin; Matej, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bystrov, Kirill; Morgan, Thomas [FOM Institute DIFFER, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    The data on the deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) at high fluences (≥ 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}) are scarce and the existing results are contradictory. Since retention in W is known to be flux-dependent, the laboratory experiments addressing this issue should be carried out in reactor-relevant conditions (high fluxes of low-energy ions). In this work the samples made of polycrystalline W were exposed to D plasmas in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI at temperatures ranging from 360 K to 1140 K to fluences in the range of 0.3-8.7 x 10{sup 27} D/m{sup 2}. It was observed that at exposure temperatures of 360 K and 580 K the D retention was only slightly dependent on the ion fluence. In addition, the presence of blister-like structures was found after the exposures, and their density and size distributions were also only weakly dependent on the fluence. In the case of exposure at 1140 K no surface modifications of the samples after plasma exposure were detected and the concentrations of retained D were very small. At all temperatures used the total amounts of retained D were smaller compared to those obtained by other researchers at lower ion flux densities, which indicates that the incident ion flux may play an important role in the total D retention in W.

  9. Capabilities of nitrogen admixed cryogenic deuterium pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharov, Igor; Sergeev, Vladimir [SPU, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lang, Peter; Ploeckl, Bernhard; Cavedon, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gabor; Szepesi, Tamas [Wigner RCP RMI, Budapest (Hungary); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Operation at high core density with high energy confinement - as foreseen in a future fusion reactor like DEMO - is being investigated at ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The efficiency of pellet fuelling from the high-field side usually increases with increasing injection speed. Due to the fragile nature of the deuterium ice, however, the increment of pellet mass losses and subsequent pellet fragmentations take place when the speed is increased. Studies show, that admixing of a small amount of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into D{sub 2} gas can be favorable for the mechanical stability of pellets. This might be helpful for deeper pellet penetration. Besides, seeding by N{sub 2} can enhance plasma performance due to both increasing the energy confinement time and reducing the divertor heat load in the envisaged ELMy H-mode plasma scenario. Fuelling efficiency of N{sub 2}-admixed solid D{sub 2} pellets and their nitrogen seeding capabilities were investigated. It was found that both the overall plasma density increase and the measured averaged pellet penetration depth were smaller in case of the admixed (1% mol. in the gas resulting in about 0.8% in the ice) pellet fuelling. Possibility of the N{sub 2}-seeding by admixed pellets was confirmed by CXRS measurements of N{sup 7+} content in plasma.

  10. Equations of state for hydrogen and deuterium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, Gerald Irwin (Kerley Technical Services, Appomattox, VA)

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the complete revision of a deuterium equation of state (EOS) model published in 1972. It uses the same general approach as the 1972 EOS, i.e., the so-called 'chemical model,' but incorporates a number of theoretical advances that have taken place during the past thirty years. Three phases are included: a molecular solid, an atomic solid, and a fluid phase consisting of both molecular and atomic species. Ionization and the insulator-metal transition are also included. The most important improvements are in the liquid perturbation theory, the treatment of molecular vibrations and rotations, and the ionization equilibrium and mixture models. In addition, new experimental data and theoretical calculations are used to calibrate certain model parameters, notably the zero-Kelvin isotherms for the molecular and atomic solids, and the quantum corrections to the liquid phase. The report gives a general overview of the model, followed by detailed discussions of the most important theoretical issues and extensive comparisons with the many experimental data that have been obtained during the last thirty years. Questions about the validity of the chemical model are also considered. Implications for modeling the 'giant planets' are also discussed.

  11. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2015-01-01

    We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C,CH_3,CH_2D,OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ~ 2 x 10^4 cm^-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (~ 10^6 cm^-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO,CO_2,O_2,O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high frac...

  12. Dynamic Deuterium Enrichment in Cometary Water via Eley–Rideal Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunxi; Giapis, Konstantinos P.

    2017-01-01

    The deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in water found in the coma of Jupiter family comet (JFC) 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko was reported to be (5.3 ± 0.7) × 10‑4, the highest among comets and three times the value for other JFCs with an ocean-like ratio. This discrepancy suggests the diverse origins of JFCs and clouds the issue of the origin of Earth’s oceanic water. Here we demonstrate that Eley–Rideal reactions between accelerated water ions and deuterated cometary surface analogs can lead to instantaneous deuterium enrichment in water scattered from the surface. The reaction proceeds with H2O+ abstracting adsorbed D atoms, forming an excited H2DO* state, which dissociates subsequently to produce energetic HDO. Hydronium ions are also produced readily by the abstraction of H atoms, consistent with H3O+ detection and abundance in various comets. Experiments with water isotopologs and kinematic analysis on deuterated platinum surfaces confirmed the dynamic abstraction mechanism. The instantaneous fractionation process is independent of the surface temperature and may operate on the surface of cometary nuclei or dust grains, composed of deuterium-rich silicates and carbonaceous chondrites. The requisite energetic water ions have been detected in the coma of 67P in two populations. This dynamic fractionation process may temporarily increase the water D/H ratio, especially as the comet gets closer to the Sun. The magnitude of the effect depends on the water ion energy-flux and the deuterium content of the exposed cometary surfaces.

  13. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  14. Advances in deuterium dioxide concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Woojung [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal, E-mail: nspyim@kaeri.re.kr [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Rag; Chung, Hongsuk [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheo Kyung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. • D{sub 2}O purity is analyzed using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). • OA-ICOS has advantages in terms of analysis of D{sub 2}O vapor. • OA-ICOS is expected that it can be used for accurate isotopic analyses in the future. - Abstract: The deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient reaction for fusion devices. Deuterium can be obtained by heavy water electrolysis. Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. A D{sub 2}O isotopic analysis is thus very important. A system for a heavy water analysis was built and a newly designed isotopic analysis experiment was carried out. We tried to analyze the D{sub 2}O purity using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). We found that the OA-ICOS based on measurement via laser absorption spectroscopy shows very high sensitivity. We ameliorated the sensitivity by an order of magnitude of more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}. We could make the apparatus smaller by employing very tiny diode laser and fiber optics elements of a DFB (Distributed Feedback) type. Consequently, our device has advantages in terms of maintainability and mobility even in a radioactive environment. This new method could be used for an accurate isotopic analysis in the future.

  15. Study of deuterium retention on lithiated tungsten exposed to high-flux deuterium plasma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cong; Wu, Xingwei; Zhang, Chenfei [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); De Temmerman, G., E-mail: G.C.DeTemmerman@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Meiden, H.J. van der [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Deuterium retention effects on both pure tungsten and lithiated tungsten have been investigated in the linear plasma simulator Magnum-PSI by an in-situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. • The lithiation can inhibit the blistering on tungsten surface. • The re-deposition of lithium results in the formation of chemical state of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and tungsten oxides on a fresh surface of tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten is under consideration for use as a plasma-facing material in the divertor region of ITER. Lithiation can significantly improve plasma performance in long-pulse tokamaks like EAST. The investigation of lithiated tungsten is important for understanding the lithium conditioning effects for EAST, where tungsten will be used as a plasma-facing material. In this paper, a few important issues of lithiated tungsten interacting with high-flux deuterium plasma have been studied, such as the effect of lithiation on deuterium retention, the profile of elemental distribution, and the chemical state of lithiated tungsten. Deuterium retention inside both pure and lithiated tungsten has been investigated for the first time in the linear plasma simulator Magnum-PSI by in-situ laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The results indicate that, after deuterium plasma exposure, deuterium retention could be saturated in the lithiation layer, and the lithium in the lithiated layer is chemically bound with deuterium. Moreover, the lithiation can inhibit the blistering on the tungsten surface. These results can be valuable for the application of LIBS as a diagnostic technique for plasma-facing components of tokamaks.

  16. Measurement of anomalous nuclear reaction in deuterium-loaded metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Song-Sheng; Li Jing-Huai; Wang Jian-Qing; He Ming; Wu Shao-Yong; Zhang Hong-Tao; Yao Shun-He; Zhao Yong-Gang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment for testing natural nuclear fusion at low temperature searching for evidence of the origin of 3He from natural nuclear fusion in deep Earth.The experiment was carried out using deuterium-loaded titanium foil samples and powder sample.Detection of charged particle was carried out using a low-level charged particle spectrometer.An Al foil was used as an energy absorber for identification of charged particle.Although the counting rate is very low in the experiment,the emission of energetic particle from the sample is obscrved and the particle is identified as a proton having energy about 2.8 MeV after exiting the titanium sample.This work provides a positive result for the emission of charged particle in the deuterium-loaded titanium foil samples at low temperature,but a negative result for the deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample.The average reaction yield is deduced to be(0.46±0.08)protons/h for the foil samples.With the suggestion that the proton originates from d-d reaction,we of the deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample suggests that the reaction yield might be correlated with the density or microscopic variables of deuterium-loaded titanium materials.The negative result also indicates that d-d reaction catalysed by μ-meson from cosmic ray can be excluded in the samples in this experiment.

  17. Subsurface deuterium bubble formation in W due to low-energy high flux deuterium plasma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Qu, S. L.; Shi, L. Q.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-03-01

    The deuterium (D) bubbles formed in W exposed to high flux D plasma were researched by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After D plasma exposure at 500 K and 1000 K, a layer of nano-sized bubbles were homogenously distributed in W subsurface region. The D bubbles were homogenously nucleated due to the high D concentration, and the nucleation process is not related to the vacancy defects. At low temperature (500 K), D bubbles can grow by surface blistering, which caused different nano scale morphologies on different surfaces. At high temperature (1000 K), D bubbles mainly grow by vacancy clustering, which caused pinholes on the surface.

  18. Gas swelling and deuterium distribution in beryllium implanted with deuterium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernikov, V.N.; Alimov, V.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    An extensive TEM study of the microstructure of Be TIP-30 irradiated with 3 and 10 keV D ions up to fluences, {Phi}, in the range from 3 x 10{sup 20} to 8 x 10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} at temperatures T{sub irr} = 300 K, 500 K and 700 K has been carried out. Depth distributions of deuterium in the form of separate D atoms and D{sub 2} molecules have been investigated by means of SIMS and RGA methods, correspondingly. D ion irradiation is accompanied by blistering and gives rise to different kind of destructions depending mainly on the irradiation temperature. Irradiation with D ions at 300 K leads to the formation of tiny highly pressurized D{sub 2} bubbles reminiscent of He bubbles in Be. Under 3 keV D ion irradiation D{sub 2} bubbles ({bar r}{sub b} {approx} 0.7 nm) appear at a fluence as low as 3x10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2}. Irradiation at 500 K results in the development, along with relatively small facetted bubbles, of larger oblate gas-filled cavities accumulating most of injected D atoms and providing for much higher gas swelling values as compared to irradiation at 300 K. The increase of D and/or T{sub irr}, to 700 K causes the further coarsening of large cavities which are transformed into sub-surface labyrinth structures. D and He ion implantation leads to the enhanced growth of porous microcrystalline layers of c.p.h.-BeO oxide with a microstructure which differs considerably from that of oxide layers on electropolished surfaces of Be. Based on the analysis of experimental data questions of deuterium reemission, thermal desorption and trapping in Be have been discussed in detail.

  19. A dosimetry study of deuterium-deuterium neutron generator-based in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel A.

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator which produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 x 108 +/-30% s-1. A moderator/reflector/shielding (5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite & 5.7 cm borated HDPE) assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeter (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and photon dose by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10 min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 +/- 0.8 mSv for neutron and 4.2 +/- 0.2 mSv for photon for 10 mins; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  20. Hyperfine structure of P-states in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Faustov, R N; Martynenko, G A; Sorokin, V V

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of quasipotential approach to the bound state problem in quantum electrodynamics we calculate hyperfine structure intervals Delta E^{hfs}(2P_{1/2}) and Delta E^{hfs}(2P_{3/2}) for P-states in muonic deuterium. The tensor method of projection operators for the calculation of the hyperfine structure of P-states with definite quantum numbers of total atomic momentum F and total muon momentum j in muonic deuterium is formulated. We take into account vacuum polarization, relativistic, quadruple and structure corrections of orders alpha^4, alpha^5 and alpha^6. The obtained numerical values of hyperfine splittings are useful for the analysis of new experimental data of the CREMA collaboration regarding to muonic deuterium.

  1. DEPTH PROFILING OF DEUTERIUM IN Al2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈效华; 赵国庆; 等

    1995-01-01

    D2+ ions of 70 and 90keV were separately implanted into two thick samples of sintered alumina ceramic and the distribution of deuterium has been measured for three runs at an interval of 5 months using high energy proton backscattering and elastic recoil detection (ERD).The measured data show that there is little diffusion of dueterium in Al2O3 and the diffusion coefficient is deduced to be 1.1×10-17 cm2/s.The measured total concentration of implanted deuterium is 4.5×1018at.cm2.The profile of hydrogen adsorbed on the surface of Al2O3 samples was also observed by ERD and 1H(19E,αγ)16O analysis.The distribution range of 1H in Al2O3 after deuterium implantation is much larger than that before one.

  2. Core Deuterium Fusion and Radius Inflation in Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Prashanth; Rachid Ouyed

    2016-06-01

    Several laboratory-based studies have shown that the Deuterium fusion cross-section is enhanced in a solid deuterated target as compared to a gas target, attributable to enhanced mobility of deuterons in a metal lattice. As an application, we propose that, for core temperatures and compositions characterizing hot Jupiters, screened Deuterium fusion can occur deep in the interior, and show that the amount of radius inflation from this effect can be important if there is sufficient rock-ice in the core. The mechanism of screened Deuterium fusion, operating in the above temperature range, is generally consistent with the trend in radius anomaly with planetary equilibrium temperature. We also explore the trend with planetary mass using a simple analytic model.

  3. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H]3- and [M - 5H]5- insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å2 and 808 ± 2 Å2. [M - 4H]4- ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å2) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å2) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H]4- and [M - 5H]5- ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis.

  4. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meezan, N. B., E-mail: meezan1@llnl.gov; Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  5. Calculation of Shock Hugoniot Curves of Precompressed Liquid Deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Militzer, B

    2002-11-18

    Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study deuterium at high pressure and temperature. The equation of state has been derived in the temperature and density region of 10,000 {le} T {le} 1,000,000 and 0.6 {le} {rho} {le} 2.5 g cm{sup -3}. A series of shock Hugoniot curves is computed for different initial compressions in order to compare with current and future shock wave experiments using liquid deuterium samples precompressed in diamond anvil cells.

  6. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  7. Specific features of X-ray generation by plasma focus chambers with deuterium and deuterium-tritium fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulatov, A. K.; Krapiva, P. S.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moskalenko, I. N.; Prokuratov, I. A.; Selifanov, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    The process of hard X-ray (HXR) generation in plasma focus (PF) chambers was studied experimentally. The radiation was recorded using scintillation detectors with a high time resolution and thermoluminescent detectors in combination with the method of absorbing filters. Time-resolved analysis of the processes of neutron and X-ray generation in PFs is performed. The spectra of HXR emission from PF chambers with deuterium and deuterium-tritium fillings are determined. In experiments with PF chambers filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture, in addition to the HXR pulse with photon energies of up to 200-300 keV, a γ-ray pulse with photon energies of up to 2.5-3.0 MeV is recorded, and a mechanism of its generation is proposed.

  8. Quantitative analysis of deuterium using the isotopic effect on quaternary {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Tamim A., E-mail: tamim.darwish@ansto.gov.au [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Holden, Peter J. [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); James, Michael [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2016-07-13

    Quantitative analysis of specifically deuterated compounds can be achieved by a number of conventional methods, such as mass spectroscopy, or by quantifying the residual {sup 1}H NMR signals compared to signals from internal standards. However, site specific quantification using these methods becomes challenging when dealing with non-specifically or randomly deuterated compounds that are produced by metal catalyzed hydrothermal reactions in D{sub 2}O, one of the most convenient deuteration methods. In this study, deuterium-induced NMR isotope shifts of quaternary {sup 13}C resonances neighboring deuterated sites have been utilized to quantify the degree of isotope labeling of molecular sites in non-specifically deuterated molecules. By probing {sup 13}C NMR signals while decoupling both proton and deuterium nuclei, it is possible to resolve {sup 13}C resonances of the different isotopologues based on the isotopic shifts and the degree of deuteration of the carbon atoms. We demonstrate that in different isotopologues, the same quaternary carbon, neighboring partially deuterated carbon atoms, are affected to an equal extent by relaxation. Decoupling both nuclei ({sup 1}H, {sup 2}H) resolves closely separated quaternary {sup 13}C signals of the different isotopologues, and allows their accurate integration and quantification under short relaxation delays (D1 = 1 s) and hence fast accumulative spectral acquisition. We have performed a number of approaches to quantify the deuterium content at different specific sites to demonstrate a convenient and generic analysis method for use in randomly deuterated molecules, or in cases of specifically deuterated molecules where back-exchange processes may take place during work up. - Graphical abstract: The relative intensities of quaternary {sup 13}C {"1H,"2H} resonances are equal despite the different relaxation delays, allowing the relative abundance of the different deuterated isotopologues to be calculated using NMR fast

  9. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V. [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Van Eester, D. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Ongena, J. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Amosov, V. N. [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Bonheure, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium; Crombe, K. [Ghent University, Belgium; Ericsson, G. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Esposito, Basilio [ENEA, Frascati; Giacomelli, L. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hellesen, C. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hjalmarsson, A. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Jachmich, S. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kallne, J. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Kaschuck, Yu A [Troitsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (TRINITI), Russia; Kiptily, V. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Leggate, H. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Mailloux, J. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Marocco, D. [ENEA, Frascati; Mayoral, M.-L. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Popovichev, S. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Riva, M. [ENEA, Frascati; Santala, M. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Stamp, M. F. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Vdovin, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Walden, A. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK

    2009-03-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ~25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30 50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from Ti ~ 4.0 keV and Te ~ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to Ti ~ 5.5 keV and Te ~ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and -ray spectroscopy.

  10. Determination of gluconeogenesis in man by the use of deuterium-NMR-spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosian, E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is the quantification of the deuterium--distribution in human glucose by the use of the deuterium NMR spectroscopy of deuteriated water. The glucose production in human organism is composed of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The quantification of the part of gluconeogenesis on the total glucose production was determined by the use of deuterium NMR spectroscopy. (boteke)

  11. Surface morphology and deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to high flux D plasma at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y. Z.; De Temmerman, G.; Luo, G. N.; Xu, H.Y.; Li, C.; Fu, B. Q.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Surface modifications and deuterium retention induced in tungsten by high fluxes (1024 m−2 s−1) low energy (38 eV) deuterium ions were studied as a function of surface temperature. Blister formation was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, while deuterium ret

  12. Deuterium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of Blood Flow and Tissue Perfusion Employing 2H2O as a Freely Diffusible Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joseph J. H.; Ewy, Coleen S.; Becker, Nancy N.; Shalwitz, Robert A.

    1987-06-01

    The use of deuterium oxide (2H2O) is proposed as a freely diffusible nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) blood flow and tissue perfusion tracer of potential clinical utility. Deuterium is a stable, nonradiative isotope commercially available as 2H2O at enrichment levels of essentially 100%--i.e., 110 molar equivalent deuterium. This high concentration, together with the short relaxation time of the spin 1 (quadrupole) deuterium nuclide, provides substantial sensitivity for NMR spectroscopy. As a result, when 2H2O is administered in a bolus fashion to a specific tissue or organ in vivo, the deuterium NMR intensity time course can be analyzed, using mathematical models developed by others for radiolabeled tracers, to measure the rate of blood flow and tissue perfusion. Such an application is demonstrated herein at a static magnetic field of 8.5 tesla. Using single-compartment flow modeling, hepatic blood flow and tissue perfusion in fasted (18 hr) male Sprague-Dawley rats was determined to be 61 ± 17 (mean ± SD) ml/100 g per min (n = 5).

  13. First Measurements of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Deuterium Fusion Reaction Yields in Ignition-Scalable Direct-Drive Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shmayda, W. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2017-03-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997), 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition. These observations indicate that the physical mechanisms that have been proposed to alter the fuel composition, such as species separation of the hydrogen isotopes [D. T. Casey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 075002 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.075002], are not significant during the period of peak neutron production in ignition-scalable cryogenic direct-drive DT implosions.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Deuterium Exchange Reactions of Hydrogen and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirich, Anne; Miller, Trisha Hoette; Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Two gas phase deuterium/hydrogen exchange reactions are described utilizing a simple inexpensive glass catalyst tube containing 0.5% Pd on alumina through which gas mixtures can be passed and products collected for analysis. The first of these exchange reactions involves H[subscript 2] + D[subscript 2], which proceeds at temperatures as low as 77…

  15. 78 FR 79021 - Request for a License To Export; Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... End use Recipient country application no., docket No. Matheson Tri Gas, Inc., October Deuterium (Heavy 14,000.0 kgs...... Non-nuclear end- Republic of Korea, 15,2013, November 12, 2013, Hydrogen). use for Taiwan. XMAT430, 11006125. semiconductor devices. Dated this 16th day of December 2013 in...

  16. Deuterium Fractionation and Ion-Molecule Reactions at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar; Hugo, Edouard; Gerlich, Dieter

    2005-08-01

    Understanding deuterium fractionation is currently one of the greatest challenges in astrochemistry. In this contribution deuteration experiments of the series CH_n^+, n=2-5, in a low temperature 22-pole ion trap are used to systematically test a simple chemical rule predicting which molecular ion undergoes deuterium exchange in collisions with HD. CH_4^+ turns out to be a problem case, where prediction fails. The method of laser induced reaction (LIR) is used to determine the population ratio of the lowest ortho-to-para states of H_2D^+ relaxed in collisions with H_2. Preliminary results indicate that the ortho-to-para ratio of H_2D^+ is substantially reduced in para-H_2. This points at the important role of nuclear spin in deuterium fractionation, in particular at the destruction of ortho-H_2D^+ in collisions with ortho-H_2. More systematic LIR experiments are needed for a chemical model of deuterium fractionation including state-to-state modifications of the species involved.

  17. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen;

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  18. Ordered ground states of metallic hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, N. W.

    1981-01-01

    The physical attributes of some of the more physically distinct ordered states of metallic hydrogen and metallic deuterium at T = 0 and nearby are discussed. The likelihood of superconductivity in both is considered with respect to the usual coupling via the density fluctuations of the ions.

  19. 78 FR 79018 - Request for a License To Export Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Request for a License To Export Deuterium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice of Receipt... received the following request for an export license. Copies of the request are available electronically.... The information concerning this export license application follows. ] NRC Export License...

  20. Damage and deuterium retention in LiAlO 2 single crystals irradiated with deuterium ions using ion-beam techniques and optical absorption measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, H.; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Zhao, M.; Shikama, T.

    2011-10-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques and optical absorption measurements were employed to quantitatively examine the damage and deuterium retention in LiAlO 2 single crystals irradiated with 10 keV D2+. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry revealed that the lattice atoms were disordered by the incident deuterium ions in the ratio O/Al of 2.5. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that all the incident deuterium ions were retained near the end of their trajectories with a maximum concentration of 0.7 D/Al at room temperature. The depth profiles of the disordered atoms were nearly identical to those of the retained deuterium atoms. The release of the retained deuterium atoms and the annihilation of the ion-induced color centers, which contributed to an optical absorption band at 5.25 eV, were observed in the same temperature range. A correlation was established between the oxygen vacancies and the retained deuterium atoms.

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  2. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Pablant, N. A.; Stagner, L.

    2016-11-01

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region in H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. These challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model.

  3. On the habitability of universes without stable deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-05-01

    In both stars and in the early universe, the production of deuterium is the first step on the way to producing heavier nuclei. If the strong force were slightly weaker, then deuterium would not be stable, and many authors have noted that nuclesynthesis would be compromised so that helium production could not proceed through standard reaction chains. Motivated by the possibility that other regions of space-time could have different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar evolution in universes without stable deuterium and argues that such universes can remain habitable. Even in universes with no stellar nucleosynthesis, stars can form and will generate energy through gravitational contraction. Using both analytic estimates and a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we show that such stars can be sufficiently luminous and long-lived to support life. Stars with initial masses that exceed the Chandrasekhar mass cannot be supported by degeneracy pressure and will explode at the end of their contraction phase. The resulting explosive nucleosynthesis can thus provide the universe with some heavy elements. We also explore the possibility that helium can be produced in stellar cores through a triple-nucleon reaction that is roughly analogous to the triple-alpha reaction that operates in our universe. Stars burning hydrogen through this process are somewhat hotter than those in our universe, but otherwise play the same role. Next we show that with even trace amounts (metallicity Z ∼10-10) of heavy elements - produced through the triple-nucleon process or by explosive nucleosynthesis - the CNO cycle can operate and allow stars to function. Finally, we consider Big Bang Nucleosynthesis without stable deuterium and find that only trace amounts of helium are produced, with even smaller abundances of other nuclei. With stars evolving through gravitational contraction, explosive nucleosynthesis, the triple-nucleon reaction, and the CNO cycle

  4. Development of Approaches for Deuterium Incorporation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium (2H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40 50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H2H-NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30 40 % deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium.

  5. Effects of deuterium oxide on cell growth and vesicle speed in RBL-2H3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni S. Kalkur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time we show the effects of deuterium oxide on cell growth and vesicle transport in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells. RBL-2H3 cells cultured with 15 moles/L deuterium showed decreased cell growth which was attributed to cells not doubling their DNA content. Experimental observations also showed an increase in vesicle speed for cells cultured in deuterium oxide. This increase in vesicle speed was not observed in deuterium oxide cultures treated with a microtubule-destabilizing drug, suggesting that deuterium oxide affects microtubule-dependent vesicle transport.

  6. Tritium production from a low voltage deuterium discharge on palladium and other metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claytor, T.N.; Jackson, D.D.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    Over the past year the authors have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met. Small diameter wires (100--250 microns) have been used with gas pressures above 200 torr at voltages and currents of about 2,000 V at 3--5 A. By carefully controlling the sputtering rate of the wire, runs have been extended to hundreds of hours allowing a significant amount (> 10`s nCi) of tritium to accumulate. they show tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch. They illustrate the difference between batches of annealed palladium and as received palladium from several batches as well as the effect of other metals (Pt, Ni, Nb, Zr, V, W, Hf) to demonstrate that the tritium generation rate can vary greatly from batch to batch.

  7. Direct depth distribution measurement of deuterium in bulk tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. N.; Shimada, M.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding tritium retention and permeation in plasma-facing components is critical for fusion safety and fuel cycle control. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES) is shown to be an effective tool to reveal the depth profile of deuterium in tungsten. Results confirm the detection of deuterium. A ˜46 μm depth profile revealed that the deuterium content decreased precipitously in the first 7 μm, and detectable amounts were observed to depths in excess of 20 μm. The large probing depth of GD-OES (up to 100s of μm) enables studies not previously accessible to the more conventional techniques for investigating deuterium retention. Of particular applicability is the use of GD-OES to measure the depth profile for experiments where high deuterium concentration in the bulk material is expected: deuterium retention in neutron irradiated materials, and ultra-high deuterium fluences in burning plasma environment.

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  10. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  16. Synthesis, structural investigations, hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies, and molecular modeling of conformationally stablilized aromatic oligoamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Qin, Bo; Ren, Changliang; Chen, Xiuying; Yip, Yeow Kwan; Ye, Ruijuan; Zhang, Dawei; Su, Haibin; Zeng, Huaqiang

    2010-04-28

    Biasing the conformational preferences of aromatic oligoamides by internally placing intramolecular hydrogen bonds has led to a series of stably folded molecular strands. This article presents the results from extensive solid-state, solution, and computational studies on these folding oligomers. Depending on its backbone length, an oligoamide adopts a crescent or helical conformation. Surprisingly, despite the highly repetitive nature of the backbone, the internally placed, otherwise very similar intramolecular hydrogen bonds showed significantly different stabilities as demonstrated by hydrogen-deuterium exchange data. It was also observed that the hydrogen-bonding strength can be tuned by adjusting the substituents attached to the exterior of the aromatic backbones. Examining the amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates of trimers revealed that a six-membered hydrogen bond nearing the ester end is the weakest among all the four intramolecular hydrogen bonds of a molecule. This observation was verified by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations at the level of B3LYP/6-31G*. Such a "weak point" creates the "battle of the bulge" where backbone twisting is centered, which is consistently observed in the solid-state structures of the four trimer molecules studied. In the solid state, the oligomers assemble into interesting one-dimensional structures. A pronounced columnar packing of short oligomers (i.e., dimers, trimers, and tetramer) and channel-like, potentially ion-conducting stacks of longer oligomers (i.e., tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer) were observed.

  17. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in imidazole as a tool for studying histidine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebo, Małgorzata; Kielmas, Martyna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Stefanowicz, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Isotope exchange at the histidine C2 atom of imidazole in D2O solution is well known to occur at a significantly slower rate than the exchange of amide protons. Analysis of the kinetics of this isotope-exchange reaction is proposed herein as a method of detecting histidine phosphorylation. This modification of His-containing peptides is challenging to pinpoint because of its instability under acidic conditions as well as during CID-MS analysis. In this work, we investigated the effect of phosphorylation of the histidine side chain in peptides on deuterium-hydrogen exchange (DHX) in the imidazole. The results demonstrate that phosphorylation dramatically slows the rate of the DHX reaction. This phenomenon can be applied to detect phosphorylation of peptides at the histidine residue (e.g., in enzymatic digests). We also found that the influence of the peptide sequence on the exchange kinetics is relatively small. A CID fragmentation experiment revealed that there was no detectable hydrogen scrambling in peptides deuterated at C2 of the imidazole ring. Therefore, MS/MS can be used to directly identify the locations of deuterium ions incorporated into peptides containing multiple histidine moieties.

  18. Inelastic X-Ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.; Gericke, D. O.; Döppner, T.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Murphy, C. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Vorberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. These first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  19. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslandes, Alec, E-mail: acd@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Guenette, Mathew C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Corr, Cormac S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Karatchevtseva, Inna [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Thomsen, Lars [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10{sup 24} ions m{sup −2}. Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four.

  20. Effects of low-level deuterium enrichment on bacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Xie

    Full Text Available Using very precise (±0.05% measurements of the growth parameters for bacteria E. coli grown on minimal media, we aimed to determine the lowest deuterium concentration at which the adverse effects that are prominent at higher enrichments start to become noticeable. Such a threshold was found at 0.5% D, a surprisingly high value, while the ultralow deuterium concentrations (≤0.25% D showed signs of the opposite trend. Bacterial adaptation for 400 generations in isotopically different environment confirmed preference for ultralow (≤0.25% D enrichment. This effect appears to be similar to those described in sporadic but multiple earlier reports. Possible explanations include hormesis and isotopic resonance phenomena, with the latter explanation being favored.

  1. Rare pion double radiative capture reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasinoff, M.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Armstrong, D.S.; Clarke, J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia (United States); Gorringe, T.P.; Kovash, M.; Tripathi, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Wright, D.H. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Zolnierczuk, P.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The rare 2-photon radiative capture reaction has been observed for the first time on hydrogen and deuterium using the RMC high acceptance cylindrical pair spectrometer at TRIUMF. Our preliminary branching ratios are 3.8 x 10{sup -5} for hydrogen and 1.6 x 10{sup -5} for deuterium. Our {pi}{sup -}p data confirms the predicted dominance of the {pi}{pi}{yields} {gamma}{gamma}annihilation mechanism. Moreover, since crossing symmetry relates {pi}{pi}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} to {gamma}{pi}{yields}{gamma}{pi} this threshold ({pi}, 2{gamma}) reaction might also provide new information on the electric polarizability of the pion. Our {pi}{sup -}d data shows no evidence for the predicted d{sup *}{sub 1}(1920) dibaryon. (author)

  2. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues.

  3. Biological Influence of Deuterium on Procariotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologic influence of deuterium (D on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates are investigated at growth on media with heavy water (D2О. The method of step by step adaptation technique of cells to D2О was developed, consisting in plating of cells on 2 % agarose nutrient media containing increasing gradient of concentration of D2О (from 0 up to 98 % D2O and the subsequent selection of stable to D2O cells. In the result of that technique were obtained adapted to maximum concentration of D2O cells, biological material of which instead of hydrogen contained deuterium with levels of enrichment 92–97,5 at.% D.

  4. Surface modification of tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasma and its impact on deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Terentyev, D.; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloy (with 5 mass per cent of Ta) were exposed to high-flux deuterium plasma at different fluences. The surface modification was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and deuterium retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In the

  5. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; Liu, W.; Luo, G. N.; Yuan, Y.; Jia, Y. Z.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1–2 × 1024/m2/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2–7 × 1026 D/m2) and surface temperature (423–873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to

  6. Nuclear structure contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Carl E; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We consider the two-photon exchange contribution to the $2P-2S$ Lamb shift in muonic deuterium in the framework of forward dispersion relations. The dispersion integrals are evaluated using experimental data on elastic deuteron form factors and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering, both in the quasielastic and hadronic range. The subtraction constant that is required to ensure convergence of the dispersion relation for the forward Compton amplitude $T_1(\

  7. Kinetic isotope effects for fast deuterium and proton exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Estel; Mammoli, Daniele; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Pelupessy, Philippe; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2016-04-21

    By monitoring the effect of deuterium decoupling on the decay of transverse (15)N magnetization in D-(15)N spin pairs during multiple-refocusing echo sequences, we have determined fast D-D exchange rates kD and compared them with fast H-H exchange rates kH in tryptophan to determine the kinetic isotope effect as a function of pH and temperature.

  8. Deuteron charge radius from spectroscopy data in atomic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Randolf; Udem, Thomas; Antognini, Aldo; Beyer, Axel; Fleurbaey, Hélène; Grinin, Alexey; Hänsch, Theodor W; Julien, Lucile; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Biraben, François

    2016-01-01

    We give a pedagogical description of the method to extract the charge radii and Rydberg constant from laser spectroscopy in regular hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms, that is part of the CODATA least-squares adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. We give a deuteron charge radius from D spectroscopy alone of 2.1415(45) fm. This value is independent of the proton charge radius, and five times more accurate than the value found in the CODATA Adjustment 10.

  9. Study of the microstructure evolution of zirconium alloy during deuterium absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jingru; You, Li; Song, Xiping

    2017-09-01

    In the exploration of fusion power, zirconium alloy has been viewed as a potential deuterium storage material to store and deliver deuterium fuel into fusion reactors, due to its large deuterium storage capacity, low deuterium desorption pressure and fast deuterium absorption kinetics. But it often cracks after deuterium absorption. In this study, the microstructure and deuterium absorption kinetic of β-Zr in various deuteriding conditions (pressure, time and temperature) were investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of deuteriding pressures from 1 bar to 3 bar at 1173 K, the deuteride content and the deuteride morphology changed significantly. During deuterium absorption at 3 bar, the surface deuteride layer was formed first, and then the inner deuteride network was gradually developed with the time. There existed an apparent deuterium concentration gradient from surface to center. With the increase of deuteriding temperatures from 973 K to 1173 K, the deuteride content decreased. The kinetic of deuterium absorption at 1173 K was found to be affected by the deuteriding pressures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that ε deuterides nucleated and grew at the interface of δ deuterides, and small bands with different crystal orientation were found within the ε deuterides. The γ deuterides were found at 3 bar, within which twins and tweed structure were observed. An orientation relationship of δ//ε, {111}δ//{111}ε between δ and ε deuterides was also determined by TEM analysis.

  10. Counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Tanabe; Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The first experiments for counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through palladium were performed. Deuterium permeation rates against D{sub 2} pressure were measured under the condition where hydrogen permeated to opposite direction by supplying H{sub 2} gas at the permeated side of D{sub 2}. It was found that not a small amount of deuterium was clearly permeated even if the deuterium pressure was much smaller than the hydrogen pressure. Deuterium permeation rate was gradually reduced by increasing the counter H permeation. The deuterium permeation rate under the counter H permeation is well represented by a simple model in which the ratio of the deuterium permeation rates with and without the counter H permeation was proportional to the fractional concentration of deuterium in the bulk. As increasing the hydrogen counter flow, however, the deuterium permeation rate deviates from the model. This means that adsorption (absorption) of D{sub 2} from gas phase is inhibited and surface recombination of deuterium is blocked by hydrogen. (author)

  11. Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

    2005-12-01

    Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  12. Inferring the equation of state of shocked liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K.; Murphy, C. D.; Gregori, G.; Regan, S. P.; Radha, P. B.; Boehly, T. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Hu, S. X.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hicks, D. G.

    2010-11-01

    The equation of state of light elements is essential to understanding the structure of Jovian planets. Here we present a combination of experimental techniques used to characterize warm dense deuterium. The OMEGA laser was used to directly drive a shock wave in a planar liquid-deuterium target. The shocked D2 conditions were diagnosed using VISAR and pyrometry to obtain the shock velocity and temperature. Two shock waves were launched with velocities of 17±0.9 and 23±1.0 km/s, as a result of intensity variations in the staggered laser beam drive. Using a blackbody approximation, a temperature of 0.4 to 0.8 eV range was inferred. Various equation of state models including SESAME, PROPACEOS, DFT-MD and Saumon & Chabrier EOS were used to obtain a range pressures (0.4-0.5 Mbar) and densities (0.65-0.88 g/cc). Differences between models will be discussed. Preliminary data from X-ray scattering, providing a direct measurement of microscopic state of the deuterium for extreme conditions not accessible with VISAR, will also be presented.

  13. Electron Scattering From High-Momentum Neutrons in Deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, A V; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolo, M; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Biselli, A S; Bltmann, S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Cummings, J P; Dashyan, N B; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R G; Feuerbach, R J; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gonenc, A; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Grioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Li, J; Livingston, K; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Mutchler, G S; Müller, J; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S I; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B

    2006-01-01

    We report results from an experiment measuring the semi-inclusive reaction $d(e,e'p_s)$ where the proton $p_s$ is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CLAS detector. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final-state missing mass $W^{*}$, backward proton momentum $\\vec{p}_{s}$ and momentum transfer $Q^{2}$. The data are compared to a simple PWIA spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that ...

  14. Precision measures of the primordial abundance of deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Jorgenson, Regina A; Murphy, Michael T; Steidel, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of deuterium absorption in the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.87) damped Lyman-alpha system at z_abs = 3.06726 towards the QSO SDSS J1358+6522. On the basis of 13 resolved D I absorption lines and the damping wings of the H I Lyman alpha transition, we have obtained a new, precise measure of the primordial abundance of deuterium. Furthermore, to bolster the present statistics of precision D/H measures, we have reanalyzed all of the known deuterium absorption-line systems that satisfy a set of strict criteria. We have adopted a blind analysis strategy (to remove human bias), and developed a software package that is specifically designed for precision D/H abundance measurements. For this reanalyzed sample of systems, we obtain a weighted mean of (D/H)_p = (2.53 +/- 0.04) x 10^-5, corresponding to a Universal baryon density 100 Omega_b h^2 = 2.202 +/- 0.045 for the standard model of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. By combining our measure of (D/H)_p with observations of the cosmic microwave backg...

  15. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P., E-mail: pkravt@gmail.com; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (NRC “Kurchatov Institute” PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kammel, P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  16. Linear-mixing model for shock-compressed liquid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A model has been developed for the equation of state of deuterium that builds in the correct limiting behavior for the molecular fluid at low pressure and extends smoothly through dissociation to the very high-density monatomic-metallic fluid. The key assumption is that the Helmholtz free energy of the dissociating mixture is a function that can be approximated by the composition average of the free energy of the pure molecular and metallic hydrogen equations of state. The composition is determined by minimizing the free energy. In comparison to earlier studies this model leads to an enhancement of molecular dissociation and a lowering of shock temperatures and pressures. Calculations for shock-compressed liquid deuterium are in agreement with experiments to a pressure of 2.1 Mbar. At about 1 Mbar and 20thinsp000 K liquid deuterium is 90{percent} dissociated and is a nearly degenerate metal. The model predicts that molecular dissociation will lead to negative values of ({partial_derivative}P/{partial_derivative}T){sub V} in the range 4000 to 10thinsp000 K and volumes below 7 cc/mol. This feature suggests the formation of covalently bonded species in the partially dissociated mixture. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. On kaonic deuterium. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A N; Faber, M; Fuhrmann, H; Ivanova, V A; Marton, J; Troitskaya, N I; Zmeskal, J

    2004-01-01

    We study kaonic deuterium, the bound K^-d state A_{K d}. Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic deuterium in terms of the amplitude of K^-d scattering for arbitrary relative momenta. Near threshold our formula reduces to the well-known DGBT formula. The S-wave amplitude of K^-d scattering near threshold is defined by the resonances Lambda(1405), Sigma(1750) and a smooth elastic background, and the inelastic channels K^- d -> NY and K^- d -> NY pion, with Y = Sigma^{+/-}, Sigma^0 and Lambda^0, where the final-state interactions play an important role. The Ericson-Weise formula for the S-wave scattering length of K^-d scattering is derived. The total width of the energy level of the ground state of kaonic deuterium is estimated using the theoretical predictions of the partial widths of the two-body decays A_{Kd} -> NY and experimental data on the rates of the NY-pair production in the reactions K^-d -> NY. We obt...

  18. Application of a Pyroprobe-Deuterium NMR System: Deuterium Tracing and Mechanistic Study of Upgrading Process for Lignin Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Haoxi; Jarvis, Mark W.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Foust, Thomas D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Biddy, Mary J.

    2016-04-21

    In this study, a pyroprobe-deuterium (2H) NMR system has been used to identify isotopomer products formed during the deuteration and ring opening of lignin model compounds. Several common model compounds for lignin and its upgraded products, including guaiacol, syringol, toluene, p-xylene, phenol, catechol, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and methylcyclopentane, have been examined for selective ring opening. Similar pathways for upgrading of toluene and p-xylene has been found, which will undergo hydrogenation, methyl group elimination, and ring opening process, and benzene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been found as major intermediates before ring opening. Very interestingly, the 2H NMR analysis for the deuterium-traced ring opening of catechol on Ir/..gamma..-Al2O3 is almost identical to the ring opening process for phenol. The ring opening processes for guaiacol and syringol appeared to be very complicated, as expected. Benzene, phenol, toluene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been determined to be the major products.

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  20. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  1. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project; Syntese af deuterium-maerkede forbindelser til FOeTEK projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ({sup 13}C-labelled PCB congeners, {sup 13}C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D{sub 9}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-zeramol and D{sub 3}-dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG).

  2. Structural Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Deuterium Implantation: Irradiation at 295 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymir; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Progolaieva, Viktoria; Boshko, Valerian

    2016-02-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic steel 18Cr10NiTi pre-implanted at 295 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 8 × 1014 to 2.7 × 1018 D/cm2. The kinetics of structural transformation development in the steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of deuterium concentration. Three characteristic regions with different low rates of deuterium amount desorption as the implantation dose increases were revealed: I—the linear region of low implantation doses (up to 1 × 1017 D/cm2); II—the nonlinear region of medium implantation doses (1 × 1017 to 8 × 1017 D/cm2); III—the linear region of high implantation doses (8 × 1017 to 2.7 × 1018 D/cm2). During the process of deuterium ion irradiation, the coefficient of deuterium retention in steel varies in discrete steps. Each of the discrete regions of deuterium retention coefficient variation corresponds to different implanted-matter states formed during deuterium ion implantation. The low-dose region is characterized by formation of deuterium-vacancy complexes and solid-solution phase state of deuterium in the steel. The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in this region varies between 2.5 and 3 at.%. The medium-dose region is characterized by the radiation-induced action on the steel in the presence of deuterium with the resulting formation of the energy-stable nanosized crystalline structure of steel, having a developed network of intercrystalline boundaries. The basis for this developed network of intercrystalline boundaries is provided by the amorphous state, which manifests itself in the thermodesorption spectra as a widely temperature-scale extended region of deuterium desorption (structure formation with a varying activation energy). The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in the region of medium implantation doses makes 7 to 8 at.%. The resulting structure shows stability against the action of

  3. On the abundance of deuterium in celestial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Rickard; Kero, Johan; Liszka, Ludwik

    2016-04-01

    The deuterium hydrogen ratio (D/H) is the subject of conflicting ideas about the origin of water on the Earth. The present D/H ratio in the Earth oceans (≈1.5x10-4) is substantially lower than most, if not all potential cosmic sources. Furthermore, other celestial bodies, including interstellar space, display a fairly wide range of D/H ratios superseding the terrestrial one. Escape processes may in part explain higher D/H ratios on Mars and Venus, but cannot explain the Earth's low ratio compared to that of the potential sources (e.g. comets and meteors), unless a deuterium "removal" process can be inferred that reduces the D/H ratio. Alternatively, the D/H ratio in the Earth's ocean represents a time capsule of a yet to be identified cosmic source. It is here hypothesized that the former is the cause, a "removal" of deuterium in matter (carbohydrates, water etc.) having high (pristine) D/H ratios. By "removal" is here meant an isotope transmutation, i.e. deuterium is transmuted to hydrogen plus a thermal neutron, a process requiring >2.25 MeV (≈3.6·10-13 J). However, once released a thermal neutron will eventually fuse with another heavier element by thermal neutron capture, a process that may lead to energy in excess of the spallation energy. The energy gain differs for different isotopes, but if exceeding unity it will induce more heat/power than the input power, maintaining power production over time. A gain less than unity will still result in deuterium removal, but also isotope transmutation, and/or element transmutation via β± decay. This report gives a theoretical background for the plasma forcing that can lead to thermal neutron spallation, a process that changes/decrease the D/H ratio in celestial objects. The applicability of the theory will be tested on celestial objects subjected to strong dynamic, and electromagnetic forcing, by the Sun or during the entry of high-speed objects into the Earth's atmosphere.

  4. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, L., E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Netherlands); Gent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Netherlands); Unterberg, B.; Reinhart, M.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Linsmeier, Ch. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Breuer, U. [Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, ZEA-3 Analytics, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kreter, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Gent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    The influence of surface temperature, particle flux density and material microstructure on the surface morphology and deuterium retention was studied by exposing tungsten targets (20 μm and 40 μm grain size) to deuterium plasma at the same particle fluence (10{sup 26} m{sup −2}) and incident ion energy (40 eV) to two different ion fluxes (low flux: 10{sup 22} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, high flux: 10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). The maximum of deuterium retention was observed at ∼630 K for low flux density and at ∼870 K for high flux density, as indicated from the thermal desorption spectroscopy data (TDS). Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of blisters with a diameter of up to 1 μm which were formed at high flux density and high temperature (1170 K) contrasting with previously reported surface modification results at such exposure conditions.

  5. Influence of Deuterium Treatments on the Polysilicon-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Sung

    2016-06-01

    The electrical behavior of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky barrier photodetector structure, depending on deuterium treatment, is analyzed by means of the dark current and the photocurrent measurements. Al/Ti bilayer was used as Schottky metal. The deuterium incorporation into the absorption layer, undoped polysilicon, was achieved with annealing process and with ion implantation process, respectively. In the photocurrent-to-dark current ratio measurement, deuterium-ion-implanted photodetector shows over hundred higher than the control device. It means that the heightening of the Schottky barrier and the passivation of grain boundary trap were achieved effectively through the deuterium ion implantation process.

  6. Influence of near-surface blisters on deuterium transport in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Manhard, A.; von Toussaint, U.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of near-surface blisters on deuterium transport in tungsten is studied by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gentle deuterium plasma loading of different durations and subsequent NRA depth profiling is performed in heavily pre-blistered and unblistered areas on self-damaged tungsten samples. Comparison of the deuterium depth profiles reveals a considerable reduction of the deuterium transport into the bulk due to the presence of near-surface blisters. SEM and NRA results identify the enhanced re-emission of deuterium from the sample due to open blisters as the underlying mechanism, which reduces the deuterium flux into the bulk. Based on a simple analytical hydrogen retention model, the re-emitted deuterium flux by open blisters is determined to be 80% of the implanted deuterium flux in the present conducted experiment. In addition, the deuterium flux into the bulk is reduced by 60% compared to the unblistered case. Hence the presence of blisters is not a general disadvantage in the context of retention, but can be beneficial in slowing down the build up of a certain hydrogen inventory and in reducing the permeation flux.

  7. Neutron production with mixture of deuterium and krypton in Sahand Filippov type plasma focus facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.A., E-mail: mohammadidorbash@yahoo.com [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhanian, S. [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rawat, R.S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-08-01

    This Letter reports the order of magnitude enhancement in neutron yield from Sahand plasma focus device with krypton seeded deuterium operation. The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10{sup 9} neutrons per shot was achieved at 1.00 Torr deuterium with 3% krypton which is higher than the best average neutron yield of 3.18x10{sup 8} neutrons per shot for pure deuterium operation. Estimation of average neutron energy showed that the maximum and minimum average energies are 2.98±0.6 MeV at 16 kV in 0.25 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr and 2.07±0.2 MeV at 18 kV operation in 0.5 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr, respectively. The anisotropy of neutron emission from Sahand DPF showed that the neutrons are produced mainly by beam-target mechanisms. -- Highlights: → The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10{sup 9} neutrons per shot was achieved at mixture of deuterium and krypton. → In the krypton seeding of deuterium also anisotropy of neutron emission deuterium is found. → The krypton seeding of deuterium made the neutron emission more reliable over wider operating pressure ranges.

  8. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  9. An improved statistical model for predicting the deuterium ingress in zirconium alloy pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, M.D., E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Xin, L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    In the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the nuclear fuel is contained in hundreds of Zr-2.5 Nb alloy pressure tubes. The corrosion of zirconium alloy produces deuterium that is absorbed by the body of the pressure tube. The presence of this deuterium causes hydrogen embrittlement of zirconium alloy with an adverse effect on the integrity of the pressure tube. An accurate prediction of deuterium accumulation over time is an important step for ensuring the fitness-for-service of pressure tubes. Deuterium ingress data collected from in-service inspection of pressure tubes exhibit heteroscedasticity, i.e., the variance of deuterium concentration is dependent on operating time (or exposure) and temperature. The currently used model by the nuclear industry involves a logarithmic regression of deuterium content over time and temperature. Since this approach does not deal with heteroscedasticity precisely, it results in a conservative prediction of the deuterium ingress. The paper presents a new approach for predicting deuterium ingress based on a weighted least-squares (WLS) regression that overcomes the limitations of the existing model, and it provides realistic prediction bounds of deuterium ingress.

  10. Sputtering and codeposition of silicon carbide with deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Rion A.

    2003-03-01

    Due to its excellent thermal properties, silicon carbide is being considered as a possible plasma-facing material for fusion devices. If used as a plasma-facing material, the energetic hydrogen isotope ions and charge-exchanged neutrals escaping from the plasma will sputter the silicon carbide. To assess the tritium inventory problems that will be generated by the use of this material, it is necessary that we know the codeposition properties of the redeposited silicon carbide. To determine the codeposition properties, the deuterium plasma experiment at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California has been used to directly compare the deuterium sputtering and codeposition of silicon carbide with that of graphite. A Penning discharge at a flux of 6×10 19 D/m 2 and an energy of ≈300 eV was used to sputter silicon and carbon from a pair of 0.05 m diameter silicon carbide disks. The removal rate of deuterium gas from the fixed volume of the system isolated from all other sources and sinks was used to measure the codeposition probability (probability that a hydrogen isotope atom will be removed through codeposition per ion striking the sample surface). A small catcher plate used to capture a fraction of the codeposited film was analyzed using Auger spectroscopy. This analysis showed the film to begin with a high carbon to silicon ratio due to preferential sputtering of the carbon. As the film became thicker, the ratio of the depositing material changed over to the (1:1) value that must eventually be attained.

  11. Optical activity studies of hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potassium complexes of racemic and optically active forms of 1,2-propanediaminetriacetatoacetic acid nickel-ate (II) were prepared stoichiometrically by two different experimental procedures. The complexes were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion values were obtained on the optically active complexes. TGA and IR spectroscopy techniques suggest that {Delta}-K (Ni(R ({minus})HPDTA)) H{sub 2}O (1)and {Lambda}-K (Ni(S (+)HPDTA)) H{sub 2}O (2) have different configurations in solution than in the solid state. Solid complexes of (1) are theorized to have the nickel (II) ion bound pentadentate to the PDTA ligand and unidentate to a water molecule. The free carboxyl arm of the PDTA ligand is protonated. Dissolution of the complexes results in rotational changes which occur with time. The rate of rotational change has been kinetically measured, which results in three pH dependent rate constants. An isotope effect for such reactions in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O has been measured. The base-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the out-of-plane glycinate rings of (1) and (2) complexes has been determined for three of the four glycinate protons by ORD. The rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange is extremely slow and consecutive proton exchanges are not independent of one another over sufficiently long periods, such that measurement of {alpha}{sub {infinity}} are calculated by three differing mathematical models and applied to the calculation of the hydrogen-deuterium rate constants.

  12. Electron Scattering From High-Momentum Neutrons in Deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.V. Klimenko; S.E. Kuhn

    2005-10-12

    We report results from an experiment measuring the semi-inclusive reaction D(e,e'p{sub s}) where the proton p{sub s} is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CLAS detector. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final-state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum {rvec p}{sub s} and momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. The data are compared to a simple PWIA spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. A ''bound neutron structure function'' F{sub 2n}{sup eff} was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p{sub s} > 400 MeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F{sub 2n}{sup eff} in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A modification of the bound neutron structure function is one of possible effects that can cause the observed deviation.

  13. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  14. Detection of deuterium Balmer lines in the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Hébrard, G; Vidal-Madjar, A; Walsh, J R; Ferlet, R

    2000-01-01

    The detection and first identification of the deuterium Balmer emissionlines, D-alpha and D-beta, in the core of the Orion Nebula is reported.Observations were conducted at the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, usingthe Echelle spectrograph Gecko. These lines are very narrow and have identical11 km/s velocity shifts with respect to H-alpha and H-beta. They are probablyexcited by UV continuum fluorescence from the Lyman (DI) lines and arise fromthe interface between the HII region and the molecular cloud.

  15. Electron Scattering From a High-Momentum Neutron in Deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenko, Alexei [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The deuterium nucleus is a system of two nucleons (proton and neutron) bound together. The configuration of the system is described by a quantum-mechanical wave function and the state of the nucleons at a given time is not know a priori. However, by detecting a backward going proton of moderate momentum in coincidence with a reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred if we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction. This method, known as spectator tagging, was used to study the electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV polarized electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CLAS detector. The accumulated data cover a wide kinematic range, reaching values of the invariant mass of the unobserved final state W* up to 3 GeV. A data sample of approximately 5 - 105 events, with protons detected at large scattering angles (as high as 136 degrees) in coincidence with the forward electrons, was selected. The product of the neutron structure function with the initial nucleon momentum distribution F2n. S was extracted for different values of W*, backward proton momenta ps and momentum transfer Q2. The data were compared to a calculation based on the spectator approximation and using the free nucleon form factors and structure functions. A strong enhancement in the data, not reproduced by the model, was observed at cos(thetapq) > -0.3 (where theta{sub pq} is the proton scattering angle relative to the direction of the momentum transfer) and can be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. The bound nucleon structure function F2n was studied in the region cos(thetapq) < -0.3 as a function of W* and scaling variable x*. At high spectator proton momenta the struck neutron is

  16. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  17. Relativistic description of the Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusno, D.

    1979-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the inconsistencies of the conventional, non-relativistic approach, which has been used so far in the extraction of neutron data from deuterium targets, is given. A new approach dealing with the smearing effects, due to the nucleon's Fermi motion inside the deuteron, is developed as an alternative to the conventional one. This new approach is a spin-less, relativistic, simple and consistent approach. A new covariant model of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the impulse approximation is also presented. The treatment includes spin and allows for a possibility of determining completely the two elastic structure functions.

  18. Precision measurement of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, K.; Bacher, R.; Badertscher, A.; Blüm, P.; Eades, J.; Egger, J.; Elsener, K.; Gotta, D.; Morenzoni, E.; Simons, L. M.

    1992-09-01

    X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressures. Using the cyclotron trap, a 105 MeV/c antiproton beam from LEAR was stopped with an efficiency of 86% in 30 mbar hydrogen gas in a volume of only 100 cm3. The X-rays were measured with Si(Li) detectors and a Xe-CH4 drift chamber. The strong interaction shift and broadening of the Lyman α transition and the spin-averaged 2p width in antiprotonic hydrogen was measured with unprecedented accuracy. The triplet component of the ground state in antiprotonic hydrogen was determined for the first time.

  19. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Equation of state measurements in liquid deuterium to 100 GPa

    CERN Document Server

    Knudson, M D; Bailey, J E; Lemke, R W; Hall, C A; Deeney, C; Asay, J R

    2003-01-01

    Using intense magnetic pressure, a method was developed to launch flyer plates to velocities in excess of 20 km s sup - sup 1. This technique was used to perform plate-impact, shock wave experiments on cryogenic liquid deuterium (LD sub 2) to examine its high-pressure equation of state (EOS). Using an impedance matching method, Hugoniot measurements were obtained in the pressure range of 22-100 GPa. The results of these experiments disagree with the previously reported Hugoniot measurements of LD sub 2 in the pressure range above approx 40 GPa, but are in good agreement with first principles, ab initio models for hydrogen and its isotopes.

  1. Dislocation mechanism of deuterium retention in tungsten under plasma implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinko, V I; Grigorev, P; Bakaev, A; Terentyev, D; van Oost, G; Gao, F; Van Neck, D; Zhurkin, E E

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a new theoretical model for deuterium (D) retention in tungsten-based alloys on the basis of its being trapped at dislocations and transported to the surface via the dislocation network with parameters determined by ab initio calculations. The model is used to explain experimentally observed trends of D retention under sub-threshold implantation, which does not produce stable lattice defects to act as traps for D in conventional models. Saturation of D retention with implantation dose and effects due to alloying of tungsten with, e.g. tantalum, are evaluated, and comparison of the model predictions with experimental observations under high-flux plasma implantation conditions is presented.

  2. H-mode fueling optimization with the supersonic deuterium jet in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Gates, D A; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Lundberg, D P; Maingi, R; Menard, J E; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Stotler, D P

    2008-06-18

    High-performance, long-pulse 0.7-1.2 MA 6-7 MW NBI-heated small-ELM H-mode plasma discharges are developed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as prototypes for confinement and current drive extrapolations to future spherical tori. It is envisioned that innovative lithium coating techniques for H-mode density pumping and a supersonic deuterium jet for plasma refueling will be used to achieve the low pedestal collisionality and low n{sub e}/n{sub G} fractions (0.3-0.6), both of which being essential conditions for maximizing the non-inductive (bootstrap and beam driven) current fractions. The low field side supersonic gas injector (SGI) on NSTX consists of a small converging-diverging graphite Laval nozzle and a piezoelectric gas valve. The nozzle is capable of producing a deuterium jet with Mach number M {le} 4, estimated gas density at the nozzle exit n {le} 5 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3}, estimated temperature T {ge} 70 K, and flow velocity v = 2:4 km/s. The nozzle Reynolds number Reis {approx_equal} 6000. The nozzle and the valve are enclosed in a protective carbon fiber composite shroud and mounted on a movable probe at a midplane port location. Despite the beneficial L-mode fueling experience with supersonic jets in limiter tokamaks, there is a limited experience with fueling of high-performance H-mode divertor discharges and the associated density, MHD stability, and MARFE limits. In initial supersonic deuterium jet fueling experiments in NSTX, a reliable H-mode access, a low NBI power threshold, P{sub LH} {le} 2 MW, and a high fueling efficiency (0.1-0.4) have been demonstrated. Progress has also been made toward a better control of the injected fueling gas by decreasing the uncontrolled high field side (HFS) injector fueling rate by up to 95 % and complementing it with the supersonic jet fueling. These results motivated recent upgrades to the SGI gas delivery and control systems. The new SGI-Upgrade (SGI-U) capabilities include multi-pulse ms

  3. Preparation and characterization of deuterium-labeled glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naggi, A; Casu, B; Crippa, B; Magnaghi, S; Silvestro, L; Torri, G

    1994-01-01

    Heparin, NAcHep, DS, and CS were labeled with deuterium by N-reacetylating, with the deuterated acetic anhydride (CD3CO)2O, GAGs previously N-deacetylated (by hydrazinolysis) to the desired extent. Degrees of deuteration of the present preparations, as determined by 2H- and 1H-NMR were 15%, 51%, 49%, and 79% for heparin, NAcHep, DS, and CS, respectively. The NMR analysis (including the 13C spectra) of the labeled products indicated that deuterium labeling did not involve any substantial modification of the GAG structures. Also NMR signals associated with specific sequences of heparin for antithrombin and of DS for heparin cofactor II were essentially the same in the unlabeled and in the deuterated GAGs. The substantial retention of the original structure was confirmed by data on the degree of sulfation (by conductimetry) and on the electrophoretic mobility in acid buffer. On the other hand, HPLC/SEC data indicated some depolymerization of heparin and DS in the N-deacetylation step of the labeling reactions. HPLC/MS spectrometry permitted a clear identification of disaccharide and tetrasaccharide fragments obtained from deuterated GAGs by enzymic (heparinase, chondroitinase ABC) or chemical depolymerization (deaminative cleavage, Smith degradation), opening new prospects for studies of human pharmacokinetics, with differentiation of exogenous from endogenous GAGs.

  4. The Deuterium Fraction in Massive Starless Cores and Dynamical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shuo; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco; Pillai, Thushara; Butler, Michael J; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Sakai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We study deuterium fractionation in two massive starless cores C1-N and C1-S in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, first identified by Tan et al. (2013) with ALMA. Line emission from multiple transitions of $\\rm N_2H^+$ and $\\rm N_2D^+$ were observed with the ALMA, CARMA, SMA, JCMT, NRO 45m and IRAM 30m telescopes. By simultaneously fitting the spectra, we estimate the excitation conditions and deuterium fraction, $D_{\\rm frac}^{\\rm N_2H^+} \\equiv [\\rm N_2D^+]/[N_2H^+]$, with values of $D_{\\rm frac}^{\\rm N_2H^+} \\simeq 0.2$--$0.7$, several orders of magnitude above the cosmic [D]/[H] ratio. Additional observations of o-H$_2$D$^+$ are also presented that help constrain the ortho-to-para ratio of $\\rm H_2$, which is a key quantity affecting the degree of deuteration. We then present chemodynamical modeling of the two cores, exploring especially the implications for the collapse rate relative to free-fall, $\\alpha_{\\rm ff}$. In order to reach the high level of observed deuteration of $\\rm N_2H^+$, we find...

  5. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.Y., E-mail: donaxu@163.com [Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, Institute of Materials, CAEP, Chengdu 610200 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yuan, Y. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Y.Z.; Fu, B.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon CS 90046-13067, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1–2 × 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2}/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2–7 × 10{sup 26} D/m{sup 2}) and surface temperature (423–873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to temperatures of 873 K. The blister parameters are evaluated with blister size, blister density and surface coverage. The blister size always peaked at less than 0.5 μm and no blister larger than 10 μm is observed even at high fluence. The blister densities are found in high magnitude of 10{sup 6} blisters/m{sup 2}, with the surface coverages lower than 2%. The formation of cracks in the sub-surface region was observed by cross-section imaging. Changes in blister size and shape with fluence and temperature suggest processes of predominantly nucleation and subsequent growth of blisters. The smaller blister size is considered to be caused by a combination of flux-related effects such as enhanced defect formation in the near surface region, reduced deuterium diffusivity and relatively short exposure times.

  6. Neoclassical flows in deuterium-helium plasma density pedestals

    CERN Document Server

    Buller, Stefan; Newton, Sarah; Omotani, John

    2016-01-01

    In tokamak transport barriers, the radial scale of profile variations can be comparable to a typical ion orbit width, which makes the coupling of the distribution function across flux surfaces important in the collisional dynamics. We use the radially global steady-state neoclassical {\\delta}f code Perfect to calculate poloidal and toroidal flows, and radial fluxes, in the pedestal. In particular, we have studied the changes in these quantities as the plasma composition is changed from a deuterium bulk species with a helium impurity to a helium bulk with a deuterium impurity, under specific profile similarity assumptions. The poloidally resolved radial fluxes are not divergence-free in isolation in the presence of sharp radial profile variations, which leads to the appearance of poloidal return-flows. These flows exhibit a complex radial-poloidal structure that extends several orbit widths into the core and is sensitive to abrupt radial changes in the ion temperature gradient. We find that a sizable neoclassi...

  7. Nucleosynthesis Predictions and High-Precision Deuterium Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Riemer-Sørensen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new high-precision measurements of the deuterium abundance from absorbers along the line of sight to the quasar PKS1937–1009 were presented. The absorbers have lower neutral hydrogen column densities (N(HI ≈ 18 cm − 2 than for previous high-precision measurements, boding well for further extensions of the sample due to the plenitude of low column density absorbers. The total high-precision sample now consists of 12 measurements with a weighted average deuterium abundance of D/H = 2 . 55 ± 0 . 02 × 10 − 5 . The sample does not favour a dipole similar to the one detected for the fine structure constant. The increased precision also calls for improved nucleosynthesis predictions. For that purpose we have updated the public AlterBBN code including new reactions, updated nuclear reaction rates, and the possibility of adding new physics such as dark matter. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis prediction of D/H = 2 . 456 ± 0 . 057 × 10 − 5 is consistent with the observed value within 1.7 standard deviations.

  8. Hydrogen and deuterium retention in wall samples of JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrisch, R.; Ehrenberg, J.; Wielunski, M.; Martinelli, A.P.; Bergsaker, H.; Emmoth, B.; De Kock, L.; Coad, J.P.

    1987-02-01

    The amounts of H and D trapped in the surface layers of samples made out of C, Ni, Inconel and Si, installed at the vessel walls of JET and removed after the 1984 and 1985 periods of operation were measured. After the 1984 operation period the D concentration in carbon probes was of the order of 5x10/sup 19/m/sup 2/, while the hydrogen was about a factor of 40 higher. This can be attributed to a final glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen at the end of the operation period. After the 1984 period of operation the amounts of deuterium and hydrogen were nearly equal at about 5x10/sup 21/m/sup 2/. A comparison of the amounts of deuterium and hydrogen with the amount of carbon deposition on the Inconel wall samples shows a ratio of about 0.3 to 0.4 (H+D) per C-atom. The hydrogen concentrations trapped in the vessel wall correspond to more than 100 times the amount of hydrogen isotopes in the plasma during a discharge.

  9. Kinetic secondary deuterium isotope effects for substituted benzaldehyde cyanohydrin formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, V.; do Amaral, L.; Cordes, E.H.

    1976-07-07

    ..cap alpha.. secondary deuterium isotope effects have been measured for the observed rate constants for addition of cyanide ion to a series of substituted benzaldehydes in aqueous solution at 25/sup 0/C. Under the experimental conditions employed, these reactions did not proceed to completion, and the observed isotope effects were corrected to account for the influence of the reverse reaction employing measured equilibrium constants for cyanohydrin formation and previously determined secondary deuterium isotope effect for the equilibrium constant for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde cyanohydrin formation. In the four cases studied, values of k/sub D//k/sub H/ varied from 1.15 to 1.20, only slightly lower than the calculated maximal value for complete formation of the anionic tetrahedral species which is the immediate product of the rate-determining step, 1.21. A trend in isotope effect as a function of substrate reactivity could not be definitively established. The results suffice to establish that addition of cyanide to benzaldehydes proceeds via transition states in which rehybridization of carbonyl carbon to the tetrahedral geometry is nearly complete.

  10. Understanding neutron production in the deuterium dense plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbe, Brian, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Chittenden, Jeremy, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    The deuterium Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) can produce copious amounts of MeV neutrons and can be used as an efficient neutron source. However, the mechanism by which neutrons are produced within the DPF is poorly understood and this limits our ability to optimize the device. In this paper we present results from a computational study aimed at understanding how neutron production occurs in DPFs with a current between 70 kA and 500 kA and which parameters can affect it. A combination of MHD and kinetic tools are used to model the different stages of the DPF implosion. It is shown that the anode shape can significantly affect the structure of the imploding plasma and that instabilities in the implosion lead to the generation of large electric fields at stagnation. These electric fields can accelerate deuterium ions within the stagnating plasma to large (>100 keV) energies leading to reactions with ions in the cold dense plasma. It is shown that the electromagnetic fields present can significantly affect the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the resulting neutron production.

  11. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  12. Desorption process of deuterium from zircaloys and their oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamichi, Haruo; Kinoshita, Chiken; Hara, Masahiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    It is well known that hydrogen behavior plays an important role on the oxidation process of zircaloys. We have investigated the desorption process of deuterium from three kinds of zircaloys (Zry-2, Zry-4 and high-Fe and Ni-Zry-2) and their oxides using thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The purpose of the present paper is to get insight into the effect of alloying elements on the desorption behavior of deuterium from the zircaloys and their oxides. We have also performed in-situ observations through TEM for getting the relation between the desorption process and microstructural evolution. The desorption of D{sub 2} implanted by an ion accelerator occurs in two stages; the first and the second stages appear at around 350 K and around 700 K for the metallic zircaloys, respectively. For their oxide films, on the other hand, the desorption rate of D{sub 2} is much higher than that for the metallic zircaloys. It is found that the desorption rate depends strongly on the kind of zircaloys, especially on the concentration of Fe and Ni. From TEM result, it is found that the first desorption stage for the metallic specimens is correlated to the dissolution of the hydrides. (author)

  13. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. Y.; Liu, W.; Luo, G. N.; Yuan, Y.; Jia, Y. Z.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-04-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1-2 × 1024/m2/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2-7 × 1026 D/m2) and surface temperature (423-873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to temperatures of 873 K. The blister parameters are evaluated with blister size, blister density and surface coverage. The blister size always peaked at less than 0.5 μm and no blister larger than 10 μm is observed even at high fluence. The blister densities are found in high magnitude of 106 blisters/m2, with the surface coverages lower than 2%. The formation of cracks in the sub-surface region was observed by cross-section imaging. Changes in blister size and shape with fluence and temperature suggest processes of predominantly nucleation and subsequent growth of blisters. The smaller blister size is considered to be caused by a combination of flux-related effects such as enhanced defect formation in the near surface region, reduced deuterium diffusivity and relatively short exposure times.

  14. Chemical fractionation of deuterium in the protosolar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, J.; Shmeld, I.; Kalnin, J. R.; Hocuk, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding gas-grain chemistry of deuterium in star-forming objects may help to explain their history and present state. We aim to clarify how processes in ices affect the deuterium fractionation. In this regard, we investigate a Solar-mass protostellar envelope using an astrochemical rate-equation model that considers bulk-ice chemistry. The results show a general agreement with the molecular D/H abundance ratios observed in low-mass protostars. The simultaneous processes of ice accumulation and rapid synthesis of HD on grain surfaces in the prestellar core hampers the deuteration of icy species. The observed very high D/H ratios exceeding 10 per cent, i.e., super-deuteration, are reproduced for formaldehyde and dimethyl ether, but not for other species in the protostellar envelope phase. Chemical transformations in bulk ice lower D/H ratios of icy species and do not help explaining the super-deuteration. In the protostellar phase, the D2O/HDO abundance ratio was calculated to be higher than the HDO/H2O ratio owing to gas-phase chemistry. Species that undergo evaporation from ices have high molecular D/H ratio and a high gas-phase abundance.

  15. Evidence for hydrogen-deuterium exchange in viral particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jiangsen; LIU Ziyang; TANG Caihua; HE Yihui; ZHU Jiahong; WANG Chengyu; CHAI Shaoai; CHEN Yueqing; QIAN Wen

    2004-01-01

    Heavy water (D2O) could enhance thermostability of some viruses. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we report the development of a matrix-aided gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry method that allows direct determination of deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio in D2O-treated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and RNA from D2O-treated HAV. The D/H ratio was expressed as δDSMOW. Our experiments showed that δDSMOW values increased significantly in D2O-treated viral samples compared to normal controls, and increment in δDSMOW of D2O, treated viral samples was in a fine linear relationship with increment in amount of samples loaded in BSA matrix. Our experiments also indicated that increased δDSMOW of D2O-treated virus correlated well with its enhanced thermostability. The results suggested that hydrogen-deuterium exchange occurred in viral particles and its RNA structure as a result of D2O-treatment. Furthermore, such exchange could cause changes in viral phenotype, such as enhanced thermostability.

  16. Exploring the Origins of Deuterium Enrichments in Solar Nebular Organics

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) enrichments in molecular species provide clues about their original formation environment. The organic materials in primitive solar system bodies have generally higher D/H ratios and show greater D/H variation when compared to D/H in solar system water. We propose this difference arises at least in part due to 1) the availability of additional chemical fractionation pathways for organics beyond that for water, and 2) the higher volatility of key carbon reservoirs compared to oxygen. We test this hypothesis using detailed disk models, including a sophisticated, new disk ionization treatment with a low cosmic ray ionization rate, and find that disk chemistry leads to higher deuterium enrichment in organics compared to water, helped especially by fractionation via the precursors CH$_2$D$^+$/CH$_3^+$. We also find that the D/H ratio in individual species varies significantly depending on their particular formation pathways. For example, from $\\sim20-40$ AU, CH$_4$ can reach $\\rm{D/H\\si...

  17. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Van Oost, G.; Möller, S.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER - relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER - like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux

  18. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Sunehag, Agneta L.; Sharma, Susan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of

  19. Saturation of deuterium retention in self-damaged tungsten exposed to high-flux plasmas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, M. H. J.; Tyburska-Pueschel, B.; Ertl, K.; Mayer, M.; Rapp, J.; Kleijn, A.W.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline, annealed tungsten targets were bombarded with 12.3 MeV W4+ ions to various damage levels. Deuterium was implanted by high-flux plasmas in Pilot-PSI (>1024 m−2 s−1) at a surface temperature below 525 K. Deuterium retention has been studied by nuclear reaction analysis and by thermal

  20. Saturation of deuterium retention in self-damaged tungsten exposed to high-flux plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, M. H. J. 't; Tyburska-Puschel, B.; Ertl, K.; Mayer, M.; Rapp, J.; Kleyn, A. W.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline, annealed tungsten targets were bombarded with 12.3MeV W4+ ions to various damage levels. Deuterium was implanted by high-flux plasmas in Pilot-PSI (>10(24) m(-2) s(-1)) at a surface temperature below 525 K. Deuterium retention has been studied by nuclear reaction analysis and by

  1. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...

  2. Atmospheric influence on the deuterium excess signal in polar firn - implications for ice core interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Oerter, H.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Reijmer, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal deuterium excess signal of fresh snow samples from Neumayer station, coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was studied to investigate the relationship between deuterium excess and precipitation origin. An isotope model was combined with a trajectory model to determine the relative inf

  3. Mass separation of deuterium and helium with conventional quadrupole mass spectrometer by using varied ionization energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yaowei; Hu, Jiansheng; Wan, Zhao; Wu, Jinhua; Wang, Houyin; Cao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Deuterium pressure in deuterium-helium mixture gas is successfully measured by a common quadrupole mass spectrometer (model: RGA200) with a resolution of ˜0.5 atomic mass unit (AMU), by using varied ionization energy together with new developed software and dedicated calibration for RGA200. The new software is developed by using MATLAB with the new functions: electron energy (EE) scanning, deuterium partial pressure measurement, and automatic data saving. RGA200 with new software is calibrated in pure deuterium and pure helium 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-2 Pa, and the relation between pressure and ion current of AMU4 under EE = 25 eV and EE = 70 eV is obtained. From the calibration result and RGA200 scanning with varied ionization energy in deuterium and helium mixture gas, both deuterium partial pressures (PD2) and helium partial pressure (PHe) could be obtained. The result shows that deuterium partial pressure could be measured if PD2 > 10-6 Pa (limited by ultimate pressure of calibration vessel), and helium pressure could be measured only if PHe/PD2 > 0.45, and the measurement error is evaluated as 15%. This method is successfully employed in EAST 2015 summer campaign to monitor deuterium outgassing/desorption during helium discharge cleaning.

  4. Effect of neon plasma pre-irradiation on surface morphology and deuterium retention of tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; De Temmerman, G.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Ji, G.; Zhou, H. B.; Wang, B.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Neon and deuterium plasma irradiation of polycrystalline tungsten targets have been performed at high fluxes of ∼1024 ions m−2 s−1 to study the interaction of neon with tungsten and the influence of neon on deuterium retention. Tungsten exposure to neon plasma leads to the

  5. Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Zhao, Z. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Yuan, Y.; Morgan, T. W.; Guo, L. P.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Lu, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Impurity seeding of noble gases is an effective way of decreasing the heat loads onto the divertor targets in fusion devices. To investigate the effect of noble gases on deuterium retention, tungsten targets have been implanted by different noble gas ions and subsequently exposed to deuterium plasma

  6. Thermal desorption of deuterium from modified carbon nanotubes and its correlation to the microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.; Keim, E.G.; Berg, van den A.H.J.; Smithers, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The process of deuterium desorption from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified by atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium treatment was investigated in an ultrahigh vacuum environment using thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). Microstructural and chemical analyses of SWNT material, m

  7. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Sunehag, Agneta L.; Sharma, Susan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of gluc

  8. Structural Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Deuterium Implantation: Irradiation at 295 K

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymir; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Progolaieva, Viktoria; Boshko, Valerian

    2016-01-01

    ...—the linear region of high implantation doses (8 × 1017 to 2.7 × 1018 D/cm2). During the process of deuterium ion irradiation, the coefficient of deuterium retention in steel varies in discrete steps...

  9. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O.; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin

    2001-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K-1 mol(-1...

  10. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange study of subtilisin Carlsberg during prolonged exposure to organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Ezio; Ferrer, Amaris; Barletta, Gabriel L

    2009-03-01

    It has been previously reported that prolonged exposure of an enzyme to organic solvents leads to substantial decrease of activity. This effect was found to be unrelated to the catalysts' structure or their possible aggregation in organic solvents, and up to the present day the cause for activity loss remains unclear. In the present work, the structural dynamics of the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) have been investigated during prolonged exposure to two organic solvents by following hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of mobile protons. The enzyme, after lyophilization, was incubated in organic solvents at controlled deuteriated water activity for different times and the H/D exchange was allowed to take place. The amount of deuterium exchanged was evaluated by (2)H NMR, which in turn gave us a picture of the changing dynamics of our model enzyme during incubation and under different experimental conditions. Our results show that the flexibility of SC decreases during prolonged storage in 1,4-dioxane (Diox) and acetonitrile (ACN) as indicated by the observed 3- to 10-fold decrease in the apparent rate constants of exchange (k) of fast exchangeable protons (FEP) and slow exchangeable protons (SEP) in the protein. Our study also shows that SC is more flexible in ACN than in Diox (k 3-20 times higher in ACN for the FEP and SEP), suggesting that enzyme dynamics are affected by solvent physicochemical properties. Additionally, the enzyme dynamics are also affected by the method of preparation: decreased flexibility (k decreases 3- to 10-fold for FEP and SEP) is observed when the enzyme is chemically modified with poly ethylene glycol (PEGylated) or colyophilized with crown ethers. A possible relationship between activity, enantioselectivity (E), and structural dynamics is discussed, demonstrating that direct correlations, as have been attempted in the past, are hampered by the multi-variable nature and complexity of the system.

  11. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. The Determination of Deuterium and Tritium in Effluent Wastewater by Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalla, A.; Birkbeck, J. C.

    1985-04-01

    A pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of deuterium and tritium in radioactive, effluent, wastewater to aid in the design of an efficient combined electrolytic/catalytic exchange system for the recovery of these hydrogen isotopes. The deuterium and tritium NMR signals were observed at 9.210 and 45.7 MHz, respectively. Ten different effluent water samples were analyzed for deuterium and tritium to establish base-line data for the preparation of standard reference samples. The hydrogen isotope concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 2.40 g deuterium and from 2.0 to 21.0 mg tritium per liter of processed sample. The standard deviation of the hydrogen isotope determinations is +- 0.017 g deuterium and +- 0.06 mg tritium per liter of processed effluent water. In the future, the effectiveness of specially prepared and analyzed (calorimetry) effluent samples as tritium standards will be investigated.

  13. Precision Measures of the Primordial Abundance of Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of deuterium absorption in the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.88) damped Lyα system at z abs = 3.06726 toward the QSO SDSS J1358+6522. On the basis of 13 resolved D I absorption lines and the damping wings of the H I Lyα transition, we have obtained a new, precise measure of the primordial abundance of deuterium. Furthermore, to bolster the present statistics of precision D/H measures, we have reanalyzed all of the known deuterium absorption-line systems that satisfy a set of strict criteria. We have adopted a blind analysis strategy (to remove human bias) and developed a software package that is specifically designed for precision D/H abundance measurements. For this reanalyzed sample of systems, we obtain a weighted mean of (D/H)p = (2.53 ± 0.04) × 10-5, corresponding to a universal baryon density 100 Ωb, 0 h 2 = 2.202 ± 0.046 for the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). By combining our measure of (D/H)p with observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), we derive the effective number of light fermion species, N eff = 3.28 ± 0.28. We therefore rule out the existence of an additional (sterile) neutrino (i.e., N eff = 4.046) at 99.3% confidence (2.7σ), provided that the values of N eff and of the baryon-to-photon ratio (η10) did not change between BBN and recombination. We also place a strong bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, independent of the 4He primordial mass fraction, Y P: ξD = +0.05 ± 0.13 based only on the CMB+(D/H)p observations. Combining this value of ξD with the current best literature measure of Y P, we find a 2σ upper bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, |ξ| financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Keck telescope time was partially granted by NOAO, through the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP). TSIP is funded by NSF.

  14. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Avery

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  15. Measurement of deuterium ion temperature profiles at TEXTOR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, E.; Euringer, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Jaspers, R. [FOM Inst. voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) has been used to compare results on ion temperatures from several diagnostics at TEXTOR-94. The question of whether the typically measured width of impurity spectral lines is representative for the main ion temperature T{sub I}, is addressed by applying CXRS to the Balmer-alpha spectrum of deuterium. The importance of the halo effect is found not to be severe for the T{sub I} measurements. T{sub I} is lower than the impurity temperatures for low-density discharges with neutral beam heating. The time evolution of T{sub I} and the toroidal rotation were also measured during sawtooth oscillations. From this a lower bound for the ion heat diffusivity {chi}{sub I}{sup HP} of {approx} 2 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} has been deduced. (author).

  16. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  17. Lattice dynamics of solid deuterium by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion relations for phonons in solid ortho-deuterium have been measured at 5 °K by inelastic neutron scattering. The results are in good agreement with recent calculations in which quantum effects are taken into account. The data have been fitted to a third-neighbor general force model....... The effective force constants which are obtained show that the bond stretching forces between nearest-neighbor molecules are dominant and this bond stretching constant is 174 dyn cm-1. The elastic constants are deduced and the isothermal compressibility is calculated to be B-1=2.19×10-10 cm2 dyn-1. The density...... of states and the heat capacity is calculated and the Debye temperature is found to be θ0=114 °K....

  18. Post-irradiation flashes and continuous emission from solid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, J.A.; Brooks, R.L. [Guelph-Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1 (CANADA)

    1997-01-01

    Optical emission from proton-beam-irradiated solid deuterium near 800 nm has been studied after termination of the proton beam. The continuous red emission shows a residual intensity that persists over 30 min from termination of the beam. Optical flashes can also be thermally triggered over 10 min after termination of irradiation. Such triggered flashes are shown to quench the infrared absorption of Stark-shifted charge-induced features. Ultraviolet photons can stimulate this red emission after termination of irradiation with no measurable decrease in intensity for 40 min. The cause of this continuous emission and optical flashes is discussed in the light of these results. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Muon Catalyzed Fusion in 3 K Solid Deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, P E; Bailey, J M; Beer, G A; Beveridge, J L; Fujiwara, M C; Huber, T M; Jacot-Guillarmod, R; Kammel, P; Kim, S K; Kunselman, A R; Marshall, G M; Martoff, C J; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Zmeskal, J; Zmeskal, and J.

    1997-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium has traditionally been studied in gaseous and liquid targets. The TRIUMF solid-hydrogen-layer target system has been used to study the fusion reaction rates in the solid phase of D_2 at a target temperature of 3 K. Products of two distinct branches of the reaction were observed; neutrons by a liquid organic scintillator, and protons by a silicon detector located inside the target system. The effective molecular formation rate from the upper hyperfine state of $\\mu d$ and the hyperfine transition rate have been measured: $\\tilde{\\lambda}_(3/2)=2.71(7)_{stat.}(32)_{syst.} The molecular formation rate is consistent with other recent measurements, but not with the theory for isolated molecules. The discrepancy may be due to incomplete thermalization, an effect which was investigated by Monte Carlo calculations. Information on branching ratio parameters for the s and p wave d+d nuclear interaction has been extracted.

  20. Deuterium Retention by Implantation in Carbide-Doped Graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balden, M.; Oyarzabal, E.; Juan Pardo, E. de; Durocher, K.; Roth, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Garcia-Rosales, C. [Univ. de Navarra, San Sebastian (Spain). Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Guipuzcoa and Escuela Superior de Ingenieros

    2003-04-01

    For fine-grain graphites with different final heat treatment, the influences of the porosity, degree of graphitization, and dopant (TiC, VC, WC, and ZrC) on the fluence dependence of the retention of 1 keV deuterium were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy. A strong decrease of the D retention for fluences higher than 10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} was observed for the undoped graphites graphitized at temperatures above 2000K compared to material only calcined at 1270K. Due to the identical manufacturing processes for the carbide-doped graphites used in this study, the structure is comparable for all of them. The choice of dopant as well as the ratio of open to closed porosity show no influence on the D retention. Therefore, these properties of the graphites can be neglected for hydrogen retention estimations.

  1. Near-threshold Photoproduction of Phi Mesons from Deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, X; Gao, H; Hicks, K; Kramer, K; Laget, J M; Mibe, T; Qiang, Y; Stepanyan, S; Tedeschi, D J; Xu, W; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bellis, M; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Ni, A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pereira, S Anefalos; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, C E; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the differential cross section on $\\phi$-meson photoproduction from deuterium near the production threshold for a proton using the CLAS detector and a tagged-photon beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The measurement was carried out by a triple coincidence detection of a proton, $K^+$ and $K^-$ near the theoretical production threshold of 1.57 GeV. The extracted differential cross sections $\\frac{d\\sigma}{dt}$ for the initial photon energy from 1.65-1.75 GeV are consistent with predictions based on a quasifree mechanism. This experiment establishes a baseline for a future experimental search for an exotic $\\phi$-N bound state from heavier nuclear targets utilizing subthreshold/near-threshold production of $\\phi$ mesons.

  2. Precision measurement of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitlinger, K.; Bluem, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik); Bacher, R.; Badertscher, A.; Egger, J.; Morenzoni, E.; Simons, L.M. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Eades, J.; Elsener, K. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gotta, D. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1992-05-01

    X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressures. Using the cylcotron trap, a 105 MeV/c antiproton beam from LEAR was stopped with an efficiency of 86% in 30 mbar hydrogen gas in a volume of only 100 cm{sup 3}. The X-rays were measured with Si(Li) detectors and a Xe-CH{sub 4} drift chamber. The strong interaction shift and broadening of the Lyman {alpha} transition and the spin-averaged 2p width in antiprotonic hydrogen was measured with unprecedented accuracy. The triplet component of the ground state in antiprotonic hydrogen was determined for the first time. (orig.).

  3. In-medium modification of pion-pairs on deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugert, Stefan

    2007-11-23

    In this thesis the quasi free photo production of pion pairs on bound nucleons {gamma}+A{yields} {pi}{pi}(A-1)+N is analyzed for liquid Deuterium. A pioneering experiment with a photon beam was performed by the TAPS collaboration at the accelerator facility MAMI-B in Mainz in 1999. This measurement observed an invariant mass shift of the isoscalar {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel with increasing atomic number as well. Due to the poor statistics, the significance of the data was however limited. The experiment described in this work reached a much higher statistical significance, allowing a review of the old data. In this experiment, the TAPS detector was used as a forward wall in combination with the Crystal Ball detector to achieve almost the complete 4{pi} solid angle coverage for particle detection at the MAMI accelerator facility. The installation of the experimental setup started at the end of 2003. The new readout electronics for the BaF{sub 2} crystals was used for the first time. Between June 2004 and April 2005 measurements on several targets were performed, including the lD{sub 2} data which has been analyzed in this work. The analysis of the Deuterium data is an essential contribution to understanding the ongoing processes for two reasons. Firstly, there is the possibility to compare the solid targets and Hydrogen to the lightest nucleus having Fermi motion included but the lowest possible nuclear volume, the Deuterium. For the second reason, there are no data for the mass differential cross section on the neutron available for the mentioned channels. Analyzing the Deuterium data and subtracting the published proton data, the cross section on the neutron gets accessible. An essential question for the theory is whether the cross section on neutron and proton are the same or how much they differ in the relevant energy regime. To determine the absolute cross section, the efficiency of the detector system is required. To provide this efficiency, I also

  4. Deuterium ion irradiation induced blister formation and destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaemin; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Jin, Younggil; Roh, Ki-Baek; Kim, Gon-Ho, E-mail: ghkim@snu.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The areal number density of blisters on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation increased with increasing ion fluence. • No more blisters were created above the temperature about 900 K due to high thermal mobility of ions and inactivity of traps. • The destruction of blister at the boundary induced by sputtering is proposed. • The blisters were destructed at the position about the boundary by high sputtering yield of oblique incident ions and thin thickness due to plastic deformation at the boundary. - Abstract: The blisters formation and destruction induced by the deuterium ions on a polycrystalline tungsten were investigated with varying irradiation deuterium ion fluence from 3.04 × 10{sup 23} to 1.84 × 10{sup 25} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and an fixed irradiated ion energy of 100 eV in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, which was similar to the far-scrape off layer region in the nuclear fusion reactors. Target temperature was monitored during the irradiation. Most of blisters formed easily on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation which had about 250 nm in diameter. In addition, the areal number density of blisters increased with increasing the ion fluence under the surface temperature reaching to about 900 K. When the fluence exceeded 4.6 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2}, the areal number density of the blister decreased. It could be explained that the destruction of the blister was initiated by erosion at the boundary region where the thickness of blister lid was thin and the sputtering yield was high by oblique incident ions, resulting in remaining the lid open, e.g., un-eroded center dome. It is possible to work as a tungsten dust formation from the plasma facing divertor material at far-SOL region of fusion reactor.

  5. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I{sub i}) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I{sub i} discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.

  6. Plasma deuterium oxide accumulation following ingestion of different carbohydrate beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Kevin; Urch, Joanna; Cerri, Erika; Jentjens, Roy L P; Blannin, Andy K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-12-01

    Optimal fluid delivery from carbohydrate solutions such as oral rehydration solutions or sports drinks is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a beverage containing glucose and fructose would result in greater fluid delivery than a beverage containing glucose alone. Six male subjects were recruited (average age (+/-SD): 22 +/- 2 y). Subjects entered the laboratory between 0700 h and 0900 h after an overnight fast. A 600 mL bolus of 1 of the 3 experimental beverages was then given. The experimental beverages were water (W), 75 g glucose (G), or 50 g glucose and 25 g fructose (GF); each beverage also contained 3.00 g of D2O. Following administration of the experimental beverage subjects remained in a seated position for 180 min. Blood and saliva samples were then taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 15 min thereafter. Plasma and saliva samples were analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Deuterium oxide enrichments were compared using a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The water trial (33 +/- 3 min) showed a significantly shorter time to peak than either G (82 +/- 40 min) or GF (59 +/- 25 min), but the difference between G and GF did not reach statistical significance. There was a significantly greater AUC for GF (55 673 +/- 10 020 delta per thousand vs. Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW).180 min) and W (60 497 +/- 9864 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min) compared with G (46 290 +/- 9622 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min); W and GF were not significantly different from each other. These data suggest that a 12.5% carbohydrate beverage containing glucose and fructose results in more rapid fluid delivery in the first 75 min than a beverage containing glucose alone.

  7. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzek, J. E-mail: jguzek@debeers.co.za; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S

    1999-06-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 {mu}A beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output.

  8. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta, E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Temmerman, Greg De [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oost, Guido Van [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Möller, Sören [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10{sup 23} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s and low: 9 · 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10{sup 26} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.

  9. Deuterium ordering in Laves phase deuteride YFe2D4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas Ernst [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ropka, Joanna [UNIV OF GENEVA; Cerny, Radovan [UNIV OF GENEVA; Paul - Boncour, V [CNRS

    2009-01-01

    The structure of Laves phase deuteride YFe{sub 2}D{sub 4.2} has been investigated by synchrotron and neutron (ToF) powder diffraction experiments between 60 K and 370 K. YFe{sub 2}D{sub 4.2} crystallizes below 323K in fully ordered monoclinic structure (s.g. Pc, Z = 8, a = 5.50663(4), b = 11.4823(1), c = 9.42919(6) {angstrom}, {beta} = 122.3314(5){sup o}, V = 503.765(3) {angstrom}{sup 3} at 290K) containing 4 yttrium, 8 iron and 18 deuterium atoms. Most of D-D distances are within the precision of the diffraction experiment longer than 2.1 {angstrom}, the shortest ones are of 1.96 {angstrom}. Seven iron atoms from eight are coordinated by deuterium in a trigonal bipyramid, similar to that in TiFeD{sub 1.95-2}. The eights iron atom is coordinated by deuterium in a tetrahedral configuration. The iron coordination by deuterium, and iron-deuterium distances points to the importance of the directional bonding between iron and deuterium atoms. The lowering of crystal symmetry due to deuterium ordering occurs at much higher temperature than magnetic order, and is therefore one of the parameters which are at the origin of magnetic transition at lower temperatures.

  10. Trapping and thermal diffusion for energetic deuterium implanted into SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During ITER and DEMO reactor operation Li–Pb blanket flow channel inserts made from SiC will be exposed to both radiation and tritium. Absorption, desorption, and tritium diffusion are expected to occur and will strongly depend on the irradiation conditions; temperature, and neutron and gamma fluxes. Reaction bonded (RB SiC samples were deuterium implanted at both room temperature and 450°C at different implantation energies and the corresponding TSD spectrum was obtained for each implantation energy. After implantation the samples were subjected to SIMS analysis. The TSD spectra obtained for all the samples implanted at different energies are very similar and characterized by a prominent deuterium desorption occurring at temperatures between 450 and 1000°C with a maximum that exhibits a clear trend to shift toward higher temperature as either implantation energy or implantation temperature increase. SIMS analysis before heating the deuterium implanted samples indicates that the implanted deuterium has a tendency to become bonded to Si rather than to C. The SIMS analysis shows that once heated up to 1000°C only part of the implanted deuterium was thermally released. The temperature shift observed when increasing the deuterium implantation energy and, hence, penetration, implies a deuterium diffusivity value at 700°C of about 8.5×10−17m2/s.

  11. Deuterium retention and surface modifications of nanocrystalline tungsten films exposed to high-flux plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, M.H.J. ' t [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Dellasega, D.; Pezzoli, A.; Passoni, M. [Politecnico di Milano, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Kleyn, A.W., E-mail: A.W.Kleijn@uva.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, CDCST, CAEP, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The films withstand the intense plasma exposure maintaining overall integrity. • An increase of deuterium retention was observed with decreasing tungsten density. • Formation of micrometer-sized blisters as well as structures on the nanometer scale depending on the layer type. - Abstract: Deuterium retention studies are presented for nanostructured tungsten films exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas. Thin tungsten films of ∼1 μm thickness were deposited with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on bulk tungsten. Surface modifications were studied with scanning electron microscopy and deuterium retention with thermal desorption spectroscopy. Three types of PLD films with different densities and crystallinity were studied after exposure to deuterium plasmas. The surface temperature ranged from about 460 K at the periphery to about 520 K in the centre of the targets. The films withstand the intense plasma exposure well and maintain their overall integrity. An increase of deuterium retention is observed with decreasing tungsten density and crystallite size. We found that the filling of these thin films with deuterium is significantly faster than for pre-damaged polycrystalline tungsten. We observed formation of micrometer-sized blisters as well as structures on the nanometer scale, both depending on the layer type.

  12. Thermal desorption of deuterium from Be, and Be with helium bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V.; Van Veen, A.; Busker, G.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

    1998-01-01

    Deuterium desorption measurements carried out on a single-crystalline beryllium sample are presented. Deuterium ions were implanted at room temperature at the energy of 0.7 and 1.2 keV up to doses ranging from 10{sup 19} to 3.6 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2}. In order to eliminate the influence of the beryllium-oxide surface layer, before the implantation the surface of the sample was cleaned by argon sputtering. After the implantation the sample was annealed up to 1200 K at a constant rate of 10 K/s. Deuterium released from the sample was monitored by a calibrated quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The desorption spectra revealed two different contributions. One is a well defined and very narrow peak centered around 450 K. This peak is observed only at high implantation doses > 7.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}, which is close to the deuterium saturation limit of 0.3 D/Be and is related to deuterium release from blisters or interconnected bubbles. The activation energy of 1.1 eV and the threshold implantation dose are consistent with the values reported in literature. The second contribution in the release spectra is found in the temperature range from 600 to 900 K and is present throughout the whole range of the implantation doses. The activation energies corresponding to this release lie in the range between 1.8 and 2.5 eV and are ascribed to the release from deuterium-vacancy type of defects. In a number of experiments the deuterium implantation was preceded by helium implantation followed by partial annealing to create helium bubbles. The resulting deuterium desorption spectra indicate that deuterium detrapping from helium bubbles is characterized by an activation energy of 2.7 eV. (author)

  13. Thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium and tantalum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.F.

    1981-10-01

    Heats of transport have been determined for thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in pure vanadium, niobium and tantalum; in vanadium alloyed with either niobium, titanium or chromium; and in niobium-tantalum alloys. In all cases, thermotransport was toward colder regions and was significantly greater for deuterium than for hydrogen. A mass spectrometric technique was used to simultaneously measure heats of transport for hydrogen and deuterium in a single specimen containing both isotopes. This technique greatly increased the precision with which isotope effects in the heat of transport could be measured. The predominant effect of alloying was to dramatically increase thermotransport; however, thermotransport decreased as niobium was added to tantalum.

  14. Effect of neon plasma pre-irradiation on surface morphology and deuterium retention of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, L., E-mail: L.Cheng@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); De Temmerman, G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ji, G. [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Université Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Zhou, H.B. [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, B. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yuan, Y., E-mail: yueyuan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Y. [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, G.H., E-mail: LGH@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neon and deuterium plasma irradiation of polycrystalline tungsten targets have been performed at high fluxes of ∼10{sup 24} ions m{sup −2} s{sup −1} to study the interaction of neon with tungsten and the influence of neon on deuterium retention. Tungsten exposure to neon plasma leads to the formation of wavy nanostructures on the surface. Subsequent exposure to high-flux deuterium plasma leads to blister formation of micrometer size on top of the wavy structures. The total deuterium retention is decreased by neon pre-irradiation for all surface temperatures used in the present experiments. It is suggested that a barrier of trapped Ne is formed that interrupts the D transport and reduces D retention.

  15. Mid-infrared vibrational study of deuterium-containing PAH variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been long proposed to be a major carrier of 'Unidentified Infrared' (UIR) emission bands that have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. These molecules can potentially be an efficient reservoir of deuterium. Once the infrared properties of the deuterium-containing PAHs are well understood both experimentally and theoretically, the interstellar UIR bands can be used as a valuable tool to infer the cause of the deuterium depletion in the ISM. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out on deuterium-containing ovalene variants to study the infrared properties of these molecules. These include deuterated ovalene, cationic deuterated ovalene, deuteronated ovalene and deuterated-deuteronated ovalene. We present a D/H ratio calculated from our theoretical study to compare with the observationally proposed D/H ratio.

  16. Depth concentrations of deuterium ions implanted into some pure metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Kitowski, K.; Kulikauskas, V.; Wilczynska, T.; Hofman, A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    Pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25-keV deuterium ions at fluences in the range (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2. The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium ions were measured 10 days and three months after the implantation by using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Comparison of the obtained results allowed us to make conclusions about relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen gases in pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. Very high diffusion rates of implanted deuterium ions in V and Pd pure metals and Pd alloys were observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed formation of nanosized defects in implanted corundum and titanium.

  17. Detection of deuterium trapping sites in tungsten by thermal desorption spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS of tungsten implanted with D2+ ions was performed after irradiation with 8 MeV-electrons, 5.0keV-D2+, and 6.0 MeV-Fe3+. The release peak temperatures of the TDS spectra are discussed. Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL measurements of electron-irradiated tungsten were also performed, showing that single vacancies migrate a sufficient distance to arrive at a sink or meet interstitial-type defects during annealing at 673K. A decrease in the PAL was detected for single vacancies that contain deuterium atoms. The peak temperature of deuterium release from dislocations was lower than that from single vacancies. In samples irradiated with 6.0 MeV-Fe3+, the effect of Fe contamination on deuterium trapping and the deuterium release from voids were detected. These tendencies correspond to previous works.

  18. Mid-infrared vibrational study of deuterium-containing PAH variants

    CERN Document Server

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been long proposed to be a major carrier of 'Unidentified Infrared' (UIR) emission bands that have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. These molecules can potentially be an efficient reservoir of deuterium. Once the infrared properties of the deuterium- containing PAHs are well understood both experimentally and theoretically, the interstellar UIR bands can be used as a valuable tool to infer the cause of the deuterium depletion in the ISM. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out on deuterium-containing ovalene variants to study the infrared properties of these molecules. These include deuterated ovalene, cationic deuterated ovalene, deuteronated ovalene and deuterated-deuteronated ovalene. We present a D/H ratio calculated from our theoretical study to compare with the observationally proposed D/H ratio.

  19. Commissioning experiment of the polarized internal gas target with deuterium at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    In order to conduct the production experiments with polarized deuterium target and (un)polarized proton beam at ANKE/COSY, a commissioning experiment of the polarized internal target with deuterium is imperative. The commissioning experiment includes the measurements of both the vector (Q{sub y}) and tensor (Q{sub yy}) polarization of the deuterium gas target through the nuclear reactions with large and well known analyzing powers, which can be detected in ANKE. The dependence of the polarizations along the storage cell is also determined. The poster presents the physics case for the experiments with deuterium polarized internal target and the apparatus needed for the commissioning experiment, as well as the procedure of extraction for spin observables.

  20. Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange in a traveling wave ion guide for the examination of protein conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Pringle, Steven D; Murphy, James P; Fadgen, Keith E; Brown, Jeff; Engen, John R

    2009-12-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that solution-phase conformations of small globular proteins and large molecular protein assemblies can be preserved for milliseconds after electrospray ionization. Thus, the study of proteins in the gas phase on this time scale is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that a traveling wave ion guide (TWIG) of a Synapt mass spectrometer offers a highly suitable environment for rapid and efficient gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). Gaseous ND(3) was introduced into either the source TWIG or the TWIG located just after the ion mobility cell, such that ions underwent HDX as they passed through the ND(3) on the way to the time-of-flight analyzer. The extent of deuterium labeling could be controlled by varying the quantity of ND(3) or the speed of the traveling wave. The gas-phase HDX of model peptides corresponded to labeling of primarily fast exchanging sites due to the short labeling times (ranging from 0.1 to 10 ms). In addition to peptides, gas-phase HDX of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and apomyoglobin were examined. We conclude that HDX of protein ions in a TWIG is highly sensitive to protein conformation, enables the detection of conformers present on submilliseconds time scales, and can readily be combined with ion mobility spectrometry.

  1. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  2. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Clancy, T. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Khater, H. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y{sub n}) measurements from below 10{sup 9} (DD) to nearly 10{sup 15} (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y{sub n} precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of {+-}10% and precision of {+-}1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y{sub n} measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  3. Parity-violating neutron spin rotation in hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießhammer, H. W.; Schindler, M. R.; Springer, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the (parity-violating) spin-rotation angle of a polarized neutron beam through hydrogen and deuterium targets, using pionless effective field theory up to next-to-leading order. Our result is part of a program to obtain the five leading independent low-energy parameters that characterize hadronic parity violation from few-body observables in one systematic and consistent framework. The two spin-rotation angles provide independent constraints on these parameters. Our result for np spin rotation is frac{1} {ρ }frac{{d\\varphi _{PV}^{np} }} {{dl}} = left[ {4.5 ± 0.5} right] rad MeV^{ - frac{1} {2}} left( {2g^{left( {^3 S_1 - ^3 P_1 } right)} + g^{left( {^3 S_1 - ^3 P_1 } right)} } right) - left[ {18.5 ± 1.9} right] rad MeV^{ - frac{1} {2}} left( {g_{left( {Δ I = 0} right)}^{left( {^1 S_0 - ^3 P_0 } right)} - 2g_{left( {Δ I = 2} right)}^{left( {^1 S_0 - ^3 P_0 } right)} } right), while for nd spin rotation we obtain frac{1} {ρ }frac{{d\\varphi _{PV}^{nd} }} {{dl}} = left[ {8.0 ± 0.8} right] rad MeV^{ - frac{1} {2}} g^{left( {^3 S_1 - ^1 P_1 } right)} + left[ {17.0 ± 1.7} right] rad MeV^{ - frac{1} {2}} g^{left( {^3 S_1 - ^3 P_1 } right)} + left[ {2.3 ± 0.5} right] rad MeV^{ - frac{1} {2}} left( {3g_{left( {Δ I = 0} right)}^{left( {^1 S_0 - ^3 P_0 } right)} - 2g_{left( {Δ I = 1} right)}^{left( {^1 S_0 - ^3 P_0 } right)} } right), where the g (X-Y), in units of MeV^{ - frac{3} {2}}, are the presently unknown parameters in the leading-order parity-violating Lagrangian. Using naıve dimensional analysis to estimate the typical size of the couplings, we expect the signal for standard target densities to be left| {frac{{d\\varphi _{PV} }} {{dl}}} right| ≈ left[ {10^{ - 7} ldots 10^{ - 6} } right]frac{{rad}} {m} for both hydrogen and deuterium targets. We find no indication that the nd observable is enhanced compared to the np one. All results are properly renormalized. An estimate of the numerical and systematic uncertainties of our calculations

  4. Search for d* dibaryon by double-radiative capture on pionic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnierczuk, P.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Kovash, M.A.; Tripathi, S.; Wright, D.H

    2002-12-05

    We report a search for d* dibaryon production by double-radiative capture on pionic deuterium. The experiment was conducted at the TRIUMF cyclotron using the RMC cylindrical pair spectrometer, and detected {gamma}-ray coincidences following pion stops in liquid deuterium. We found no evidence for narrow dibaryons, and obtained a branching ratio upper limit, BR<6.7x10{sup -6} (90% C.L.), for narrow d* production in the mass range from 1920 to 1980 MeV.

  5. Search for d^* Dibaryon by Double-radiative Capture on Pionic Deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Zolnierczuk, P A; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Tripathi, S; Wright, D H

    2002-01-01

    We report a search for d^* dibaryon production by double-radiative capture on pionic deuterium. The experiment was conducted at the TRIUMF cyclotron using the RMC cylindrical pair spectrometer, and detected gamma-ray coincidences following pion stops in liquid deuterium. We found no evidence for narrow dibaryons, and obtained a branching ratio upper limit, BR < 1.5 times 10^{-6} (90% C.L.), for narrow d^* production in the mass range from 1920 to 1980 MeV.

  6. Effect of plastic deformation on deuterium retention and release in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D., E-mail: dterenty@sckcen.be; Lambrinou, K.; Minov, B. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon - CS 90 046 - 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Morgan, T. W. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Zayachuk, Y.; Bystrov, K. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Dubinko, A. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-02-28

    The effect of severe plastic deformation on the deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to high-flux low-energy plasma (flux ∼ 10{sup 24 }D/m{sup 2}/s, energy ∼ 50 eV, and fluence up to 3 × 10{sup 26 }D/m{sup 2}) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The desorption spectra in both reference and plastically deformed samples were deconvolved into three contributions attributed to the detrapping from dislocations, deuterium-vacancy clusters, and pores, respectively. The plastically induced deformation, resulting in high dislocation density, does not change the positions of the three peaks, but alters their amplitudes as compared to the reference material. The appearance of blisters detected by scanning electron microscopy and the desorption peak attributed to the release from pores (i.e., deuterium bubbles) were suppressed in the plastically deformed samples but only up to a certain fluence. Beyond 5 × 10{sup 25 }D/m{sup 2}, the release from the bubbles in the deformed material is essentially higher than in the reference material. Based on the presented results, we suggest that a dense dislocation network increases the incubation dose needed for the appearance of blisters, associated with deuterium bubbles, by offering numerous nucleation sites for deuterium clusters eventually transforming into deuterium-vacancy clusters by punching out jogs on dislocation lines.

  7. Body composition in Mexican adults by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD and deuterium oxide dilution using infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Nayeli; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María; Bolaños, Adriana V; Alemán, Heliodoro; Esparza, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2002-09-01

    Thirty four subjects (13 men and 21 women), 24 to 70 years old from northern Mexico, were measured for body density by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD, and for total body water by deuterium oxide dilution and infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD). Subjects were given a 30 g dose of deuterium oxide. Saliva samples were filtered, sublimated, and deuterium was measured using a Miran 1 FF, IRS. Linear regression of the fat mass (FM) derived from both methods showed that the intercept (0.071) was not different from zero (p = .96) and the slope was 0.96 (p < .0001) demonstrating the techniques to be equivalent. Further, mean FM was 26.7 +/- 12.4 and 25.6 +/- 12.4 kg, for IRS-DOD and ADP techniques, respectively (p = .08). Precision analysis by the model R2 showed that 92.3% of the variability was explained (SEM = 3.4 kg). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias (r = 0.017; p = .93). Mean difference between methods was -1.08 (CI: -2.3 to + 0.13) kg FM.

  8. Surface morphology and deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten–rhenium alloy exposed to low-energy, high flux D plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, V.Kh., E-mail: vkahome@mail.ru [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Sugiyama, K.; Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Oyaidzu, M. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, International Fusion Energy Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Akamaru, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tada, K. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, International Fusion Energy Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Matsuyama, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • W and W–5%Re were exposed to low-energy, high flux D plasma at various temperatures. • The temperature dependences of the D retention in these two materials diverged. • It is suggested that ductility of W and W–5%Re materials influences the D retention. - Abstract: Surface topography and deuterium retention in polycrystalline hot-rolled W and W–5%Re have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (76 eV), high flux (around 10{sup 22} D/m{sup 2} s) deuterium plasma to an ion fluence of 10{sup 26} D/m{sup 2} at various temperatures. The methods used were confocal laser scanning microscopy and the D({sup 3}He, p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction at {sup 3}He energies varied from 0.69 to 4.0 MeV. During exposure to the D plasma at temperatures in the range from 348 to 673 K, small blisters of size in the range from about 1 to about 15 μm, depending on the exposure temperature, are formed on the W and W–5%Re surfaces. In the W–5%Re, the deuterium retention demonstrates its maximum at exposure temperature of 463 K, while in the W this maximum is shifted to 523 K. A difference in the temperature dependence of the D retention for the W and W–5%Re is explained, as a rough approximation, by temperature dependences of the ductility of these materials.

  9. Synthesis of deuterium labelled metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimark, L.D.; Toon, S.; Low, L.K.; Swinney, D.C.; Trager, W.F.

    1986-02-01

    The synthesis of deuterium labelled 4'-,6-,7- and 8-hydroxy metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon is described. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-,7- and 8-hydroxyphenprocoumons were prepared via alkylation of the respective 6-, 7- and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins with 1-(phenyl-d/sub 5/)-1-bromopropane and subsequent cleavage of the methyl protecting group with boron tribromide. The synthesis of 1-(pentadeuteriophenyl)-1-bromopropane and the 6-, 7-and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins are also presented. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxywarfarins were obtained by reaction of 4-(phenyl-d/sub 5/)-3-buten-2-one with the respective 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxy-4-hydroxycoumarins in methanol followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate cyclic methyl ketals in aqueous acid. 4-Hydroxycoumarin-5,6,7,8-d/sub 4/, prepared from phenyl-d/sub 6/ and tetradeuteriomalonic acid, was reacted with 1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one to yield labelled 4'-hydroxyphenprocoumon and 4'-hydroxywarfarin respectively.

  10. Deuterium fractionation in formaldehyde photolysis: chamber experiments and RRKM theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. K. Nilsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis are the key link between the δD of methane emissions with the δD of atmospheric in situ hydrogen production, the mechanism and the extent of their pressure dependencies is not adequately described. The pressure dependence of the photolysis rates of the mono- and di-deuterated formaldehyde isotopologues HDCO and D2CO relative to the parent isotopologue H2CO was investigated using RRKM theory and experiment. D2CO and H2CO were photolysed in a static reaction chamber at bath gas pressures of 50, 200, 400, 600 and 1000 mbar; these experiments compliment and extend our earlier work with HDCO vs. H2CO. The UV lamps used for photolysis emit light at wavelengths that mainly dissociate formaldehyde into molecular products, CO and H2 or D2. A model was constructed using RRKM theory to calculate the lifetime of excited formaldehyde on the S0 surface to describe the observed pressure dependent photolytic fractionation of deuterium. The effect of deuteration on the RRKM lifetime of the S0 state is not the main cause of the experimentally observed isotope effect. We propose that there is an additional previously unrecognised isotopic fractionation in the rate of transfer of population from the initially excited S1 state onto the S0 surface.

  11. Annealing effects on deuterium retention behavior in damaged tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakurada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of annealing after/under iron (Fe ion irradiation on deuterium (D retention behavior in tungsten (W were studied. The D2 TDS spectra as a function of heating temperature for 0.1dpa damaged W showed that the D retention was clearly decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. In particular, the desorption of D trapped by voids was largely reduced by annealing at 1173K. The TEM observation indicated that the size of dislocation loops was clearly grown, and its density was decreased by the annealing above 573K. After annealing at 1173K, almost all the dislocation loops were recovered. The results of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggested that the density of vacancy-type defects such as voids, was decreased as the annealing temperature was increased, while its size was increased, indicating that the D retention was reduced by the recovery of the voids. Furthermore, it was found that the desorption temperature of D trapped by the voids for damaged W above 0.3dpa was shifted toward higher temperature side. These results lead to a conclusion that the D retention behavior is controlled by defect density. The D retention in the samples annealed during irradiation was less than that annealed after irradiation. This result shows that defects would be quickly annihilated before stabilization by annealing during irradiation.

  12. Hypervelocity Impact Fusion with Compressed Deuterium-Tritium Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, S

    1998-01-01

    The neutron yields observed in inertial confinement fusion experiments for higher convergence ratios are about two orders of magnitude smaller than the neutron yields predicted by one-dimensional models, the discrepancy being attributed to the development of instabilities. We consider the possibility that ignition and a moderate gain could be achieved with existing laser facilities if the laser driver energy is used to produce only the radial compression of the fuel capsule to high densities but relatively low temperatures, while the ignition of the fusion reactions in the compressed fuel capsule will be effected by a synchronized hypervelocity impact. A positively-charged incident projectile can be accelerated to velocities of 3.5 x 10^6 m/s, resulting in ignition temperatures of about 4 keV, by a conventional low-beta linac having a length of 13 km if deuterium-tritium densities of 570 g/cm^3 could be obtained by laser-driven compression.

  13. Flux dependence of deuterium retention in single crystal tungsten

    CERN Document Server

    Poon, M; Davis, J W; Haasz, A A

    2002-01-01

    The retention of deuterium in single crystal tungsten has been measured as a function of the incident ion flux in the range of 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 -5x10 sup 1 sup 9 D sup + /m sup 2 s at 300 K. Incident D sub 3 sup + ions were implanted to fluences of 10 sup 2 sup 1 , 10 sup 2 sup 2 , and 10 sup 2 sup 3 D sup + /m sup 2 with ion energies (500 eV/D sup +) below the threshold energy for elastic collision damage. Above 3x10 sup 1 sup 8 D sup + /m sup 2 s, little or no flux dependence is seen. However, a rapid decrease in retention is seen for incident fluxes below 10 sup 1 sup 8 D sup + /m sup 2 s at the 10 sup 2 sup 1 D sup + /m sup 2 fluence, suggesting a threshold value below which retention is strongly reduced. Flux dependence at the higher fluences show a smaller decrease in retention with decreasing flux. The observed results are consistent with trapping and trap evolution by cluster and cavity formation. The effect of specimen surface preparation has proved to be very significant, especially for the lower fl...

  14. The production rate of cosmogenic deuterium at the Moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füri, Evelyn; Deloule, Etienne; Trappitsch, Reto

    2017-09-01

    The hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratio is a key tracer for the source of planetary water. However, secondary processes such as solar wind implantation and cosmic ray induced spallation reactions have modified the primordial D/H signature of 'water' in all rocks and soils recovered on the Moon. Here, we re-evaluate the production rate of cosmogenic deuterium (D) at the Moon's surface through ion microprobe analyses of hydrogen isotopes in olivines from eight Apollo 12 and 15 mare basalts. These in situ measurements are complemented by CO2 laser extraction-static mass spectrometry analyses of cosmogenic noble gas nuclides (3He, 21Ne, 38Ar). Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of the mare basalts, derived from their cosmogenic 21Ne content, range from 60 to 422 Ma. These CRE ages are 35% higher, on average, than the published values for the same samples. The amount of D detected in the olivines increases linearly with increasing CRE ages, consistent with a production rate of (2.17 ± 0.11) ×10-12 mol(g rock)-1 Ma-1. This value is more than twice as high as previous estimates for the production of D by galactic cosmic rays, indicating that for water-poor lunar samples, i.e., samples with water concentrations ≤50 ppm, corrected D/H ratios have been severely overestimated.

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  16. High performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; Batha, S.H. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States); Bell, M.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Plasmas composed of nominally equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium (DT) have been created in TFTR with the goals of producing significant levels of fusion power and of examining the effects of DT fusion alpha particles. Conditioning of the limiter by the injection of lithium pellets has led to an approximate doubling of the energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E}, in supershot plasmas at high plasma current (I{sub p} {le} 2.5 MA) and high heating power (P{sub b} {le} 33 MW). Operation with DT typically results in an additional 20% increase in {tau}{sub E}. In the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR, confinement enhancement H {triple_bond} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E ITER-89P} > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I{sub p} = 0.85 {minus} 1.5 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple_bond} 10{sup 8} < {beta}{sub t{perpendicular}} > aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} = 3 has been obtained in these plasmas, exceeding the {beta}{sub N} limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l{sub i}. Confinement of alpha particles appears to be classical and losses due to collective effects have not been observed. While small fluctuations in fusion product loss were observed during ELMs, no large loss was detected in DT plasmas.

  17. Cryogenic Implosion Performance Using High-Purity Deuterium-Tritium Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Radha, P. B.; Earley, R.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Shmayda, W. T.; Shoup, M. J., III; Michel, D. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2014-10-01

    Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence between symmetric implosions on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility ignition designs will require a number of facility enhancements that include dynamic bandwidth reduction, a set of higher-order super-Gaussian phase plates, high-spatial-resolution gated-core imaging, high-bandwidth neutron burnwidth measurements, improved power balance, and contaminant-free deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. The historic DT fuel supply was contaminated with ~6 atm% of 1H, leading to significant fractionation of the fuel during the layering process (the triple points of H:D and H:T are significantly colder than DD, DT, and TT). The fractionation leads to a drop in the potential yield because the D and T number densities are lower in the void than they would be with a pure-DT mixture). An isotope separation system has been developed to remove the 1H from the DT fuel supply. This talk will discuss the first results with the purified fuel, conclusions from recent implosions to test cross-beam energy transfer mitigation, and the status of the remaining facility enhancements. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. Deuterium–deuterium nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.it [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Messina, V.le F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Messina, V.le F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kravarik, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electro-Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed into the high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deuterons and carbon ions emission with energy up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deuterium ions may induce high D–D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be availed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deuterons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  19. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 1. Peptides to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C.; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to study the conformations of negatively-charged peptide and protein ions. Results are presented for ion conformers of angiotensin 1, a synthetic peptide (SP), bovine insulin, ubiquitin, and equine cytochrome c. In general, the SP ion conformers demonstrate a greater level of HDX efficiency as a greater proportion of the sites undergo HDX. Additionally, these ions exhibit the fastest rates of exchange. Comparatively, the angiotensin 1 ions exhibit a lower rate of exchange and HDX level presumably because of decreased accessibility of exchange sites by charge sites. The latter are likely confined to the peptide termini. Insulin ions show dramatically reduced HDX levels and exchange rates, which can be attributed to decreased conformational flexibility resulting from the disulfide bonds. For the larger ubiquitin and protein ions, increased HDX is observed for larger ions of higher charge state. For ubiquitin, a conformational transition from compact to more elongated species (from lower to higher charge states) is reflected by an increase in HDX levels. These results can be explained by a combination of interior site protection by compact conformers as well as decreased access by charge sites. The elongated cytochrome c ions provide the largest HDX levels where higher values correlate with charge state. These results are consistent with increased exchange site accessibility by additional charge sites. The data from these enhanced IMS-HDX experiments are described in terms of charge site location, conformer rigidity, and interior site protection.

  20. Deuterium retention and morphological modifications of the surface in five grades of tungsten after deuterium plasma exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balden, M., E-mail: Martin.Balden@ipp.mpg.de; Manhard, A.; Elgeti, S.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • D retention for used W grades varies by more than one order of magnitude. • Hydrogen loading-induced damaging manifests in surface modifications and retention. • Effects of plasma flux on retention and surface modifications are discussed. • Higher fluxes produce more severe hydrogen loading-induced damaging. - Abstract: Five tungsten (W) grades were simultaneously exposed to deuterium (D) plasma with 10{sup 20} D/(m{sup 2} s) of 38 eV/D up to 10{sup 26} D/m{sup 2} at 500 K specimen temperature. The D inventories and their depth profiles within the topmost 12 μm were determined by nuclear reaction analysis (D({sup 3}He, p)α). Morphological modifications at and below the surface were analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy assisted by focused ion beam cross-sectioning. The observed variation of the D inventory by more than one order of magnitude (0.5–15 × 10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2}) is attributed only to the different properties of each W grade. Spherical blisters and stepped flat-topped extrusions are observed depending on the W grade. These modifications are interpreted as an indication for hydrogen loading-induced damaging. The exposure conditions and W grades were chosen to allow a comparison between published data sets.

  1. Influence of traps on the deuterium behaviour in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, E.; Perujo, A.; Benamati, G.

    1997-06-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of deuterium in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 743 K which includes the onset of deuterium trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for deuterium in F82H and Batman steels are determined.

  2. Influence of traps on the deuterium behaviour in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Perujo, A. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Benamati, G. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla FUSIONE, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camungnano Bologna (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of deuterium in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 743 K which includes the onset of deuterium trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for deuterium in F82H and Batman steels are determined. (orig.).

  3. Threshold character of temperatures on deuterium thermal desorption in Mg-V composite grown atom-by-atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, I. M.; Morozov, O. M.; Kulish, V. G.; Zhurba, V. I.; Galitskiy, A. G.; Lomino, N. S.; Kuprin, A. S.; Ovcharenko, V. D.; Reshetnyak, E. N.

    2012-08-01

    The plasma evaporation-sputtering method was applied to make composite materials of the Mg-V system. The ion-implanted deuterium desorption temperature variations as a function of the component concentration were studied. It has been established that, by introducing vanadium into magnesium, the deuterium desorption temperature can be appreciably decreased (to 300-330 K) in comparison with the case of deuterium desorption from magnesium (~800 K). A step-like form of the curve of deuterium desorption temperature evidences on the presence of two different structure states of the Mg-V system depending on the ratio of components. The deuterium temperature decrease can be caused by filamentary inclusions formed, in the process of composite making and annealing, by the insoluble component (vanadium) atoms providing the deuterium diffusion from the sample at a lower temperature (channels for deuterium diffusion through the surface barrier). A necessary high diffusion mobility of deuterium is provided by the amorphous state of Mg83+xVx samples. The deuterium desorption data obtained on the example of Mg-V and Mg-Zr composites provide support for further research into hydrogen storage materials containing low-soluble chemical elements in the alloy components.

  4. Radiation induced deuterium absorption for RB-SiC, HP-SiC, silicon and graphite loaded during electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, T.; Moroño, A., E-mail: morono@ciemat.es; Hodgson, E.R.; Malo, M.; Verdú, M.; Sánchez, F.J.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Radiation enhanced deuterium absorption occurs for RB-SiC. • This type of radiation enhanced absorption is related to Si rather than to C. • Most of the radiation induced absorbed deuterium is released at about the foreseen blanket operation temperature. - Abstract: Absorption, diffusion, and desorption of hydrogen isotopes are expected to occur during operation in future fusion reactors and these processes will strongly depend on the irradiation conditions, neutron flux and purely ionizing radiation. The main aim of the work is to address the electron irradiation induced absorption of hydrogen isotopes in RB-SiC. Deuterium loading was carried out with both the sample and the surrounding deuterium gas exposed to 1.8 MeV electron irradiation in order to evaluate the radiation enhanced deuterium absorption. Thermo stimulated desorption (TSD) measurements were carried out for both electron irradiated and unirradiated samples in order to evaluate the possible radiation enhanced retention of the previously loaded deuterium. The materials subjected to the deuterium loading process were also studied by SIMS. Noticeable radiation enhanced deuterium absorption was observed. Most of the deuterium absorbed during irradiation was thermally released at about 600 °C.

  5. Inner Sphere and Outer Sphere Electron Transfer to Methyl Iodide. Deuterium and 13C Kinetic Isotope Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    Deuterium and 13C kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been determined for the conversion of methyl iodide into methyl radical via inner sphere ET (electron transfer) and via outer sphere ET. The alfa-deuterium KIE was found to be very high for in......Deuterium and 13C kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been determined for the conversion of methyl iodide into methyl radical via inner sphere ET (electron transfer) and via outer sphere ET. The alfa-deuterium KIE was found to be very high for in...

  6. Retention and release mechanisms of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkofler, M.; Reinelt, M.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    The fraction of deuterium (D) that is retained upon irradiation of beryllium (Be) as well as the temperatures at which implanted D is released are of importance for the international fusion experiment ITER, where Be will be used as an armor material. The influence of single parameters on retention and release is investigated in laboratory experiments performed under well defined conditions with the aim to identify dominant underlying mechanisms and thus be able to predict the behavior of the Be wall in ITER. Recent progress in the quantification of retained fractions and release temperatures as well as in the understanding of the governing mechanisms is presented. The retained fraction upon implantation of D at 1 keV into Be(1 1 2¯ 0) to fluences far below the saturation threshold of 10 21 m -2 is almost 95%, the remaining 5% being attributed to reflection at the surface. At these low fluences, no dependence of the retained fractions on implantation energy is observed. At fluences of the order of 10 21 m -2 and higher, saturation of the irradiated material affects the retention, leading to lower retained fractions. Furthermore, at these fluences the retained fractions decrease with decreasing implantation energies. Differences in the retained fractions from implanted Be(1 1 2¯ 0) and polycrystalline Be are explained by anisotropic diffusion of interstitials during implantation, leading to an amount of surviving D-trap complexes that depends on surface-orientation. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra are recorded after implantation of fluences of the order of 10 19 m -2 at various energies and simulated by means of a newly developed code based on coupled reaction-diffusion systems (CRDS). The asymmetric shape of the TPD peaks is reproduced by introducing a local D accumulation process into the model.

  7. Deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to mixed D + N plasma at divertor relevant fluxes in Magnum-PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. T.; De Temmerman, G.; Gao, L.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Meisl, G.; Höschen, T.; Ueda, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been proposed as an extrinsic impurity species in the divertor to reduce the local power load onto tungsten (W) plasma-facing components. Laboratory studies at low incident fluxes have indicated N increases deuterium (D) retention in tungsten. Here we show that W exposed to D + N Magnum-PSI plasmas under divertor relevant particle fluxes (∼1024 D/m2 s), also results in an increase in D retention by enhanced near surface trapping up to 1100 K due either to N or Mo impurities, and increased retention in the bulk at T > 700 K. These results demonstrate that N or Mo surface impurities have the potential to alter the tritium inventory in tungsten plasma-facing components under diverter relevant particle fluxes by affecting surface and bulk retention processes.

  8. Deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to mixed D + N plasma at divertor relevant fluxes in Magnum-PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.T., E-mail: heunlee@wakate.frc.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); De Temmerman, G. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein, 3439 MN (Netherlands); Gao, L.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Meisl, G.; Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Nitrogen (N) has been proposed as an extrinsic impurity species in the divertor to reduce the local power load onto tungsten (W) plasma-facing components. Laboratory studies at low incident fluxes have indicated N increases deuterium (D) retention in tungsten. Here we show that W exposed to D + N Magnum-PSI plasmas under divertor relevant particle fluxes (∼10{sup 24} D/m{sup 2} s), also results in an increase in D retention by enhanced near surface trapping up to 1100 K due either to N or Mo impurities, and increased retention in the bulk at T > 700 K. These results demonstrate that N or Mo surface impurities have the potential to alter the tritium inventory in tungsten plasma-facing components under diverter relevant particle fluxes by affecting surface and bulk retention processes.

  9. Retention and release of deuterium implanted in copper coatings on Al-6061

    CERN Document Server

    Inal, M Y; Kurz, K L; Cowgill, D F; Causey, R

    2000-01-01

    To mitigate the problem of retention and permeation of tritium implanted in Al-6061, the use of copper coatings was investigated. Copper coatings (having weights of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.088 kg/m sup 2) deposited on Al-6061 substrates by the RF Magnetron sputtering method were implanted with deuterium (D) in an accelerator at 350 K, and the resulting D profiles were monitored using negative SIMS and the D( sup 3 He,p) sup 4 He nuclear reaction. The retention characteristics of deuterium were subsequently studied as a function of coating weight, D sup + fluence (varied in the 1-3x10 sup 2 sup 1 D sup + /m sup 2 range) and D sup + ion energy (40 and 120 keV). Under identical implantation conditions, deuterium retention in Al-6061 was higher than in Al-6061 coated with 0.088 kg/m sup 2 Cu. In the various coatings implanted under different conditions, deuterium retention ranged between 1.2% and 5.4% of the implanted amount. The deuterium retention decreased with increasing coating weight and then leveled off with furt...

  10. Integrated Simulation Studies of Plasma Performances and Fusion Reactions in the Deuterium Experiment of LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Homma, M.; Maeta, S.; Saito, Y.; Fukuyama, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Takahashi, H.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Isobe, M.; Tomita, H.; Ogawa, K.; LHD Exp Group Team

    2016-10-01

    The deuterium experiment project from 2017 is planned in LHD, where the deuterium NBI heating beams with the power more than 30MW are injected into the deuterium plasma. Principal objects of this project are to clarify the isotope effect on the heat and particle transport in the helical plasma and to study energetic particle confinement in a helical magnetic configuration measuring triton burn-up neutrons. We study the deuterium experiment plasma of LHD applying the integrated simulation code, TASK3D [Murakami, PPCF2015], and the 5-D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET [Murakami, NF2006]. (i) More than 20% of ion temperature increment is obtained in the deuterium plasma (nD /nH +nD = 0.8) due to the isotope effect assuming the turbulent transport model based on the H/He plasma experiment of LHD. (ii) The triton burn-up simulation shows the triton slowing down distribution and the strong magnetic configuration dependency of the triton burn-up ratio in LHD. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420851.

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled halogen derivatives of L-tryptophan catalysed by tryptophanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicka, Elżbieta; Szymańska, Jolanta; Kańska, Marianna

    2016-06-01

    The isotopomers of halogen derivatives of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) (4'-F-, 7'-F-, 5'-Cl- and 7'-Br-l-Trp), specifically labelled with deuterium in α-position of the side chain, were obtained by enzymatic coupling of the corresponding halogenated derivatives of indole with S-methyl-l-cysteine in (2)H2O, catalysed by enzyme tryptophanase (EC 4.1.99.1). The positional deuterium enrichment of the resulting tryptophan derivatives was controlled using (1)H NMR. In accordance with the mechanism of the lyase reaction, a 100% deuterium labelling was observed in the α-position; the chemical yields were between 23 and 51%. Furthermore, β-F-l-alanine, synthesized from β-F-pyruvic acid by the l-alanine dehydrogenase reaction, has been tested as a coupling agent to obtain the halogenated deuterium-labelled derivatives of l-Trp. The chemical yield (∼30%) corresponded to that as observed with S-methyl-l-cysteine but the deuterium label was only 63%, probably due to the use of a not completely deuterated incubation medium.

  12. Double radiative pion capture on hydrogen and deuterium and the nucleon's pion cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, S; Christy, M E; Clark, J H D; Gorringe, T P; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Wright, D H; Zolnierczuk, P A

    2007-01-01

    We report measurements of double radiative capture in pionic hydrogen and pionic deuterium. The measurements were performed with the RMC spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron by recording photon pairs from pion stops in liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. We obtained absolute branching ratios of $(3.02 \\pm 0.27 (stat.) \\pm 0.31 (syst.)) \\times 10^{-5}$ for hydrogen and $(1.42 \\pm ^{0.09}_{0.12} (stat.) \\pm 0.11 (syst.)) \\times 10^{-5}$ for deuterium, and relative branching ratios of double radiative capture to single radiative capture of $(7.68 \\pm 0.69(stat.) \\pm 0.79(syst.)) \\times 10^{-5}$ for hydrogen and $(5.44 \\pm^{0.34}_{0.46}(stat.) \\pm 0.42(syst.)) \\times 10^{-5}$ for deuterium. For hydrogen, the measured branching ratio and photon energy-angle distributions are in fair agreement with a reaction mechanism involving the annihilation of the incident $\\pi^-$ on the $\\pi^+$ cloud of the target proton. For deuterium, the measured branching ratio and energy-angle distributions are qualitatively consisten...

  13. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice.

  14. Ab Initio Calculations of Deuterium Isotope Effects on Chemical Shifts of Salt-Bridged Lysines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Saif; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Williamson, Mike P.;

    2011-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects measure the change in chemical shift on substitution of a proton by deuterium. They have been calculated by direct treatment of the H/D nuclear quantum effect using a multicomponent ab initio molecular orbital method based on a non-Born−Oppenheimer approximation....... This method enables the determination of both the electronic and the protonic (deuteronic) wave functions simultaneously and can directly calculate the geometrical difference induced by H/D isotope effects. The calculations show that the one-bond deuterium isotope effects on 15N nuclear shielding, 1Δ15N......(D), in ammonium and amines decrease as a counterion or water molecule moves closer to the nitrogen. 1Δ15N(D) and 2Δ1H(D) of the NH3+ groups of lysine residues in the B1 domain of protein G have been calculated using truncated side chains and also determined experimentally by NMR. Comparisons show...

  15. Defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Masashi, E-mail: Masashi.Shimada@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hara, Masanori [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Otsuka, Teppei [Kyushu University, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Three tungsten samples irradiated at High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were exposed to deuterium plasma (ion fluence of 1 × 10{sup 26} m{sup −2}) at three different temperatures (100, 200, and 500 °C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment at Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequently, thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10 °C min{sup −1} up to 900 °C, and the samples were annealed at 900 °C for 0.5 h. These procedures were repeated three times to uncover defect-annealing effects on deuterium retention. The results show that deuterium retention decreases approximately 70% for at 500 °C after each annealing, and radiation damages were not annealed out completely even after the 3rd annealing. TMAP modeling revealed the trap concentration decreases approximately 80% after each annealing at 900 °C for 0.5 h.

  16. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  17. Threshold character of temperatures on deuterium desorption from the Mg-Zr composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, I. M.; Morozov, O. M.; Kulish, V. G.; Zhurba, V. I.; Lomino, N. S.; Ovcharenko, V. D.; Kuprin, O. S.

    2011-06-01

    The plasma evaporation-sputtering method was used to manufacture composite materials of the Mg-Zr system. The ion-implanted deuterium desorption temperature variations depending on the component concentrations were studied. It has been established that the introduction of a Zr impurity to magnesium leads to the significant decrease of the deuterium desorption temperature (~400K) as compared to the release from Mg samples. A step-like form of the curve of the deuterium desorption temperature testifies to presence of two various structural conditions at composite Mg-Zr depending on the relation of components. The hydrogen desorption data obtained using Mg-Zr composites can be used for the further invrstigations into the hydrogen storage materials containing chemical elements with a low solubility in the alloy components.

  18. Threshold character of temperatures on deuterium desorption from the Mg-Zr composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neklyudov, I M; Morozov, O M; Kulish, V G; Zhurba, V I; Lomino, N S; Ovcharenko, V D; Kuprin, O S, E-mail: morozov@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' , 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-06-23

    The plasma evaporation-sputtering method was used to manufacture composite materials of the Mg-Zr system. The ion-implanted deuterium desorption temperature variations depending on the component concentrations were studied. It has been established that the introduction of a Zr impurity to magnesium leads to the significant decrease of the deuterium desorption temperature ({approx}400K) as compared to the release from Mg samples. A step-like form of the curve of the deuterium desorption temperature testifies to presence of two various structural conditions at composite Mg-Zr depending on the relation of components. The hydrogen desorption data obtained using Mg-Zr composites can be used for the further invrstigations into the hydrogen storage materials containing chemical elements with a low solubility in the alloy components.

  19. Surface morphology and deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to high flux D plasma at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.Z. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon-CS90046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, H.Y. [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621907 (China); Li, C.; Fu, B.Q. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Surface modifications and deuterium retention induced in tungsten by high fluxes (10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) low energy (38 eV) deuterium ions were studied as a function of surface temperature. Blister formation was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, while deuterium retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Blisters are observed on the surface exposed at different temperatures, ranging from 493 K to 1273 K. The blister density and D retention decrease with the increasing exposure temperature. The formation of blisters at high temperatures is attributed to the high flux of D plasma. At 943 K, with the increasing fluence, there is trend to the saturation of D retention and blister density. The defects caused by plasma exposure have an important effect on the D trapping and blistering behavior. The formation of blisters has a strong relationship with slipping system of tungsten.

  20. Effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions in deuterium-tritium burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michta, D; Graziani, F; Pruet, J; Luu, T

    2009-08-18

    We investigate the effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions resulting from rapid deuterium-tritium burning in plasmas using a Fokker-Planck code that incorporates small-angle Coulomb scattering, Brehmsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and thermal-nuclear burning. We find that in inertial confinement fusion environments, deviations away from Maxwellian distributions for either deuterium or tritium ions are small and result in 1% changes in the energy production rates. The deuterium and tritium effective temperatures are not equal, but differ by only about 2.5% near the time of peak burn rate. Simulations with high Z (Xe) dopants show that the dopant temperature closely tracks that of the fuel. On the other hand, fusion product ion distributions are highly non-Maxwellian, and careful treatments of energy-exchange between these ions and other particles is important for determining burn rates.

  1. PENETRATION DEPTH OF 0.5-3-KEV ELECTRONS IN SOLID HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mirror-substrate method was used for measuring the penetration depth of 0. 5-3-keV electrons in solid hydrogen and deuterium. The penetration depth was found to be 0. 53 multiplied by 10**1**8E**1**. **7**2 molecules/cm**2 with the energy given in keV. There was satisfactory agreement...... with other data. The measurements also showed that the escape depth for true secondary electrons from solid deuterium is less than 50 A, which agrees well with the small values for the secondary-electron-emission coefficient found for solid deuterium. Results were furthermore obtained for the electron......-reflection coefficient for the gold substrate, i. e. , the number of electrons that are reflected with high energies. The electron-reflection coefficient agrees well with other results, both with respect to magnitude and energy dependence....

  2. Tables of equation-of-state, thermodynamic properties, and shock Hugoniot for hot dense fluid deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R

    2015-01-01

    We present computational results and tables of the equation-of-state, thermodynamic properties, and shock Hugoniot for hot dense fluid deuterium. The present results are generated using a recently developed chemical model that takes into account different high density effects such as Coulomb interactions among charged particles, partial degeneracy, and intensive short range hard core repulsion. Internal partition functions are evaluated in a statistical-mechanically consistent way implementing recent developments in the literature. The shock Hugoniot curve derived from the present tables is in reasonable overall agreement with the Hugoniot derived from the Nova-laser shock wave experiments on liquid deuterium, showing that deuterium has a significantly higher compressibility than predicted by the SESAME tables or by Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations. Computational results are presented as surface plots for the dissociated fraction, degree of ionization, pressure, and specific internal energy for d...

  3. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Zhang, J; Chi, Q;

    2001-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K(-1) mol(-1...... dependence of E(0') is also different, yielding entropy changes of -57 J K(-1) mol(-1) in water and -84 J K(-1) mol(-1) in deuterium oxide. The driving force difference of 10 mV is in keeping with the kinetic isotope effect, but the contribution to DeltaS from the temperature dependence of E(0') is positive...

  4. Time-resolved optical spectroscopy measurements of shocked liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Knudson, M. D.; Carlson, A. L.; Dunham, G. S.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hanson, D. L.; Asay, J. R.

    2008-10-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy has been used to measure the shock pressure steadiness, emissivity, and temperature of liquid deuterium shocked to 22-90 GPa. The shock was produced using magnetically accelerated flyer plate impact, and spectra were acquired with a suite of four fiber-optic-coupled spectrometers with streak camera detectors. The shock pressure changes by an average of -1.2% over the 10-30 ns cell transit time, determined from the relative changes in the shock front self-emission with time. The shock front reflectivity was measured from 5140Å and 5320Å laser light reflected from the D2 shock. The emissivity inferred from the reflectivity measurements was in reasonably good agreement with quantum molecular dynamics simulation predictions. The spectral radiance wavelength dependence was found to agree well (average normalized χ2=1.6 ) with a Planckian multiplied by the emissivity. The shock front temperature was determined from the emissivity and the wavelength-dependent shock self-emission. Thirty-seven temperature measurements spanning the 22-90 GPa range were accumulated. The large number of temperature measurements enables a comparison of the scatter in the data with expectations for a Gaussian distribution. This facilitates determination of uncertainties that incorporate both apparatus contributions and otherwise unquantified systematic effects that cause self-emission variations from one experiment to another. Agreement between temperatures determined from the absolute spectral radiance and from the relative shape of the spectrum further substantiates the absence of systematic biases. The weighted mean temperature uncertainties were as low as ±3-4% , enabling the discrimination between competing models for the D2 equation of state (EOS). The temperature results agree well with models that predict a maximum compression of ˜4.4 . Softer models that predict approximately sixfold compression are inconsistent with the data to a very high

  5. Simulations of atomic deuterium exposure in self-damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodille, E. A.; Založnik, A.; Markelj, S.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Becquart, C. S.; Bisson, R.; Grisolia, C.

    2017-05-01

    Simulations of deuterium (D) atom exposure in self-damaged polycrystalline tungsten at 500 K and 600 K are performed using an evolution of the MHIMS (migration of hydrogen isotopes in materials) code in which a model to describe the interaction of D with the surface is implemented. The surface-energy barriers for both temperatures are determined analytically with a steady-state analysis. The desorption energy per D atom from the surface is 0.69  ±  0.02 eV at 500 K and 0.87  ±  0.03 eV at 600 K. These values are in good agreement with ab initio calculations as well as experimental determination of desorption energies. The absorption energy (from the surface to the bulk) is 1.33  ±  0.04 eV at 500 K, 1.55  ±  0.02 eV at 600 K when assuming that the resurfacing energy (from the bulk to the surface) is 0.2 eV. Thermal-desorption spectrometry data after D atom exposure at 500 K and isothermal desorption at 600 K after D atom exposure at 600 K can be reproduced quantitatively with three bulk-detrapping energies, namely 1.65  ±  0.01 eV, 1.85  ±  0.03 eV and 2.06  ±  0.04 eV, in addition to the intrinsic detrapping energies known for undamaged tungsten (0.85 eV and 1.00 eV). Thanks to analyses of the amount of traps during annealing at different temperatures and ab initio calculations, the 1.65 eV detrapping energy is attributed to jogged dislocations and the 1.85 eV detrapping energy is attributed to dislocation loops. Finally, the 2.06 eV detrapping energy is attributed to D trapping in cavities based on literature reporting observations on the growth of cavities, even though this could also be understood as D desorbing from the C-D bond in the case of hydrocarbon contamination in the experimental sample.

  6. Studies of Molecular Dynamics by Solid State Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baiyi

    The rotational dynamics of molecules in a number of solid systems were followed by variable temperature deuterium (^2H), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy via changes in the spectral lineshapes and spin-lattice relaxation times (T _1). First the pure solid trimethylamine-borane adduct, (CH_3)_3NBH_3, was studied. For a methyl deuterated sample, T _1 measurements yielded two T_1 minima, 6.9 ms and 4.3 ms corresponding to the slowing of methyl and trimethyl rotation, respectively, with decreasing temperature. Activation energies for methyl and trimethyl rotation, obtained from fitting the T _1 curve as a function of temperature, were 32.8 and 15.0 kJ/mol, respectively; simulations of the spectral lineshapes gave 26.6 and 18.9 kT/mol, respectively. Fitting of the ^2H T_1 curve for the borane deuterated sample gave a BH _3 rotation activation energy of 14.1 kT/mol and a ^2H quadrupolar coupling constant, chi, of 101 kHz. The activation energy for BH_3 rotation obtained from the spectral lineshape simulations gave 12.6 kT/mol. A series of deuterated organic chalcogen cations: (CH_3)_3S^+, (CH_3)_3Se^+ and (CH_3)_3Te^+, were ion exchanged into the cavities of sodium Mordenite LZ-M5 and the dynamics of these guests within the hydrated zeolite were followed by ^2H NMR. All three undergo isotropic motion above about -80 to -90^circC. Below this temperature two superimposed ^2H powder spectra appear; the broad lineshape is consistent with only methyl rotation in a hindered, coordinated site, and the other narrow lineshape is due to both methyl and trimethyl rotation in a less hindered, uncoordinated site. As the temperature is lowered the population of the lower energy coordinated site increases. Relative peak areas yield adsorption enthalpies of 6.7, 7.8 and 10.0 kJ/mol for (CH_3)_3S^+, (CH_3)_3Se^+ and (CH_3)_3Te^+, respectively. The series of methyl deuterated ammonium and phosphonium cations: (CH_3)NH_3^+ , (CH_3)_2NH^+ , (CH_3)_3NH^+ and (CH_3)_4P^+ , were

  7. Longitudinal Lelectroproduction of Charged Pions on Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Helium 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskell, David [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-03-22

    Conventional pictures of nuclear interactions, in which the pion mediates the long/medium range part of the nuclear force, predict an enhancement of the virtual pion cloud in nuclei relative to that in the free nucleon. Jefferson Lab Experiment E91003 measured charged pion electroproduction from Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Helium-3. The longitudinal cross section, which in the limit of pole dominance can be viewed as the quasifree knockout of a virtual pion, was extracted via a Rosenbluth separation. The longitudinal cross sections from Deuterium and Helium-3 were compared to Hydrogen to look for signatures of the nuclear pions.

  8. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  9. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan; Yakar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  10. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  11. Measurement of the nuclear polarization of hydrogen and deuterium molecules using a Lamb-shift polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Ralf, E-mail: r.w.engels@fz-juelich.de; Gorski, Robert; Grigoryev, Kiril; Mikirtychyants, Maxim; Rathmann, Frank; Seyfarth, Hellmut; Ströher, Hans; Weiss, Philipp [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Kochenda, Leonid; Kravtsov, Peter; Trofimov, Viktor; Tschernov, Nikolay; Vasilyev, Alexander; Vznuzdaev, Marat [Laboratory of Cryogenic and Superconductive Technique, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha 1, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Schieck, Hans Paetz gen. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Lamb-shift polarimeters are used to measure the nuclear polarization of protons and deuterons at energies of a few keV. In combination with an ionizer, the polarization of hydrogen and deuterium atoms was determined after taking into account the loss of polarization during the ionization process. The present work shows that the nuclear polarization of hydrogen or deuterium molecules can be measured as well, by ionizing the molecules and injecting the H{sub 2}{sup +} (or D{sub 2}{sup +}) ions into the Lamb-shift polarimeter.

  12. Longitudinal Lelectroproduction of Charged Pions on Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Helium 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gaskell

    2001-05-01

    Conventional pictures of nuclear interactions, in which the pion mediates the long/medium range part of the nuclear force, predict an enhancement of the virtual pion cloud in nuclei relative to that in the free nucleon. Jefferson Lab Experiment E91003 measured charged pion electroproduction from Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Helium-3. The longitudinal cross section, which in the limit of pole dominance can be viewed as the quasifree knockout of a virtual pion, was extracted via a Rosenbluth separation. The longitudinal cross sections from Deuterium and Helium-3 were compared to Hydrogen to look for signatures of the nuclear pions.

  13. Research on laser-removal of a deuterium deposit from a graphite sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubkowska, M.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Rosinski, M.; Gasior, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents experimental results of investigation of a removal of deuterium deposits from a graphite target by means of pulsed laser beams. The sample was a part of the TEXTOR limiter with a deuterium-deposited layer. That target was located in the vacuum chamber, pumped out to 5×10-5 Torr, and it was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser, which generated 3.5-ns pulses of energy of 0.5 J at λ1 = 1063 nm, or 0.1 J at λ3 = 355 nm.

  14. Breakdown in hydrogen and deuterium gases in static and radio-frequency fields

    CERN Document Server

    Korolov, I

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a combined experimental and modeling study of the electrical breakdown of hydrogen and deuterium in static (DC) and radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) electric fields. For the simulations of the breakdown events, simplified models are used and only electrons are traced by Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental DC Paschen curve of hydrogen is used for the determination of the effective secondary electron emission coefficient. A very good agreement between the experimental and the calculated RF breakdown characteristics for hydrogen is found. For deuterium, on the other hand, presently available cross section sets do not allow a reproduction of RF breakdown characteristics.

  15. Particularities of ion-implanted deuterium distribution in stainless steel X18H10T

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstolutskaya, G D; Ruzhitskij, I E

    2001-01-01

    Features of distribution of the deuterium implanted with energy of 6 keV in 18Cr10NiTi steel to doses in the range of 2.10 sup 1 sup 7...2.10 sup 1 sup 8 cm sup - sup 2 have been investigated. Data on the trapping retention, depth distribution and thermo-activated release of the deuterium in the irradiation temperature range of 300...600 K and post implantation annealing in the range 300...600 K and post implantation annealing in the range 300...1500 K were obtained.

  16. Phonons in Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium Studied by Inelastic Coherent Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits

    1973-01-01

    Phonon dispersion relations have been measured by coherent neutron scattering in solid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium. The phonon energies are found to be nearly equal in the two solids, the highest energy in each case lying close to 10 meV. The pressure and temperature dependence of the phonon...... energies have been measured in ortho-deuterium and the lattice change determined by neutron diffraction. When a pressure of 275 bar is applied, the phonon energies are increased by about 10%, and heating the crystal to near the melting point decreases them by about 7%. The densities of states, the specific...

  17. Study of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in directly driven cryogenic-deuterium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, J. D.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Direct-drive, Rayleigh-Taylor growth experiments in liquid deuterium (D{sub 2}) were performed on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar cryogenic targets at a laser intensity of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. These are the first Rayleigh-Taylor measurements in deuterium at conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion using a mass preimposed initial modulation. The measured modulation optical depths are in agreement with the 2D hydrodynamics code DRACO using flux-limited local thermal transport, providing an important step in the experimental validation of simulations for direct-drive ignition.

  18. Electron transfer dissociation facilitates the measurement of deuterium incorporation into selectively labeled peptides with single residue resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehl, Martin; Rand, Kasper D; Jensen, Ole N;

    2008-01-01

    show in the present study that electron transfer dissociation in a 3D-quadrupole ion trap retains the site-specific solution-phase deuterium incorporation pattern and allows for localization of incorporated deuterium with single residue resolution. Furthermore, we exploit this finding to monitor how...... collisional activation induces proton mobility in a gaseous peptide ion at various levels of vibrational excitation....

  19. Enhancement of mite antigen-induced histamine release by deuterium oxide from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamura, T.

    1981-09-01

    The mite antigen-induced histamine release from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients was enhanced in the presence of deuterium oxide, which stabilizes microtubules. This enhancing effect of deuterium oxide on the histamine release from leucocytes may provide a useful means for the detection of allergens in vitro in chronic urticaria.

  20. Determination of the deuterium abundances in water from 156 to 10,000 ppm by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Shestivska, Violetta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    In response to a need for the measurement of the deuterium (D) abundance in water and aqueous liquids exceeding those previously recommended when using flowing afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) (i.e. 1000 parts per million, ppm), we have developed the theory of equilibrium isotopic composition of the product ions on which these analytical methods are based to encompass much higher abundances of D in water up to 10,000 ppm (equivalent to 1%). This has involved an understanding of the number density distributions of the H, D, (16)O, (17)O and (18)O isotopes in the isotopologues of H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(3) hydrated ions (i.e. H(9)O (4) (+) cluster ions) at mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 73, 74 and 75, the relative ion number densities of which represent the basis of FA-MS and SIFT-MS analyses of D abundance. Specifically, an extended theory has been developed that accounts for the inclusion of D atoms in the m/z 75 ions, which increasingly occurs as D abundance in the water is increased, and which is used as a reference signal for the m/z 74 ions in the measurement of D abundance. In order to investigate the efficacy of this theory, experimental measurements of deuterium abundance in standard mixtures were made by the SIFT-MS technique using two similar instruments and the results compared with the theory. It is demonstrated that the parameterization of experimental data can be used to formulate a simple calculation algorithm for real-time SIFT-MS measurements of D abundance to an accuracy of 1% below 1000 ppm and degrades to about 2% at 10,000 ppm.

  1. Experimental study and modeling of the deuterium releasing quantity in a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a metal deuteride cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei-Xiang; Long, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Le; Dong, Pan; Li, Chen; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The pulsed vacuum arc discharge using a metal deuteride cathode is widely applied as a deuterium ion source, where the upper limit of the deuterium ion yield is largely determined by the deuterium releasing quantity (DRQ) from the cathode. This work aims to measure the DRQ at various discharge conditions, and meanwhile develop a simple thermoelectric model to evaluate the deuterium liberation from different sources, such as the crater vicinity during the arc power-on phase and the hot crater in the afterglow. The calculated DRQ are in accordance with the experimental results obtained by measuring the D2 pressure evolution in the early afterglow using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the model reveals that at low arc current (<10 A), the DRQ orginates dominantly from the crater vicinity, leading to a low conversion efficiency of the released deuterium to ions and a high D:Ti elemental ratio in the released cathode vapor.

  2. Use of Fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for determination of breastmilk output by the deuterium dilution method among Senegalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Bluck, Leslie; Diaham, Babou; Dossou, Nicole; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    Breastmilk output can be estimated from the mother's total body water and water turnover rates after oral administration of deuterium oxide. Usually the deuterium enrichments are determined using a isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which is expensive and requires a specialist for operation and maintenance. Such equipment is difficult to set up in developing countries. A less expensive method was developed which uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for deuterium enrichment analysis. This study evaluated the constraints of using FTIR to study lactating women in Senegal. The deuterium isotope method was found to be adequate for free living subjects and presented few constraints except for the duration of the saliva sampling (14 days). The method offers the opportunity to determine simultaneously breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and breastfeeding practices. Deuterium sample enrichments measured with FTIR were fast and easy, but for spectrum quality some environmental control is required to optimize the results.

  3. Mitigated blistering and deuterium retention in tungsten exposed to high-flux deuterium–neon mixed plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, H. B.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, G. H.

    2017-04-01

    Surface morphology and deuterium retention in tungsten exposed at surface temperature of ~550 K to mixed deuterium–neon plasmas of different neon concentrations are investigated. It is found that the addition of neon up to 20% mitigates blistering on the surface. Cross-section view of the surface shows the formation of pores near the surface in the depth less than 100 nm. Deuterium depth profile is featured by an enhanced deuterium concentration within a depth of 16 nm but a mitigated penetration in depth larger than 1 µm. Deuterium retention is reduced by up to a factor of four. It is suggested the open pores formed in the surface serves as an escaping channel, mitigates deuterium penetration towards bulk and retention in the bulk.

  4. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.; Money, K.E.

    1984-03-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed.

  5. Modified Toepler pump for small-scale halogen-deuterium exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindal, R.D.

    1987-04-06

    A modified version of the Toepler pump/microhydrogenator apparatus for the preparation of tritium labelled oestrogenic compounds using deuterium gas for halogen-tritium exchange, is described. The modifications allow the transferred gas to maintain atmospheric pressure during the course of the reaction and it allows small volumes of gas uptake to be followed. (U.K.).

  6. Sputtering of thin and intermediately thick films of solid deuterium by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Sputtering of films of solid deuterium by keV electrons was studied in a cryogenic set-up. The sputtering yield shows a minimum yield of about 4 D2/electron for 1.5 and 2 keV electrons at a thickness slightly larger than the average projected range of the electrons. We suggest that the yield around...

  7. Fusion Energy-Production from a Deuterium-Tritium Plasma in the Jet Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebut, P. H.; Gibson, A.; Huguet, M.; Adams, J. M.; Alper, B.; Altmann, H.; Andersen, A.; Andrew, P.; Angelone, M.; Aliarshad, S.; Baigger, P.; Bailey, W.; Balet, B.; Barabaschi, P.; Barker, P.; Barnsley, R.; Baronian, M.; Bartlett, D. V.; Baylor, L.; Bell, A. C.; Benali, G.; Bertoldi, P.; Bertolini, E.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bickley, A. J.; Binder, D.; Bindslev, H.; Bonicelli, T.; Booth, S. J.; Bosia, G.; Botman, M.; Boucher, D.; Boucquey, P.; Breger, P.; Brelen, H.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brooks, D.; Brown, A.; Brown, T.; Brusati, M.; Bryan, S.; Brzozowski, J.; Buchse, R.; Budd, T.; Bures, M.; Businaro, T.; Butcher, P.; Buttgereit, H.; Caldwellnichols, C.; Campbell, D. J.; Card, P.; Celentano, G.; Challis, C. D.; Chankin, A. V.; Cherubini, A.; Chiron, D.; Christiansen, J.; Chuilon, P.; Claesen, R.; Clement, S.; Clipsham, E.; Coad, J. P.; Coffey, I. H.; Colton, A.; Comiskey, M.; Conroy, S.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, D.; Cooper, S.; Cordey, J. G.; Core, W.; Corrigan, G.; Corti, S.; Costley, A. E.; Cottrell, G.; Cox, M.; Cripwell, P.; Dacosta, O.; Davies, J.; Davies, N.; de Blank, H.; De Esch, H.; Dekock, L.; Deksnis, E.; Delvart, F.; Dennehinnov, G. B.; Deschamps, G.; Dickson, W. J.; Dietz, K. J.; Dmitrenko, S. L.; Dmitrieva, M.; Dobbing, J.; Doglio, A.; Dolgetta, N.; Dorling, S. E.; Doyle, P. G.; Duchs, D. F.; Duquenoy, H.; Edwards, A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Elevant, T.; Erents, S.K.; Eriksson, L. G.; Fajemirokun, H.; Falter, H.; Freiling, J.; Freville, F.; Froger, C.; Froissard, P.; Fullard, K.; Gadeberg, M.; Galetsas, A.; Gallagher, T.; Gambier, D.; Garribba, M.; Gaze, P.; Giannella, R.; Gill, R. D.; Girard, A.; Gondhalekar, A.; Goodall, D.; Gormezano, C.; Gottardi, N. A.; Gowers, C.; Green, B. J.; Grievson, B.; Haange, R.; Haigh, A.; Hancock, C. J.; Harbour, P. J.; Hartrampf, T.; Hawkes, N. C.; Haynes, P.; Hemmerich, J. L.; Hender, T.; Hoekzema, J.; Holland, D.; Hone, M.; Horton, L.; How, J.; Huart, M.; Hughes, I.; Hughes, T. P.; Hugon, M.; Huo, Y.; Ida, K.; Ingram, B.; Irving, M.; Jacquinot, J.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaeger, J. F.; Janeschitz, G.; Jankovicz, Z.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, F.; Jones, E. M.; Jones, H. D.; Jones, Lpdf; Jones, S.; Jones, T. T. C.; Junger, J. F.; Junique, F.; Kaye, A.; Keen, B. E.; Keilhacker, M.; Kelly, G. J.; Kerner, W.; Khudoleev, A.; Konig, R.; Konstantellos, A.; Kovanen, M.; Kramer, G.; Kupschus, P.; Lasser, R.; Last, J. R.; Laundy, B.; Laurotaroni, L.; Laveyry, M.; Lawson, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lingertat, J.; Litunovski, R. N.; Loarte, A.; Lobel, R.; Lomas, P.; Loughlin, M.; Lowry, C.; Lupo, J.; Maas, A. C.; Machuzak, J.; Macklin, B.; Maddison, G.; Maggi, C. F.; Magyar, G.; Mandl, W.; Marchese, V.; Marcon, G.; Marcus, F.; Mart, J.; Martin, D.; Martin, E.; Martinsolis, R.; Massmann, P.; Matthews, G.; McBryan, H.; McCracken, G.; McKivitt, J.; Meriguet, P.; Miele, P.; Miller, A.; Mills, J.; Mills, S. F.; Millward, P.; Milverton, P.; Minardi, E.; Mohanti, R.; Mondino, P. L.; Montgomery, D.; Montvai, A.; Morgan, P.; Morsi, H.; Muir, D.; Murphy, G.; Myrnas, R.; Nave, F.; Newbert, G.; Newman, M.; Nielsen, P.; Noll, P.; Obert, W.; Obrien, D.; Orchard, J.; Orourke, J.; Ostrom, R.; Ottaviani, M.; Pain, M.; Paoletti, F.; Papastergiou, S.; Parsons, W.; Pasini, D.; Patel, D.; Peacock, A.; Peacock, N.; Pearce, R. J. M.; Pearson, D.; Peng, J. F.; Desilva, R. P.; Perinic, G.; Perry, C.; Petrov, M.; Pick, M. A.; Plancoulaine, J.; Poffe, J. P.; Pohlchen, R.; Porcelli, F.; Porte, L.; Prentice, R.; Puppin, S.; Putvinskii, S.; Radford, G.; Raimondi, T.; Deandrade, M. C. R.; Reichle, R.; Reid, J.; Richards, S.; Righi, E.; Rimini, F.; Robinson, D.; Rolfe, A.; Ross, R. T.; Rossi, L.; Russ, R.; Rutter, P.; Sack, H. C.; Sadler, G.; Saibene, G.; Salanave, J. L.; Sanazzaro, G.; Santagiustina, A.; Sartori, R.; Sborchia, C.; Schild, P.; Schmid, M.; Schmidt, G.; Schunke, B.; Scott, S. M.; Serio, L.; Sibley, A.; Simonini, R.; Sips, A.C.C.; Smeulders, P.; Smith, R.; Stagg, R.; Stamp, M.; Stangeby, P.; Stankiewicz, R.; Start, D. F.; Steed, C. A.; Stork, D.; Stott, P.E.; Stubberfield, P.; Summers, D.; Summers, H.; Svensson, L.; Tagle, J. A.; Talbot, M.; Tanga, A.; Taroni, A.; Terella, C.; Terrington, A.; Tesini, A.; Thomas, P. R.; Thompson, E.; Thomsen, K.; Tibone, F.; Tiscornia, A.; Trevalion, P.; Tubbing, B.; Vanbelle, P.; Vanderbeken, H.; Vlases, G.; von Hellermann, M.; Wade, T.; Walker, C.; Walton, R.; Ward, D.; Watkins, M. L.; Watkins, N.; Watson, M. J.; Weber, S.; Wesson, J.; Wijnands, T. J.; Wilks, J.; Wilson, D.; Winkel, T.; Wolf, R.; Wong, D.; Woodward, C.; Wu, Y.; Wykes, M.; Young, D.; Young, I. D.; Zannelli, L.; Zolfaghari, A.; Zwingmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments in the Joint European Torus (JET), culminating in the first tokamak discharges in deuterium-tritium fuelled mixtures. The experiments were undertaken within limits imposed by restrictions on vessel activation and tritium usage. The objectives were: (i) to

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  9. Hadronic deuteron polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, A. V.; Faustov, R. N.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hadronic deuteron polarizability correction to the Lamb shift of muonic deuterium is calculated on the basis of unitary isobar model and modern experimental data on the structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering and their parametrizations in the resonance and nonresonance regions.

  10. Hadronic deuteron polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Eskin, A V; Martynenko, A P; Martynenko, F A

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic deuteron polarizability correction to the Lamb shift of muonic deuterium is calculated on the basis of unitary isobar model and modern experimental data on the structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering and their parameterizations in the resonance and nonresonance regions.

  11. Synthesis of isotopically labelled 2-isopropylthioxanthone from 2,2'-dithiosalicylic acid and deuterium cumene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Yang, Weicheng; Yang, Chao; Wang, Haoran; Sun, Kai; Luo, Yong

    2016-06-30

    Two efficient synthetic routes of stable deuterium labelled 2-isopropylthioxanthone were presented with 98.1% and 98.8% isotopic abundance in acceptable yields and excellent chemical purities. Their structures and the isotope-abundance were confirmed according to proton nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. UV luminescence of NeD in solid neon-deuterium mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Gürtler, P.

    1994-01-01

    Solid samples of neon-deuterium mixtures were irradiated by keV electrons, and the luminescence was measured between 100 and 300 nm. For concentrations between 0.1% D-2 in Ne and 1% Ne in D-2 an intense emission band was observed. The maximum intensity was observed for 10% D-2 in Ne. Comparisons...

  13. Accelerator-based neutron source using a cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Phillips

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A neutron generator is considered in which a beam of tritons is incident on a hypothetical cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons. The energy efficiency of neutron generation is found to increase substantially with electron density. Recent reports of potential targets are discussed.

  14. Structural and chemical evolution of single-wall carbon nanotubes under atomic and molecular deuterium interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.; Keim, E.G.; Berg, van den A.H.J.; Smithers, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium, as present in a (D + D2) gas mixture, with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been studied by means of a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SWNT samp

  15. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0 °C). The reduction typically ...

  16. Water use patterns of three species in subalpine forest, Southwest China: the deuterium isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Xu; Harbin Li; Jiquan Chen; Jiquan Cheng; Xiaoli Cheng; Shirong Liu; Shuqing An

    2011-01-01

    Determination of water sources of plant species in a community is critical for understanding the hydrological processes and their importance in ecosystem functions. Such partitioning of plant xylem water into specific sources (i.e. precipitation, groundwater) can be achieved by analyzing deuterium isotopic composition (δD) values for source waters. A subalpine dark...

  17. The Deuterium Fractionation Timescale in Dense Cloud Cores: A Parameter Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shuo; Tan, Jonathan C; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    The deuterium fraction of simple species such as N$_2$H$^+$ can be easily measured and can provide information about the age of dense and cold material, important to compare with dynamical models of cloud core formation and evolution. Here we perform a parameter space exploration using a gas-phase chemical model which includes deuterium chemistry and the spin states of H$_2$ and H$_3^+$ isotopologues. This allows us to study the effect of various poorly known parameters on the timescale to achieve the deuterium fractions observed in starless cores and clumps in various star-forming regions. We conclude that for a broad range of parameters, the relatively large deuterium fractions ($\\gtrsim$ 0.1) observed towards both low- and high-mass starless cores require core ages to be at least a few times longer than the free-fall timescale. This condition could be relaxed if cosmic ray ionization rates are very high $\\gtrsim 10^{-16}\\:{\\rm s}^{-1}$ or initial ortho-to-para ratios of $\\rm H_2$ are very low ($\\lesssim 10...

  18. Fusion Energy-Production from a Deuterium-Tritium Plasma in the Jet Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebut, P. H.; Gibson, A.; Huguet, M.; Adams, J. M.; Alper, B.; Altmann, H.; Andersen, A.; Andrew, P.; Angelone, M.; Aliarshad, S.; Baigger, P.; Bailey, W.; Balet, B.; Barabaschi, P.; Barker, P.; Barnsley, R.; Baronian, M.; Bartlett, D. V.; Baylor, L.; Bell, A. C.; Benali, G.; Bertoldi, P.; Bertolini, E.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bickley, A. J.; Binder, D.; Bindslev, H.; Bonicelli, T.; Booth, S. J.; Bosia, G.; Botman, M.; Boucher, D.; Boucquey, P.; Breger, P.; Brelen, H.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brooks, D.; Brown, A.; Brown, T.; Brusati, M.; Bryan, S.; Brzozowski, J.; Buchse, R.; Budd, T.; Bures, M.; Businaro, T.; Butcher, P.; Buttgereit, H.; Caldwellnichols, C.; Campbell, D. J.; Card, P.; Celentano, G.; Challis, C. D.; Chankin, A. V.; Cherubini, A.; Chiron, D.; Christiansen, J.; Chuilon, P.; Claesen, R.; Clement, S.; Clipsham, E.; Coad, J. P.; Coffey, I. H.; Colton, A.; Comiskey, M.; Conroy, S.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, D.; Cooper, S.; Cordey, J. G.; Core, W.; Corrigan, G.; Corti, S.; Costley, A. E.; Cottrell, G.; Cox, M.; Cripwell, P.; Dacosta, O.; Davies, J.; Davies, N.; de Blank, H.; De Esch, H.; Dekock, L.; Deksnis, E.; Delvart, F.; Dennehinnov, G. B.; Deschamps, G.; Dickson, W. J.; Dietz, K. J.; Dmitrenko, S. L.; Dmitrieva, M.; Dobbing, J.; Doglio, A.; Dolgetta, N.; Dorling, S. E.; Doyle, P. G.; Duchs, D. F.; Duquenoy, H.; Edwards, A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Elevant, T.; Erents, S.K.; Eriksson, L. G.; Fajemirokun, H.; Falter, H.; Freiling, J.; Freville, F.; Froger, C.; Froissard, P.; Fullard, K.; Gadeberg, M.; Galetsas, A.; Gallagher, T.; Gambier, D.; Garribba, M.; Gaze, P.; Giannella, R.; Gill, R. D.; Girard, A.; Gondhalekar, A.; Goodall, D.; Gormezano, C.; Gottardi, N. A.; Gowers, C.; Green, B. J.; Grievson, B.; Haange, R.; Haigh, A.; Hancock, C. J.; Harbour, P. J.; Hartrampf, T.; Hawkes, N. C.; Haynes, P.; Hemmerich, J. L.; Hender, T.; Hoekzema, J.; Holland, D.; Hone, M.; Horton, L.; How, J.; Huart, M.; Hughes, I.; Hughes, T. P.; Hugon, M.; Huo, Y.; Ida, K.; Ingram, B.; Irving, M.; Jacquinot, J.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaeger, J. F.; Janeschitz, G.; Jankovicz, Z.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, F.; Jones, E. M.; Jones, H. D.; Jones, Lpdf; Jones, S.; Jones, T. T. C.; Junger, J. F.; Junique, F.; Kaye, A.; Keen, B. E.; Keilhacker, M.; Kelly, G. J.; Kerner, W.; Khudoleev, A.; Konig, R.; Konstantellos, A.; Kovanen, M.; Kramer, G.; Kupschus, P.; Lasser, R.; Last, J. R.; Laundy, B.; Laurotaroni, L.; Laveyry, M.; Lawson, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lingertat, J.; Litunovski, R. N.; Loarte, A.; Lobel, R.; Lomas, P.; Loughlin, M.; Lowry, C.; Lupo, J.; Maas, A. C.; Machuzak, J.; Macklin, B.; Maddison, G.; Maggi, C. F.; Magyar, G.; Mandl, W.; Marchese, V.; Marcon, G.; Marcus, F.; Mart, J.; Martin, D.; Martin, E.; Martinsolis, R.; Massmann, P.; Matthews, G.; McBryan, H.; McCracken, G.; McKivitt, J.; Meriguet, P.; Miele, P.; Miller, A.; Mills, J.; Mills, S. F.; Millward, P.; Milverton, P.; Minardi, E.; Mohanti, R.; Mondino, P. L.; Montgomery, D.; Montvai, A.; Morgan, P.; Morsi, H.; Muir, D.; Murphy, G.; Myrnas, R.; Nave, F.; Newbert, G.; Newman, M.; Nielsen, P.; Noll, P.; Obert, W.; Obrien, D.; Orchard, J.; Orourke, J.; Ostrom, R.; Ottaviani, M.; Pain, M.; Paoletti, F.; Papastergiou, S.; Parsons, W.; Pasini, D.; Patel, D.; Peacock, A.; Peacock, N.; Pearce, R. J. M.; Pearson, D.; Peng, J. F.; Desilva, R. P.; Perinic, G.; Perry, C.; Petrov, M.; Pick, M. A.; Plancoulaine, J.; Poffe, J. P.; Pohlchen, R.; Porcelli, F.; Porte, L.; Prentice, R.; Puppin, S.; Putvinskii, S.; Radford, G.; Raimondi, T.; Deandrade, M. C. R.; Reichle, R.; Reid, J.; Richards, S.; Righi, E.; Rimini, F.; Robinson, D.; Rolfe, A.; Ross, R. T.; Rossi, L.; Russ, R.; Rutter, P.; Sack, H. C.; Sadler, G.; Saibene, G.; Salanave, J. L.; Sanazzaro, G.; Santagiustina, A.; Sartori, R.; Sborchia, C.; Schild, P.; Schmid, M.; Schmidt, G.; Schunke, B.; Scott, S. M.; Serio, L.; Sibley, A.; Simonini, R.; Sips, A.C.C.; Smeulders, P.; Smith, R.; Stagg, R.; Stamp, M.; Stangeby, P.; Stankiewicz, R.; Start, D. F.; Steed, C. A.; Stork, D.; Stott, P.E.; Stubberfield, P.; Summers, D.; Summers, H.; Svensson, L.; Tagle, J. A.; Talbot, M.; Tanga, A.; Taroni, A.; Terella, C.; Terrington, A.; Tesini, A.; Thomas, P. R.; Thompson, E.; Thomsen, K.; Tibone, F.; Tiscornia, A.; Trevalion, P.; Tubbing, B.; Vanbelle, P.; Vanderbeken, H.; Vlases, G.; von Hellermann, M.; Wade, T.; Walker, C.; Walton, R.; Ward, D.; Watkins, M. L.; Watkins, N.; Watson, M. J.; Weber, S.; Wesson, J.; Wijnands, T. J.; Wilks, J.; Wilson, D.; Winkel, T.; Wolf, R.; Wong, D.; Woodward, C.; Wu, Y.; Wykes, M.; Young, D.; Young, I. D.; Zannelli, L.; Zolfaghari, A.; Zwingmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments in the Joint European Torus (JET), culminating in the first tokamak discharges in deuterium-tritium fuelled mixtures. The experiments were undertaken within limits imposed by restrictions on vessel activation and tritium usage. The objectives were: (i) to

  19. Helium-3 Generation from the Interaction of Deuterium Plasma inside a Hydrogenated Lattice: Red Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Leal-Escalante, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Helium-3 has been created in a nuclear fusion reaction by fusing deuterium ions from deuterium plasma with hydrogen ions in a “RED” (the Spanish word for net) or crystal lattice, a method we called red fusion ("Fusion en la red cristalina"), because is a new method to make nuclear fusion reaction. In this paper, it will be show the experimental results where the helium-3 has been generated for the first time in this kind of new method to confine deuterium and hydrogen inside the RED or lattice of the hydrogenated crystal and that confinement inside the RED facilitated overcoming the Coulomb barrier between them and helium-3 and phonons are produced in this fusion reaction. The results of a long time research in which helium-3, has been created in a fusion reaction inside the lattice or RED of the crystal that contained hydrogen after adequate interaction of deuterium plasma at appropriate high temperature and magnetic confinement of the Mirror/Cusp Plasma Machine at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, designed by the authors. Several mass spectra and visible light spectrum where the presence of helium-3 was detected are shown. The experiment was repeated more than 200 times showing always the generation of helium-3. In this experiment no gamma rays were detected. For this experiment several diagnostic instruments were used. The data collection with these control instrumentation are shown. Thus, it is an important new way to generate Helium-3. reserved.

  20. Effect of surface oxidation on the surface condition and deuterium permeability of a palladium membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China); Liu Ying, E-mail: liuying5536@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Lian Lixian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Peng Lixia [National Key Laboratory for Surface Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang, 621907 (China); Li Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Oxidation and deoxidation of a Pd membrane was conducted in a quartz tube oven in a temperature range of 23-500 deg. C. The micromorphology and chemical composition of the Pd membrane surface was characterized using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Micropores and PdO began to form on the Pd membrane surface after oxidation at 240 deg. C for 1 h and their quantity increased gradually with increasing temperature. A rough Pd membrane surface was obtained when the temperature rose to 500 deg. C. The PdO on the Pd membrane surface was completely deoxidized once more using H{sub 2} at room temperature, but the rough surface morphology caused by oxidation remained. The deuterium permeability of the Pd membrane was tested using special equipment in the China National Key Laboratory and the results indicated that the rough Pd membrane surface had higher deuterium permeability than the original membrane. The improved deuterium permeability could be attributed to the higher Pd membrane surface area, which provided deuterium atoms with more adsorption sites and dissociation sites.

  1. Hydrogen-deuterium substitution in solid ethanol by surface reactions at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Osaka, Kazuya; Chigai, Takeshi; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules in star-forming regions. Despite its detection in the gas phase only, ethanol is believed to be formed by low-temperature grain-surface reactions. Methanol, the simplest alcohol, has been a target for observational, experimental, and theoretical studies in view of its deuterium enrichment in the interstellar medium; however, the deuterium chemistry of ethanol has not yet been an area of focus. Recently, deuterated dimethyl ether, a structural isomer of ethanol, was found in star-forming regions, indicating that deuterated ethanol can also be present in those environments. In this study, we performed laboratory experiments on the deuterium fractionation of solid ethanol at low temperatures through a reaction with deuterium (D) atoms at 10 K. Hydrogen (H)-D substitution, which increases the deuteration level, was found to occur on the ethyl group but not on the hydroxyl group. In addition, when deuterated ethanol (e.g. CD3CD2OD) solid was exposed to H atoms at 10 K, D-H substitution that reduced the deuteration level occurred on the ethyl group. Based on the results, it is likely that deuterated ethanol is present even under H-atom-dominant conditions in the interstellar medium.

  2. Thermal behavior of deuterium implanted into nuclear graphite studied by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, M.; Toulhoat, N.; Pipon, Y.; Moncoffre, N.; Bérerd, N.; Perrat-Mabilon, A.; Rapegno, R.

    2014-08-01

    This paper focuses on the thermal behavior of deuterium, simulating tritium, implanted into virgin nuclear graphite of French gas-cooled reactors, which are being decommissioned. Deuterium ions D+ were implanted into graphite (around 3 at.% at the projected range Rp) at two different depths (around 670 nm and 2.8 μm) and annealed up to about 300 h in a temperature range from 200 °C to 1200 °C under vacuum or argon flow. Before and after heat treatments, D distribution profiles in the samples were followed using the nuclear reaction D(3He,p)4He, with a millimetric beam at the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of IPNL (Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, France). The results show that the deuterium release becomes significant at temperatures higher than 600 °C and is almost totally completed at 1200 °C. The comparison of the results, obtained for both implantation depths, points out the role of the porosity with respect to deuterium permeation. The release follows two stages: a rapid step where it occurs within a few hours, followed by a much slower step during which the release of deuterium saturates. The initial stage is characterized by an activation energy of 1.3 eV and might correspond to detrapping of D located at crystallite edges and its diffusion at the crystallite surfaces. We assume that the second stage kinetics corresponds to a very slow diffusion of D located inside the crystallites and chemisorbed to carbon atoms through sp2 or sp3 bonds.

  3. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N.; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  4. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  5. Deuterium-depleted water has stimulating effects on long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladin, Cristian; Ciobica, Alin; Lefter, Radu; Popescu, Alexandru; Bild, Walther

    2014-11-07

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is a water which has a 6-7-fold less concentration of the naturally occurring deuterium (20-25ppm vs. 150ppm). While administrated for a longer period, it may reduce the concentration of deuterium throughout the body, thus activating cellular mechanisms which are depending on protons (channels, pumps, enzyme proteins). The aim of the present work was to study, for the first time in our knowledge, the possible influence of deuterium-depleted water (DDW) chronic administration in normal Wistar rats, as compared to a control group which received distilled water, on spatial working memory and the locomotor activity (as studied through Y-maze) or both short-term and long-term spatial memory (assed in radial 8 arms-maze task). Our results presented here showed no significant modifications in terms of spatial working memory (assessed through spontaneous alternation percentage) and locomotor activity (expressed through the number of arm entries) in Y-maze, as a result of DDW ingestion. Also, no significant differences between the DDW and control group were found in terms of the number of working memory errors in the eight-arm radial maze, as a parameter of short-term memory. Still, we observed a significant decrease for the number of reference memory errors in the DDW rats. In this way, we could speculate that the administration of DDW may generate an improvement of the reference memory, as an index of long-term memory. Thus, we can reach the conclusion that the change between the deuterium/hydrogen balance may have important consequences for the mechanisms that govern long-term memory, as showed here especially in the behavioral parameters from the eight-arm radial maze task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal behavior of deuterium implanted into nuclear graphite studied by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, M., E-mail: m.le-guillou@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, Parc de la Croix-Blanche, F-92298 Châtenay-Malabry cedex (France); Toulhoat, N., E-mail: nelly.toulhoat@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Pipon, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Institut Universitaire Technologique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); and others

    2014-08-01

    This paper focuses on the thermal behavior of deuterium, simulating tritium, implanted into virgin nuclear graphite of French gas-cooled reactors, which are being decommissioned. Deuterium ions D{sup +} were implanted into graphite (around 3 at.% at the projected range R{sub p}) at two different depths (around 670 nm and 2.8 μm) and annealed up to about 300 h in a temperature range from 200 °C to 1200 °C under vacuum or argon flow. Before and after heat treatments, D distribution profiles in the samples were followed using the nuclear reaction D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He, with a millimetric beam at the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of IPNL (Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, France). The results show that the deuterium release becomes significant at temperatures higher than 600 °C and is almost totally completed at 1200 °C. The comparison of the results, obtained for both implantation depths, points out the role of the porosity with respect to deuterium permeation. The release follows two stages: a rapid step where it occurs within a few hours, followed by a much slower step during which the release of deuterium saturates. The initial stage is characterized by an activation energy of 1.3 eV and might correspond to detrapping of D located at crystallite edges and its diffusion at the crystallite surfaces. We assume that the second stage kinetics corresponds to a very slow diffusion of D located inside the crystallites and chemisorbed to carbon atoms through sp{sup 2} or sp{sup 3} bonds.

  7. Measuring the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins at high spatial resolution by mass spectrometry: overcoming gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-10-21

    Proteins are dynamic molecules that exhibit conformational flexibility to function properly. Well-known examples of this are allosteric regulation of protein activity and ligand-induced conformational changes in protein receptors. Detailed knowledge of the conformational properties of proteins is therefore pertinent to both basic and applied research, including drug development, since the majority of drugs target protein receptors and a growing number of drugs introduced to the market are therapeutic peptides or proteins. X-ray crystallography provides a static picture at atomic resolution of the lowest-energy structure of the native ensemble. There is a growing need for sensitive analytical tools to explore all of the significant molecular structures in the conformational landscape of proteins. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently emerged as a powerful method for characterizing protein conformational dynamics. The basis of this method is the fact that backbone amides in stable hydrogen-bonded structures (e.g., α-helices and β-sheets) are protected against exchange with the aqueous solvent. All protein structures are dynamic, however, and eventually all of the protecting hydrogen bonds will transiently break as the protein--according to thermodynamic principles--cycles through partially unfolded states that correspond to excited free energy levels. As a result, all of the backbone amides will eventually become temporarily solvent-exposed and exchange-competent over time. Consequently, a folded protein in D2O will gradually incorporate deuterium into its backbone amides, and the kinetics of the process can be readily monitored by mass spectrometry. The deuterium uptake kinetics for the intact protein (global exchange kinetics) represents the sum of the exchange kinetics for the individual backbone amides. Local exchange kinetics is typically achieved by using pepsin digestion under quench conditions (i.e., under cold

  8. Utilization of deuterium for the study of ingested water absorption during muscular exercise; Utilisation du deuterium pour l`etude de l`absorption de l`eau ingeree pendant l`exercice musculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, B.; Jimenez, C.; Savourey, G.; Bittel, J.; Bernard, O.; Charpenet, A.; Regnard, A.; Pouzeratte, N. [CRSSA, 38 - La Tronche (France); Monnerot, P. [Societe Anonyme des Eaux Minerales d`Evian, 74 - Evian (France); Antoine, J.M. [Boussois-Souchon-Neuvesel (BSN), 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    A long physical exercise-heat exposure is accompanied with massive hydro-saline losses, due to sudation, inducing a lowering of the physical performance. A stable isotope tracer technique, with deuterium in the form of deuterium oxide, is used to study the effect of ingested water quality (pure water, water and sodic and/or energetic additives) on the speed at which ingested water passes in the vascular sector during such an exercise in preliminarily dehydrated human beings. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  9. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  10. Measurement of the strong interaction induced shift and width of the 1s state of kaonic deuterium at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Zmeskal, J; Ajimura, S; Bazzi, M; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bhang, H; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, M; Buehler, P; Busso, L; Cargnelli, M; Choi, S; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; D'uffizi, A; Enomoto, S; Fabbietti, L; Faso, D; Fiorini, C; Fujioka, H; Ghio, F; Golser, R; Guaraldo, C; Hashimoto, T; Hayano, R S; Hiraiwa, T; Iio, M; Iliescu, M; Inoue, K; Ishimoto, S; Ishiwatari, T; Itahashi, K; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Kawasaki, S; Lachner, J; Sandri, P Levi; Ma, Y; Marton, J; Matsuda, Y; Mizoi, Y; Morra, O; Moskal, P; Nagae, T; Noumi, H; Ohnishi, H; Okada, S; Outa, H; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Lener, M Poli; Vidal, A Romero; Sada, Y; Sakaguchi, A; Sakuma, F; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sekimoto, M; Shi, H; Silarski, M; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, T; Tanida, K; Tatsuno, H; Tokuda, M; Toyoda, A; Tucakovic, I; Tsukada, K; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Yamaga, T; Yamazaki, T; Zhang, Q

    2015-01-01

    The antikaon-nucleon interaction close to threshold provides crucial information on the interplay between spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking in low-energy QCD. In this context the importance of kaonic deuterium X-ray spectroscopy has been well recognized, but no experimental results have yet been obtained due to the difficulty of the measurement. We propose to measure the shift and width of the kaonic deuterium 1s state with an accuracy of 60 eV and 140 eV respectively at J-PARC. These results together with the kaonic hydrogen data (KpX at KEK, DEAR and SIDDHARTA at DAFNE) will then permit the determination of values of both the isospin I=0 and I=1 antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths and will provide the most stringent constraints on the antikaon-nucleon interaction, promising a breakthrough. Refined Monte Carlo studies were performed, including the investigation of background suppression factors for the described setup. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of determining the shift a...

  11. Determination of Histidine pKa Values in the Propeptides of Furin and Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Using Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; David, Larry L; Shinde, Ujwal

    2015-08-04

    Propeptides of proprotein convertases regulate activation of their protease domains by sensing the organellar pH within the secretory pathway. Earlier experimental work highlighted the importance of a conserved histidine residue within the propeptide of a widely studied member, furin. A subsequent evolutionary analysis found an increase in histidine content within propeptides of secreted eukaryotic proteases compared with their prokaryotic orthologs. However, furin activates in the trans-golgi network at a pH of 6.5 while a paralog, proprotein convertase 1/3, activates in secretory vesicles at a pH of 5.5. It is unclear how a conserved histidine can mediate activation at two different pH values. In this manuscript, we measured the pKa values of histidines within the propeptides of furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 using a histidine hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry approach. The high density of histidine residues combined with an abundance of basic residues provided challenges for generation of peptide ions with unique histidine residues, which were overcome by employing ETD fragmentation. During this analysis, we found slow hydrogen-deuterium exchange in residues other than histidine at basic pH. Finally, we demonstrate that the pKa of the conserved histidine in proprotein convertase 1/3 is acid-shifted compared with furin and is consistent with its lower pH of activation.

  12. Investigation of the role of the micro-porous layer in polymer electrolyte fuel cells with hydrogen deuterium contrast neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu Taek; Mench, Matthew M

    2012-03-28

    In this study, the high resolution hydrogen-deuterium contrast radiography method was applied to elucidate the impact of the micro-porous layer (MPL) on water distribution in the porous fuel cell media. At the steady state, deuterium replaced hydrogen in the anode stream, and the large difference in neutron attenuation of the D(2)O produced at the cathode was used to track the produced water. It was found that the water content peaked in the cathode-side diffusion media (DM) for the cell without MPL, but with an MPL on the anode and cathode DM, the peak water amount was pushed toward the anode, resulting in a relatively flattened water profile through components and demonstrating a liquid barrier effect. Additionally, the dynamic water behavior in diffusion media was analyzed to understand the effect of a MPL and operating conditions. The water content in the DM changed with applied current, although there is a significant amount of residual liquid content that does not appear to be part of capillary channels. The effect of the MPL on irreducible saturation in DM and cell performance was also investigated.

  13. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, S; Landolt, J P; Weiss, D S; Money, K E

    1984-03-01

    /he spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent (14)--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique (19). Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. In cats with intact labyrinths, D2O changed the optimal length of the light bar that was able to stimulate the cortical cell as well as the path on which it evoked the response of the cell. Both values, which constitute the receptive field of the cell, changed approximately proportionately. This effect usually lasts for less than 4.5 h. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells (and the other cellular characteristics studied) did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease

  14. Ignition curves for deuterium/helium-3 fuel in spherical tokamak reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motevalli S M; Fadaei F

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, ignition curve for deuterium/helium-3 fusion reaction is studied. Four fusion reactions are considered. Zero-dimensional model for the power balance equation has been used. The closed ignition curves for $\\rho$ = constant (ratio of particle to energy confinement time) have been derived. The results of our calculations show that ignited equilibria for deuterium/helium-3 fuel in a spherical tokamak is only possible for $\\rho$ = 5.5 and 6. Then, by using the energy confinement scaling and parameters of the spherical tokamak reactor, the plasma stability limits have been obtained in $n_e, T$ plane and, to determine the thermal instability of plasma, the time dependent transport equations have been solved.

  15. Comparison between x-ray scattering and velocity-interferometry measurements from shocked liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K.; Regan, S. P.; Vorberger, J.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hu, S. X.; Murphy, C. D.; Radha, P. B.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Wark, J. S.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.

    2013-04-01

    The equation of state of light elements is essential to understand the structure of Jovian planets and inertial confinement fusion research. The Omega laser was used to drive a planar shock wave in the cryogenically cooled deuterium, creating warm dense matter conditions. X-ray scattering was used to determine the spectrum near the boundary of the collective and noncollective scattering regimes using a narrow band x-ray source in backscattering geometry. Our scattering spectra are thus sensitive to the individual electron motion as well as the collective plasma behavior and provide a measurement of the electron density, temperature, and ionization state. Our data are consistent with velocity-interferometry measurements previously taken on the same shocked deuterium conditions and presented by K. Falk [High Energy Density Phys.10.1016/j.hedp.2011.11.006 8, 76 (2012)]. This work presents a comparison of the two diagnostic systems and offers a detailed discussion of challenges encountered.

  16. Analysis of deuterium in V-Fe5at.% film by atom probe tomography (APT)

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2011-09-01

    V-Fe5at.% 2 and 10-nm thick single layered films were prepared by ion beam sputtering on W substrate. They were loaded with D from gas phase at 0.2 Pa and at 1 Pa, respectively. Both lateral and depth D distribution of these films was investigated in detail by atom probe tomography. The results of analysis are in good agreement between the average deuterium concentration and the value, expected from electromotive force measurement on a similar flat film. An enrichment of deuterium at the V/W interface was observed for both films. The origin of this D-accumulation was discussed in respect to electron transfer, mechanical stress and misfit dislocations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion-Induced Emission of Charged Particles from Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, P.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the emission of both positive and negative particles from solid hydrogen and deuterium for normal incidence of H+, H2+, H+3, D2H+, D3+ and He+ ions up to 10 keV. For positive particles the emission coefficient increased with increasing energy of incidence to reach...... a value of 0.08 per atom for 10 keV H+ onto hydrogen. Apparently the positive particles are sputtered ones. The negative particles emitted are predominantly electrons. The emission coefficient per incident atom as a function of the velocity of the incident particle agrees fairly well with results...... published earlier for incidence of hydrogen and deuterium ions. However, systematic differences of up to 10% are now observed between the coefficients for the different types of ions....

  18. Comparison between x-ray scattering and velocity-interferometry measurements from shocked liquid deuterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K; Regan, S P; Vorberger, J; Crowley, B J B; Glenzer, S H; Hu, S X; Murphy, C D; Radha, P B; Jephcoat, A P; Wark, J S; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G

    2013-04-01

    The equation of state of light elements is essential to understand the structure of Jovian planets and inertial confinement fusion research. The Omega laser was used to drive a planar shock wave in the cryogenically cooled deuterium, creating warm dense matter conditions. X-ray scattering was used to determine the spectrum near the boundary of the collective and noncollective scattering regimes using a narrow band x-ray source in backscattering geometry. Our scattering spectra are thus sensitive to the individual electron motion as well as the collective plasma behavior and provide a measurement of the electron density, temperature, and ionization state. Our data are consistent with velocity-interferometry measurements previously taken on the same shocked deuterium conditions and presented by K. Falk et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 8, 76 (2012)]. This work presents a comparison of the two diagnostic systems and offers a detailed discussion of challenges encountered.

  19. Performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    CERN Document Server

    Karch, J; Beck, M; Eberhardt, K; Hampel, G; Heil, W; Kieser, R; Reich, T; Trautmann, N; Ziegner, M

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz with a maximum peak energy of 10 MJ is described. The solid deuterium converter with a volume of V=160 cm3 (8 mol), which is exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of 4.5x10^13 n/cm2, delivers up to 550 000 UCN per pulse outside of the biological shield at the experimental area. UCN densities of ~ 10/cm3 are obtained in stainless steel bottles of V ~ 10 L resulting in a storage efficiency of ~20%. The measured UCN yields compare well with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source and to optimize its performance for the upcoming upgrade of the TRIGA Mainz into a user facility for UCN physics.

  20. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated......Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQ’s) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found...... with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized....

  1. Optimum laser intensity for the production of energetic deuterium ions from laser-cluster interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, W.; Dyer, G.; Quevedo, H. J.; Bernstein, A. C.; Gaul, E.; Rougk, J.; Aymond, F.; Donovan, M. E.; Ditmire, T. [Department of Physics, Center for High Energy Density Science, C1510, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We measured, using Petawatt-level pulses, the average ion energy and neutron yield in high-intensity laser interactions with molecular clusters as a function of laser intensity. The interaction volume over which fusion occurred (1–10 mm{sup 3}) was larger than previous investigations, owing to the high laser power. Possible effects of prepulses were examined by implementing a pair of plasma mirrors. Our results show an optimum laser intensity for the production of energetic deuterium ions both with and without the use of the plasma mirrors. We measured deuterium plasmas with 14 keV average ion energies, which produced 7.2 × 10{sup 6} and 1.6 × 10{sup 7} neutrons in a single shot with and without plasma mirrors, respectively. The measured neutron yields qualitatively matched the expected yields calculated using a cylindrical plasma model.

  2. Optimum laser intensity for the production of energetic deuterium ions from laser-cluster interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bang, W; Quevedo, H J; Bernstein, A C; Gaul, E; Rougk, J; Aymond, F; Donovan, M; Ditmire, T

    2013-01-01

    We measured, using Petawatt-level pulses, the average ion energy and neutron yield in high-intensity laser interactions with molecular clusters as a function of laser intensity. The interaction volume over which fusion occurred (1-10 mm^3) was larger than previous investigations, owing to the high laser power. Possible effects of prepulses were examined by implementing a pair of plasma mirrors. Our results show an optimum laser intensity for the production of energetic deuterium ions both with and without the use of the plasma mirrors. We measured deuterium plasmas with 14 keV average ion energies, which produced 7.2x10^6 and 1.6x10^7 neutrons in a single shot with and without plasma mirrors, respectively. The measured neutron yields qualitatively matched the expected yields calculated using a cylindrical plasma model.

  3. Characterization of deuterium beam operation on RHEPP-1 for future neutron generation applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, Michael (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cooper, Gary Wayne (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Renk, Timothy Jerome

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the potential for neutron generation using the 1 MeV RHEPP-1 intense pulsed ion beam facility at Sandia National Laboratories for a number of emerging applications. Among these are interrogation of cargo for detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). Ions from single-stage sources driven by pulsed power represent a potential source of significant neutron bursts. While a number of applications require higher ion energies (e.g. tens of MeV) than that provided by RHEPP-1, its ability to generate deuterium beams allow for neutron generation at and below 1 MeV. This report details the successful generation and characterization of deuterium ion beams, and their use in generating up to 3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons into 4{pi} per 5kA ion pulse.

  4. Dust particle formation due to interaction between graphite and helicon deuterium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, Shinya, E-mail: shinya.iwashita@rub.de [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nishiyama, Katsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shiratani, Masaharu, E-mail: siratani@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The collection of dust particles using divertor simulation helicon plasmas has been carried out to examine dust formation due to the interaction between a graphite target and deuterium plasmas, which are planned to operate in the large helical device (LHD) at the Japanese National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). The collected dust particles are classified into three types: (i) small spherical particles below 400 nm in size, (ii) agglomerates whose primary particles have a size of about 10 nm, and (iii) large flakes above 1 {mu}m in size. These features are quite similar to those obtained through hydrogen plasma operation, indicating that the dust formation mechanisms due to the interaction between a carbon wall and a plasma of deuterium, which is the isotope of hydrogen, is probably similar to those of hydrogen.

  5. The metabolism of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride. Liberation of deuterium from the piperidine ring during hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, S; Iwamura, S; Kobayashi, R; Kawabe, Y; Shibata, K

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (RA), a new histamine-2 receptor antagonist, was studied by GC/MS in rats and dogs in vivo. The co-administration of 14C-RA and RA-d10 labeled with deuterium in the piperidine ring expedited the isolation and identification of 15 urinary metabolites. The major metabolites in both animals were M-1, M-8, M-10, and M-11; M-4 could be found only in the rat. The aromatic and piperidine ring-hydroxylated metabolites were found in small amounts in both species. Following the administration of RA-d10 to rats and dogs, oxygenated metabolites on the piperidine ring, such as M-3 and M-4, were isolated and their analysis indicated the unexpected loss of three or four deuterium atoms from the ring. Also, first and second isotope effects were observed on the conversion rate in vivo and retention time in HPLC, respectively.

  6. Metabolism of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride. Liberation of deuterium from the piperidine ring during hydroxylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, S.; Iwamura, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Kawabe, Y.; Shibata, K.

    1987-07-01

    The metabolism of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (RA), a new histamine-2 receptor antagonist, was studied by GC/MS in rats and dogs in vivo. The co-administration of /sup 14/C-RA and RA-d10 labeled with deuterium in the piperidine ring expedited the isolation and identification of 15 urinary metabolites. The major metabolites in both animals were M-1, M-8, M-10, and M-11; M-4 could be found only in the rat. The aromatic and piperidine ring-hydroxylated metabolites were found in small amounts in both species. Following the administration of RA-d10 to rats and dogs, oxygenated metabolites on the piperidine ring, such as M-3 and M-4, were isolated and their analysis indicated the unexpected loss of three or four deuterium atoms from the ring. Also, first and second isotope effects were observed on the conversion rate in vivo and retention time in HPLC, respectively.

  7. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange on plasma-exposed W and SS surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ikuji, E-mail: takagi@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Shinji; Minamimoto, Toshihiro; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Sasaki, Takayuki

    2015-08-15

    The desorption cross section for hydrogen isotopes adsorbed on stainless steel (SS) and tungsten (W) has been evaluated experimentally to provide basic information on tritium exchange. One side of a sample sheet was alternately exposed to H and D plasma, and deuterium density on the surface was repeatedly observed using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) under continuous plasma exposure. From the time dependent change in the deuterium density, the desorption cross sections for SS and W were estimated to be 6.9 ± 2.3 × 10{sup −23} m{sup 2} and 4.6 ± 1.0 × 10{sup −23} m{sup 2}, respectively. No significant differences in the cross section between H and D plasma were observed. Recombinative desorption was found to dominate the desorption process owing to the low incident energy of hydrogen atoms.

  8. Modeling deuterium fractionation in cold and warm molecular environments with large chemical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Albertsson, T; Henning, Th

    2013-01-01

    Observations of deuterated species have long proven essential to probe properties and thermal history of various astrophysical environments. We present an elaborated chemical model that includes tens of thousands of reactions with multi-deuterated species, both gas-phase and surface, in which the most recent information on deuterium chemistry is implemented. A detailed study of the chemical evolution under wide range of temperatures and densities typical of cold molecular cores, warm protostellar envelopes, and hot cores/corinos is performed. We consider two cases of initial abundances, with 1) mainly atomic composition and all deuterium locked in HD, and 2) molecular abundances accumulated at 1 Myr of the evolution of a cold prestellar core. We indicate deuterated species that are particularly sensitive to temperature gradients and initial chemical composition. Many multiply-deuterated species produced at 10 K by exothermic ion-molecule chemistry retain large abundances even when temperature rises above 100 ...

  9. Initial research of np scattering with polarized deuterium target at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73000 Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of understanding the nuclear forces, the ANKE collaboration has been working on a systematic NN spin program for many years. Due to the lack of free neutron sources experimental data of np scattering are very rare, especially at higher energies. It has been shown that using phase shift analysis (PSA) it is possible to reconstruct np scattering amplitudes from the spin observables of pd → {pp}{sub {sup 1}S{sub 0}}n charge-exchange reaction. So far experiments were conducted using polarized deuteron beams and hydrogen target, which led to valuable results. To extend the research up to the highest nucleon energy available at COSY (2.8 GeV), proton beam and polarized deuterium target will be used. This talk presents the results of the commissioning experiment of a deuterium target at ANKE with emphasis on the initial research of charge-exchange reaction.

  10. Deuterium Fractionation: the Ariadne's Thread from the Pre-collapse Phase to Meteorites and Comets today

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Mousis, Olivier; Pizzarello, Sandra; Robert, Francois; Semenov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The Solar System formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a condensation of matter inside a molecular cloud. Trying to reconstruct what happened is the goal of this chapter. For that, we put together our understanding of Galactic objects that will eventually form new suns and planetary systems, with our knowledge on comets, meteorites and small bodies of the Solar System today. Our specific tool is the molecular deuteration, namely the amount of deuterium with respect to hydrogen in molecules. This is the Ariadne's thread that helps us to find the way out from a labyrinth of possible histories of our Solar System. The chapter reviews the observations and theories of the deuterium fractionation in pre-stellar cores, protostars, protoplanetary disks, comets, interplanetary dust particles and meteorites and links them together trying to build up a coherent picture of the history of the Solar System formation. We emphasise the interdisciplinary nature of the chapter, which gathers together researchers from differe...

  11. Attempting to monitor the incorporation of deuterium into indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in Zea mays grown on deuterium oxide labeled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P.J.; Bandurski, R.S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    We are attempting to determine when seedlings of Zea mays sweet corn, var. Silver Queen begin de novo biosynthesis of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We wish to use the general precursor, deuterium labeled water, to minimize assumptions as to the biosynthetic route. Protium in positions 2, 4, 5, 6 7 of the indole ring are non-exchangeable. IAA and tryptophan synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway would contain deuterium in one or more of these positions . The protium on the indene nitrogen, the carboxyl, the amino group, or the protium alpha to the carboxyl exchange readily and so are removed prior to analysis by base catalyzed exchange. The IAA, or trypotophan, is then purified by DEAE, Dowex 50, and two HPLC steps. IAA is methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Trytophan is acetylated with triethylamine-acetic anhydride and then methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Results of these studies on plants grown for varying lengths of time and under various light and nutrient conditions will be reported.

  12. Isotope effects in dense solid hydrogen - Phase transition in deuterium at 190 + or - 20 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Raman measurements of solid normal deuterium compressed in a diamond-anvil cell indicate that the material undergoes a structural phase transformation at 190 + or - 20 GPa and 77 K. Spectroscopically, the transition appears analogous to that observed in hydrogen at 145 + or - 5 GPa. The large isotope effect on the transition pressure suggests there is a significant vibrational contribution to the relative stability of the solid phases of hydrogen at very high densities.

  13. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenna, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: elisabetta.brenna@polimi.it; Fronza, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Instituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.fronza@polimi.it; Fuganti, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)

    2007-10-10

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting.

  14. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  15. Deuterium Isotope Effects During HMX Combustion: Chemical Kinetic Burn Rate Control Mechanism Verified

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    propellant contain- controls the I-IMX burn rate in the pressure range cited. The ing a chemically modified double base ( CMDB ) high oxygen 1.41 KDIE...controlling the observed overall or global burn rate of the could expect from the deuterium labeled HMX methylene HMX/ CMDB composite propellant. It is...measured in the HMX/ CMDB system. A graphic representa- densed phase KDIE investigation of thermochemical decom- non of one cornposic HMX binder

  16. Kinetic and solvent deuterium isotope effects in the oxidation of putrescine catalysed by enzyme diamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałka, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Jolanta; Kańska, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the kinetic isotope effects and solvent isotope effects in the reaction of the deamination of [(1R)-(2)H ] putrescine--catalysed by enzyme diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6)--were determined using a non-competitive spectroscopic method. Putrescine, stereospecifically labelled with deuterium, was obtained by enzymatic decarboxylation of l-ornithine that was carried out in a fully deuteriated incubation medium.

  17. Vacuum polarization and quadrupole corrections to the hyperfine splitting of P-states in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Martynenko, A P

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of quasipotential approach in quantum electrodynamics we calculate vacuum polarization and quadrupole corrections in first and second orders of perturbation theory in hyperfine structure of P-states in muonic deuterium. All corrections are presented in integral form and evaluated analytically and numerically. The obtained results can be used for the improvement of the transition frequencies between levels 2P and 2S.

  18. Ejection of molecules from solid deuterium excited by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrys, R.; Warczak, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The energy distribution of sputtered D-2 from electron-bombarded solid deuterium has been studied for the first time. The spectra from this quantum solid show features that may originate from an energy release sequence of association of atoms. For ejection energies above 1 meV the gross features...... of the spectrum are similar to those from electronic sputtering of ether much less volatile condensed gases. Sputtered D-4 molecules have been observed for the first time as well....

  19. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS AND CHALLENGES IN HYDROGEN/DEUTERIUM EXCHANGE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange (HDX) has been applied, since the 1930s, as an analytical tool to study the structure and dynamics of (small) biomolecules. The popularity of using HDX to study proteins increased drastically in the last two decades due to the successful combination with mass spectrometry (MS). Together with this growth in popularity, several technological advances have been made, such as improved quenching and fragmentation. As a consequence of these experimental improvemen...

  20. Deuterium-induced nanostructure formation on tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; De Temmerman, G.; Luo, G. N.; Jia, Y. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Surface topography of polycrystalline tungsten (W) have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high-flux (∼1.1–1.5 × 1024 m−2 s−1) deuterium plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device. The methods used were scanning electron microscopy

  1. Acid-catalysed deuterium exchange of aromatic protons. Pt. 3; Accelerated exchange by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeves, G.J. (Centre of Forensic Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    Conventional acid-catalysed [sup 2]H/[sup 1]H exchange in aromatic rings requires long reaction times, high temperatures and pressure. This paper reports that accelerated deuterium exchange can be achieved in a microwave oven. Experiments were carried out on benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. The reaction time was decreased from days to minutes, the preparatory work was simpler than with conventional heating and the labelled products were cleaner. (author).

  2. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  3. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Song-Sheng; HE Ming; WU Shao-Yong; QI Bu-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4x10-1, much greater than the values (<10~4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.%Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4×10-1,much greater than the values (≤10-4) in natural objects.Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out,but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed.In addition,anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed.To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples,it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  4. Deuterium-free water ( 1H2O) in complex life-support systems of long-term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyak, Y.; Grigoriev, A.; Gaydadimov, V.; Gurieva, T.; Levinskih, M.; Pokrovskii, B.

    Heavy water containing deuterium displays toxic property. It is stated that any quantity of a heavy isotope of hydrogen—deuterium—is undesirable to animals and plants. It was earlier shown by us that physical-chemical life support systems on board the "MIR" station fractionate (change) isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. Therefore, the problem of regenerative systems in habitable space objects should include removal, from water, of a heavy stable isotope of hydrogen—deuterium. In this article we consider one method of obtaining deuterium-free water—decomposition of distillate water in an electrolyser to hydrogen and oxygen with subsequent synthesis in a catalytic or high-temperature reactor. The influence of deuterium-free water on the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana and Japanese quail is investigated. It is shown that with the help of the electrolysis method it is possible to fabricate water containing 80% less deuterium in comparison with SMOW. Experimentally, it is proved on a culture of Arabidopsis thaliana and Japanese quail that water with reduced contents of deuterium (80%) displays positive biological activity.

  5. Photochemical enrichment of deuterium in Titan's atmosphere: new insights from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, D; Lunine, I J; Moudens, A; Vuitton, V

    2008-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens data are used to re-examine the potential sources of the D/H enhancement over solar, measured in methane, in Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that the system is closed with respect to carbon, the use of constraints from the Huygens probe for the determination of the current mass of atmospheric methane and the most up-to-date determination of D/H from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra allow us to show that photochemical enrichment of deuterium is not sufficient to be the sole mechanism yielding the measured D/H value. A possible fractionation between CH3D and CH4 during the escape process may slightly enhance the deuterium enrichment, but is not sufficient to explain the observed D/H value over the range of escape values proposed in the literature. Hence, alternative mechanisms such as a primordial deuterium enrichment must be combined with the photochemical enrichment in Titan's atmosphere in order to explain its current D/H value.

  6. Laser driven single shock compression of fluid deuterium from 45 to 220 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Eggert, J; Moon, S; Meyerhofer, D; Collins, G

    2008-03-23

    The compression {eta} of liquid deuterium between 45 and 220 GPa under laser-driven shock loading has been measured using impedance matching to an aluminum (Al) standard. An Al impedance match model derived from a best fit to absolute Hugoniot data has been used to quantify and minimize the systematic errors caused by uncertainties in the high-pressure Al equation of state. In deuterium below 100 GPa results show that {eta} {approx_equal} 4.2, in agreement with previous impedance match data from magnetically-driven flyer and convergent-explosive shock wave experiments; between 100 and 220 GPa {eta} reaches a maximum of {approx}5.0, less than the 6-fold compression observed on the earliest laser-shock experiments but greater than expected from simple extrapolations of lower pressure data. Previous laser-driven double-shock results are found to be in good agreement with these single-shock measurements over the entire range under study. Both sets of laser-shock data indicate that deuterium undergoes an abrupt increase in compression at around 110 GPa.

  7. Neutron yield when fast deuterium ions collide with strongly charged tritium-saturated dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishev, Yu. S., E-mail: akishev@triniti.ru; Karal’nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Starostin, A. N.; Trushkin, N. I.; Filippov, A. V. [State Research Center of Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The ultrahigh charging of dust particles in a plasma under exposure to an electron beam with an energy up to 25 keV and the formation of a flux of fast ions coming from the plasma and accelerating in the strong field of negatively charged particles are considered. Particles containing tritium or deuterium atoms are considered as targets. The calculated rates of thermonuclear fusion reactions in strongly charged particles under exposure to accelerated plasma ions are presented. The neutron generation rate in reactions with accelerated deuterium and tritium ions has been calculated for these targets. The neutron yield has been calculated when varying the plasma-forming gas pressure, the plasma density, the target diameter, and the beam electron current density. Deuterium and tritium-containing particles are shown to be the most promising plasmaforming gas–target material pair for the creation of a compact gas-discharge neutron source based on the ultrahigh charging of dust particles by beam electrons with an energy up to 25 keV.

  8. The primordial deuterium abundance of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Nollett, Kenneth M; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 +/- 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 +/- 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D I absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 10^5 (D/H)_P = 2.547 +/- 0.033 (log_10 (D/H)_P = -4.5940 +/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BB...

  9. On the Deuterium-to-Hydrogen Ratio of the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, David H

    2016-01-01

    Observations show that the global deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in the local interstellar medium (ISM) is about 90% of the primordial ratio predicted by big bang nucleosynthesis. The high (D/H)$_{ISM}$ implies that only a small fraction of interstellar gas has been processed through stars, which destroy any deuterium they are born with. Using analytic arguments for one-zone chemical evolution models that include accretion and outflow, I show that the deuterium abundance is tightly coupled to the abundance of core collapse supernova (CCSN) elements such as oxygen. These models predict that the ratio of (D/H)$_{ISM}$ to the primordial abundance is $\\approx 1/(1+r Z_O/m_O)$, where r is the recycling fraction, $Z_O$ is the ISM oxygen mass fraction, and $m_O$ is the population averaged CCSN yield of oxygen. Using values $r=0.4$ and $m_O=0.015$ appropriate to a Kroupa (2001) initial mass function and recent CCSN yield calculations, solar oxygen abundance corresponds to an ISM (D/H) that is 87\\% of the primordia...

  10. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physical Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero. (orig.)

  11. The Deuterium to Hydrogen Abundance Ratio Towards the QSO SDSS1558-0031

    CERN Document Server

    O'Meara, J M; Prochaska, J X; Prochter, G E; Bernstein, R A; Burgess, K M; Meara, John M. O'; Burles, Scott; Prochaska, Jason X.; Prochter, Gabe E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Burgess, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a measurement of the D/H abundance ratio in a metal-poor damped Lyman alpha (DLA) system along the sightline of QSO SDSS1558-0031. The DLA system is at redshift z = 2.70262, has a neutral column density of log(NHI)=20.67+/-0.05 cm^2, and a gas-phase metallicity [O/H]= -1.49 which indicates that deuterium astration is negligible. Deuterium absorption is observed in multiple Lyman series with a column density of log(NDI)=16.19+/-0.04 cm^2, best constrained by the deuterium Lyman-11 line. We measure log(D/H) = -4.48+/-0.06, which when combined with previous measurements along QSO sightlines gives a best estimate of log(D/H) = -4.55+/-0.04, where the 1-sigma error estimate comes from a jackknife analysis of the weighted means. Using the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, this value of D/H translates into a baryon density of Omega_b h^2 = 0.0213 +/- 0.0013 +/- 0.0004 where the error terms represent the 1-sigma errors from D/H and the uncertainties in the nuclear reaction rates respectively....

  12. Deuterium fractionation and H2D+ evolution in turbulent and magnetized cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körtgen, Bastian; Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Giannetti, Andrea; Banerjee, Robi

    2017-08-01

    High-mass stars are expected to form from dense prestellar cores. Their precise formation conditions are widely discussed, including their virial condition, which results in slow collapse for supervirial cores with strong support by turbulence or magnetic fields, or fast collapse for subvirial sources. To disentangle their formation processes, measurements of the deuterium fractions are frequently employed to approximately estimate the ages of these cores and to obtain constraints on their dynamical evolution. We here present 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations including for the first time an accurate non-equilibrium chemical network with 21 gas-phase species plus dust grains and 213 reactions. With this network we model the deuteration process in fully depleted prestellar cores in great detail and determine its response to variations in the initial conditions. We explore the dependence on the initial gas column density, the turbulent Mach number, the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio and the distribution of the magnetic field, as well as the initial ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2. We find qualitatively good agreement with recent observations of deuterium fractions in quiescent sources. Our results show that deuteration is rather efficient, even when assuming a conservative OPR of 3 and highly subvirial initial conditions, leading to large deuterium fractions already within roughly a free-fall time. We discuss the implications of our results and give an outlook to relevant future investigations.

  13. Erosion and deuterium retention in ion-irradiated tungsten under plasma exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, B., E-mail: Khripunov_BI@nrcki.ru [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Gureev, V.; Koidan, V.; Kornienko, S.; Latushkin, S.; Petrov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Semenov, E.; Stolyarova, V.; Danelyan, L. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.; Zatekin, V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Unezhev, V. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Effect of radiation damage on tungsten response to plasma exposure is examined. Samples of tungsten W 99.95 wt% were irradiated with fast {sup 12}C{sup 3+} ions at 10 MeV to fluence of (1–2) × 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} to produce damage in the range 1–40 dpa relevant to the level of interest for fusion research. Exposure of the irradiated tungsten to deuterium plasma on linear simulator in erosion condition provided D-ion total fluence (1–3) × 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at ion energy 250 eV. Swelling effect has been observed, and important changes in the structure of the irradiated material have been found (SEM). Erosion of the damaged layer was evaluated at Y{sub d-w} ≅ (3–5) ⋅ 10{sup −3} at/ion. The retained deuterium profiles have been taken by ERDA, maximal deuterium concentration reached 6–8 at.% in the layer ∼30 nm deep corresponding to 2–3 dpa. Comparison of D-retention was made for C- and He-irradiated tungsten for this level of damage.

  14. Crystallization and deuterium permeation behaviors of yttrium oxide coating prepared by metal organic decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Chikada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide coatings were fabricated on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by metal organic decomposition with a dip-coating technique, and their deuterium permeation behaviors were investigated. The microstructure of the coatings varied with heat-treatment temperature: amorphous at 670ºC (amorphous coating and crystallized at 700ºC (crystallized coating. Deuterium permeation flux of the amorphous coating was lower than the uncoated steel by a factor of 5 at 500ºC, while that of the crystallized coating was lower by a factor of around 100 at 400‒550ºC. The permeation fluxes of both coatings were drastically decreased during the measurements at higher temperatures by a factor of up to 790 for the amorphous coating and 1000 for the crystallized one, indicating a microstructure modification occurred by an effect of test temperature with hydrogen flux. Temperature dependence of deuterium diffusivity in the coatings suggests that the decrease of the permeation flux has been derived from a decrease of the diffusivity. Characteristic permeation behaviors were observed with different annealing conditions; however, they can be interpreted using the permeation mechanism clarified in the previous erbium oxide coating studies.

  15. Deuterium content of water from wells and perennial springs, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J.D.; Veronda, Guida; Smith, G.I.; Friedman, Irving; Martin, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The areal distribution of the concentrations of the stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 in ground water in southeastern California is depicted and evaluated in this report. The deuterium content of about 300 ground-water samples and the oxygen-18 content of 101 of these samples are presented. Thirty-two of the samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977–78 as part of a study to determine the mineral and brine potential of playa lakes in selected basins in southeastern California. Most of the remaining samples were collected during the winters and springs of 1981 and 1982 as part of the Climate Change Program of the Geological Survey. Selected additional samples were collected through 1986. Stable-isotope data from three previous studies also have been included. These data are for 19 samples from the Coso thermal area east of the southern Sierra Nevada (Fournier and Thompson, 1980, tables 1,2), 5 samples from areas in Nevada just east of Death Valley (Winograd and Friedman, 1972, table 1), and 9 samples from the Imperial Valley (Coplen, 1971, table 1). Also presented for comparison are weighted averages of deuterium content of recent precipitation collected for this report at 32 stations over the 7-year period from April 1982 to April 1989 (Irving Friedman and G.I. Smith, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1989).

  16. Tables of equation-of-state, thermodynamic properties, and shock Hugoniot for hot dense fluid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R. [Department of Physics, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-11-15

    We present computational results and tables of the equation-of-state, thermodynamic properties, and shock Hugoniot for hot dense fluid deuterium. The present results are generated using a recently developed chemical model that takes into account different high density effects such as Coulomb interactions among charged particles, partial degeneracy, and intensive short range hard core repulsion. Internal partition functions are evaluated in a statistical-mechanically consistent way implementing recent developments in the literature. The shock Hugoniot curve derived from the present tables is overall in reasonable agreement with the Hugoniot derived from the Nova-laser shock wave experiments on liquid deuterium, showing that deuterium has a significantly higher compressibility than predicted by the SESAME tables or by Path Integral Monte Carlo calculations. Computational results are presented as surface plots for the dissociated fraction, degree of ionization, pressure, and specific internal energy for densities ranging from 0.0001 to 40 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures from 2000 to ∼10{sup 6 }K. Tables for values of the above mentioned quantities in addition to the specific heat at constant pressure, c{sub p}, ratio of specific heats, c{sub p}/c{sub v}, sound speed and Hugoniot curve (for a specific initial state) are presented for practical use.

  17. Deuterium Liner and Multiparameter Investigation of the Inverse Z-Pinch Formation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritskii, Vyach M; Grebenyuk, V M; Parzhitsky, S S; Penkov, F M; Stolupin, V A; Boznyak, J; Gula, E; Dudkin, G N; Nechaev, B A; Padalko, V M; Mesyats, G A; Ratakhin, N A; Sorokin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A description of the methods and results of the measurements of the ion energy distribution of the deuterium liner accelerated in the inverse Z-pinch configuration are presented - the liner plasma is radially accelerated from the outward small radius. The knowledge of the experiment deuteron energy distribution is crucially important for correct interpretation of the results on the study of the dd-reaction at infralow collision energies using the liner plasma. Experiments were fulfilled in the HCEI (Tomsk, Russia) at a nanosecond pulsed high current generator (I=950 kA, pulse duration \\tau=80 ns). The hollow deuterium liner of 20 mm length was accelerated from the initial radius of \\sim 15 mm to 45 mm. Measurement of the liner characteristics was produced by means of the light detectors (detection of H_\\alpha and H_\\beta deuterium lines) and magnetic B-dot probes, placed on the various radii of the expanding liner. Besides, the measurement of the neutron radiation intensity due to reaction d+d\\to^{3}He+n was ...

  18. Thermal annealing and exposure to divertor-like deuterium plasma of tailored tungsten oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzoli, A., E-mail: andrea.pezzoli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dellasega, D. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Russo, V. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Gallo, A. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Passoni, M. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for NanoEngineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this work we produced tungsten (W) and W oxide (WO{sub x}) films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with the aim of the addressing modifications of structure and morphology that occur after annealing treatments and high-flux deuterium plasma. Thanks to the high flexibility of PLD we produced nanostructured W containing non-bounded oxygen, different types of WO{sub x} and multilayered films. W coatings are dense, non-porous and exhibit a nanocrystalline structure, resembling the coatings used as first wall in tokamaks. The oxide films are nearly stoichiometric amorphous WO{sub x} (x = 3) with different morphology from compact to porous. Depending on annealing temperature, nucleation of different crystalline phases (e.g. WO{sub 3}, W{sub 18}O{sub 49}) occurs. Exposure of films to high-flux (∼10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) deuterium plasmas in Magnum-PSI at different surface temperatures (T{sub max} = 580 K) determines material modifications at the nanoscale (e.g. nanometric defects) but no delamination. In addition preliminary deuterium retention results are reported.

  19. Primary and. beta. -secondary deuterium isotope effects in N-deethylation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.D.; Pohl, L.R.; Trager, W.F.

    1975-11-01

    Lidocaine (1), labeled specifically with deuterium in the ..cap alpha..-methylene (lidocaine-d/sub 4/, 2) and ..beta..-methyl (lidocaine-d/sub 6/, 3) carbon atoms of the terminal amino group, was used to probe the mechanism of oxidative N-deethylation by rat liver microsomes. The reaction rates were determined by measuring the formation of acetaldehyde colorimetrically. This general assay for oxidative N-deethylation reactions has the advantages of being rapid, producing a relatively stable colored derivative and being linear over the range of 0.25-4 ..mu..g of acetaldehyde formed per milliliter of incubate. Deuterium substitution at the methylene carbon atoms, the presumed site of initial oxygen insertion, revealed a k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.49 +- 0.11 and a K/sub m//sup D//K/sub m//sup H/ = 1.23. Deuterium substitution on the terminal methyl groups showed a k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.52 +- 0.10 and a K/sub m//sup D//K/sub m//sup H/ = 0.92. The results are explained in terms of both primary and secondary isotope effects on a possible rate-determining step in the N-deethylation sequence.

  20. Exclusive pi- Electroproduction off the Neutron in Deuterium in the Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gothe, Ralf W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The goal of our research is to provide the exclusive γ*(n) → p+π− reaction cross section from deuterium data using the correction factor that account for the final state re-scattering that can be determined from the data set itself. The “e1e” Jefferson Lab CLAS data set that we analyze includes both a hydrogen and deuterium target run period, which allows a combined analysis of pion electroproduction off the free proton, the bound proton, and the bound neutron under the same experimental conditions. Hence it will provide the experimentally best possible information about the off-shell and final state interaction effects in deuterium, which must be considered in order to extract the neutron information. This data set will provide results with a kinematic coverage for the hadronic invariant mass W up to 1.7 GeV and in the momentum transfer Q2 range of 0.4 − 1.0 GeV/c2. The cross section analysis of this data set is currently underway, which will considerably improve our knowledge of the Q2 evolution of π−p electroproduction cross sections off bound neutron needed for the extraction of excited neutron state electrocouplings for the first time.

  1. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  2. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  3. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  4. Feasibility of a multi-purpose demonstration neutron source based on a compact superconducting spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemaut, C., E-mail: christophe.guillemaut@ccfe.ac.uk [Insituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Ciudad Universitaria, 04511 Coyoacán, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera Velázquez, J.J.E. [Insituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Ciudad Universitaria, 04511 Coyoacán, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Asociación EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Tokamak neutron sources would allow near term applications of fusion such as fusion–fission hybrid reactors, elimination of nuclear wastes, production of radio-isotopes for nuclear medicine, material testing and tritium production. The generation of neutrons with fusion plasmas does not require energetic efficiency; thus, nowadays tokamak technologies would be sufficient for such purposes. This paper presents some key technical details of a compact (∼1.8 m{sup 3} of plasma) superconducting spherical tokamak neutron source (STNS), which aims to demonstrate the capabilities of such a device for the different possible applications already mentioned. The T-11 transport model was implemented in ASTRA for 1.5 D simulations of heat and particle transport in the STNS core plasma. According to the model predictions, total neutron production rates of the order of ∼10{sup 15} s{sup −1} and ∼10{sup 13} s{sup −1} can be achieved with deuterium/tritium and deuterium/deuterium respectively, with 9 MW of heating power, 1.4 T of toroidal magnetic field and 1.5 MA of plasma current. Engineering estimates indicate that such scenario could be maintained during ∼20 s and repeated every ∼5 min. The viability of most of tokamak neutron source applications could be demonstrated with a few of these cycles and around ∼100 cycles would be required in the worst cases.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  7. Defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Shimada; M. Hara; T. Otsuka; Y. Oya; Y. Hatano

    2014-05-01

    Accurately estimating tritium retention in plasma facing components (PFCs) and minimizing its uncertainty are key safety issues for licensing future fusion power reactors. D-T fusion reactions produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that activate PFCs and create radiation defects throughout the bulk of the material of these components. Recent studies show that tritium migrates and is trapped in bulk (>> 10 µm) tungsten beyond the detection range of nuclear reaction analysis technique [1-2], and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique becomes the only established diagnostic that can reveal hydrogen isotope behavior in in bulk (>> 10 µm) tungsten. Radiation damage and its recovery mechanisms in neutron-irradiated tungsten are still poorly understood, and neutron-irradiation data of tungsten is very limited. In this paper, systematic investigations with repeated plasma exposures and thermal desorption are performed to study defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose neutron-irradiated tungsten. Three tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) irradiated at High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were exposed to high flux (ion flux of (0.5-1.0)x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1x1026 m-2) deuterium plasma at three different temperatures (100, 200, and 500 °C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment at Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequently, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was performed with a ramp rate of 10 °C/min up to 900 °C, and the samples were annealed at 900 °C for 0.5 hour. These procedures were repeated three (for 100 and 200 °C samples) and four (for 500 °C sample) times to uncover damage recovery mechanisms and its effects on deuterium behavior. The results show that deuterium retention decreases approximately 90, 75, and 66 % for 100, 200, and 500 °C, respectively after each annealing. When subjected to the same TDS recipe, the desorption temperature shifts from 800 °C to 600 °C after 1st annealing

  8. Diffusion, trapping, and isotope exchange of plasma implanted deuterium in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Joseph Lincoln

    Tritium accumulation in nuclear fusion reactor materials is a major concern for practical and safe fusion energy. This work examines hydrogen isotope exchange as a tritium removal technique, analyzes the effects of neutron damage using high energy copper ion beams, and introduces a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. Tungsten samples were irradiated with high energy (0.5 - 5 MeV) copper ions for controlled levels of damage - 10-3 to 10-1 displacements per atom (dpa) - at room temperature. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma at constant temperature (˜ 380 K) to a high fluence of 1024 ions/m2, where retention is at is maximized (i.e. saturated). By then subsequently exposing these samples to fractions of this fluence with hydrogen plasma, isotope exchange rates were observed. The resulting deuterium still trapped in the tungsten is then measured post mortem. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) gives the depth resolved deuterium retention profile with the 3He(D,p) 4He reaction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) gives the total amount of deuterium trapped in the tungsten by heating a sample in vacuum up to 1200 K and measuring the evaporated gas molecules with a residual gas analyzer. Isotope exchange data show that hydrogen atoms can displace trapped deuterium atoms efficiently only up to the first few microns, but does not affect the atoms trapped at greater depths. In ion damaged tungsten, measurements showed a significant increase in retention in the damage region proportional to dpa 0.66, which results in a significant spike in total retention, and isotope exchange in damaged samples is still ineffective at depths greater than a few microns. Thus, isotope exchange is not an affective tritium removal technique; however, these experiments have shown that trapping in material defects greatly affects diffusion. These experiments lead to a simplified diffusion model with defect densities as the only free

  9. Investigation of the gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of aromatic dicarboxylic acids in a quadrupole ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuk, Joseph E.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2007-11-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions of four deprotonated aromatic dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid) with D2O were performed in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Experimental results showed significant differences in the rate and extent of exchange when the relative position of the carboxylic acid groups varied. Spontaneous and near complete exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom occurred when the carboxylic acid groups were in the meta-position, whereas no additional exchange was observed for either the ortho- or para-isomers or for the structurally similar naphthalic acid. Computational investigations support the participation of several possible exchange mechanisms with the contribution of each relying heavily on the relative orientation of the acid moieties. A relay mechanism that bridges the deprotonation site and the labile hydrogen site appears to be responsible for the H/D exchange of not only the labile hydrogen atom of isophthalic acid, but also for the formation of a stable carbanion and corresponding subsequent exchange of one aromatic hydrogen atom. The impact of hydrogen bonding on the relay mechanism is demonstrated by the reaction of phthalic acid as the extent and rate of reaction are greatly retarded by the favorable interaction of the two carboxylic acid groups. Finally, a flip-flop mechanism is likely responsible for the exchange of both terephthalic acid and 2,6-naphthalic acid where the reactive sites are too remote for exchange via relay.

  10. Applications of hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX for the characterization of conformational dynamics in light-activated photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eLindner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of optogenetic tools is inherently linked to the understanding of photoreceptor function. Structural analysis of elements involved in signal integration in individual sensor domains provides an initial idea of their mode of operation, but understanding how local structural rearrangements eventually affect signal transmission to output domains requires inclusion of the effector regions in the characterization. However, the dynamic nature of these assemblies renders their structural analysis challenging and therefore a combination of high- and low-resolution techniques is required to appreciate functional aspects of photoreceptors.This review focuses on the potential of Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS for complementing the structural characterization of photoreceptors. In this respect, the ability of HDX-MS to provide information on the conformational dynamics and the possibility to address multiple functionally relevant states in solution render this methodology ideally suitable. We highlight recent examples demonstrating the potential of HDX-MS and discuss how these results can help to improve existing optogenetic systems or guide the design of novel optogenetic tools.

  11. Identification of imine or enamine drug metabolites using online hydrogen/deuterium exchange and exact mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Austin C; Yu, Erya; Ring, Steven C; Chovan, James P

    2012-04-30

    Drug metabolites that have imine or enamine partial structures cause extra mass-to-charge (m/z) increases in online hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) in addition to hydroxyl or amine protons. Online HDX and exact mass measurement were used herein to characterize this extra increase property, and to further confirm proposed metabolite structures. Metabolites of two proprietary compounds as well as two commercially available compounds were analyzed using aqueous and HDX liquid chromatography coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The exact mass measurements of both the precursor ions and product ions were acquired through data-dependent acquisition and compared with theoretical values of proposed fragment ions. Analysis of exact mass measurements of metabolite product ions under both normal aqueous and HDX conditions led to the identification of the isoxazole ring opening of compound C-1, and a double-bond formation on the methylpyrrolidine ring of compound C-2 during biotransformation. In both cases, imine or enamine structures formed in the metabolites caused extra m/z increases upon HDX that contributed confirmatory information to the structure identification. The compound 3,3-diphenyl-2-ethyl-1-pyrroline also demonstrated that the methylene protons adjacent to the imine were exchanged during online HDX. The exchangeability of methylene protons adjacent to imine or enamine moieties proved to be useful to narrow down or even pinpoint the metabolism sites of parent drugs when high-resolution exact mass measurement and online HDX were used. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  13. Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

    1989-04-01

    The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

  14. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  15. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  16. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  17. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  18. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  19. Q.E.COSY: determining sign and size of small deuterium residual quadrupolar couplings using an extended E.COSY principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-05-01

    Residual quadrupolar couplings contain important structural information comparable with residual dipolar couplings. However, the measurement of sign and size of especially small residual quadrupolar couplings is difficult. Here, we present an extension of the E.COSY principle to spin systems consisting of a Spin 1 coupled to a spin ½ nucleus, which allows the determination of the sign of the quadrupolar coupling of the Spin 1 nucleus relative to the heteronuclear coupling between the spins. The so-called Q.E.COSY approach is demonstrated with its sign-sensitivity using variable angle NMR, stretched gels and liquid crystalline phases applied to various CD and CD3 groups. Especially the sign-sensitive measurement of residual quadrupolar couplings that remain unresolved in conventional deuterium 1D spectra is shown.

  20. Structure and deuterium retention properties of tungsten layers deposited by plasma sputtering in a mixed atmosphere of D2 and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. H.; Shi, L. Q.; O'Connor, D. J.; King, B.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of the deposition conditions on the surface morphology, crystal structure and deuterium retention of the tungsten layers formed by rf magnetron plasma sputtering in mixed atmosphere of D2, He and Ar, has been carried out. Helium containing deuterated tungsten layers (named He-WDx) on Cu/Si substrate demonstrate serious film damages with zones of cracks, fractures, flaking-off and large surface blisters. However, these kinds of damages do not happen on the He-WDx layers performed on mechanically polished polycrystalline Cu substrates because of larger surface roughness of the substrates. The crystal structure of the W layer greatly changes with the additional He in the layer, and large amounts of defects resulting in lattice expansion and X-diffraction peak broadening were produced in the W crystal. He in the W layer has direct impacts on D retention. Both D and He concentrations vary simultaneously with He fraction, attached negative bias and substrate temperature.

  1. Submolecular regulation of cell transformation by deuterium depleting water exchange reactions in the tricarboxylic acid substrate cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, László G; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Katz, Howard E; Roth, Justine P; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Somlyai, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    The naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen ((1)H), deuterium ((2)H), could have an important biological role. Deuterium depleted water delays tumor progression in mice, dogs, cats and humans. Hydratase enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle control cell growth and deplete deuterium from redox cofactors, fatty acids and DNA, which undergo hydride ion and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. A model is proposed that emphasizes the terminal complex of mitochondrial electron transport chain reducing molecular oxygen to deuterium depleted water (DDW); this affects gluconeogenesis as well as fatty acid oxidation. In the former, the DDW is thought to diminish the deuteration of sugar-phosphates in the DNA backbone, helping to preserve stability of hydrogen bond networks, possibly protecting against aneuploidy and resisting strand breaks, occurring upon exposure to radiation and certain anticancer chemotherapeutics. DDW is proposed here to link cancer prevention and treatment using natural ketogenic diets, low deuterium drinking water, as well as DDW production as the mitochondrial downstream mechanism of targeted anti-cancer drugs such as Avastin and Glivec. The role of (2)H in biology is a potential missing link to the elusive cancer puzzle seemingly correlated with cancer epidemiology in western populations as a result of excessive (2)H loading from processed carbohydrate intake in place of natural fat consumption.

  2. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  3. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  4. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  5. Computational Investigation and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of the Fixed Charge Derivative Tris(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)Phosphonium: Implications for the Aspartic Acid Cleavage Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2005-05-25

    Aspartic acid (Asp)-containing peptides with the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium (tTMP-P+) were explored computationally and experimentally by H/D exchange and fragmentation studies in order to probe the phenomenon of selective cleavage C-terminal to Asp in the absence of a ''mobile'' proton. Ab initio modeling of the tTMP-P+ electrostatic potential demonstrates the positive charge is distributed on the phosphonium group and therefore is not initiating or directing fragmentation as would a ''mobile'' proton. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses of different aspartic acid conformations show the aspartic acid structure with a hydrogen bond between the side chain hydroxy and backbone carbonyl lies 2.8 kcal/mol above the lowest energy conformer. In reactions with D2O, the phosphonium-derived doubly charged peptide (H+)P+LDIFSDF rapidly exchanges all 12 of its exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium and also displays a non-exchanging population. With no added proton, P+LDIFSDF exchanges a maximum of four of eleven exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium. No exchange is observed when all acidic groups are converted to the corresponding methyl esters. Together, these H/D exchange results indicate that the acidic hydrogens are ''mobile locally'' because they are able to participate in exchange even in the absence of an added proton. Fragmentation of two distinct (H+)P+LDIFSDF ion populations shows the non-exchanging population displays selective cleavage, while the exchanging population fragments more evenly across the peptide backbone. This result demonstrates that H/D exchange can sometimes distinguish between and provide a means of separation of different protonation motifs, and that these protonation motifs can have an effect on the fragmentation.

  6. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  7. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  8. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehey, Peter Trogdon [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments are numerically simulated using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, which includes many important experimental details, such as ``cold-start`` initial conditions, thermal conduction, radiative energy loss, actual discharge current vs. time, and grids of sufficient size and resolution to allow realistic development of the plasma. The alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique used meets the substantial demands presented by such a computational task. Simulations of fiber-initiated experiments show that when the fiber becomes fully ionized rapidly developing m=0 instabilities, which originated in the coronal plasma generated from the ablating fiber, drive intense non-uniform heating and rapid expansion of the plasma column. The possibility that inclusion of additional physical effects would improve stability is explored. Finite-Larmor-radius-ordered Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms in the magnetic field evolution equation, corresponding energy equation terms, and separate ion and electron energy equations are included; these do not change the basic results. Model diagnostics, such as shadowgrams and interferograms, generated from simulation results, are in good agreement with experiment. Two alternative experimental approaches are explored: high-current magnetic implosion of hollow cylindrical deuterium shells, and ``plasma-on-wire`` (POW) implosion of low-density plasma onto a central deuterium fiber. By minimizing instability problems, these techniques may allow attainment of higher temperatures and densities than possible with bare fiber-initiated Z-pinches. Conditions for significant D-D or D-T fusion neutron production may be realizable with these implosion-based approaches.

  10. Backward-forward reaction asymmetry of neutron elastic scattering on deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovano, E.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Nankov, N.; Nolte, R.; Nyman, M.; Plompen, A. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    A new measurement of the angular distribution of neutron elastic scattering on deuterium was carried out at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. The backward-forward asymmetry of the reaction was investigated via the direct detection of neutrons scattered at the laboratory angle of 15∘ and 165∘ from a polyethylene sample enriched with deuterium. In order to extend the measurement to neutron energies below 1 MeV, 6Li glass scintillators were employed. The data were corrected for the background and the multiple scattering in the target, the events due to scattering on deuterium were separated from those due to carbon, and the ratio of the differential cross section at 15∘ and 165∘ was determined. The results, covering the energy range from 200 keV to 2 MeV, were found to be in agreement with the theoretical predictions calculated by Canton et al. [Eur. Phys. J. A 14, 225 (2002)], 10.1140/epja/i2001-10122-3 and by Golak et al. [Eur. Phys. J. A 50, 177 (2014)], 10.1140/epja/i2014-14177-7. The comparison with the evaluated nuclear data libraries indicated CENDL-3.1, JEFF-3.2, and JENDL-4.0 as the evaluations that best describe the asymmetry of n -d scattering. ENDF/B-VII.1 is compatible with the data for energies below 700 keV, but above the backward to forward ratio is higher than measured. ROSFOND-2010 and BROND-2.2 resulted to have little compatibility with the data.

  11. Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

    2011-05-01

    The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

  12. Inferring the electron temperature and density of shocked liquid deuterium using inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, S P; Radha, P B; Boehly, T R; Goncharov, V N; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Smalyuk, V A [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623-1299 (United States); Doeppner, T; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Falk, K; Gregori, G, E-mail: sreg@lle.rochester.ed [Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    An experiment designed to launch laser-ablation-driven shock waves (10 to 70 Mbar) in a planar liquid-deuterium target on the OMEGA Laser System and to diagnose the shocked conditions using inelastic x-ray scattering is described. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) is inferred from the Doppler-broadened Compton-downshifted peak of the noncollective ({alpha}{sub s} = 1k{lambda}{sub D} > 1) x-ray scattering for T{sub e} > T{sub Fermi}. The electron density (n{sub e}) is inferred from the downshifted plasmon peak of the collective ({alpha}{sub scatter} > 1) x-ray scattering. A cylindrical layer of liquid deuterium is formed in a cryogenic cell with 8-{mu}m-thick polyimide windows. The polyimide ablator is irradiated with peak intensities in the range of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and shock waves are launched. Predictions from a 1-D hydrodynamics code show the shocked deuterium has a thickness of {approx}0.1 mm with spatially uniform conditions. For the drive intensities under consideration, electron density up to {approx}5 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3} and electron temperature in the range of 10 to 25 eV are predicted. A laser-irradiated saran foil produces Cl Ly{sub {alpha}e}mission. The spectrally resolved x-ray scattering is recorded at 90{sup 0} for the noncollective scattering and at 40{sup 0} for the collective scattering with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal spectrometer and an x-ray framing camera.

  13. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  14. Nuclear reactions in deuterium-saturated palladium under irradiation by 10 MeV γ-quanta, in dense molecular deuterium at 1.2 kbar pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wisniewski, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    A high-pressure chamber with a Pd-rod inside was filled up with 1.2 kbar molecular deuterium (DHPC). Then the saturated by deuterium palladium rod was irradiated during 18 hours by 11 MeV braking γ-quanta at 11-13 μA electron beam using the MT-25 electron accelerator. The element compositions of all the DHPC surfaces which had been in contact with dense deuterium gas were studied using scanning electronic microscopes with Roentgen microprobe analysis. It was determined that all the surfaces, including surfaces of the high-purity Pd-rod (99.995%), were covered either by a partially homogeneous layer or large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements as C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and heavy metals as Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Pb were observed on the chambers inner surfaces.

  15. Preliminary diagnosis of areal density in the deuterium fuel capsule by proton measurement at SG-III facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Luo, Xing; Zheng, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongjing; Yan, Ji; Pu, Yudong; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Tianxuan; Yang, Zhenghua; Yang, Pin; Tang, Qi; Song, Zifeng; Jiang, Shao'en; Liu, Shenye; Yang, Jiamin; Wang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Areal density (ρR) is one of the crucial parameters in the inertial confinement fusion. Measurement of the fusion products is a more feasible method to diagnose ρR than other methods, such as X-ray. In the capsules filled with D2 fuel or D-3He fuel, proton is an ideal probe to diagnose the implosion ρR in different emission times and directions by measurements of the proton yields and spectra. By D-D reaction protons and D-3He reaction protons, the diagnostics of the total and fuel ρR, ρR evolution, implosion asymmetry and mix effect have been demonstrated at OMEGA and NIF facilities. Also some advanced proton diagnostics instruments are developed with a high level capability. Preliminary diagnosis of ρR in the deuterium involved fuel capsules by measurement of protons at SG-III facility was implemented. A fusion product emission and transport code by Monte-Carlo method was developed. The primary and secondary protons emission and transport in the fuel and shell plasmas were able to be simulated. The relations of the proton energy loss and the secondary proton yields with the areal density were inspected. Several proton spectrometers have been built up at SG-III facility, such as a step ranged filter (SRF) proton spectrometer and a wedged range filter (WRF) proton spectrometer. Some proton response simulation codes and the codes for proton spectra reconstruction were also developed. The demonstrations of ρR diagnostics at SG-III facility by D-D reaction and D-3He reaction proton spectra measurements are presented.

  16. CO/sub 2/DBr precursor geometry limited reaction of deuterium with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, S.; Radhakrishnan, G.; Wittig, C.

    1987-10-08

    The authors report nascent OD(X/sup 2/II) rotational, vibrational, spin-orbit, and ..lambda..-doublet excitations from reactions of deuterium atoms with CO/sub 2/. D atoms are produced by the 193-nm photolysis of DBr (h nu - D/sub 0/ = 244 kJ mol/sup -1/) (i) within a weakly bonded CO/sub 2/DBr complex, and (ii) under 300 K single-collision bulk conditions. The differences between the resulting OD distributions are modest, and the present results are similar to those of the analogous H + CO/sub 2/ system.

  17. Self-consistent measurement of the equation of state of liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K.; Regan, S. P.; Vorberger, J.; Barrios, M. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Hu, S. X.; Murphy, C. D.; Radha, P. B.; Rothman, S.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Wark, J. S.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.

    2012-03-01

    We combine experiments and theoretical models to characterize warm dense deuterium. A shockwave was driven in a planar target by the OMEGA laser without a standard pusher making the analysis independent of a quartz or aluminium pressure standard. The conditions of the shocked material were diagnosed with VISAR and optical pyrometry which yields the shock velocity (16.9 ± 0.9 km/s) and the temperature (0.57 ± 0.05 eV). We find a self-consistent description of the data when using ab initio simulations (DFT-MD), but not for other equation of state (EOS) models tested.

  18. A measurement of the ratio of the nucleon structure function in copper and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashman, J.; Combley, F.; Salmon, D. (Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Badelek, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics); Baum, G.; Caputo, M.C.; Hughes, V.W.; Oppenheim, R.F.; Papavassiliou, V.; Piegaia, R.; Schueler, K.P. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics); Beaufays, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Niinikowski, T.; Osborne, A.M.; Rieubland, J.M. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bee, C.P.; Brown, S.C.; Court, G.; Francis, D.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hayman, P.; Holt, J.R.; Jones, T.; Matthews, M.; Wimpenny, S.J. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Benchouk, C.; D' Agostini, G.; Montanet, F.; Pietrzyk, B. (Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Faculte des Sciences de Luminy); Bird, I.G.; Dyce, N.; Sloan, T. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Cheung, H.W.K.; Gibson, V.; Gillies, J.; Renton, P.; Taylor; European Muon Collaboration

    1993-02-01

    Results are presented on the ratios of the nucleon structure function in copper to deuterium from two separate experiments. The data confirm that the nucleon structure function, F[sub 2], is different for bound nucleons than for the quasi-free ones in the deuteron. The redistribution in the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by quarks is investigated and it is found that the data are compatible with no integral loss of quark momenta due to nuclear effects. (orig.).

  19. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  20. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of negatively charged NH.N systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Grech, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are investigated in anions of 1,8-bis(4-toluenesulphonamido)naphthalenes together with N,N-(naphthalene-1,8-diyl)bis(2,2,2-trifluoracetamide) all with bis(1,8-dimethylamino)napthaleneH+ as counter ion. These compounds represent both “static......” and equilibrium cases. NMR assignments of the former have been revised. The NH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are rather unusual in these strongly hydrogen bonded systems between a NH and a negatively charged nitrogen atom. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative...

  1. Communication: Dissolution DNP reveals a long-lived deuterium spin state imbalance in methyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhajharia, Aditya; Weber, Emmanuelle M. M.; Kempf, James G.; Abergel, Daniel; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Kurzbach, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We report the generation and observation of long-lived spin states in deuterated methyl groups by dissolution DNP. These states are based on population imbalances between manifolds of spin states corresponding to irreducible representations of the C3v point group and feature strongly dampened quadrupolar relaxation. Their lifetime depends on the activation energies of methyl group rotation. With dissolution DNP, we can reduce the deuterium relaxation rate by a factor up to 20, thereby extending the experimentally available time window. The intrinsic limitation of NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar spins by short relaxation times can thus be alleviated.

  2. Oats may grow better in water depleted in oxygen 18 and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J.D.; Friedman, I.

    1975-01-01

    WHILE growing oats at different temperatures in water of different 18O and deuterium (D) abundances, we noticed that oats grown in Antarctic water in which is depleted in 18O and D by -49??? and -400???, relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW used as a comparative reference in hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies), showed initial growth 1-2 weeks sooner than did oats grown in water containing greater 18O and D concentrations. The oats seemed to grow better in water which was most depleted in the stable isotopes throughout the growth period. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. A general procedure for isotopic (deuterium) labelling of non-steroidal antiinflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, J.V. (Valencia Univ. Hospital (Spain). Centro de Investigacion); Martinez, L.A. (Valencia Univ. Hospital (Spain). Centro de Investigacion Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Quimica); Miranda, M.A.; Tarrega, Pilar (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Quimica)

    1994-01-01

    Alkaline treatment of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids in deuterium oxide led in all cases to isotopic exchange of the proton located at the [alpha]-position of the side chain. Monodeuteration was observed in the case of carprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen and naproxen. Additional exchange of one or two protons of the heterocyclic ring occurred in indoprofen, suprofen and tiaprofenic acid. The isotopic labelling survived under the conditions required to perform in vitro photoallergic studies (photolysis in non-deuterated aqueous media). (Author).

  4. Synthesis of Melamine-d6 and the Feasibility of Deuterium Labeled Compounds as Internal Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Yang-zhen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available S-triazine is an important chemical intermediate. Melamine belongs to s-triazine, which has been widely used as an additive in the food industry. To study the stable isotope labeling method of heterocyclic triazine compounds and its application, one step synthesis of melamine-d6 was achieved with a yield of 30% (calculate in ND4OD, which started from ND4OD by the reaction with cyanuric chloride. According to the exchange mechanism of H/D, the feasibility and the necessary conditions were discussed for applying deuterium labeled compounds in isotope dilution mass spectrometry method.

  5. Investigation of the energy accumulation rate in solid deuterium irradiated with fast electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondoux, D.; Boerner, H.G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ermilov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzales, J.P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Kulagin, E.; Kulikov, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lelievre-Berna, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Melikhov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu; Soldner, T.; Thomas, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Shabalin, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-21

    The feasibility studies for a new ultra cold neutron (UCN) source to be installed at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) are underway. One of these studies concerns a source using solid deuterium (SD{sub 2}) as a neutron moderator. During source operation the SD{sub 2} would be exposed to intense {gamma}-ray and neutron fluxes. These may result in radiolysis in SD{sub 2}. Our work has shown that this effect-if it is produced-is not incompatible with a normal operation of the source.

  6. Absolute Equation of State Measurements on Shocked Liquid Deuterium up to 200GPa (2Mbar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L.; Celliers, P.; Collins, G.; Budil, K.; Holmes, N.; Barbee, T. Jr.; Hammel, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Ross, M.; Cauble, R. [Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ng, A.; Chiu, G. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    We present results of the first measurements of density, shock speed, and particle speed in liquid deuterium compressed by laser-generated shock waves to pressures from 25 to 210Gpa (0.25 to 2.1Mbar). The data show a significant increase in D{sub 2} compressibility above 50Gpa compared to a widely used equation of state model. The data strongly suggest a thermal molecular dissociation transition of the diatomic fluid into a monatomic phase. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Protein structure change studied by hydrogen-deuterium exchange, functional labeling, and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Joan J.; Del Mar, Charyl; Li, Will; Englander, S. Walter; Kim, Jack S.; Stranz, David D.; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Woods, Virgil L.

    2003-01-01

    An automated high-throughput, high-resolution deuterium exchange HPLC-MS method (DXMS) was used to extend previous hydrogen exchange studies on the position and energetic role of regulatory structure changes in hemoglobin. The results match earlier highly accurate but much more limited tritium exchange results, extend the analysis to the entire sequence of both hemoglobin subunits, and identify some energetically important changes. Allosterically sensitive amide hydrogens located at near amino acid resolution help to confirm the reality of local unfolding reactions and their use to evaluate resolved structure changes in terms of allosteric free energy. PMID:12773622

  8. Structural analysis of diheme cytochrome c by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and homology modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Majumder, Erica L-W; Yue, Hai; Blankenship, Robert E; Gross, Michael L

    2014-09-09

    A lack of X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures of proteins inhibits their further study and characterization, motivating the development of new ways of analyzing structural information without crystal structures. The combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data in conjunction with homology modeling can provide improved structure and mechanistic predictions. Here a unique diheme cytochrome c (DHCC) protein from Heliobacterium modesticaldum is studied with both HDX and homology modeling to bring some definition of the structure of the protein and its role. Specifically, HDX data were used to guide the homology modeling to yield a more functionally relevant structural model of DHCC.

  9. Initial investigations of (np)-scattering with a polarized deuterium target at ANKE-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of the forces among nucleons is fundamental to the whole of nuclear and hadronic physics. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering is the ideal probe to study the nuclear forces. The scattering amplitudes for the complete description of the NN interactions can be reconstructed from phase-shift analyses (PSA), which requires measurements with polarized experiments. The existing data allow to extract unambiguous proton-proton (pp) amplitudes below 2 GeV. However, there is very little known about the neutron-proton (np) system above 800 MeV nucleon energy. THE ANKE-COSY collaboration has embarked on a systematic program which aims to extract the np scattering amplitudes through the deuteron-proton charge-exchange process dp→{pp}{sub s}n. First part of the program via polarized deuteron beam and hydrogen target allowed successful measurement of np amplitudes up to 1.135 GeV nucleon energy, which is the maximum nucleon energy that can be accessed with deuteron beam at COSY. Via inverse kinematics, i.e. using a proton beam incident on a polarized deuterium target will allow to enhance the np study up to 2.8 GeV, the highest energy available at COSY. The method of inverse kinematics has to be validated prior to the production experiment. As the proof-of-principle (POP) experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy T{sub p}=600 MeV using a polarized deuterium target. The projectiles were measured by two silicon tracking telescopes (STT) placed closed to the target and by the ANKE sub-detection systems. Four polarization modes of the deuterium target were employed. In order to increase the effective target thickness, polarized deuterium atoms produced by the atomic beam source (ABS) was filled into a storage cell, where the circulating COSY beam collides with the target. The target polarizations were measured using the proton-deuteron elastic reaction. The vector and tensor analyzing powers A{sub y} and A{sub yy} of pvector d

  10. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  11. Effect of deuterium ion beam irradiation onto the mirror-like pulsed laser deposited thin films of rhodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostako, A.T.T., E-mail: abu@iitg.ernet.in [Laser and Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Khare, Alika [Laser and Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Rao, C.V.S.; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Makwana, R.J.; Basu, T.K. [Neutronics Lab, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rh mirror like thin films are fabricated by PLD technique for FM application. • Rh thin film FMs are irradiated with 10, 20, and 30 keV D ion beam. • Effect of D ion beam irradiation on Rh FM’s reflectivity is investigated. - Abstract: The effect of deuterium ion beam irradiation on the reflectivity of mirror-like pulsed laser deposited (PLD) thin film of rhodium is reported. The deposition parameters; target-substrate distance and background helium gas pressure were optimized to obtain the good quality rhodium films, of higher thickness, oriented preferentially in (1 1 1) plane. The rhodium thin films deposited at optimum PLD parameters were exposed to 10, 20, and 30 keV deuterium ion beam. The changes in surface morphology and UV–Visible–FIR reflectivity of mirror-like rhodium thin films, as a function of energy of deuterium ion beam, after exposure are reported.

  12. Velocity-space sensitivities of neutron emission spectrometers at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade in deuterium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Binda, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Eriksson, J.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Tardini, G.

    2017-07-01

    Future fusion reactors are foreseen to be heated by the energetic alpha particles produced in fusion reactions. For this to happen, it is important that the energetic ions are sufficiently confined. In present day fusion experiments, energetic ions are primarily produced using external heating systems such as neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. In order to diagnose these fast ions, several different fast-ion diagnostics have been developed and implemented in the various experiments around the world. The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are given by so-called weight functions. Here instrument-specific weight functions are derived for neutron emission spectrometry detectors at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade for the 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-deuterium reactions in deuterium plasmas. Using these, it is possible to directly determine which part of velocity space each detector observes.

  13. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  14. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  15. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  16. Retention of deuterium in damaged low-activation steel Rusfer (EK-181) after gas and plasma exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golubeva, A.V., E-mail: anna-golubeva@yandex.ru [NRC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bobyr, N.P.; Khripunov, B.I. [NRC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cherkez, D.I., E-mail: cherkez@list.ru [NRC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.B. [NRC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mayer, M.; Ogorodnikova, O.V.; Alimov, V.Kh. [Max-Planck-Institut fürPlasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Klimov, N.S.; Putrik, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M.; Leontieva-Smirnova, M.V. [A.A. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu.M.; Efimov, V.S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic–martensitic steels (RAFMS) are advanced structural materials for the construction of future fusion reactors with high fluxes of neutrons, such as DEMO or a Fusion Neutron Source (FNS). In the present work the influence of different damages on deuterium retention in the RAFM Rusfer (Chernov et al., 2007) was investigated. Three different types of damage were applied: (i)irradiation by 20 MeV W{sup 6+} ions to a damage fluence of 0.89 dpa (1.4 × 10{sup 18} ions/m{sup 2}). Tungsten ion irradiation was used as proxy for displacement damage created by neutrons; (ii)heat loads in the QSPA-T facility with 10 pulses of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} with a duration of 0.5 ms; (iii)low-temperature hydrogen plasma irradiation in the LENTA facility at 320 and 600 K to a fluence of 10{sup 25} H/m{sup 2}. The hydrogen isotope retention properties of the damaged and undamaged material were investigated by exposure to deuterium gas several weeks after damaging. The deuterium retention was investigated in the temperature range of RT–773 K at pressure 10{sup 4} Pa. Deuterium depth profiles were measured a month after gas exposure by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the D({sup 3}He,p)α nuclear reaction. Deuterium retention in damaged and undamaged Rusfer in the temperature range of 300–600 K has a maximum at 500 K for all types of damage investigated. The typical value of deuterium concentration in the bulk is 10{sup −3} at.%. Peculiarities of D retention in damaged samples are discussed.

  17. Sensitivity of MCNP5 calculations for a spherical numerical benchmark problem to the angular scattering distributions for deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K. S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of MCNP5 k{sub eff} results to various deuterium data files for a simple benchmark problem consisting of an 8.4-cm radius sphere of uranium surrounded by an annulus of deuterium at the nuclide number density corresponding to heavy water. This study was performed to help clarify why {Delta}k{sub eff} values of about 10 mk are obtained when different ENDF/B deuterium data files are used in simulations of critical experiments involving solutions of high-enrichment uranyl fluoride in heavy water, while simulations of low-leakage, heterogeneous critical lattices of natural-uranium fuel rods in heavy water show differences of <1 mk. The benchmark calculations were performed as a function of deuterium reflector thickness for several uranium compositions using deuterium ACE files derived from ENDF/B-VII.b1 (release beta 1), ENDF/B-VI.4 and JENDL-3.3, which differ primarily in the energy/angle distributions for elastic scattering <3.2 MeV. Calculations were also performed using modified ACE files having equiprobable cosine bin values in the centre-of-mass reference frame in a progressive manner with increasing energy. It was found that the {Delta}k{sub eff} values increased with deuterium reflector thickness and uranium enrichment. The studies using modified ACE files indicate that most of the reactivity differences arise at energies <1 MeV; hence, this energy range should be given priority if new scattering distribution measurements are undertaken. (authors)

  18. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  19. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  20. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  1. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  2. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  3. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  4. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  5. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  6. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  7. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  8. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  9. Deuterium Fractionation as an Evolutionary Probe in Massive Proto-stellar/cluster Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huei-Ru; Su, Yu-Nung; Wang, Mei-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Clouds of high infrared extinction are promising sites of massive star/cluster formation. A large number of cloud cores discovered in recent years allows investigation of possible evolutionary sequence among cores in early phases. We have conducted a survey of deuterium fractionation toward 15 dense cores in various evolutionary stages, from high-mass starless cores to ultracompact Hii regions, in the massive star-forming clouds of high extinction, G34.43+0.24, IRAS 18151-1208, and IRAS 18223-1243, with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT). Spectra of N2H+ (3 - 2), N2D+ (3 - 2), and C18O (2 - 1) were observed to derive the deuterium fractionation of N2H+, Dfrac \\equiv N(N2D+)/N(N2H+), as well as the CO depletion factor for every selected core. Our results show a decreasing trend in Dfrac with both gas temperature and linewidth. Since colder and quiescent gas is likely to be associated with less evolved cores, larger Dfrac appears to correlate with early phases of core evolution. Such decreasing trend resembles t...

  10. APT analyses of deuterium-loaded Fe/V multi-layered films

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, R.

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of hydrogen with metallic multi-layered thin films remains as a hot topic in recent days Detailed knowledge on such chemically modulated systems is required if they are desired for application in hydrogen energy system as storage media. In this study, the deuterium concentration profile of Fe/V multi-layer was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT) at 60 and 30 K. It is firstly shown that deuterium-loaded sample can easily react with oxygen at the Pd capping layer on Fe/V and therefore, it is highly desired to avoid any oxygen exposure after D(2) loading before APT analysis. The analysis temperature also has an impact on D concentration profile. The result taken at 60 K shows clear traces of surface segregation of D atoms towards analysis surface. The observed diffusion profile of D allows us to estimate an apparent diffusion coefficient D. The calculated D at 60 K is in the order of 10(-17) cm(2)/s, deviating 6 orders of magnitude from an extrapolated value. This was interpreted with alloying, D-trapping at defects and effects of the large extension to which the extrapolation was done. A D concentration profile taken at 30 K shows nosegregation anymore and a homogeneous distribution at C(D) = 0.05(2) D/Me, which is in good accordance with that measured in the corresponding pressure-composition isotherm. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  12. New reaction rates for improved primordial D /H calculation and the cosmic evolution of deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coc, Alain; Petitjean, Patrick; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Descouvemont, Pierre; Iliadis, Christian; Longland, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the three historically strong evidences for the big bang model. Standard BBN is now a parameter-free theory, since the baryonic density of the Universe has been deduced with an unprecedented precision from observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. There is a good agreement between the primordial abundances of 4He, D, 3He, and 7Li deduced from observations and from primordial nucleosynthesis calculations. However, the 7Li calculated abundance is significantly higher than the one deduced from spectroscopic observations and remains an open problem. In addition, recent deuterium observations have drastically reduced the uncertainty on D /H , to reach a value of 1.6%. It needs to be matched by BBN predictions whose precision is now limited by thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties. This is especially important as many attempts to reconcile Li observations with models lead to an increased D prediction. Here, we reevaluate the d (p ,γ )3He, d (d ,n ) 3H3, and d (d ,p ) 3H reaction rates that govern deuterium destruction, incorporating new experimental data and carefully accounting for systematic uncertainties. Contrary to previous evaluations, we use theoretical ab initio models for the energy dependence of the S factors. As a result, these rates increase at BBN temperatures, leading to a reduced value of D /H =(2.45 ±0.10 )×10-5 (2 σ ), in agreement with observations.

  13. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria BC V8W3P6 (Canada); Berucci, C. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, Institutul National pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30, Magurele (Romania); Cargnelli, M., E-mail: michael.cargnelli@oaaw.ac.at [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C.; D' Uffizi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-06-03

    The study of the K{sup ¯}N system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron–positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with Z=1 and Z=2, taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon–nucleon interaction, measurements of K{sup −}p and of K{sup −}d are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: Y(K{sub tot})<0.0143 and Y(K{sub α})<0.0039 (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  14. The Angular Distribution of Neutrons Scattered from Deuterium below 2 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankov, N.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Rao, R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Yakorev, D.; Wagner, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Canton, L.; Nolte, R.; Röttger, S.; Beyer, J.; Svenne, J.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements were carried out at the nELBE neutron time-of-flight facility at a 6 m flight path. Energies below 2 MeV were studied using a setup consisting of eight 6Li-glass detectors placed at nominal angles of 15∘ and 165∘ with respect to the incident neutron beam. A deuterated polyethylene sample with 99.999% enrichment in deuterium was used. These angles were chosen since an earlier study showed that the ratio of the differential cross section at these angles is the most sensitive to differences in evaluated files and model calculations. Accurate 165∘/15∘ angle ratios were obtained. Above 1 MeV these are somewhat larger than given by ENDF/B-VII. Simultaneously the early day experiments using a proportional counter to infer angular distributions from deuterium recoil pulse height distributions are being studied through a new experiment with such a device at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). At 500 keV this experiment favors ENDF/B-VII over JENDL-4.0, while at lower energies agreement with the data is similar.

  15. Stabilization of sawteeth with third harmonic deuterium ICRF-accelerated beam in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardo, Jean-Baptiste [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sharapov, Sergei; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hawkes, Nick; Kiptily, Vasily; Lupelli, Ivan [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boom, Jurrian [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dumont, Rémi; Garbet, Xavier; Sarazin, Yanick; Schneider, Mireille [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Eriksson, Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Mantsinen, Mervi [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Sawtooth stabilisation by fast ions is investigated in deuterium (D) and D-helium 3 (He3) plasmas of JET heated by deuterium Neutral Beam Injection combined in synergy with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) applied on-axis at 3rd beam cyclotron harmonic. A very significant increase in the sawtooth period is observed, caused by the ICRH-acceleration of the beam ions born at 100 keV to the MeV energy range. Four representative sawteeth from four different discharges are compared with Porcelli's model. In two discharges, the sawtooth crash appears to be triggered by core-localized Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes inside the q = 1 surface (also called “tornado” modes) which expel the fast ions from within the q = 1 surface, over time scales comparable with the sawtooth period. Two other discharges did not exhibit fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core, and no degradation of fast ion confinement was found in both modelling and direct measurements of fast ion profile with the neutron camera. The developed sawtooth scenario without fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core is of high interest for the burning plasmas. Possible causes of the sawtooth crashes on JET are discussed.

  16. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, M; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bombelli, L; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu Petrascu, C; Dʼuffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Frizzi, T; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Kienle, P; Levi Sandri, P; Longoni, A; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-06-03

    The study of the [Formula: see text] system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon-nucleon interaction, measurements of [Formula: see text] and of [Formula: see text] are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  17. A very light and thin liquid hydrogen/deuterium heat pipe target for COSY experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Bary, M.; Abdel-Samad, S.; Kilian, K.

    2005-07-01

    A liquid hydrogen/deuterium heat pipe (HP) target is used at the COSY external experiments TOF, GEM and MOMO. The target liquid is produced at a cooled condenser and guided through a central tube assisted by gravitation into the target cell. An aluminum condenser is used instead of copper, which requires less material, improves conductivities and provides shorter cooling down time. Residual condenser temperature fluctuations in the order of ≈0.4 K are reduced by using thermal resistances between the cooling machine and the condenser of the heat pipe combined with a controlled heating power. A new design with only a 7-mm-diameter HP has been developed. The diameter of the condenser part remains at 16 mm to provide enough condensation area. The small amount of material ensures short cooling down times. A cold gas deuterium HP target has been designed and developed which allows protons with energy ⩽1 MeV to be measured. A 7-mm-diameter HP is used to fill a cooling jacket around the D 2 gas cell with LH 2. The D 2 gas is stabilized at 200 mbar to allow for thin windows. Its density is increased by factor 15 compared to room temperature.

  18. Lifetime and population of the 2S state in muonic protium and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Diepold, Marc; Antognini, Aldo; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M R; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Fernandes, Luis M P; Giesen, Adolf; Gouvea, Andrea L; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kao, Cheng-Yang; Knowles, Paul; Kottmann, Franz; Bigot, Eric-Olivier Le; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A M; Ludhova, Livia; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Nez, François; Rabinowitz, Paul; Santos, Joaquim M F dos; Schaller, Lukas A; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Vogelsang, Jan; Pohl, Randolf

    2013-01-01

    Radiative deexcitation (RD) of the metastable 2S state of muonic protium and deuterium atoms has been observed. In muonic protium, we improve the precision on lifetime and population (formation probability) values for the short-lived {\\mu}p(2S) component, and give an upper limit for RD of long-lived {\\mu}p(2S) atoms. In muonic deuterium at 1 hPa, 3.1 +-0.3 % of all stopped muons form {\\mu}d(2S) atoms. The short-lived 2S component has a population of 1.35 +0.57 -0.33 % and a lifetime of {\\tau}_short({\\mu}d) = 138 +32 -34 ns. We see evidence for RD of long-lived {\\mu}d(2S) with a lifetime of {\\tau}_long({\\mu}d) = 1.15 +0.75 -0.53 {\\mu}s. This is interpreted as formation and decay of excited muonic molecules.

  19. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92196 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  20. On the variation of the structure of liquid deuterium fluoride with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, S. E.; Benmore, C. J.; Siewenie, J. E.; Molaison, J. J.; Turner, J. F. C.

    2004-10-01

    The structure of liquid deuterium fluoride has been measured using pulsed neutron diffraction and high energy x-ray diffraction techniques as a function of temperature. The neutron experiments were performed at T=296±2 K, 246±2 K, and 193±2 K and the x-ray measurements carried out at 296±2 K and 195±2 K. The x-ray pair correlation functions, which are dominated by fluorine-fluorine interactions, show the first peak at ˜2.53±0.05 Å remains very nearly invariant with decreasing temperature. Peaks around 4.5 and 5.0 Å also appear at both temperatures in the x-ray data. In contrast, the intermolecular peaks in the total neutron pair correlation function show that significant systematic local structural changes occur as the temperature is lowered. The first intermolecular peak position shortens from 1.64±0.05 Å at 296 K to 1.56±0.05 Å at 195 K. Although there are overlapping contributions from the intermolecular hydrogen-fluorine and hydrogen-hydrogen correlations, it is clear that the temperature dependent structural changes are largely due to a rearrangement of the deuterium atom positions in the fluid. By comparison with partial structure factor data the hydrogen bonds appear to become more linear at lower temperatures.

  1. Deuterium oxide (D2O) enhances the photosensitivity of Stentor coeruleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsuki, K.; Song, P.S.

    1985-12-01

    Stentor coeruleus exhibits negative phototaxis and step-up photophobic response (avoiding reaction) to visible light (maximum at 610-620 nm in both responses). In the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) the step-up photophobic response was markedly enhanced, whereas the phototactic orientation response was inhibited. The induction time for the step-up photophobic response was longer in D2O than in H2O, and the duration of ciliary reversal for the response was also longer in D2O than in H2O, indicating that certain steps of the sensory transduction chain are subject to solvent deuterium isotope effects. The enhancement of the step-up photophobic response in D2O was canceled by LaCl3, while the inhibition of the phototactic orientation response in D2O was partially removed by LaCl3, even though LaCl3 did not affect the phototactic orientation response. These results suggest that the sensory transduction mechanisms for the two photoresponses are different, although the photoreceptors (stentorin) are the same.

  2. On the deuterium abundance at $z_{a} = 3.514$ towards APM 08279+5255

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H

    2000-01-01

    A very low primordial deuterium abundance of D/H = 1.5 10^{-5} has recently been proposed by Molaro et al. in the Lyman limit system with log(N_HI) = 18.1 cm^{-2} at z_a = 3.514 towards the quasar APM08279+5255. The D/H value was estimated through the standard Voigt fitting procedure utilizing a simple one-component model of the absorbing region. The authors assumed, however, that `a more complex structure for the hydrogen cloud with somewhat ad hoc components would allow a higher D/H'. We have investigated this system using our new Monte Carlo inversion procedure which allows us to recover not only the physical parameters but also the velocity and density distributions along the line of sight. The absorption lines of HI, CII, CIV, SiIII, and SiIV were analyzed simultaneously. The result obtained shows a considerably lower neutral hydrogen column density log(N_HI) = 15.7 cm^{-2}. Hence, the measurement of the deuterium abundance in this system is rather uncertain. We find that the asymmetric blue wing of the ...

  3. Metal Liner Implosions for Cylindrical Convergent Isentropic Compression of Deuterium and its Application to MAGLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinwurm, Marcus; Appelbe, Brian; Skidmore, Jonathan; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    Isentropic Compression Experiments on pulsed power machines in the field of High Energy Density Physics have gained interest in recent years. We describe a method of isentropically compressing cryogenic Deuterium inside a metal liner. Pulse shaping was performed by solving Kidder's homogeneous isentropic compression for cylindrical geometry and extending it to an arbitrary Equation of State. The obtained pulse shape enables us to simulate a cylindrically convergent ramp wave, which quasi-isentropically compresses the Deuterium fill to densities much higher than achievable by using a standard pulse. The effect of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities upon the peak density achieved is evaluated using the resistive magneto-hydrodynamics code Gorgon for a maximum current of 25 MA. Therefore, isentropic liner implosions are a promising technique for recreating the conditions present in the interiors of gas giants. We applied this technique to the High-Gain Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MAGLIF) scheme [1]. There a metal liner is filled with DT gas surrounded by a layer of DT ice. We show how the current pulse can be shaped in order to isentropically compress the DT ice layer. By doing so, we keep the fuel at low temperature. This maximises the compression of the DT ice layer, and increases rho-r at stagnation. Burn wave propagation in the isentropically compressed fuel is compared to propagation in fuel compressed by a standard current pulse. [4pt] [1] S.A. Slutz and R. A. Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)

  4. Analysis of the interaction of deuterium plasmas with tungsten in the Fuego-Nuevo II device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gonzalo; Castillo, Fermín; Nieto, Martín; Martínez, Marco; Rangel, José; Herrera-Velázquez, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten is one of the main candidate materials for plasma-facing components in future fusion power plants. The Fuego-Nuevo II, a plasma focus device, which can produce dense magnetized helium and deuterium plasmas, has been adapted to address plasma-facing materials questions. In this paper we present results of tungsten targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Fuego Nuevo II device, using different experimental conditions. The plasma generated and accelerated in the coaxial gun is expected to have, before the pinch, energies of the order of hundreds eV and velocities of the order of 40,000 m s-1. At the pinch, the ions are reported to have energies of the order of 1.5 keV at most. The samples, analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in cross section show a damage profile to depths of the order of 580 nm, which are larger than those expected for ions with 1.5 keV, and may be evidence of ion acceleration. An analysis with the SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter) package calculations is shown.

  5. Interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium: radiation enhanced oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium is of significant interest in the application of first wall coatings and other components of fusion reactors. Electropolished polycrystalline beryllium was first implanted with an Xe backscatter marker at 1.98 MeV followed by either implantation with 5 keV diatomic deuterium or helium. A 2.0 MeV He beam was used to analyze for impurity buildup; namely oxygen. The oxide layer thickness was found to increase linearly with increasing implant fluence. A 2.5 MeV H/sup +/ beam was used to depth profile the D and He by ion backscattering. In addition the retention of the implant was measured as a function of the implant fluence. The mean depth of the implant was found to agree with theoretical range calculations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe blister formation. No blisters were observed for implanted D but for implanted He blisters occurred at approx. 1.75 x 10/sup 17/ He cm/sup -2/. The blister diameter increased with increasing implant fluence from about 0.8 ..mu..m at 10/sup 18/ He cm/sup -2/ to 5.5 ..mu..m at 3 x 10/sup 18/ He cm/sup -2/.

  6. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} meson cross section ratios on deuterium and hydrogen targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, A.G.S.

    2006-08-15

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. This thesis presents the analysis of the kinematic dependencies of {rho}{sup 0} vector meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets. The relative gluon and quark contribution to the {rho}{sup 0} production amplitude is expected to depend on the kinematical variable x{sub Bj}, and by measuring the ratio of {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction cross sections on deuterium and hydrogen from HERMES data this dependence is confirmed. This thesis describes the methods used to extract the cross section ratio from the HERMES data taken between the years 1996 and 2000 and compares the results with the theoretical predictions. Until 2005 the missing mass resolution of the HERMES spectrometer was only sufficient to allow exclusivity at the level of a data sample. The HERMES Recoil Detector, installed in early 2006, is an upgrade which will augment the HERMES spectrometer by establishing exclusivity at the event level and therefore improving the resolution to which various kinematical variables may be reconstructed. Additionally, the Recoil Detector will contribute to the overall background suppression capability of the HERMES spectrometer. These improvements will provide a strong reduction in the statistical uncertainties present in the {rho}{sup 0}-analysis and other analyses at HERMES. The Recoil Detector critically relies on its track reconstruction software to enable its capability to provide event level exclusive measurements. This tracking code is presented in detail. (orig.)

  7. Cross-calibration of neutron detectors for deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duong, H.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Heidbrink, W.E.; Ruskov, E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States); Loughlin, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    During the initial deuterium-tritium experiments on TFTR, neutron emission was measured with {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fission chambers, silicon surface barrier diodes, spatially collimated {sup 4}He proportional counters and ZnS scintillators, and a variety of elemental activation foils. The activation foils, {sup 4}He counters and silicon diodes can discriminate between 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutrons. The other detectors respond to both DD and DT neutrons but are more sensitive to the latter. The proportional counters, scintillators, and some of the fission chambers were calibrated absolutely, using a 14-MeV neutron generator positioned at numerous locations inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. Although the directly calibrated systems were saturated during the highest power deuterium-tritium operation, they allowed cross-calibration of less sensitive fission chambers and silicon diodes. The estimated absolute accuracy of the uncertainty-weighted mean of these cross-calibrations, combined with an independent calibration derived from activation foil determinations of total neutron yield, is {plus_minus}7%.

  8. Sequence-specific conformational flexibility of SNARE transmembrane helices probed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Walter; Poschner, Bernhard C; Stalz, Holger; Heck, Albert J; Langosch, Dieter

    2008-08-01

    SNARE proteins mediate fusion of intracellular eukaryotic membranes and their alpha-helical transmembrane domains are known to contribute to lipid bilayer mixing. Synthetic transmembrane domain peptides were previously shown to mimic the function of SNARE proteins in that they trigger liposome fusion in a sequence-specific fashion. Here, we performed a detailed investigation of the conformational dynamics of the transmembrane helices of the presynaptic SNAREs synaptobrevin II and syntaxin 1a. To this end, we recorded deuterium/hydrogen-exchange kinetics in isotropic solution as well as in the membrane-embedded state. In solution, the exchange kinetics of each peptide can be described by three different classes of amide deuteriums that exchange with different rate constants. These are likely to originate from exchange at different domains of the helices. Interestingly, the rate constants of each class vary with the TMD sequence. Thus, the exchange rate is position-specific and sequence-specific. Further, the rate constants correlate with the previously determined membrane fusogenicities. In membranes, exchange is retarded and a significant proportion of amide hydrogens are protected from exchange. We conclude that the conformational dynamics of SNARE TMD helices is mechanistically linked to their ability to drive lipid mixing.

  9. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on deuterium at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, G.S.

    1984-07-01

    A specific set of spin transfer coefficients has been measured for proton-deuteron elastic scattering at 800 MeV using an unpolarized liquid deuterium target. The experiment was done using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) with a polarized proton beam. The scattered proton spin direction was determined using the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) of the HRS, which employs a carbon analyzer. Some of the spin dependent parameters measured in this experiment are of considerable interest because they provide selective information about the nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitude. Since the deuteron is the simplest bound nucleus, pd elastic scattering is particularly well suited for testing multiple scattering theories. These measurements will also be used to eventually determine the full pd collision matrix, which contains all possible information about the scattering process. In addition, the experimental setup is described for a polarized proton-polarized deuterium target spin transfer experiment also done at the HRS at 800 MeV incident proton energy. 71 references.

  10. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    that several regions in the IgG Fab region also showed reduced deuterium uptake. Our findings indicate the presence of hitherto unknown FcRn interaction sites in the Fab region or a possible conformational link between the IgG Fc and Fab regions upon FcRn binding. Further, we investigated the role of Ig......-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG-FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution....

  11. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor B. Ötvös

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. The benefits of a scalable continuous process in combination with on-demand electrolytic D2 gas generation were exploited to suppress undesired over-reactions and to maximize reaction rates simultaneously. The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds.

  12. Investigation of diffusion and migration of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium in palladium in a Hall field. [Pd-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, R. (Inst. of Physics, Pedagogical Univ. of Opole (Poland))

    1991-05-01

    The migration of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium in palladium in a Hall field at 343 K was investigated, using resistance and isotope methods. It was found that all isotopes of hydrogen migrate towards the negative Hall electrode. The effective charges of the migration in a Hall field are 194+-3 e for hydrogen, and 464+-5 e for deuterium and tritium. The results obtained confirm predictions of a tentative model based on the electron-balistic theories of migration in a Hall field. (orig.).

  13. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  14. Deuterium Labeling Together with Contrast Variation Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Suggests How Skp Captures and Releases Unfolded Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccai, Nathan R; Sandlin, Clifford W; Hoopes, James T; Curtis, Joseph E; Fleming, Patrick J; Fleming, Karen G; Krueger, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the chaperone protein Skp forms specific and stable complexes with membrane proteins while they are transported across the periplasm to the outer membrane. The jellyfish-like architecture of Skp is similar to the eukaryotic and archaeal prefoldins and the mitochondrial Tim chaperones, that is the α-helical "tentacles" extend from a β-strand "body" to create an internal cavity. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on Skp alone in solution and bound in two different complexes to unfolded outer membrane proteins (uOMPs), OmpA and OmpW, demonstrate that the helical tentacles of Skp bind their substrate in a clamp-like mechanism in a conformation similar to that previously observed in the apo crystal structure of Skp. Deuteration of the uOMP component combined with contrast variation analysis allowed the shapes of Skp and uOMP as well as the location of uOMP with respect to Skp to be determined in both complexes. This represents unique information that could not be obtained without deuterium labeling of the uOMPs. The data yield the first direct structural evidence that the α-helical Skp tentacles move closer together on binding its substrate and that the structure of Skp is different when binding different uOMPs. This work presents, by example, a tutorial on performing SANS experiments using both deuterium labeling and contrast variation, including SANS theory, sample preparation, data collection, sample quality validation, data analysis, and structure modeling.

  15. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon [Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, KIOST, Geoje 656-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan, E-mail: sunghwank@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green Nano Center, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We examined source crude oil and weathered oils from M/V Hebei accident. • APPI hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh mass spectrometry was applied. • N{sub 1} class compounds with 2° and/or 3° amine decrease in larger scale than pyridines. • Preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed. • Significant increase in S{sub 1}O{sub 1} compounds was observed as the weathering proceeds. - Abstract: The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N{sup +}· and [N − H + D]{sup +} ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N + H]{sup +} and [N + D]{sup +} ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + H]{sup +} and [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + D]{sup +} ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S{sub 1} class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components.

  16. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  17. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  18. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  19. New method of a "point-like" neutron source creation based on sharp focusing of high-current deuteron beam onto deuterium-saturated target for neutron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, S.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of a compact powerful point-like neutron source creation is discussed. Neutron yield of the source based on deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reaction is estimated at the level of 1011 s‑1 (1013 s‑1 for deuterium-tritium reaction). The fusion takes place due to bombardment of deuterium- (or tritium) loaded target by high-current focused deuterium ion beam with energy of 100 keV. The ion beam is formed by means of high-current quasi-gasdynamic ion source of a new generation based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge in an open magnetic trap sustained by powerful microwave radiation. The prospects of proposed generator for neutron tomography are discussed. Suggested method is compared to the point-like neutron sources based on a spark produced by powerful femtosecond laser pulses.

  20. Velocity autocorrelation by quantum simulations for direct parameter-free computations of the neutron cross sections. II. Liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, E.; Neumann, M.; Bafile, U.; Celli, M.; Colognesi, D.; Bellissima, S.; Farhi, E.; Calzavara, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Very recently we showed that quantum centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the velocity autocorrelation function provide, through the Gaussian approximation (GA), an appropriate representation of the single-molecule dynamic structure factor of liquid H2, as witnessed by a straightforward absolute-scale agreement between calculated and experimental values of the total neutron cross section (TCS) at thermal and epithermal incident energies. Also, a proper quantum evaluation of the self-dynamics was found to guarantee, via the simple Sköld model, a suitable account of the distinct (intermolecular) contributions that influence the neutron TCS of para-H2 for low-energy neutrons (below 10 meV). The very different role of coherent nuclear scattering in D2 makes the neutron response from this liquid much more extensively determined by the collective dynamics, even above the cold neutron range. Here we show that the Sköld approximation maintains its effectiveness in producing the correct cross section values also in the deuterium case. This confirms that the true key point for reliable computational estimates of the neutron TCS of the hydrogen liquids is, together with a good knowledge of the static structure factor, the modeling of the self part, which must take into due account quantum delocalization effects on the translational single-molecule dynamics. We demonstrate that both CMD and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations provide similar results for the velocity autocorrelation function of liquid D2 and, consequently, for the neutron double differential cross section and its integrals. This second investigation completes and reinforces the validity of the proposed quantum method for the prediction of the scattering law of these cryogenic liquids, so important for cold neutron production and related condensed matter research.

  1. Histidine hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for probing the microenvironment of histidine residues in dihydrofolate reductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (His-HDX-MS determines the HDX rates at the imidazole C(2-hydrogen of histidine residues. This method provides not only the HDX rates but also the pK(a values of histidine imidazole rings. His-HDX-MS was used to probe the microenvironment of histidine residues of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, an enzyme proposed to undergo multiple conformational changes during catalysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using His-HDX-MS, the pK(a values and the half-lives (t(1/2 of HDX reactions of five histidine residues of apo-DHFR, DHFR in complex with methotrexate (DHFR-MTX, DHFR in complex with MTX and NADPH (DHFR-MTX-NADPH, and DHFR in complex with folate and NADP+ (DHFR-folate-NADP+ were determined. The results showed that the two parameters (pK(a and t(1/2 are sensitive to the changes of the microenvironment around the histidine residues. Although four of the five histidine residues are located far from the active site, ligand binding affected their pK(a, t(1/2 or both. This is consistent with previous observations of ligand binding-induced distal conformational changes on DHFR. Most of the observed pK(a and t(1/2 changes could be rationalized using the X-ray structures of apo-DHFR, DHFR-MTX-NADPH, and DHFR-folate-NADP+. The availability of the neutron diffraction structure of DHFR-MTX enabled us to compare the protonation states of histidine imidazole rings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the usefulness of His-HDX-MS in probing the microenvironments of histidine residues within proteins.

  2. Changes of surface structure and elemental composition of components of deuterium high-pressure chamber with Pd rod inside irradiated with 10-MeV γ-quanta in dense deuterium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska-Kitowska, T.

    2013-12-01

    This work is a continuation and addition to Ref. [1], which presents results on studies of the surface and elemental compositions of a Pd rod and brass screw for the collection of nuclear and chemical reaction products in a deuterium high-pressure chamber (DHPC) under irradiation with γ-quanta with an energy of 10 MeV for 18 h at the MT-25 electron accelerator at a beam current of 11-13 μA. The DHPC is filled with 1.2-kbar molecular deuterium in which a Pd rod saturated with deuterium is loaded. After irradiation, the elemental compositions of other surfaces of all DHPC elements, which are inside the DHPC in dense deuterium, are studied using an electron scanning microscope and X-ray microprobe analysis. It is established that all surfaces, including the surface of a high-purity palladium rod (99.995%), are covered with a partly homogeneous layer of large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements such as 6C, 8O, 11Na, 12Mg, 13Al, 14Si, 22Ti, 25Mn, 26Fe, 29Cu, and 30Zn and heavy metals such as 47Ag, 73Ta, 74W, 78Pt, 79Au, and 82Pb are observed. Possible processes that can cause the anomalies observed in the new synthesized elements are briefly discussed.

  3. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  4. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  5. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  6. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  7. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  8. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  9. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  10. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  11. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  12. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  13. Deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at currents of 2 to 3 mega-ampere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.

    2012-03-01

    Deuterium gas-puff experiments have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The emphasis was put on the study of plasma dynamics and neutron production in double shell gas puffs. A linear mass density of deuterium (D2) varied between 50 and 85 μg/cm. Somewhat problematic was a spread of the D2 gas at a large diameter in the central anode-cathode region. The generator operated in two regimes, with and without a plasma opening switch (POS). When the POS was used, a current reached a peak of 2.7 MA with a 200 ns rise time. Without the POS, a current rise time approached 1500 ns. The influence of different current rise times on neutron production was researched. Obtained results were important for comparison of fast deuterium Z-pinches with plasma foci. Average DD neutron yields with and without the POS were about 1011. The neutron yield seems to be dependent on a peak voltage at the Z-pinch load. In all shots, the neutron emission started during stagnation. At the beginning of the neutron production, the neutron emission correlated with soft x-rays and a significant fraction of neutrons could be explained by the thermonuclear mechanism. Nevertheless, a peak of the neutron emission occurred 40 ns after a soft x-ray peak. At this very moment, hard x-rays above 1 MeV were detected and a rapid expansion with a velocity of 3×105 m/s was observed. In the case of the POS, 1 MeV widths of radial neutron spectra implied that there are deuterons with the energy above 200 keV moving in the radial direction. On the basis of D2 gas puff experiments in the 0.3-17 MA region, the neutron yield dependence on a current as Y∝I3.0±0.2 was proposed.

  14. Experimental setup for the determination of exchangeable hydrogen in environmental samples using deuterium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, L.; Siclet, F. [EDF R et D (France); Peron, O.; Gegout, C.; Montavon, G.; Landesman, C. [Laboratoire SUBATECH, IN2P3/CNRS, EMN, Universite de Nantes (France); Fourre, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 8112 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium ({sup 3}H or T) is a radioactive isotope of the element hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 yrs. It is naturally produced in the upper atmosphere, but also by the nuclear industry. It is used in many fields like medical research and watch making. It is thus released in the environment on gaseous and liquid form by these facilities and is currently the major released radionuclide in liquid effluent from French nuclear power plants (in HTO form). Current studies dealing with the fate and behavior of tritium in the environment focus mainly on its organic form, i.e. the organically bound tritium (OBT). It is indeed more resilient in the environment than the tritiated water (HTO) as it is part of the organic matter cycle. There is nevertheless a distinction to be made between the exchangeable and the non-exchangeable fraction of OBT. When hydrogen is linked to nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen, it is considered to be exchangeable with the H contained in the surrounding solution or in the atmospheric water phase. Thus, its residence time within the molecule will be reduced and closely linked to the surrounding parameters. When hydrogen is linked to carbon, it is assumed that the link is more stable and thus the residence time in the molecule will be enhanced. It is thus important to know the fraction of exchangeable OBT when addressing the residence time of tritium in the environment. The present study aims at assessing this fraction in different environmental matrixes using deuterium and/or tritium. Compared to several others studies on exchangeable hydrogen where experiments were conducted at high temperature and/or high pressure, this study follows a different approach with experiments conducted at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure (natural conditions) with a controlled hygrometric value within the system. The system itself consists in a glove box modified to fulfill the requirements for an efficient control on the experimental parameters (temperature

  15. The Primordial Deuterium Abundance of the Most Metal-poor Damped Lyman-α System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyα (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 ± 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 ± 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D i absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest-quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high-precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 105 (D/H)P = 2.547 ± 0.033 ({{log}}10 {{{(D/H)}}}{{P}}=-4.5940+/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) that incorporate the latest determinations of several key nuclear reaction cross-sections, and propagate their associated uncertainty. Combining our measurement of (D/H)P with these BBN calculations yields an estimate of the cosmic baryon density, 100 ΩB,0 h 2(BBN) = 2.156 ± 0.020, if we adopt the most recent theoretical determination of the d{(p,γ )}3{He} reaction rate. This measure of ΩB,0 h 2 differs by ˜2.3σ from the Standard Model value estimated from the Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background. Using instead a d{(p,γ )}3{He} reaction rate that is based on the best available experimental cross-section data, we estimate 100 ΩB,0 h 2(BBN) = 2.260 ± 0.034, which is in somewhat better agreement with the Planck value. Forthcoming measurements of the crucial d{(p,γ )}3{He} cross-section may shed further light on this discrepancy. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern

  16. TMAP7 simulations of deuterium trapping in pre-irradiated tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, G. M.; Mayer, M.; Ertl, K.; de Saint-Aubinc, G.; Rapp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten targets are irradiated with 12.3 MeV W4+ ions to damage levels up to 2.0 displacements per atom. These irradiated targets are then exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas with surface temperatures ranging from 360 to 950 K. Nuclear reaction analysis shows significant enhancement of retention

  17. Nanoindentation study of the combined effects of crystallography, heat treatment and exposure to high-flux deuterium plasma in tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Bystrov, K.; van Boxel, S.; Morgan, T.; Roberts, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten samples were heat-treated to achieve partial recrystallization and exposed to high ion flux deuterium plasma at different temperatures and fluences. Continuous stiffness nanoindentation measurements of near-surface hardness were performed in the grains of specific annealing states and of sp

  18. The Aspergillus niger Prolyl endoprotease (An-PEP) for hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and protein structural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiatsiani, Liana; Akeroyd, Michiel; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Heck, Albert J R

    2017-01-01

    To monitor the structural integrity of therapeutic proteins, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is increasingly utilized in the pharmaceutical industry. The successful outcome of HDX-MS analyses depends on the sample preparation conditions, which involve the rapid digestion of pr

  19. alfa-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in reactions of methyllithium. Is better aggregation the cause of lower reactivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1996-01-01

    The value of kH/kD for alfa deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of methyllithium and methylmagnesium iodid with a series of substrates are consistently ca. 10-15 % higher for the lithium reagent. This may indicate a pre-equilibrium...

  20. Real Time Imaging of Deuterium in a Duplex Stainless Steel Microstructure by Time-of-Flight SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, O.; Straub, F.; Wirth, Th.; Holzlechner, G.; Boellinghaus, Th.; Unger, W. E. S.

    2016-02-01

    For more than one century, hydrogen assisted degradation of metallic microstructures has been identified as origin for severe technical component failures but the mechanisms behind have not yet been completely understood so far. Any in-situ observation of hydrogen transport phenomena in microstructures will provide more details for further elucidation of these degradation mechanisms. A novel experiment is presented which is designed to elucidate the permeation behaviour of deuterium in a microstructure of duplex stainless steel (DSS). A hydrogen permeation cell within a TOF-SIMS instrument enables electrochemical charging with deuterium through the inner surface of the cell made from DSS. The outer surface of the DSS permeation cell exposed to the vacuum has been imaged by TOF-SIMS vs. increasing time of charging with subsequent chemometric treatment of image data. This in-situ experiment showed evidently that deuterium is permeating much faster through the ferrite phase than through the austenite phase. Moreover, a direct proof for deuterium enrichment at the austenite-ferrite interface has been found.

  1. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  2. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Hervé; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of electron irradiation on the hydrogen isotopic composition of organic precursors containing different functional groups. From an initial terrestrial composition, overall D-enrichments and differential intramolecular fractionations comparable with those measured in the Orgueil meteorite were induced. Therefore, ionizing radiation can quantitatively explain the deuteration of organics in some carbonaceous chondrites. For these meteorites, the precursors of the IOM may have had the same isotopic composition as the main water reservoirs of the inner Solar System. PMID:26461170

  3. Deuterium isotope effects on acid ionization and transition metal hydrolysis at reactor conditions by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacyshyn, M.; Madekufamba, M.; Tremaine, P. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Chemistry, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the preliminary measurements from an experimental study to measure the small differences between light (H{sub 2}O) and heavy (D{sub 2}O) water under reactor operating conditions (250-300 {sup o}C, 10 MPa), using Raman spectroscopy. The deuterium isotope effect δpK = pK{sub D2O} - pK{sub H2O}, for sodium bisulphate NaDSO{sub 4} and phosphoric acid D{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, has now been determined at temperatures of 25 {sup o}C and 80 {sup o}C by measuring the isotropic Raman spectra at different concentrations. The results for the pK and ΔpK at 25 {sup o}C agree with the literature, confirming the reliability of the method. High temperature cells have been constructed. (author)

  4. The Effects of Branching and Deuterium Labeling on Polymer Blend Miscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, Jeffrey; Higgins, Julia; Lipson, Jane

    Local structural or chemical changes made to one component of a polymer blend can have a significant impact on miscibility. In this talk we will focus on several blends involving linear and 4-arm star polystyrene (PS), both hydrogenous and deuterated, and poly(vinylmethylether) (PVME). We consider the effect of the structural change on the miscibility of PS/PVME, then turn to the added effect of deuterium labeling, both on this blend and for isotopic PS mixtures. Using our Locally Correlated Lattice (LCL) model we are able to identify trends in the physical properties of pure components, such as: free volume, thermal expansion coefficient, and cohesive energy density. We find that branching and labeling, both independently and cumulatively, affect pure component properties. Our ability to correlate structural and chemical changes with trends in physical properties leads to predictions about the compatibility of pure components, and thus their blend miscibility. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1403757 and GAANN.

  5. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfu, E-mail: zhangjfu@gmail.com; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Guoguang [Applied Institute of Nuclear Technology, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  6. The H{sup +}{sub 3} + H{sub 2} isotopic system. Origin of deuterium astrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Edouard Jean-Marie

    2008-07-01

    Dense cold molecular clouds reckoned to be stellar nurseries are the scene of an extreme molecular deuteration. Despite the cosmic D/H ratio of {proportional_to}10{sup -5}, molecular species in prestellar cores are observed to contain nearly as much deuterium as hydrogen. This astonishing deuterium enrichment promoted by low temperatures is the work of H{sup +}{sub 3}. It is the key species which unlocks the deuterium from its HD reservoir via reactions like H{sup +}{sub 3}+HD {r_reversible} H{sub 2}D{sup +}+H{sub 2} and drags it further to other species in successive reactions. For this reason, the H{sup +}{sub 3}+H{sub 2} isotopic system is outstandingly critical for the astrochemistry of cold environments. However, its understanding is yet incomplete and insufficient. This thesis thus focuses on the H{sup +}{sub 3}+H{sub 2} isotopic system from a theoretical, experimental and astronomical point of view giving a particular look into the role of nuclear spins. As a first step, the stringent nuclear spin selection rules in associative, dissociative and reactive collisions are investigated. This purely theoretical study zooms into the details of the nuclear spin wavefunctions and shows that their permutation symmetry representation is necessary and sufficient, contrary to their angular momentum representation. Additionally, a new deterministic interpretation of nuclear spins in chemical reactions is proposed. Based on these considerations, a complete set of state-to-state rate coefficients for all H{sup +}{sub 3} + H{sub 2} isotopic variants is calculated using a microcanonical model leaned on phase space theory. An experimental study is conducted in parallel with a 22-pole ion trap apparatus in order to inspect the influences of temperature and H{sub 2} ortho-to-para ratio. The good overall agreement between experimental and theoretical results supports the validity and utility of the calculated set of rate coefficients. Furthermore, the potentiality of the 22-pole

  7. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  8. Surface diffusivity of atomic deuterium on Ni3(Al, Ti)(110) surface with and without boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The electron-stimulated desorption was used to measure the surface diffusivity of at omic deuterium on clean and boron-modified Ni3(Al, Ti)(110) surfaces. Boron dosing was performed using a solid-state boronion source. Earlier studies showed that boron dissociates water readily at temperatures as low as 130 Kand that the resulting atomic hydrogen is bound to the surface strongly. The surface diffusi on coefficient of atomic D on 0.05 monolayer boron-modified surface was measured to be about 10 times smaller than that on the clean surface. This slower diffu sion of atomic hydrogen may explain why boron improves the ductility of polycrys talline Ni3Al in moist environments.

  9. Azimuthal asymmetries in production of charged hadrons by high energy muons on polarized deuterium targets

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, I A

    2010-01-01

    Search for azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged hadrons by 160 GeV muons on the longitudinally polarized deuterium target, has been performed using the 2002- 2004 COMPASS data. The observed asymmetries integrated over the kinematical variables do not depend on the azimuthal angle of produced hadrons and are consistent with the ratio $g_1^d(x)/f_1^d(x)$. The asymmetries are parameterized taking into account possible contributions from different parton distribution functions and parton fragmentation functions depending on the transverse spin of quarks.They can be modulated (either/or/and) with $\\sin(\\phi), \\sin(2\\phi), \\sin(3\\phi)$ and $\\cos(\\phi)$. The $x$-, $z$- and $p_h^T$-dependencies of these amplitudes are studied.

  10. Raman measurements of phase transitions in dense solid hydrogen and deuterium to 325 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chang-sheng; Cohen, R E; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2014-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy of dense hydrogen and deuterium performed to 325 GPa at 300 K reveals previously unidentified transitions. Detailed analysis of the spectra from multiple experimental runs, together with comparison with previous infrared and Raman measurements, provides information on structural modifications of hydrogen as a function of density through the I-III-IV transition sequence, beginning near 200 GPa at 300 K. The data suggest that the transition sequence at these temperatures proceeds by formation of disordered stacking of molecular and distorted layers. Weaker spectral changes are observed at 250, 285, and 300 GPa, that are characterized by discontinuities in pressure shifts of Raman frequencies, and changes in intensities and linewidths. The results indicate changes in structure and bonding, molecular orientational order, and electronic structure of dense hydrogen at these conditions. The data suggest the existence of new phases, either variations of phase IV, or altogether new structures.

  11. Ways towards pure deuterium inertial confinement fusion through the attainment of gigavolt potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-01-01

    The attainment of ultrahigh electric potentials by suppressing the stepped leader breakdown of a highly charged conductor levitated in a spiraling Taylor flow opens up the possibility of order of magnitude larger driver energies for the ignition of thermonuclear reactions by inertial confinement. In reaching gigavolt potentials, intense 1016 Watt, GeV ion beams become possible. Together with their large self-magnetic field, these beams should be powerful enough to launch a thermonuclear micro-detonation into pure deuterium, compressed and ignited by such beams. In high gain laser fusion the proton flash from the micro-explosion is likely to destroy the optical laser ignition apparatus, and it is not explained how to avoid this danger. The possible attainment of gigavolt potentials could make laser fusion obsolete.

  12. Atmospheric proton and deuterium energy spectra determination with the MASS2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A.; Finetti, N. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    The energy spectra of atmospheric-secondary protons and deuterium nuclei have been measured during the September 23, 1991, balloon flight of the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The apparatus was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The geomagnetic cutoff at the launch site is about 4.5 GV/c. The instrument was flown for 9.8 hours at an altitude of over 100,000 feet. Particles detected below the geomagnetic cutoff have been produced mainly by the interactions of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere. The measurement of cosmic ray energy spectra below the geomagnetic cutoff provide direct insights into the particle production mechanism and allows comparison to atmospheric cascade calculations.

  13. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Becker, A.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K. R.; Savage, M. E.; Bliss, D. E.; Mattsson, T. R.; Redmer, R.

    2015-06-01

    Eighty years ago, it was proposed that solid hydrogen would become metallic at sufficiently high density. Despite numerous investigations, this transition has not yet been experimentally observed. More recently, there has been much interest in the analog of this predicted metallic transition in the dense liquid, due to its relevance to planetary science. Here, we show direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium. Experimental determination of the location of this transition provides a much-needed benchmark for theory and may constrain the region of hydrogen-helium immiscibility and the boundary-layer pressure in standard models of the internal structure of gas-giant planets.

  14. The HERMES Polarized Hydrogen and Deuterium Gas Target in the HERA Electron Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P

    2004-01-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented.

  15. Deuterium-induced nanostructure formation on tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.Y., E-mail: donaxu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621907 (China); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass. EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon CS 90046-13067, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Jia, Y.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Godfrey, A. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Surface topography of polycrystalline tungsten (W) have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high-flux (∼1.1–1.5 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) deuterium plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device. The methods used were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) and grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). After exposure to high flux D plasma, blisters and nanostructures are formed on the W surface. Generation of defects was evidenced by PADB, while high stress and mixture of phases were detected in depth of 50 nm by GI-XRD. TEM observation revealed fluctuations and disordered microstructure on the outmost surface layer. Based on these results, surface reconstruction is considered as a possible mechanism for the formation of defects and nanostructures.

  16. Identifying Zn-bound histidine residues in metalloproteins using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Callahan, Katie L; Borotto, Nicholas B; Vachet, Richard W

    2014-01-07

    In this work, we have developed a method that uses hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of C2-hydrogens of histidines coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify Zn-bound histidines in metalloproteins. This method relies on differences in HDX reaction rates of Zn-bound and Zn-free His residues. Using several model peptides and proteins, we find that all Zn-bound His residues have substantially lower HDX reaction rates in the presence of the metal. The vast majority of non-Zn-binding His residues undergo no significant changes in HDX reaction rates when their reactivity is compared in the presence and absence of Zn. Using this new approach, we then determined the Zn binding site of β-2-microglobulin, a protein associated with metal-induced amyloidosis. Together, these results suggest that HDX-MS of His C2-hydrogens is a promising new method for identifying Zn-bound histidines in metalloproteins.

  17. Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R. [Department of Physics, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short range hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.

  18. Intense deuterium nuclear fusion of pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally within highly deuterated atom clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiaki, A; Zhang, Y C

    2002-01-01

    Embedded nano-Pd particles of 5 nm in size instantly abundant D-atoms more than 250% in the atomic ratio against Pd-atoms at room temperature when they are kept in D sub 2 gas pressurized to less than 10 atm. In such ultrahigh densities, 2-4 D-atoms can be coagulated inside each octahedral space of Pd lattice (pycnodeuterium-lump). When a stimulation energy such as latticequake causing by ultrasonic wave was supplied to those highly deuterated Pd particles, intense deuterium nuclear fusion (''solid fusion'') was generated there and both excess heat and sup 4 He gas were abundantly produced. Naturally, these facts can not be realized at all in bulk Pd. The results show that the nuclear fusion occurs without any hazardous rays in pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally inside the each cell of the host metal lattice. These unit cells correspond to minimum unit of the solid fusion reactor as a ''Lattice Reactor''. (author)

  19. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles''. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He[sup ++] based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

  20. Quadrupole transitions in the bound rotational-vibrational spectrum of the deuterium molecular ion

    CERN Document Server

    Pilón, Horacio Olivares

    2013-01-01

    After the study of the three body molecular system H$_2^+$ ({\\it J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} {\\bf 45} 065101), their isotope, the deuterium molecular ion D$_2^+$ is studied. The three-body Schr\\"odinger equation is solved using the Lagrange-mesh method in perimetric coordinates. Energies and wave functions for four vibrational states $v=0-3$ and bound or quasibound states for total orbital momenta from 0 to 56 are calculated. The 1986 fundamental constant $m_d=3670.483014\\,m_e$ is used. The obtained energies have an accuracy from about 13 digits for the lowest vibrational state to at least 9 digits for the third vibrational excited state. Quadrupole transition probabilities per time unit between those states over the whole rotational bands were calculated. Extensive results are presented with six significant figures.